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Sample records for additionally sex differences

  1. Sex differences in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Haast, Roy A M; Gustafson, Deborah R; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in stroke are observed across epidemiologic studies, pathophysiology, treatments, and outcomes. These sex differences have profound implications for effective prevention and treatment and are the focus of this review. Epidemiologic studies reveal a clear age-by-sex interaction in stroke prevalence, incidence, and mortality. While premenopausal women experience fewer strokes than men of comparable age, stroke rates increase among postmenopausal women compared with age-matched men. This postmenopausal phenomenon, in combination with living longer, are reasons for women being older at stroke onset and suffering more severe strokes. Thus, a primary focus of stroke prevention has been based on sex steroid hormone-dependent mechanisms. Sex hormones affect different (patho)physiologic functions of the cerebral circulation. Clarifying the impact of sex hormones on cerebral vasculature using suitable animal models is essential to elucidate male–female differences in stroke pathophysiology and development of sex-specific treatments. Much remains to be learned about sex differences in stroke as anatomic and genetic factors may also contribute, revealing its multifactorial nature. In addition, the aftermath of stroke appears to be more adverse in women than in men, again based on older age at stroke onset, longer prehospital delays, and potentially, differences in treatment. PMID:23032484

  2. Sex Differences in Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, Hugh

    1976-01-01

    Sex differences in cognitive skills, grouped into motor, spatial and linguistic areas, are assessed in relation to current theories of cerebral lateralization. Few convincing sex differences exist, either overall, or in interactions with functional localization. Qualifying criteria include age, birth order, culture, sex of experimenter and sex…

  3. Sex Differences in Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Austad, Steven N; Fischer, Kathleen E

    2016-06-14

    Sex differences in longevity can provide insights into novel mechanisms of aging, yet they have been little studied. Surprisingly, sex-specific longevity patterns are best known in wild animals. Evolutionary hypotheses accounting for longevity patterns in natural populations include differential vulnerability to environmental hazards, differential intensity of sexual selection, and distinct patterns of parental care. Mechanistic hypotheses focus on hormones, asymmetric inheritance of sex chromosomes and mitochondria. Virtually all intensively studied species show conditional sex differences in longevity. Humans are the only species in which one sex is known to have a ubiquitous survival advantage. Paradoxically, although women live longer, they suffer greater morbidity particularly late in life. This mortality-morbidity paradox may be a consequence of greater connective tissue responsiveness to sex hormones in women. Human females' longevity advantage may result from hormonal influences on inflammatory and immunological responses, or greater resistance to oxidative damage; current support for these mechanisms is weak. PMID:27304504

  4. Sex differences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abel, Kathryn M; Drake, Richard; Goldstein, Jill M

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests sex differences in schizophrenia reflect differences in both neurodevelopmental processes and social effects on disease risk and course. Male:female incidence approximates 1.4:1 but at older onset women predominate. Prevalence differences appear smaller. Men have poorer premorbid adjustment and present with worse negative and less depressive symptoms than women, which may explain their worse medium term outcome according to a range of measures. Substance abuse is a predominantly male activity in this group, as elsewhere. Findings of sex differences in brain morphology are inconsistent but occur in areas that normally show sexual dimorphism, implying that the same factors are important drivers of sex differences in both normal neurodevelopmental processes and those associated with schizophrenia. There are sex differences in antipsychotic responses but sex-specific endocrine effects on illness and response to antipsychotics are potentially complex. Oestrogen's role as an adjunctive medication is not yet clear due to methodological differences between the few randomized controlled trials. Services that are sensitive to differences in gender can better meet their patients' specific needs and potentially improve outcome. PMID:21047156

  5. The Codevelopment of Skill at and Preference for Use of Retrieval-Based Processes for Solving Addition Problems: Individual and Sex Differences from First to Sixth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Drew H.; Littlefield, Andrew; Geary, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to retrieve basic arithmetic facts from long-term memory contributes to individual and perhaps sex differences in mathematics achievement. The current study tracked the codevelopment of preference for using retrieval over other strategies to solve single-digit addition problems, independent of accuracy, and skilled use of retrieval…

  6. Sociobiology and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Theories of biological determinism in relation to sex role differences are examined for their scientific merit and for their possible political impact. The study of the biological basis of behavior by evolutionary principles is highlighted as a typical scientifically flawed theory, and propaganda in defense of the status quo. (Author/KR)

  7. The codevelopment of skill at and preference for use of retrieval-based processes for solving addition problems: individual and sex differences from first to sixth grades.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Littlefield, Andrew; Geary, David C

    2012-09-01

    The ability to retrieve basic arithmetic facts from long-term memory contributes to individual and perhaps sex differences in mathematics achievement. The current study tracked the codevelopment of preference for using retrieval over other strategies to solve single-digit addition problems, independent of accuracy, and skilled use of retrieval (i.e., accuracy and reaction time [RT]) from first to sixth grades inclusive (N=311). Accurate retrieval in first grade was related to working memory capacity and intelligence, and it predicted a preference for retrieval in second grade. In later grades, the relation between skill and preference changed such that preference in one grade predicted accuracy and RT in the next grade as RT and accuracy continued to predict future gains in preference. In comparison with girls, boys had a consistent preference for retrieval over other strategies and had faster retrieval speeds, but the sex difference in retrieval accuracy varied across grades. Results indicate that ability influences early skilled retrieval, but both practice and skill influence each other in a feedback loop later in development and provide insights into the source of the sex difference in problem-solving approaches. PMID:22704036

  8. Balance of the Sexes: Addressing Sex Differences in Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mazure, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical sciences and enhancing healthcare. Considering sex differences in all studies throughout the entire biomedical research pipeline is necessary to adequately inform clinical research and improve health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of information to date on sex differences in preclinical work. As of 2009, most (about 80 percent) rodent studies across 10 fields of biology were still conducted with only male animals. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health implemented a policy aimed to address this concern by requiring the consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research grant applications. This perspective piece aims to (1) provide a brief history of female inclusion in biomedical research, (2) describe the importance of studying sex differences, (3) explain possible reasons for opposition of female inclusion, and (4) present potential additional solutions to reduce sex bias in preclinical research. PMID:27354851

  9. Sex Differences in Constitutive Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Oliván, Sara; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Manzano, Raquel; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Sex bias has been described nowadays in biomedical research on animal models, although sexual dimorphism has been confirmed widely under pathological and physiological conditions. The main objective of our work was to study the sex differences in constitutive autophagy in spinal cord and skeletal muscle tissue from wild type mice. To examine the influence of sex on autophagy, mRNA and proteins were extracted from male and female mice tissues. The expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and sequestosome 1 (p62), markers to monitor autophagy, were analyzed at 40, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. We found significant sex differences in the expression of LC3 and p62 in both tissues at these ages. The results indicated that sex and tissue specific differences exist in constitutive autophagy. These data underlined the need to include both sexes in the experimental groups to minimize any sex bias. PMID:24719882

  10. Sex differences in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sven; van der Meer, Peter; van Tintelen, J Peter; van den Berg, Maarten P

    2014-03-01

    Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases with a variety of specific phenotypes. According to the contemporary European Society of Cardiology classification, they are classified into hypertrophic (HCM), dilated (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular (ARVC), restrictive (RCM), and unclassified cardiomyopathies. Each class is aetiologically further categorized into inherited (familial) and non-inherited (non-familial) forms. There is substantial evidence that biological sex is a strong modulator of the clinical manifestation of these cardiomyopathies, and sex-specific characteristics are detectable in all classes. For the clinician, it is important to know the sex-specific aspects of clinical disease expression and the potential modes of inheritance or the hereditary influences underlying the development of cardiomyopathies, since these may aid in diagnosing such diseases in both sexes. PMID:24464619

  11. Sex Differences in Frailty.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Although women live longer lives than men, they tend to have poorer health status. Here, we review the biological and socio-behavioral factors that may contribute to this sex-frailty paradox. The conceptual framework that frailty is a product of the environment and the recovery rate provides a new understanding of women's frailty burden. Even developed countries may present an environment more adverse for women, and lifestyle factors may increase women's vulnerability to stochastic subcellular events that increase recovery time. The frailty index does not reach the theoretical maximal value of 1; its limit is lower in men (0.61) compared to women (0.69). Perhaps deterministic characteristics omitted in current deficit counts, such as reduced emotional adaptability, are more prevalent in men. Alternatively, different limits may result from quantitative evolutionary design, such as a fitness-frailty pleiotropy in men or fertility-frailty pleiotropy in women. The engineering principle of safety factors (maximal capacity divided by routine functioning) may also be informative. If the human system has the same safety factor as its organs (approximately 2.5), men may be 'calibrated' around a frailty index of 0.244, compared to 0.276 for women. Because 0.25 represents the tipping point between functional independence and reliance on others, evolutionary design may have allowed for some limited dependence in women, perhaps motivated by the perinatal period. PMID:26301978

  12. Sex Differences in Intellectual and Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alishio, Kip C.; Schilling, Karen Maitland

    Perry's scheme of intellectual and ethical development was examined for sex differences with respect to content areas for which sex differences have elsewhere been suggested: occupational choice, interpersonal relationships, and sexual identity. In addition, the content area religion and ego development, as measured by Loevinger's sentence…

  13. Sex Differences in Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Therese

    Examining theories from a wide spectrum of disciplines, this paper categorizes research on sex differences in social behavior into four groups and examines the implications of each. The first category of research interprets sex differences as the result of anatomical differences which later affect psychological roles. The implication of this…

  14. Sex Differences in Fetal Habituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepper, Peter G.; Dornan, James C.; Lynch, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    There is some evidence for sex differences in habituation in the human fetus, but it is unknown whether this is due to differences in central processing (habituation) or in more peripheral processes, sensory or motor, involved in the response. This study examined whether the sex of the fetus influenced auditory habituation at 33 weeks of…

  15. Sex Differences in Dichotic Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study quantified the magnitude of sex differences in perceptual asymmetries as measured with dichotic listening. This was achieved by means of a meta-analysis of the literature dating back from the initial use of dichotic listening as a measure of laterality. The meta-analysis included 249 effect sizes pertaining to sex differences and…

  16. The trouble with sex differences.

    PubMed

    Eliot, Lise

    2011-12-22

    Sex differences in the brain are real and clinically important but often grossly distorted in popular discourse. Considering the public's deep fascination with sex difference research and its impact on issues from mental health to education and workplace equity, neuroscientists should pay greater heed to its misappropriation and to studying how gender enculturation shapes neural function. PMID:22196326

  17. Sex Differences in Adolescent Reactions Toward Newcomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma; Sones, Gittelle

    Reactions of male and female adolescent pairs to a same sex newcomer were observed as a means of assessing sex differences in indirect aggressive behaviors. Following a problem solving session, the group members rated each other's personality. Adolescent girls made less favorable judgments of the newcomer than did adolescent boys. In addition, on…

  18. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  19. Sex Differences in the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    1992-01-01

    Explores the neural and hormonal basis of human intellectual function that gives rise to sex differences in the brain. Discusses behavioral, neurological, endocrinological studies, and studies of the effects of hormones on brain functioning that show a relationship between cognitive variations and sex. (MCO)

  20. Sex Differences Reappraised: A Rebuttal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolor, Alexander; Brannigan, Gary G.

    1975-01-01

    This rebuttal of the criticisms made by Evans and Sperekas points to the fact that sex differences have been found by the authors on locus of control scales, that the purported sex-biased items in the Future Events Test are not necessarily outside the response repetoire of women, and the criticism of including female relevant items cannot be…

  1. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. PMID:27433022

  2. Sex differences in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Ros, Purificación; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and its associated secondary complications are active areas of investigation in search of effective treatments. As a result of this intensified research numerous differences between males and females at all levels of metabolic control have come to the forefront. These differences include not only the amount and distribution of adipose tissue, but also differences in its metabolic capacity and functions between the sexes. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of these dimorphisms and emphasize the fact that these differences between males and females must be taken into consideration in hopes of obtaining successful treatments for both sexes. PMID:23991358

  3. Sex Differences in Drug Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Chung, Sarah H.; Mattison, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological, hormonal, and genetic differences between males and females affect the prevalence, incidence, and severity of diseases and responses to therapy. Understanding these differences is important for designing safe and effective treatments. This paper summarizes sex differences that impact drug disposition and includes a general comparison of clinical pharmacology as it applies to men and women. PMID:21403873

  4. Sex differences in cardiovascular ageing.

    PubMed

    Merz, Allison A; Cheng, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in identifying and narrowing the gaps in cardiovascular outcomes between men and women, general understanding of how and why cardiovascular disease presentations differ between the sexes remains limited. Sex-specific patterns of cardiac and vascular ageing play an important role and, in fact, begin very early in life. Differences between the sexes in patterns of age-related cardiac remodelling are associated with the relatively greater prevalence in women than in men of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Similarly, sex variation in how vascular structure and function change with ageing contributes to differences between men and women in how coronary artery disease manifests typically or atypically over the adult life course. Both hormonal and non-hormonal factors underlie sex differences in cardiovascular ageing and the development of age-related disease. The midlife withdrawal of endogenous oestrogen appears to augment the age-related increase in cardiovascular risk seen in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. However, when compared with intrinsic biological differences between men and women that are present throughout life, this menopausal transition may not be as substantial an actor in determining cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26917537

  5. Sex differences in anxiety and emotional behavior

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Nina C.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy. We here review human gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety-relevant biological functions, discuss the limitations of classic conflict anxiety tests to measure naturally occurring sex differences in anxiety-like behaviors, describe sex-dependent manifestation of anxiety states after gestational, neonatal, or adolescent stressors, and present animal models of chronic anxiety states induced by acute or chronic stressors during adulthood. Potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in stress-related anxiety states include emerging evidence supporting the existence of two anatomically and functionally distinct serotonergic circuits that are related to the modulation of conflict anxiety and panic-like anxiety, respectively. We discuss how these serotonergic circuits may be controlled by reproductive steroid hormone-dependent modulation of crfr1 and crfr2 expression in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus and by estrous stage-dependent alterations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray, ultimately leading to sex differences in emotional behavior. PMID:23588380

  6. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  7. Galton and sex differences: an historical note.

    PubMed

    Buss, A R

    1976-07-01

    The psychological study of sex differences is a special area of interest within differential psychology. Differential psychology was launched as a scientific field of research in the latter half of the nineteenth century by Sir Francis Galton. Galton's early research on sex differences in psychological traits gives him the distinction of being the "father" of the modern study of sex differences. Galton's empirical findings and his interpretation of sex differences were heavily influenced by his Victorian sexist attitudes. The early history of the modern study of sex differences exemplifies the intimate relation between facts and values. PMID:797706

  8. Sexually selected sex differences in competitiveness explain sex differences in changes in drinking game participation.

    PubMed

    Hone, Liana S E; McCullough, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drinking games are a risk factor for behavioral and health problems among university students. Previous cross-sectional research by Hone, Carter, and McCullough (2013) replicated well-established sex differences in drinking game behaviors (i.e., that men are more active drinking game participants than are women) and university drinking problems more generally. Hone et al. (2013) also found that these male-specific behavioral patterns are attributable in part to the fact that men's generally unrestricted sexual strategies, plus their social competitiveness, motivate them to participate in drinking games to display their fortitude and compete with same-sex rivals. Here, the authors conducted a study to evaluate with greater causal rigor whether sex differences in sexual restrictedness and social competitiveness-and sex differences in motivations for participating in drinking games in particular-are partially responsible for the sex differences in university students' drinking game behaviors and drinking problems. Sex differences in changes in frequency of drinking game participation were partially mediated by competitive motivations for participating in drinking games and by the effects of social competitiveness on competitive drinking game motivation. These findings lend additional support to the proposition that participation in drinking games is motivated in part by their suitability as a venue for sexual competition in university students' day-to-day lives. PMID:25974961

  9. Reply to "Sex Differences in Adaptive Styles"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Hannah I.; Sperekas, Nicole B.

    1975-01-01

    This paper criticizes the Future Events Test and conclusions drawn from it on the grounds that the test contains sex-biased items and that locus of control scales have shown no reliable sex differences. (GO)

  10. Why we should consider sex (and study sex differences) in addiction research.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Segura, Carla; Becker, Jill B

    2016-09-01

    Among mammals, every cell has a biological sex, and the sex of an individual pervades its body and brain. In this review, we describe the processes through which mammals become phenotypically male or female by organizational and activational influences of genes and hormones throughout development. We emphasized that the molecular and cellular changes triggered by sex chromosomes and steroid hormones may generate sex differences in overt physiological functions and behavior, but they may alternatively promote end-point convergences between males and females. Clinical and pre-clinical evidences suggest that sex and gender differences modulate drug consumption as well as of the transition towards drug-promoted pathological states such as dependence and addiction. Additionally, sex differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics will also influence dependence and addiction as well as side effects of drugs. These effects will further interact with socially gendered factors to result in sex differences in the access to, engagement in and efficacy of any therapeutic attempt. Finally, we maintain that 'sex sameness' is as important as 'sex differences' when building a complete understanding of biology for both males and females and provide a framework with which to classify and guide investigation into the mechanisms mediating sex differences and sex sameness. PMID:27029841

  11. Brain sex differences and hormone influences

    PubMed Central

    Tobet, Stuart; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Hartshorn, Cheryl; Aurand, Emily; Stratton, Matthew; Kumar, Pankaj; Searcy, Brian; McClellan, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in development to generate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms in brain. Relevant mechanisms may include neurogenesis, cell migration, cell differentiation, cell death, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. On a molecular level, there are several ways to categorize factors that drive brain development. These range from the actions of transcription factors in cell nuclei that regulate the expression of genes that control cell development and differentiation, to effector molecules that directly contribute to signaling from one cell to another. In addition, several peptides or proteins in these and other categories might be referred to as “biomarkers” of sexual differentiation with undetermined functions in development or adulthood. While a majority of sex differences are revealed as a direct consequence of hormone actions, some may only be revealed following genetic or environmental disruption. Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation. PMID:19207813

  12. Psychological sex differences. Origins through sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M

    1995-03-01

    Men and women clearly differ in some psychological domains. A. H. Eagly (1995) shows that these differences are not artifactual or unstable. Ideally, the next scientific step is to develop a cogent explanatory framework for understanding why the sexes differ in some psychological domains and not in others and for generating accurate predictions about sex differences as yet undiscovered. This article offers a brief outline of an explanatory framework for psychological sex differences--one that is anchored in the new theoretical paradigm of evolutionary psychology. Men and women differ, in this view, in domains in which they have faced different adaptive problems over human evolutionary history. In all other domains, the sexes are predicted to be psychologically similar. Evolutionary psychology jettisons the false dichotomy between biology and environment and provides a powerful metatheory of why sex differences exist, where they exist, and in what contexts they are expressed (D. M. Buss, 1995). PMID:7726470

  13. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan. PMID:26404716

  14. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-10-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan. PMID:26404716

  15. Perils and pitfalls of reporting sex differences.

    PubMed

    Maney, Donna L

    2016-02-19

    The idea of sex differences in the brain both fascinates and inflames the public. As a result, the communication and public discussion of new findings is particularly vulnerable to logical leaps and pseudoscience. A new US National Institutes of Health policy to consider both sexes in almost all preclinical research will increase the number of reported sex differences and thus the risk that research in this important area will be misinterpreted and misrepresented. In this article, I consider ways in which we might reduce that risk, for example, by (i) employing statistical tests that reveal the extent to which sex explains variation, rather than whether or not the sexes 'differ', (ii) properly characterizing the frequency distributions of scores or dependent measures, which nearly always overlap, and (iii) avoiding speculative functional or evolutionary explanations for sex-based variation, which usually invoke logical fallacies and perpetuate sex stereotypes. Ultimately, the factor of sex should be viewed as an imperfect, temporary proxy for yet-unknown factors, such as hormones or sex-linked genes, that explain variation better than sex. As scientists, we should be interested in discovering and understanding the true sources of variation, which will be more informative in the development of clinical treatments. PMID:26833839

  16. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    This book examines the science and politics of cognitive sex differences, reflecting theories and research in the area over the past several years. Eight chapters discuss: (1) "Introduction and Overview" (e.g., theoretical approaches, values and science, and terminology); (2) "Searching for Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" (e.g., the need…

  17. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  18. Sex Differences in the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased divergence between males and females in physical characteristics, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Here we will review data regarding sex differences in brain structure and function during this period of the lifespan. The most consistent sex difference in brain morphometry is the 9-12% larger brain size…

  19. Psychological Sex Differences: Origins through Sexual Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Outlines an explanatory framework for psychological sex differences, one that is anchored in the new theoretical paradigm of evolutionary psychology. This paradigm rejects the dichotomy between biology and environment and provides a new metatheory of why sex differences exist, where they exist, and in what contexts they are expressed. (GR)

  20. Sex Differences in Reading: A Biological Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliotti, Nicholas C.

    Although sex differences in reading and related language functions have frequently been reported for both average and retarded readers, the explanations thus far proposed (maturation rate, sex-role development, textbook content, "female bias," and psycho-social factors) do not satisfactorily account for these differences. One hypothesis that might…

  1. Exercise physiologists talk about sex differences.

    PubMed

    Day, Danielle S

    2008-04-01

    The number of publications addressing sex differences and exercise physiology has increased from 12, before 1970, to as many as 1344 through October 2007, according to a recent PubMed search. The following symposium represents three distinct examples of how exercise physiologists are approaching the issue of sex differences in various aspects of physiology. Tarnapolsky presents data from studies of sex and sex hormone effects on substrate use, a factor that may distinguish between the capacities of women and men to excel at exercise performance at different durations and intensities. Harms and Rosenkranz provide insight into the potential limitations of respiratory function at increased exercise intensities in the female sex attributable, in part, to sex-based anatomic differences in respiratory anatomy. Milne and Noble discuss important findings concerning the cardioprotective aspect of exercise-induced heat shock proteins versus the inherent cardioprotection of elevated estradiol concentrations in young women. Each paper demonstrates the novel methodology and sophisticated research designs currently being employed to discern sex differences and sex hormone effects on various aspects of exercise physiology. PMID:18317382

  2. Sex Differences in Inflammation During Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, DeLisa

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide, yet more men die from atherosclerosis than women, and at a younger age. Women, on the other hand, mainly develop atherosclerosis following menopause, and particularly if they have one or more autoimmune diseases, suggesting that the immune mechanisms that increase disease in men are different from those in women. The key processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis are vascular inflammation, lipid accumulation, intimal thickening and fibrosis, remodeling, and plaque rupture or erosion leading to myocardial infarction and ischemia. Evidence indicates that sex hormones alter the immune response during atherosclerosis, resulting in different disease phenotypes according to sex. Women, for example, respond to infection and damage with increased antibody and autoantibody responses, while men have elevated innate immune activation. This review describes current knowledge regarding sex differences in the inflammatory immune response during atherosclerosis. Understanding sex differences is critical for improving individualized medicine. PMID:25983559

  3. Sexing the brain: the science and pseudoscience of sex differences.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lesley J

    2010-06-01

    A recent upsurge in unitary biological explanations for gender differences in behavior (i.e. that they are "hard-wired" in the genetic code), put forward not only in books written for a general audience but also in scientific papers, makes it important to examine the fallacies of these ideas. Such genetic and hormonal explanations of human behavior, formulated with little consideration of the influences of experience, and often without taking experience into account at all, are part of a new wave of genetic explanations for a broad range of human behavior, as explained in the paper. These ideas are far from new; moreover, they are pseudoscientific and are used for political influence under the guise of science. They are a conservative social force that maintains social and educational inequalities between women and men. This paper explains that causal explanations of differences between the sexes are of two completely different types: unitary (genetic determinist) versus interactive explanations. The false reasoning used to support genetic determinist explanations of sex differences in behavior is discussed. To illustrate what biology really tells us about gender differentiation, the paper discusses the interactive roles of genetic, hormonal and environmental influences on the development of gender differences. These interactions are illustrated using two model biological systems (e.g. the intertwined influences of genes, sex hormones and experience on the development of sex differences in behavior in rats, and sex differences in neuronal connections in chickens). There is plenty of scientific evidence to show the complex interactive, and ever changing, influences of experience and genes that take place as an organism develops and throughout its life. Malleability of brain and behavior can be shown clearly using animal models, and the processes involved apply also to the development of brain and behavior in humans. We diminish our understanding of the functions of

  4. Sex Differences in Judgments of Social Desirability.

    PubMed

    Paunonen, Sampo V

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates sex differences in the perceived desirability of personality behaviors and beliefs. Men and women (N = 149, Mage  = 18.7) judged the social desirability scale values (SDSVs) of 150 personality statements as applied either to a male target or a female target. For comparison, some estimated SDSVs with no target sex specified. A separate sample of 537 respondents endorsed the 150 items via self-report. Raters showed a high consensus in their SDSV judgments within conditions (α = .86 to .90) and no sex-of-rater effects across conditions. Substantial sex-of-target effects (p < .001), however, revealed many behaviors that were viewed as desirable for one sex but not for the other. The behaviors seen as more (less) desirable when applied to men rather than to women were endorsed more (less) by men than by women in the respondent sample. Similar results were found when no target sex was specified for the SDSV ratings, presumably because judges evaluated the behaviors as applied to a target of their own sex. The present results have important implications for the measurement and reporting of SDSVs, the evaluation of substance versus style in self-reports, and the construction of desirability-reduced personality inventories. PMID:25728192

  5. Sex differences in brain control of prosody.

    PubMed

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Grabowska, Anna

    2007-03-14

    Affective (emotional) prosody is a neuropsychological function that encompasses non-verbal aspects of language that are necessary for recognizing and conveying emotions in communication, whereas non-affective (linguistic) prosody indicates whether the sentence is a question, an order or a statement. Considerable evidence points to a dominant role for the right hemisphere in both aspects of prosodic function. However, it has yet to be established whether separate parts of the right hemisphere are involved in processing different kinds of emotional intonation. The aim of this study was to answer this question. In addition, the issue of sex differences in the ability to understand prosody was considered. Fifty-two patients with damage to frontal, temporo-parietal or subcortical (basal) parts of the right hemisphere and 26 controls were tested for their ability to assess prosody information in normal (well-formed) sentences and in pseudo-sentences. General impairment of prosody processing was seen in all patient groups but the effect of damage was more apparent for emotional rather than linguistic prosody. Interestingly, appreciation of emotional prosody appeared to depend on the type of emotional expression and the location of the brain lesion. The patients with frontal damage were mostly impaired in comprehension of happy intonations; those with temporo-parietal damage in assessment of sad intonations, while subcortical lesions mostly affected comprehension of angry intonations. Differential effects of lesion location on the performance of men and women were also observed. Frontal lesions were more detrimental to women, whereas subcortical lesions led to stronger impairment in men. This suggests sex differences in brain organization of prosodic functions. PMID:17005213

  6. Sex differences in chemosensation: sensory or emotional?

    PubMed Central

    Ohla, Kathrin; Lundström, Johan N.

    2013-01-01

    Although the first sex-dependent differences in chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the stimulants is still not known. We used simultaneous and complementary measures of electrophysiological (EEG), psychophysiological, and psychological responses to stimuli varying in intranasal irritation and odorousness to investigate whether sex differences in the processing of intranasal irritation are mediated by varying sensitivity of the involved sensory systems or by differences in cognitive and/or emotional evaluation of the irritants. Women perceived all stimulants more irritating and they exhibited larger amplitudes of the late positive deflection of the event-related potential than men. No significant differences in sensory sensitivity, anxiety, and arousal responses could be detected. Our findings suggest that men and women process intranasal irritation differently. Importantly, the differences cannot be explained by variation in sensory sensitivity to irritants, differences in anxiety, or differences in physiological arousal. We propose that women allocate more attention to potentially noxious stimuli than men do, which eventually causes differences in cognitive appraisal and subjective perception. PMID:24133429

  7. The new science of cognitive sex differences.

    PubMed

    Miller, David I; Halpern, Diane F

    2014-01-01

    Surprising new findings indicate that many conclusions about sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities need to be reexamined. Cognitive sex differences are changing, decreasing for some tasks whereas remaining stable or increasing for other tasks. Some sex differences are detected in infancy, but the data are complex and depend on task characteristics. Diverse disciplines have revolutionized our understanding of why these differences exist. For instance, fraternal-twin studies align with earlier literature to help establish the role of prenatal androgens and large international datasets help explain how cultural factors such as economic prosperity and gender equity affect females and males differently. Understanding how biological and environmental factors interact could help maximize cognitive potential and address pressing societal issues. PMID:24246136

  8. Sex Differences in Learning Abilities and Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nass, Ruth D.

    1993-01-01

    This review of the male preponderance in the prevalence of learning disabilities examines such factors as gender-related etiology differences and learning style differences; complications of pregnancy and infancy; effects of male hormones on the nervous system; and sex differences in maturity rates. (JDD)

  9. No sex differences in the TAMI.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R; Singhal, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    The Test of Ability in Movement Imagery (TAMI; Madan and Singhal in J Mot Behav 45:153-166, 2013) has recently been developed as an objective measure for evaluating individual ability in movement imagery. Other tests of imagery have reported sex differences, including the mental rotations test (MRT) and the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ). However, some have attributed these observed sex differences to other processes, such as difference in spatial abilities and confidence. Here, we tested for sex differences in the TAMI in a large sample of young adults (N = 246). In the same sample, we also administered a modified version of the MRT that included both block configurations and human figures and the VMIQ2. This modified MRT was used, as the imagery processes involved in the TAMI may be more similar to those involved in the rotations of human figures. While strong sex differences were found in both subscales of the modified MRT, no sex differences were observed in the TAMI. PMID:25480111

  10. Sex differences in the mechanisms underlying long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salama, Guy; Bett, Glenna C L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a well-established phenomenon, but its degree varies tremendously among species. Since the early days of Einthoven's development of the three-lead galvanometer ECG, we have known there are marked differences in QT intervals of men and women. It required over a century to appreciate the profound implications of sex-based electrophysiological differences in QT interval on the panoply of sex differences with respect to arrhythmia risk, drug sensitivity, and treatment modalities. Little is known about the fundamental mechanism responsible for sex differences in electrical substrate of the human heart, in large part due to the lack of tissue availability. Animal models are an important research tool, but species differences in the sexual dimorphism of the QT interval, the ionic currents underlying the cardiac repolarization, and effects of sex steroids make it difficult to interpolate animal to human sex differences. In addition, in some species, different strains of the same animal model yield conflicting data. Each model has its strengths, such as ease of genetic manipulation in mice or size in dogs. However, many animals do not reproduce the sexual dimorphism of QT seen in humans. To match sex linked prolongation of QT interval and arrhythmogenic phenotype, the current data suggest that the rabbit may be best suited to provide insight into sex differences in humans. In the future, emerging technologies such as induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiac myocyte systems may offer the opportunity to study sex differences in a controlled hormonal situation in the context of a sex specific human model system. PMID:24973386

  11. Sexual regret: evidence for evolved sex differences.

    PubMed

    Galperin, Andrew; Haselton, Martie G; Frederick, David A; Poore, Joshua; von Hippel, William; Buss, David M; Gonzaga, Gian C

    2013-10-01

    Regret and anticipated regret enhance decision quality by helping people avoid making and repeating mistakes. Some of people's most intense regrets concern sexual decisions. We hypothesized evolved sex differences in women's and men's experiences of sexual regret. Because of women's higher obligatory costs of reproduction throughout evolutionary history, we hypothesized that sexual actions, particularly those involving casual sex, would be regretted more intensely by women than by men. In contrast, because missed sexual opportunities historically carried higher reproductive fitness costs for men than for women, we hypothesized that poorly chosen sexual inactions would be regretted more by men than by women. Across three studies (Ns = 200, 395, and 24,230), we tested these hypotheses using free responses, written scenarios, detailed checklists, and Internet sampling to achieve participant diversity, including diversity in sexual orientation. Across all data sources, results supported predicted psychological sex differences and these differences were localized in casual sex contexts. These findings are consistent with the notion that the psychology of sexual regret was shaped by recurrent sex differences in selection pressures operating over deep time. PMID:23179233

  12. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  13. Sex Differences in Response to Visual Sexual Stimuli: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Heather A.; Wallen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews what is currently known about how men and women respond to the presentation of visual sexual stimuli. While the assumption that men respond more to visual sexual stimuli is generally empirically supported, previous reports of sex differences are confounded by the variable content of the stimuli presented and measurement techniques. We propose that the cognitive processing stage of responding to sexual stimuli is the first stage in which sex differences occur. The divergence between men and women is proposed to occur at this time, reflected in differences in neural activation, and contribute to previously reported sex differences in downstream peripheral physiological responses and subjective reports of sexual arousal. Additionally, this review discusses factors that may contribute to the variability in sex differences observed in response to visual sexual stimuli. Factors include participant variables, such as hormonal state and socialized sexual attitudes, as well as variables specific to the content presented in the stimuli. Based on the literature reviewed, we conclude that content characteristics may differentially produce higher levels of sexual arousal in men and women. Specifically, men appear more influenced by the sex of the actors depicted in the stimuli while women’s response may differ with the context presented. Sexual motivation, perceived gender role expectations, and sexual attitudes are possible influences. These differences are of practical importance to future research on sexual arousal that aims to use experimental stimuli comparably appealing to men and women and also for general understanding of cognitive sex differences. PMID:17668311

  14. Do Psychological Sex Differences Reflect Evolutionary Bisexual Partitioning?

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes sex differences in communicative and exploratory abilities and mental disabilities from the rarely discussed perspective of sex differences in the shape of phenotypic distributions. The article reviews the most consistent findings related to such differences and compares them with the evolutionary theory of sex (ETS). The ETS considers sexual dimorphism as a functional specialization of a species into 2 partitions: variational and conservational. The analysis suggests that male superiority in risk and sensation seeking and physical abilities; higher rates of psychopathy, dyslexia, and autism; and higher birth and accidental death rates reflects the systemic variational function of the male sex. Female superiority in verbal abilities, lawfulness, socialization, empathy, and agreeableness is presented as a reflection of the systemic conservational function of the female sex. From this perspective psychological sex differences in communicative and exploratory abilities might not just be an accidental result of sexual selection or labor distribution in early humans. It might reflect a global functional differentiation tendency within a species to expand its phenotypic diversity and at the same time to conserve beneficial features in the species' behavior. The article also offers an addition to the ETS by suggesting that the male sex (variable partition) plays an evolutionary role in pruning of the redundant excesses in a species' bank of beneficial characteristics despite resistance from the conservational partition. PMID:26721176

  15. Why Sex Based Language Differences are Elusive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Mary

    Paradoxically, linguists' speculations about sex differences in language use are highly plausible and yet have received little empirical support from well controlled studies. An experiment was designed to correct a flaw in earlier methodologies by sampling precisely the kinds of situations in which predicted differences (e.g., swearing,…

  16. Sex Differences in Examination Performance: Do These Reflect Differences in Ability or Sex-Role Stereotypes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Roger J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Sex differences in GCE 'O' level examination performance are reflected both in the number of boys and girls entering for different subjects and in the numbers obtaining the higher grades. From a review of possible factors, it seems that sex-role stereotyping is the most influential. (Author/SJL)

  17. Sex Differences in Examination Performance: Do These Reflect Differences in Ability or Sex-Role Stereotypes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Roger J. L.

    Many academic examinations exhibit sex differences in terms of entry figures and pass rates. This fact is illustrated by a selection of statistics from the British GCE "O" level examination results for June 1976. These results are discussed in terms of three possible causes: innate differences in intellectual functioning, sex role stereotyping,…

  18. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Rasakham, Khampaseuth; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years it has become apparent that sex is a major factor involved in modulating the pharmacological effects of exogenous opioids. The kappa opioid receptor (KOPR) system is a potential therapeutic target for pain, mood disorders and addiction. In humans mixed KOPR/MOPR ligands have been found to produce greater analgesia in women than men. In contrast, in animals, selective KOPR agonists have been found to produce greater antinociceptive effects in males than females. Collectively, the studies indicate that the direction and magnitude of sex differences of KOPR-mediated antinociception/analgesia are dependent on species, strain, ligand and pain model examined. Of interest, and less studied, is whether sex differences in other KOPR-mediated effects exist. In the studies conducted thus far, greater effects of KOPR agonists in males have been found in neuroprotection against stroke and suppression of food intake behavior. On the other hand, greater effects of KOPR agonists were found in females in mediation of prolactin release. In modulation of drugs of abuse, sex differences in KOPR effects were observed but appear to be dependent on the drug examined. The mechanism(s) underlying sex differences in KOPR-mediated effects may be mediated by sex chromosomes, gonadal hormonal influence on organization (circuitry) and/or acute hormonal influence on KOPR expression, distribution and localization. In light of the diverse pharmacology of KOPR we discuss the need for future studies characterizing the sexual dimorphism of KOPR neural circuitry and in examining other behaviors and processes that are modulated by the KOPR. PMID:20951148

  19. How to study sex differences in addiction using animal models.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    The importance of studying sex as a biological variable in biomedical research is becoming increasingly apparent. There is a particular need in preclinical studies of addiction to include both sexes, as female animals are often excluded from studies, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of not only sex differences and potential prevention and treatment strategies but also with regard to the basic neurobiology of addiction. This review focuses on methodology that has been developed in preclinical studies to examine sex differences in the behavioral aspects and neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction across the full range of the addiction process, including initiation (acquisition), maintenance, escalation, withdrawal, relapse to drug seeking and treatment. This review also discusses strategic and technical issues that need to be considered when comparing females and males, including the role of ovarian hormones and how sex differences interact with other major vulnerability factors in addiction, such as impulsivity, compulsivity and age (adolescent versus adult). Novel treatments for addiction are also discussed, such as competing non-drug rewards, repurposed medications such as progesterone and treatment combinations. Practical aspects of conducting research comparing female and male animals are also considered. Making sex differences a point of examination requires additional effort and consideration; however, such studies are necessary given mounting evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. These studies should lead to a better understanding of individual differences in the development of addiction and effective treatments for males and females. PMID:27345022

  20. Rogue Males: Sex Differences in Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary study into the commitment and academic confidence of male students in undergraduate psychology, prompted by our own observations of the performance of male students and the literature on sex differences in education. Method: Using an analytical survey, level 1 psychology students at a new university…

  1. Family Expressiveness: Sex and Socioeconomic Class Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Bron B.; McKim, Suzanne

    Communication, particularly in the form of self-disclosure or emotional expressiveness is important to happy, healthy relationships. Differences in emotional expressiveness between sexes, between socioeconomic groups, and within each of these groups were examined in 48 males and 44 females from high and low socioeconomic (SES) groups. Subjects…

  2. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, Sarah-Jane

    1978-01-01

    Explores (1) problems of the validity of tests of spatial ability, and (2) problems of the recessive gene influence theory of the origin of sex differences in spatial ability. Studies of cognitive strategies in spatial problem solving are suggested as a way to further investigate recessive gene influence. (Author/RH)

  3. Memory for Information about Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Singh, Anjali

    1986-01-01

    To test the selective recall hypothesis, male and female British adolescents listened to a tape recording of "findings" about sex differences. Fifteen of the findings were pro-female and 15 were anti-male. Males, especially those with more negative attitudes towards women, recalled less pro- and more anti-female items. (KH)

  4. Sex Differences and Brain Development: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motomatsu, Nancy; Patterson, Bobbie

    This bibliography cites references dealing with background material on the functions of the human brain and current research on sex differences in brain development. A list of 10 books published since 1974 is followed by a more extensive annotated bibliography of 29 articles, and a bibliography of 19 reports, complete with ERIC reference numbers…

  5. Cognitive Styles: Sex and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J.

    This paper reviews the hallmark studies of field dependence-independence and considers the evidence for sex and ethnic differences in cognitive style. Research has traditionally linked females' early verbal superiority with field dependence and males' superior visuospatial skills with field independence. Studies challenging this picture cite…

  6. Sex Differences in Attribution for Occupational Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reno, Rochelle

    1981-01-01

    Tested and extended Deaux's expectancy model of sex-linked differences in attribution for success. Finding's indicated that female occupational subjects, relative to males, tended to attribute success more to unstable causes of effort and luck. Male subjects attributed success more to the stable causes of ability and task ease. (Author/RC)

  7. Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Barrie, Ed.; Henley, Nancy, Ed.

    The twelve papers in this volume, which concerns the interrelationship of language and sex, include: (1) "Difference and Dominance: An Overview of Language, Gender, and Society," by Barrie Thorne and Nancy Henley; (2) "Women's Speech: Separate But Unequal?" by Cheris Kramer; (3) "The Making of a Nonsexist Dictionary," by Alma Graham; (4) "The…

  8. Sex and Discipline Differences in Professional Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, Lucy W.

    Professional socialization in this paper refers to the process by which neophytes are initiated into the norms and values governing professional and academic disciplines in graduate school by professional gate-keepers. The first part of the paper shows very large differences in the effectiveness of professional socialization by sex, and across…

  9. Sex Differences in Adults' Motivation to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…

  10. Early Sex Differences in Weighting Geometric Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Fabian, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    When geometric and non-geometric information are both available for specifying location, men have been shown to rely more heavily on geometry compared to women. To shed insight on the nature and developmental origins of this sex difference, we examined how 18- to 24-month-olds represented the geometry of a surrounding (rectangular) space when…

  11. Sex differences in the physiology of eating.

    PubMed

    Asarian, Lori; Geary, Nori

    2013-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  12. Sex differences in the physiology of eating

    PubMed Central

    Asarian, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  13. Sex Differences in the Heritability of Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Blalock, Casey L.; Button, Tanya M. M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the heritability of psychological resilience among US adults aged 25 to 74 years. Using monozygotic and same sex dizygotic twin pairs from the National Survey of Mid-Life Development in the United States (MIDUS) we show that positive affect is equally heritable among men (h2 = .60) and women (h2 = .59). We then estimate the heritability of positive affect after controlling for an exhaustive list of social and interpersonal stressors, and we operationalize the residual for positive affect as resilience. According to this specification, the heritability of resilience is higher among men (h2 = .52) compared to women (h2 = .38). We show that self-acceptance is one of the most important aspects of psychological functioning that accounts for the heritability of resilience among both men and women. However, compared to women, men appear to derive additional benefits from environmental mastery that may enable otherwise sex-neutral resilient tendencies to manifest. PMID:18251671

  14. A Theoretical Analysis of Sex Differences In Same-Sex Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Robert J.; Kinder, Bill N.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates sex differences in same-sex friendships of 312 undergraduate students in terms of the intersection and social penetration model of relationship development, and Bem's theory of sex role orientation. Finds significant sex-related differences in depth, duration, and involvement. (FMW)

  15. Sex Differences in Stroke: The Contribution of Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Roy-O’Reilly, Meaghan; McCullough, Louise D.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is now the leading cause of adult disability in the United States. Women are disproportionately affected by stroke. Women increasingly outnumber men in the elderly population, the period of highest risk for stroke. However, there is also a growing recognition that fundamental sex differences are present that contribute to differential ischemic sensitivity. In addition, gonadal hormone exposure can impact coagulation and fibrinolysis, key factors in the initiation of thrombosis. In this review we will discuss sex differences in stroke, with a focus on platelets, vascular reactivity and coagulation. PMID:24560819

  16. Sociocultural context for sex differences in addiction.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michelle; Reed, Beth Glover

    2016-09-01

    In this review, we discuss the importance of investigating both sex and gender differences in addiction and relapse in studies of humans and in animal models. Addiction is both a cultural and biological phenomenon. Sex and gender differences are not solely determined by our biology, nor are they entirely cultural; they are interactions between biology and the environment that are continuously played out throughout development. Lessons from the historical record illustrate how context and attitudes affect the way that substance use in men and women is regarded. Finally, cultural and environmental influences may differentially affect men and women, and affect how they respond to drugs of abuse and to treatment protocols. We recommend that both animal models and clinical research need to be developed to consider how contextual and social factors may influence the biological processes of addiction and relapse differentially in men and women. PMID:26935336

  17. Sex Differences in the Presentation of Chronic Low Back Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffer, Christine E.; Cassisi, Jeffrey E.; Ferraresi, Laurette M.; Lofland, Kenneth R.; McCracken, Lance M.

    2002-01-01

    Sex differences in 351 patients with chronic low back pain were examined. Biological, psychological, and psychosocial factors were considered. Sex differences in adaptive functioning were consistent with traditional gender roles. Significant interactions were found for sex and employment status, and sex and marital status. Retired women reported…

  18. Commentary: sex difference differences? A reply to Constantino.

    PubMed

    Messinger, Daniel S; Young, Gregory S; Webb, Sara Jane; Ozonoff, Sally; Bryson, Susan E; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Dobkins, Karen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M; Landa, Rebecca; Nelson, Charles A; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2016-01-01

    Messinger et al. found a 3.18 odds ratio of male to female ASD recurrence in 1241 prospectively followed high-risk (HR) siblings. Among high-risk siblings (with and without ASD), as well as among 583 low-risk controls, girls exhibited higher performance on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, as well as lower restricted and repetitive behavior severity scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) than boys. That is, female-favoring sex differences in developmental performance and autism traits were evident among low-risk and non-ASD high-risk children, as well as those with ASD. Constantino (Mol Autism) suggests that sex differences in categorical ASD outcomes in Messinger et al. should be understood as a female protective effect. We are receptive to Constantino's (Mol Autism) suggestion, and propose that quantitative sex differences in autism-related features are keys to understanding this female protective effect. PMID:27358719

  19. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women. PMID:26356576

  20. Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. PMID:24966192

  1. Sex differences in psychological effects of exercise.

    PubMed

    Hülya Aşçı, F

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in psychological effects of exercise on university students. University students (73 female and 65 male) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups by equating sex in each group. The experimental group participated in step dance sessions of 50 min per day, 3 days per week for 10 weeks with 60-80% of their heart rate reserves. Throughout the 10-week period, the lecture control group was told not to participate in any organized or structured exercise and participated in a lecture that was about the physiological and psychological benefits of exercise. Self-concept, belief in external control, and trait anxiety of the groups were measured before and after the exercise program. A significant improvement in the psychological variables after the exercise program and more improvement for female exercise participants were expected. Analysis revealed no significant initial differences in self-concept, belief in external control, and trait anxiety between the two groups or between males and females, other than family and moral/ethical self. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that exercise led to less belief in external control and significant improvement in physical self and identity dimensions of self-concept for the experimental group compared to the control group. However, there was no significant difference in trait anxiety between the two groups after exercise (p>.05). Analysis also revealed that changes in belief in external control, trait anxiety, and self-concept did not differ with regard to sex. Males and females showed no difference in their improvement on trait anxiety, belief in external control, and most dimensions of self-concept during the 10 weeks. Only changes in personal and physical self throughout 10-week period were different for males and females. Exerciser males improved their personal self and physical self scores more than female exercisers and male and female

  2. Sex differences in the neurobiology of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Bobzean, Samara A M; DeNobrega, Aliza K; Perrotti, Linda I

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that while women report lower rates of drug use than men, the number of current drug users and abusers who are women continues to increase. In addition women progress through the phases of addiction differently than men; women transition from casual drug use to addiction faster, are more reactive to stimuli that trigger relapse, and have higher rates of relapse then men. Sex differences in physiological and psychological responses to drugs of abuse are well documented and it is well established that estrogen effects on dopamine (DA) systems are largely responsible for these sex differences. However, the downstream mechanisms that result from interactions between estrogen and the effects of drugs of abuse on the DA system are just beginning to be explored. Here we review the basic neurocircuitry which underlies reward and addiction; highlighting the neuroadaptive changes that occur in the mesolimbic dopamine reward and anti-reward/stress pathways. We propose that sex differences in addiction are due to sex differences in the neural systems which mediate positive and negative reinforcement and that these differences are modulated by ovarian hormones. This forms a neurobehavioral basis for the search for the molecular and cellular underpinnings that uniquely guide motivational behaviors and make women more vulnerable to developing and sustaining addiction than men. PMID:24508560

  3. Sex differences in Portuguese lonely hearts advertisements.

    PubMed

    Neto, Félix

    2005-10-01

    Advertisements from "Lonely Hearts" columns in the major daily Portuguese newspaper (Jornal de Notícias) were used to test hypotheses about the mate preferences of men and women. A total of 484 advertisements were coded for demographic descriptors and offers of and appeals for attractiveness, financial security, sincerity, expressiveness, and instrumentality, e.g., intelligence and ambition. Some results supported social exchange and evolutionary predictions: men sought younger women and offered security; women sought older men with status and resources. However, other results challenged such predictions: attractiveness and expressiveness did not differ by sex. PMID:16383069

  4. Sex Differences in Neural Processing of Language Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Burman, Douglas D.; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Why females generally perform better on language tasks than males is unknown. Sex differences were here identified in children (ages 9 – 15) across two linguistic tasks for words presented in two modalities. Bilateral activation in the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri and activation in the left fusiform gyrus of girls was greater than in boys. Activation in the left inferior frontal and fusiform regions of girls was also correlated with linguistic accuracy irregardless of stimulus modality, whereas correlation with performance accuracy in boys depended on the modality of word presentation (either in visual or auditory association cortex). This pattern suggests that girls rely on a supramodal language network, whereas boys process visual and auditory words differently. Activation in the left fusiform region was additionally correlated with performance on standardized language tests in which girls performed better, additional evidence of its role in early sex differences for language. PMID:18262207

  5. Sex differences in learning in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Eberly, Lynn E; Pusey, Anne E

    2004-04-15

    The wild chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, fish for termites with flexible tools that they make out of vegetation, inserting them into the termite mound and then extracting and eating the termites that cling to the tool. Tools may be used in different ways by different chimpanzee communities according to the local chimpanzee culture. Here we describe the results of a four-year longitudinal field study in which we investigated how this cultural behaviour is learned by the community's offspring. We find that there are distinct sex-based differences, akin to those found in human children, in the way in which young chimpanzees develop their termite-fishing skills. PMID:15085121

  6. Sex differences in orbitofrontal gray as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality.

    PubMed

    Raine, A; Yang, Y; Narr, K L; Toga, A W

    2011-02-01

    Attention is increasingly being given to understanding sex difference in psychopathology to better understand the etiology of disorders. This study tests the hypothesis that sex differences in ventral and middle frontal gray volume contribute to sex differences in antisocial personality disorder (APD) and crime. Participants were recruited from temporary employment agencies, consisting of normal controls, substance/alcohol-dependent controls, axis I/II psychiatric controls and individuals with APD. An independent sample of female volunteers was also recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, orbital frontal and rectal gyral frontal gray matter, and dimensional scores of APD and criminal behavior were assessed. APD males when compared with male controls showed an 8.7% reduction in orbitofrontal gray volume, a 17.3% reduction in middle frontal gray and a 16.1% reduction in right rectal gray. Reduced middle and orbitofrontal volumes were significantly associated with increased APD symptoms and criminal offending in both males and females. Males as a whole had reduced orbitofrontal and middle frontal gray volume when compared with females, and controlling for these brain differences reduced the gender difference in the antisocial personality/behavior by 77.3%. Findings were not a function of psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial risk factors, head injury or trauma exposure. Findings implicate structural differences in the ventral and middle frontal gray as both a risk factor for APD and as a partial explanation for sex differences in APD. PMID:20029391

  7. Sex Differences in Aggressive and Withdrawn Behavior on the Playground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Judith A.; And Others

    An exception to most observational studies examining sex differences is Ladd's (1983) study of popular, average, and rejected children, which reported sex differences within as well as across groups. Like Ladd's research, the present study looks at sex differences within and across subsamples of boys and girls, comparing the playground behavior of…

  8. Preschoolers' Mental Rotation: Sex Differences in Hemispheric Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nicola; Jansen, Petra; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mental rotation performance has been found to produce one of the largest sex differences in cognition accompanied by sex differences in functional cerebral asymmetry. Although sex differences in mental rotation performance can be reliably demonstrated as early as age 5 years old, that is, long before puberty, no data exist as to whether…

  9. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women. PMID:27001402

  10. Sex differences in whole body gait kinematics at preferred speeds.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Dustin A; Frimenko, Rebecca E; Goodyear, Chuck D; Bowden, David R; Fullenkamp, Adam M

    2015-02-01

    Studies on human perception have identified pelvis and torso motion as key discriminators between male and female gaits. However, while most observers would advocate that men and women walk differently, consistent findings and explanations of sex differences in gait kinematics across modern empirical studies are rare. In the present study we evaluated sex differences in whole body gait kinematics from a large sample of subjects (55 men, 36 women) walking at self selected speeds. We analyzed the data through comparisons of discrete metrics and whole curve analyses. Results showed that in the frontal plane, women walked with greater pelvic obliquity than men, but exhibited a more stable torso and head. Women had greater transverse plane pelvis and torso rotation as well as greater arm swing. Additional sex differences were noted at the hip and ankle. These kinematic results are in line with anectdotal observations and qualitative studies. In order to understand these observations and substantiate some of the explanations previously set forth in the biomechanics literature, we also explored possible reasons for dynamic sex effects, and suggested applications that may benefit from their consideration. PMID:25548119

  11. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    PubMed

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant. PMID:9354085

  12. Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples. PMID:24585040

  13. Sex Differences in Verbal Reasoning Are Mediated by Sex Differences in Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Contreras, Ma Jose; Arend, Isabel; Leal, Oscar Garcia; Santacreu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Several meta-analyses have shown that males outperform females in overall spatial ability, while females outperform males in some verbal ability tests, but not in others. The present article measures sex differences in two computerized tests, one thought to reflect verbal reasoning and one thought to reflect dynamic spatial performance. The sample…

  14. Is There Any Reason to Research Sex Differences in Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canary, Daniel J.; Hause, Kimberley S.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes empirical findings and conceptual problems to clarify how sex differences are related to communication. Finds that conceptual reasons for the muddled picture of sex differences in communication research include reliance on stereotypes, polarization of the sexes, lack of valid reasons, and dearth of theory. (SR)

  15. Purpose-in-Life Test: Age and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Augustine; Edwards, Henry

    1974-01-01

    This study examined age and sex differences, and the interaction of age x sex, with respect to "meaning in life" as defined by Frankl and measured by the Purpose-in-Life Test (PIL) developed by Crumbaugh and Maholick. (Author)

  16. Sex differences in intelligence. Implications for education.

    PubMed

    Halpern, D F

    1997-10-01

    Sex differences in intelligence is among the most politically volatile topics in contemporary psychology. Although no single finding has unanimous support, conclusions from multiple studies suggest that females, on average, score higher on tasks that require rapid access to and use of phonological and semantic information in long-term memory, production and comprehension of complex prose, fine motor skills, and perceptual speed. Males, on average, score higher on tasks that require transformations in visual-spatial working memory, motor skills involved in aiming, spatiotemporal responding, and fluid reasoning, especially in abstract mathematical and scientific domains. Males, however, are also over-represented in the low-ability end of several distributions, including mental retardation, attention disorders, dyslexia, stuttering, and delayed speech. A psychobiosocial model that is based on the inextricable links between the biological bases of intelligence and environmental events is proposed as an alternative to nature-nurture dichotomies. Societal implications and applications to teaching and learning are suggested. PMID:9329293

  17. Sex differences in approaching friends with benefits relationships.

    PubMed

    Lehmiller, Justin J; VanderDrift, Laura E; Kelly, Janice R

    2011-03-01

    This research explored differences in how men and women approach "friends with benefits" (FWB) relationships. Specifically, this study examined sex differences in reasons for beginning such involvements, commitment to the friendship versus sexual aspects of the relationship, and partners'; anticipated hopes for the future. To do so, an Internet sample of individuals currently involved in FWB relationships was recruited. Results indicated many overall similarities in terms of how the sexes approach FWB relationships, but several important differences emerged. For example, sex was a more common motivation for men to begin such relationships, whereas emotional connection was a more common motivation for women. In addition, men were more likely to hope that the relationship stays the same over time, whereas women expressed more desire for change into either a full-fledged romance or a basic friendship. Unexpectedly, both men and women were more committed to the friendship than to the sexual aspect of the relationship. Although some additional similarities appeared, the findings were largely consistent with the notion that traditional gender role expectations and the sexual double standard may influence how men and women approach FWB relationships. PMID:20336576

  18. Sex differences in anthropoid mandibular canine lateral enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Ferrell, Rebecca J; Spence, Jennifer; Talabere, Tiffany; Hubbard, Amelia; Schmidt, Stacey

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that great ape and macaque males achieve large canine crown sizes primarily through extended canine growth periods. Recent work has suggested, however, that platyrrhine males may achieve larger canine sizes by accelerating rather than prolonging growth. This study tested the hypothesis that the ontogenetic pathway leading to canine sexual dimorphism in catarrhines differs from that of platyrrhines. To test this hypothesis, males and females of several catarrhine genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cercopithecus, and Cercocebus) and three platyrrhine genera (Cebus, Ateles, and Callicebus) were compared in the number and spacing of perikymata (enamel growth increments) on their canine crowns. In addition, perikymata periodicities (the number of days of growth perikymata represent) were determined for five genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cebus, and Ateles) using previously published as well as original data gathered for this study. The central findings are as follows: 1) males have more perikymata than females for seven of eight genera (in five of the seven, the differences are statistically significant); 2) in general, the greater the degree of sexual dimorphism, the greater the sex difference in male and female perikymata numbers; 3) there is no evidence of a systematic sex difference in primate periodicities; and 4) there is some evidence that sex differences in enamel formation rates may make a minor contribution to canine sexual dimorphism in Papio and Cercopithecus. These findings strongly suggest that in both catarrhines and platyrrhines prolongation of male canine growth is the primary mechanism by which canine crown sexual dimorphism is achieved. PMID:19350641

  19. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  20. Neural Growth Hormone Implicated in Body Weight Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation–escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378

  1. Sex Differences Associated with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Smyk, Daniel S.; Rigopoulou, Eirini I.; Pares, Albert; Billinis, Charalambos; Burroughs, Andrew K.; Muratori, Luigi; Invernizzi, Pietro; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.

    2012-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune origin, characterised by the destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts. The disease has an unpredictable clinical course but may progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. The diagnostic hallmark of PBC is the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), which are pathognomonic for the development of PBC. The disease overwhelmingly affects females, with some cases of male PBC being reported. The reasons underlying the low incidence of males with PBC are largely unknown. Epidemiological studies estimate that approximately 7–11% of PBC patients are males. There does not appear to be any histological, serological, or biochemical differences between male and female PBC, although the symptomatology may differ, with males being at higher risk of life-threatening complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatoma. Studies on X chromosome and sex hormones are of interest when studying the low preponderance of PBC in males; however, these studies are far from conclusive. This paper will critically analyze the literature surrounding PBC in males. PMID:22693524

  2. Sex differences in anxiety and depression clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Altemus, Margaret; Sarvaiya, Nilofar; Epperson, C. Neill

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences are prominent in mood and anxiety disorders and may provide a window into mechanisms of onset and maintenance of affective disturbances in both men and women. With the plethora of sex differences in brain structure, function, and stress responsivity, as well as differences in exposure to reproductive hormones, social expectations and experiences, the challenge is to understand which sex differences are relevant to affective illness. This review will focus on clinical aspects of sex differences in affective disorders including the emergence of sex differences across developmental stages and the impact of reproductive events. Biological, cultural, and experiential factors that may underlie sex differences in the phenomenology of mood and anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:24887405

  3. Macrophages: regulators of sex differences in asthma?

    PubMed

    Melgert, Barbro N; Oriss, Timothy B; Qi, Zengbiao; Dixon-McCarthy, Barbara; Geerlings, Marie; Hylkema, Machteld N; Ray, Anuradha

    2010-05-01

    Females are more susceptible to development of asthma than are males. In a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, with aggravated disease in females compared with males, we studied interactions between immune and resident lung cells during asthma development to elucidate which processes are affected by sex. We studied numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs), effector T cells, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), and alternatively activated macrophages (AAMPhi), and their functional capabilities. Male and female mice had comparable Treg numbers in lung tissue and comparable Treg function, but effector T cells had expanded to a greater extent in lungs of females after ovalbumin exposure. This difference in T cell expansion was therefore not the result of lack of Treg control, but appeared to be driven by a greater number of inflammatory mDCs migrating from the lungs to lymph nodes in females. Resident lung cells can influence mDC migration, and AAMPhi in lung tissue were found to be involved. Artificially elevating the number of AAMPhi in lung tissue increased the migration of mDCs and airway inflammation. We found greater numbers of AAMPhi in female lungs than in males; we therefore postulate that AAMPhi are involved in increased airway inflammation found in female mice. PMID:19574533

  4. Towards a molecular understanding of sex differences in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Keiko; Giese, K Peter

    2010-06-01

    Sex differences exist in brain function and behavior. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are only beginning to emerge. Recent studies in rodents have revealed molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in memory formation. It is becoming clear that sex differences are not simply reflective of differences in sex hormones, but also reflect distinctions in synaptic signaling mechanisms including the role of synaptic kinases. Furthermore, there are sex differences in the activation of transcription factors and gene transcription during memory formation. This review discusses emerging evidence in the field and how these findings are providing a first step towards a molecular understanding of how sex differences impact on memory formation both in health and disease. PMID:20356635

  5. Sex-different response in growth traits to resource heterogeneity explains male-biased sex ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Michinari; Takao, Mikako; Makita, Akifumi

    2016-08-01

    In dioecious plants, differences in growth traits between sexes in a response to micro-environmental heterogeneity may affect sex ratio bias and spatial distributions. Here, we examined sex ratios, stem growth traits and spatial distribution patterns in the dioecious clonal shrub Aucuba japonica var. borealis, in stands with varying light intensities. We found that male stems were significantly more decumbent (lower height/length ratio) but female stems were upright (higher height/length ratio). Moreover, we found sex-different response in stem density (no. of stems per unit area) along a light intensity gradient; in males the stem density increased with increases in canopy openness, but not in females. The higher sensitivity of males in increasing stem density to light intensity correlated with male-biased sex ratio; fine-scale sex ratio was strongly male-biased as canopy openness increased. There were also differences between sexes in spatial distributions of stems. Spatial segregation of sexes and male patches occupying larger areas than female patches might result from vigorous growth of males under well-lit environments. In summary, females and males showed different growth responses to environmental variation, and this seemed to be one of possible causes for the sex-differential spatial distributions and locally biased sex ratios.

  6. Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Slade, Martin D.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Studies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish cultural gendered factors influencing employment decisions (e.g., expected work roles, family responsibilities) from sex-linked biological differences shaping physiological response to workplace physical hazards. Methods We examined effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims data for 14,618 white- and blue-collar aluminum manufacturing employees in eight U.S. states. To explore gender differences in job status, we developed sex-stratified propensity score models identifying key socioeconomic predictors of hourly status for men and women. To examine effects of hourly employment on hypertension risk, after adjusting for gender differences in job placement, we applied time-weighted logistic regression models, stratified by propensity score, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Results Family structure (partnership, parity) influenced job status for both sexes; single mothers were more likely to hold hourly jobs (OR = 2.02 (95% CI = 1.37–2.97)), partnered men with children less likely (OR = 0.68 (0.56–0.83)). Education, age at hire, and race influenced job placement for both sexes. The effect of hourly status on hypertension was significant only among women predicted to be hourly (OR = 1.78 (1.34 – 2.35)). Conclusions Our results indicate significant risks of hypertension associated with hourly status for women, possibly exacerbated by sociodemographic factors predicting hourly status (e.g., single parenthood, low education). Greater attention to gender differences in job status, workplace stressors, and health risks associated with hourly work, is warranted. PMID:20864467

  7. Sex Differences in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  8. Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

    2014-08-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  9. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  10. Sex Differences in Language First Appear in Gesture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcaliskan, Seyda; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Children differ in how quickly they reach linguistic milestones. Boys typically produce their first multi-word sentences later than girls do. We ask here whether there are sex differences in children's gestures that precede, and presage, these sex differences in speech. To explore this question, we observed 22 girls and 18 boys every 4 months as…

  11. The Mandarin Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Matthews, Fiona E.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in social and communication behaviours related to autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have been investigated mainly in Western populations. Little research has been done in Chinese populations. This study explored sex differences related to ASC characteristics by examining differences in item responses and score distributions in…

  12. Sex Differences on the Dutch WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Posthuma, Danielle; Dolan, Conor V.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Colom, Roberto; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2006-01-01

    Using multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA), this study investigated whether sex differences were present on the Dutch WAIS-III, and if so, whether these sex differences were attributable to differences in general intelligence ("g"). The sample consisted of 294 females and 228 males between 18 and 46 years old. Both first…

  13. Sex Differences and Sex Bias on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts: Do They Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Administered form A of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) to kindergartners (N=180). Neither mean scores nor standard deviations differed significantly, and boys and girls had identical score distributions. Internal criteria for bias yielded totally negative results, showing no evidence of sex differences or sex bias. (Author/WAS)

  14. Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…

  15. Sex differences in the neurobiology of epilepsy: a preclinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E; MacLusky, Neil J

    2014-12-01

    When all of the epilepsies are considered, sex differences are not always clear, despite the fact that many sex differences are known in the normal brain. Sex differences in epilepsy in laboratory animals are also unclear, although robust effects of sex on seizures have been reported, and numerous effects of gonadal steroids have been shown throughout the rodent brain. Here we discuss several reasons why sex differences in seizure susceptibility are unclear or are difficult to study. Examples of robust sex differences in laboratory rats, such as the relative resistance of adult female rats to the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine compared to males, are described. We also describe a novel method that has shed light on sex differences in neuropathology, which is a relatively new technique that will potentially contribute to sex differences research in the future. The assay we highlight uses the neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN to probe sex differences in adult male and female rats and mice. In females, weak NeuN expression defines a sex difference that previous neuropathological studies have not described. We also show that in adult rats, social isolation stress can obscure the normal effects of 17β-estradiol to increase excitability in area CA3 of the hippocampus. These data underscore the importance of controlling behavioral stress in studies of seizure susceptibility in rodents and suggest that behavioral stress may be one factor that has led to inconsistencies in outcomes of sex differences research. These and other issues have made it difficult to translate our increasing knowledge about the effects of gonadal hormones on the brain to improved treatment for men and women with epilepsy. PMID:25058745

  16. Sex differences in the neurobiology of epilepsy: a preclinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; MacLusky, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    When all of the epilepsies are considered, sex differences are not always clear, despite the fact that many sex differences are known in the normal brain. Sex differences in epilepsy in laboratory animals are also unclear, although robust effects of sex on seizures have been reported, and numerous effects of gonadal steroids have been shown throughout the rodent brain. Here we discuss several reasons why sex differences in seizure susceptibility are unclear or are difficult to study. Examples of robust sex differences in laboratory rats, such as the relative resistance of adult female rats to the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine compared to males, are described. We also describe a novel method that has shed light on sex differences in neuropathology, which is a relatively new techniques that will potentially contribute to sex differences research in the future. The assay we highlight uses the neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN to probe sex differences in adult male and female rats and mice. In females, weak NeuN expression defines a sex difference that previous neuropathological studies have not described. We also show that in adult rats, social isolation stress can obscure the normal effects of 17β-estradiol to increase excitability in area CA3 of hippocampus. These data underscore the importance of controlling behavioral stress in studies of seizure susceptibility in rodents and suggest that behavioral stress may be one factor that has led to inconsistencies in outcomes of sex differences research. These and other issues have made it difficult to translate our increasing knowledge about the effects of gonadal hormones on the brain to improved treatment for men and women with epilepsy. PMID:25058745

  17. Monozygotic twins of different apparent sex

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Yukifumi; Fujino, Nobuyuki; Sato, Yoshiaki; Matsunobu, Akira; Tadokoro, Mamoru; Akane, Atsushi; Matsuura, Nobuo; Maeda, Tohru; Nakahori, Yutaka; Nakagome, Yasuo

    1994-10-15

    We report on twins of unlike sex who shared a 45,X/46,X, +mar karyotype. The mar chromosome was found to be Yq- by DNA analysis. Marker studies, including 8 VNTR loci, yielded a probability of monozygosity of 0.99999996. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Sex differences in spatial cognition: advancing the conversation.

    PubMed

    Levine, Susan C; Foley, Alana; Lourenco, Stella; Ehrlich, Stacy; Ratliff, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a sex difference in spatial thinking, notably on tasks involving mental rotation, has been a topic of considerable research and debate. We review this literature, with a particular focus on the development of this sex difference, and consider four key questions: (1) When does the sex difference emerge developmentally and does the magnitude of this difference change across development? (2) What are the biological and environmental factors that contribute to sex differences in spatial skill and how might they interact? (3) How malleable are spatial skills, and is the sex difference reduced as a result of training? and (4) Does 'spatializing' the curriculum raise the level of spatial thinking in all students and hold promise for increasing and diversifying the STEM pipeline? Throughout the review, we consider promising avenues for future research. PMID:26825049

  19. The Sex Difference in Depression across 29 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopcroft, Rosemary L.; Bradley, Dana Burr

    2007-01-01

    The sex difference in depression is well documented in westernized, developed societies, although there has been little quantitative cross-cultural research on the topic. In this study, we use multilevel logit models to examine sex differences in depression across 29 countries using data from the World Values Survey. We find that in no country are…

  20. Sex Differences in Children's Discrepant Perceptions of Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephanie D.; Van Gessel, Christine A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kistner, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in children's play patterns during middle childhood are thought to promote greater awareness of social acceptance among girls compared with boys. The present study posited that girls are more discerning of peer acceptance than are boys; however, these sex differences were predicted to vary depending on how discrepant perceptions…

  1. Sex Differences in Absence from Work: A Reinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; Barton, Glenn

    Sex differences in absence from work were investigated for parents and non-parents during a period of eleven months. The four categories investigated were forty-nine women and forty-seven men with children and forty-seven women and forty-seven men without children. No significant sex differences in sick leave were revealed by official personnel…

  2. Sex Differences in Absence from Work: A Reinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; Barton, Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Investigated sex differences in absence from work for parents (N=83) and nonparents (N=85). Personnel records showed working mothers took significantly more sick leave than fathers. Results indicated child care, rather than personal illness, is the major variable that mediates sex differences in absence from work. (JAC)

  3. Sex Differences in Intelligence and Brain Size: A Developmental Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Proposes a developmental theory of sex differences in intelligence that states that the faster maturation and brain size growth in girls up to age 15 compensates for their smaller brain size so that sex differences in intelligence are very small. Discusses evidence that supports this theory. (SLD)

  4. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Prediction of Adult Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, B.; Rosenberg, B. G.

    This paper deals with two sets of data-one that fails to find any long-term sex differences in adults, and another which seems to find such differences. The Berkeley Guidance Study offers longitudinal data in which no variables differentiate between the two sexes at all age levels. From these results, the authors conclude that the normal course of…

  5. Sex Differences in the Mental Rotation of Chemistry Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Mental-rotation ability modestly predicts chemistry achievement. As such, sex differences in mental-rotation ability have been implicated as a causal factor that can explain sex differences in chemistry achievement and degree attainment. Although there is a correlation between mental-rotation ability and chemistry achievement, laboratory and field…

  6. Sex Differences in Arithmetical Performance Scores: Central Tendency and Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, R.; Hurks, P. P. M.; Meijs, C.; Wassenberg, R.; Jolles, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze sex differences in arithmetical performance in a large-scale sample of 390 children (193 boys) frequenting grades 1-9. Past research in this field has focused primarily on average performance, implicitly assuming homogeneity of variance, for which support is scarce. This article examined sex differences in…

  7. Sex Differences in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alice S.; Black, David O.; Tewani, Sonia; Connolly, Christine E.; Kadlec, Mary Beth; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females, few studies address sex differences in developmental functioning or clinical manifestations. Participants in this study of sex differences in developmental profiles and clinical symptoms were 22 girls and 68 boys with ASD (mean age = 28 months). All children…

  8. Surprising origins of sex differences in the brain.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Margaret M; Pickett, Lindsay A; VanRyzin, Jonathan W; Kight, Katherine E

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Discerning the biologic origins of neuroanatomical sex differences has been of interest since they were first reported in the late 60's and early 70's. The centrality of gonadal hormone exposure during a developmental critical window cannot be denied but hormones are indirect agents of change, acting to induce gene transcription or modulate membrane bound signaling cascades. Sex differences in the brain include regional volume differences due to differential cell death, neuronal and glial genesis, dendritic branching and synaptic patterning. Early emphasis on mechanism therefore focused on neurotransmitters and neural growth factors, but by and large these endpoints failed to explain the origins of neural sex differences. More recently evidence has accumulated in favor of inflammatory mediators and immune cells as principle regulators of brain sexual differentiation and reveal that the establishment of dimorphic circuits is not cell autonomous but instead requires extensive cell-to-cell communication including cells of non-neuronal origin. Despite the multiplicity of cells involved the nature of the sex differences in the neuroanatomical endpoints suggests canalization, a process that explains the robustness of individuals in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic variability. We propose that some neuroanatomical endpoints are canalized to enhance sex differences in the brain by reducing variability within one sex while also preventing the sexes from diverging too greatly. We further propose mechanisms by which such canalization could occur and discuss what relevance this may have to sex differences in behavior. PMID:25917865

  9. The Importance of Considering Sex Differences in Translational Stroke Research.

    PubMed

    Ahnstedt, Hilda; McCullough, Louise D; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2016-08-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, and differences between men and women have been documented in incidence, prevalence, and outcome. Here, we reviewed the literature on sex differences in stroke severity, mortality, functional outcome, and response to therapies after ischemic stroke. Many of the sex differences in stroke severity and mortality are explained by differences in baseline demographics such as older age in women. However, women account for more stroke deaths, consistently suffer from worse stroke outcomes, and are more often institutionalized and permanently disabled than men. These sex differences in functional outcome are equalized after treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and women may benefit more from treatment than men. However, this may depend on race, as African-American women have less of a response to tPA than other groups. Regarding endovascular treatments, the few existing studies that have investigated sex differences in stroke outcome point to equal benefit in both sexes; however, many clinical trials are relatively underpowered to detect sex differences. Further, we considered sex-specific effects in animal models of stroke and present recommendations for the performance of stroke studies in female animals. The male-biased use of research animals is distinguished from the clinical situation where there is a disproportionate and growing female stroke population. Stroke in women is greatly understudied, and including both sexes is especially important in both preclinical and clinical studies that evaluate potential stroke therapies. PMID:26830778

  10. Cigarette Smoking in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions: The Role of Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997–2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter’s education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed. PMID:25346559

  11. Just like a circus: the public consumption of sex differences.

    PubMed

    Maney, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    The study of sex differences is a rich, productive area of neuroscience, yielding findings that inform our understanding of basic biology and hold promise for clinical applications. There is a tremendous, problematic mismatch, however, between the actual implications of this research and what has generally been communicated to the public. The message communicated by the media, popular press, and in some cases researchers is often inaccurate with respect to what can and cannot be concluded from the data. This misrepresentation of findings has led to a crisis in public education and threatens to do the same in public health. Here, I suggest a number of ways that neuroscientists might address this growing problem. First, we should acknowledge that the term 'sex difference' is usually interpreted by the media and the public as evidence for dichotomous categories that do not actually exist. Because data rarely sort so cleanly into sex-specific categories, clearer presentation of the nature and size of sex differences is warranted. The term 'sex effect' may be preferable to 'sex difference' when the effect is not large. Second, factors that covary with sex, particularly experience, should be considered as causes of sex differences before the idea of "hardwiring" is invoked. Finally, we should be more vigilant about how our own findings are conveyed to policymakers and the public and speak out when they are misrepresented. PMID:25129138

  12. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented. PMID:24923876

  13. Pharmacogenetic analysis of sex differences in opioid antinociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Terner, Jolan M; Lomas, Lisa M; Smith, Eric S; Barrett, Andrew C; Picker, Mitchell J

    2003-12-01

    Sex differences in opioid antinociception have been reported in rodents and monkeys, with opioids being more potent in males than females. In the present study, the influence of rat strain on sex differences in opioid antinociception was examined in a warm water tail-withdrawal procedure. Antinociceptive tests were conducted with the high-efficacy micro-opioid morphine, and the less efficacious opioids buprenorphine, butorphanol and nalbuphine. Baseline nociceptive latencies were consistently higher in males than their female counterparts. Sex differences in opioid antinociception were observed in all strains tested, with the opioids being more potent and/or effective in males. The magnitude of the sex differences was related to the relative efficacy of the opioid, with morphine, buprenorphine, butorphanol and nalbuphine being on average 2.2-, 2.6-, 15.9- and 11.9-fold more potent in males. Sex differences also varied markedly across strains, with large differences consistently obtained in the F344 and F344-Sasco strains, moderate differences in the ACI, DA, Lewis, Sprague Dawley, Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto strains, and small differences in the Long Evans-Blue Spruce, Long Evans, Brown Norway and Holtzman strains. When compared across strains, there was no relationship between sex differences in nociceptive sensitivity and opioid sensitivity. These findings provide strong support for the role of genetic factors in determining sex differences in opioid antinociception, and suggest that the use of low-efficacy opioids, coupled with the use of rat strains that display small and large sex differences in opioid antinociception, may provide a sensitive tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying sex differences in opioid antinociception. PMID:14659521

  14. Male prostitutes and safe sex: different settings, different risks.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, R; Vanwesenbeeck, I; van Zessen, G; Straver, C J; Visser, J H

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-seven male prostitutes were interviewed extensively about their work and considerations relating to safe sex with clients. Important differences were found between street prostitutes and those working at home. Street-workers were more likely to be using hard drugs, to have a heterosexual preference, to have no other occupation, to have more clients, but less steady ones, and to have a more negative working attitude. Sexual techniques most often practised were manual and oral contact; however, most prostitutes also practised either insertive or receptive anal intercourse. Homosexual male prostitutes reported more receptive anal intercourse than did their heterosexual male colleagues; but no such differences were found in insertive anal intercourse. Prostitutes were most likely to have had anal intercourse with steady clients, with clients whom they trusted regarding condom use, or with clients they felt sexually attracted to; and also when in dire need of drugs. Of those who had practised anal intercourse in the previous year, a minority had not consistently used condoms. The same factors that encourage anal intercourse also appear conducive to unprotected intercourse. PMID:7948084

  15. The Darwin Awards: sex differences in idiotic behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Andy; Isaacs, John Dudley

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in risk seeking behaviour, emergency hospital admissions, and mortality are well documented. However, little is known about sex differences in idiotic risk taking behaviour. This paper reviews the data on winners of the Darwin Award over a 20 year period (1995-2014). Winners of the Darwin Award must eliminate themselves from the gene pool in such an idiotic manner that their action ensures one less idiot will survive. This paper reports a marked sex difference in Darwin Award winners: males are significantly more likely to receive the award than females (P<0.0001). We discuss some of the reasons for this difference. PMID:25500113

  16. Sex Differences in Circadian Timing Systems: Implications for Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Matthew; Silver, Rae

    2014-01-01

    Virtually every eukaryotic cell has an endogenous circadian clock and a biological sex. These cell-based clocks have been conceptualized as oscillators whose phase can be reset by internal signals such as hormones, and external cues such as light. The present review highlights the inter-relationship between circadian clocks and sex differences. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as a master clock synchronizing the phase of clocks throughout the body. Gonadal steroid receptors are expressed in almost every site that receives direct SCN input. Here we review sex differences in the circadian timing system in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG), the hypothalamicadrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis, and sleep-arousal systems. We also point to ways in which disruption of circadian rhythms within these systems differs in the sexes and is associated with dysfunction and disease. Understanding sex differentiated circadian timing systems can lead to improved treatment strategies for these conditions. PMID:24287074

  17. Age and Sex Differences in Interaction with a Human Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. O.

    1981-01-01

    Examines sex differences in vocalizations and play behaviors displayed toward an infant by preschoolers, preadolescents, and adults. Preschoolers showed less interaction than older subjects. Males talked and played less with the baby than did females at all ages; however, among adult subjects, no sex-role effects were found. (Author/RH)

  18. Same, Different, Equal: Rethinking Single-Sex Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Rosemary C.

    This book presents an argument for supporting single-sex education. It examines the history and politics of gender and schooling; philosophical and psychological theories of sameness and differences; findings on educational achievement and performance; research evidence on single-sex schooling; and the legal questions that arise from single-sex…

  19. Developmental Trends in the Sex Differences of Proxemic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Audrey A.

    In order to investigate developmental trends in the sex differences of two dimensions of proxemic behavior, distance and shoulder orientation, 406 elementary and junior high school students were studied while interacting in same-sex and heterosexual pairs. After engaging in discussion for one minute, the pairs were asked to stop and hold still…

  20. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-06-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997-2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status-not same-sex status-that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  1. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  2. Sex differences in responsiveness to begging in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Madden, Joah R; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-08-23

    In species where young are provisioned by both parents, males commonly contribute less to parental care than females, and are less responsive to variation in begging rates. Similar differences in the care of young occur among adults in cooperative breeders, but fewer studies have investigated whether these are associated with differences in responsiveness. Here, we present results from a playback experiment investigating responsiveness to begging in the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a cooperatively breeding mammal. Although increased begging rate raised the feeding rate of adults of both sexes, there was no consistent tendency for females to be more responsive than males. However, when we examined changes in the proportion of food items found that were fed to pups (generosity), we found that females were more responsive than males to increased begging rate. These results can be explained in terms of sex differences in dispersal: in meerkats, females are philopatric and receive considerable benefits from investing in young, both directly, by increasing group size, and indirectly, by recruiting helpers if they inherit the breeding position. In addition, they emphasize that generosity provides a more sensitive measure of responsiveness to begging than feeding rate, as it accounts for variation in foraging success. PMID:18505713

  3. The Genetics of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ngun, Tuck C; Ghahramani, Negar; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Bocklandt, Sven; Vilain, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Biological differences between men and women contribute to many sex-specific illnesses and disorders. Historically, it was argued that such differences were largely, if not exclusively, due to gonadal hormone secretions. However, emerging research has shown that some differences are mediated by mechanisms other than the action of these hormone secretions and in particular by products of genes located on the X and Y chromosomes, which we refer to as direct genetic effects. This paper reviews the evidence for direct genetic effects in behavioral and brain sex differences. We highlight the `four core genotypes' model and sex differences in the midbrain dopaminergic system, specifically focusing on the role of Sry. We also discuss novel research being done on unique populations including people attracted to the same sex and people with a cross-gender identity. As science continues to advance our understanding of biological sex differences, a new field is emerging that is aimed at better addressing the needs of both sexes: gender-based biology and medicine. Ultimately, the study of the biological basis for sex differences will improve healthcare for both men and women. PMID:20951723

  4. A study of the dynamics of sex differences in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Studies of gender differences using primarily young individuals show that males, on average, perform better than females in physical activities but worse than females on tests of verbal abilities. There is however a controversy about the existence of these sex differences in adulthood. Our study used 1271 participants from four cultural backgrounds (Chinese, multi-generation Canadians, Indu-Canadians, and European-Canadians) divided in five age groups. We measured sex differences in the time required for participants to complete a lexical task experiment, and also assessed their verbal tempo and physical endurance using a validated temperament test (Structure of Temperament Questionnaire). We found a significant female advantage in time on the lexical task and on the temperament scale of social-verbal tempo, and a male advantage on the temperament scale of physical endurance. These sex differences, however, were more pronounced in young age groups (17-24), fading in older groups. This "middle age-middle sex" phenomenon suggests that sex differences in these two types of abilities observed in younger groups might be "a matter of age," and should not be attributed to gender in general. A one-dimensional approach to sex differences (common in meta-analytic studies) therefore overlooks a possible interaction of sex differences with age. PMID:23442018

  5. The genetics of sex differences in brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ngun, Tuck C; Ghahramani, Negar; Sánchez, Francisco J; Bocklandt, Sven; Vilain, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Biological differences between men and women contribute to many sex-specific illnesses and disorders. Historically, it was argued that such differences were largely, if not exclusively, due to gonadal hormone secretions. However, emerging research has shown that some differences are mediated by mechanisms other than the action of these hormone secretions and in particular by products of genes located on the X and Y chromosomes, which we refer to as direct genetic effects. This paper reviews the evidence for direct genetic effects in behavioral and brain sex differences. We highlight the 'four core genotypes' model and sex differences in the midbrain dopaminergic system, specifically focusing on the role of Sry. We also discuss novel research being done on unique populations including people attracted to the same sex and people with a cross-gender identity. As science continues to advance our understanding of biological sex differences, a new field is emerging that is aimed at better addressing the needs of both sexes: gender-based biology and medicine. Ultimately, the study of the biological basis for sex differences will improve healthcare for both men and women. PMID:20951723

  6. Estimators of the Human Effective Sex Ratio Detect Sex Biases on Different Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Leslie S.; Felsenstein, Joseph; Akey, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    Determining historical sex ratios throughout human evolution can provide insight into patterns of genomic variation, the structure and composition of ancient populations, and the cultural factors that influence the sex ratio (e.g., sex-specific migration rates). Although numerous studies have suggested that unequal sex ratios have existed in human evolutionary history, a coherent picture of sex-biased processes has yet to emerge. For example, two recent studies compared human X chromosome to autosomal variation to make inferences about historical sex ratios but reached seemingly contradictory conclusions, with one study finding evidence for a male bias and the other study identifying a female bias. Here, we show that a large part of this discrepancy can be explained by methodological differences. Specifically, through reanalysis of empirical data, derivation of explicit analytical formulae, and extensive simulations we demonstrate that two estimators of the effective sex ratio based on population structure and nucleotide diversity preferentially detect biases that have occurred on different timescales. Our results clarify apparently contradictory evidence on the role of sex-biased processes in human evolutionary history and show that extant patterns of human genomic variation are consistent with both a recent male bias and an earlier, persistent female bias. PMID:21109223

  7. Systematic Analysis of Adverse Event Reports for Sex Differences in Adverse Drug Events

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Chen, Jun; Li, Dingcheng; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that sex differences exist in Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). Identifying those sex differences in ADEs could reduce the experience of ADEs for patients and could be conducive to the development of personalized medicine. In this study, we analyzed a normalized US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Chi-squared test was conducted to discover which treatment regimens or drugs had sex differences in adverse events. Moreover, reporting odds ratio (ROR) and P value were calculated to quantify the signals of sex differences for specific drug-event combinations. Logistic regression was applied to remove the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events. We detected among 668 drugs of the most frequent 20 treatment regimens in the United States, 307 drugs have sex differences in ADEs. In addition, we identified 736 unique drug-event combinations with significant sex differences. After removing the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events, there are 266 combinations remained. Drug labels or previous studies verified some of them while others warrant further investigation. PMID:27102014

  8. Biological factors underlying sex differences in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Loke, Hannah; Harley, Vincent; Lee, Joohyung

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of many neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions differ significantly between males and females. Females suffer more from mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, whereas males are more susceptible to deficits in the dopamine system including Parkinson's disease (PD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Until recently, these sex differences have been explained solely by the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in females. Emerging evidence however indicates that the sex chromosome genes (i.e. X- and Y-linked genes) also contribute to brain sex differences. In particular, the Y-chromosome gene, SRY (Sex-determining Region on the Y chromosome) is an interesting candidate as it is expressed in dopamine-abundant brain regions, where it regulates dopamine biosynthesis and dopamine-mediated functions such as voluntary movement in males. Furthermore, SRY expression is dysregulated in a toxin-induced model of PD, suggesting a role for SRY in the pathogenesis of dopamine cells. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between sex-specific hormones and sex-specific genes in healthy and diseased brain. In particular, better understanding of regulation and function of SRY in the male brain could provide entirely novel and important insights into genetic factors involved in the susceptibility of men to neurological disorders, as well as development of novel sex-specific therapies. PMID:26028290

  9. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. PMID:24697577

  10. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. PMID:26237316

  11. Sex Differences During Visual Scanning of Occlusion Events in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Teresa; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Wheeler, Lesley; Norvell, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of sex differences in infant behavior have been reported over the last 10 years. One task on which sex differences have been observed reliably is the event-mapping task. In this task, infants view an occlusion event involving 1 or 2 objects, the occluder is removed, and then infants see 1 object sitting on the platform. When the occlusion sequence is complex (i.e., involves paths of motion that change direction when occluded), boys are more likely than girls to detect an inconsistency between a 2-object occlusion event and a 1-object display. The current research used eye-tracking technology to investigate the specific cognitive processes that underlie these sex differences. Three experiments were conducted with 2 age groups of infants with mean ages of 9 months and 4 months. Infants saw a ball–box (2-object) or ball–ball (1-object) occlusion event followed by a 1-ball display; visual scanning of the occlusion event and the 1-ball display was recorded. In the older age group, boys were more likely than girls to visually track the objects through occlusion; they were also more likely to detect an inconsistency between the ball–box event and the 1-ball display (i.e., they visually searched for the missing box). In addition, tracking of the objects through occlusion was related to infants' scanning of the 1-ball display. In the younger age group, both boys and girls failed to track the objects through occlusion and to detect an inconsistency between the ball–box event and the 1–ball display. These results suggest that infants' capacity to track objects through occlusion facilitates extraction of the structure of the initial event (i.e., the number of distinct objects involved), that infants can map onto the final display, and that sex differences in this ability emerge between 4 and 9 months. Possible explanations for how the structure of an occlusion event is extracted and mapped onto a subsequent nonocclusion display are considered. PMID

  12. Sex differences in cognitive trajectories in clinically normal older adults.

    PubMed

    McCarrey, Anna C; An, Yang; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-03-01

    Age effects on cognitive functioning are well-documented, but effects of sex on trajectories of cognitive aging are less clear. We examined cognitive ability across a variety of measures for 1,065 to 2,127 participants (mean baseline age 64.1 to 69.7 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who were repeatedly tested over a mean follow-up interval of 3.0 to 9.0 years with a mean of 2.3 to 4.4 assessments. Memory and other cognitive tests were administered at each visit, assessing mental status, verbal learning and memory, figural memory, language, attention, perceptuomotor speed and integration, executive function, and visuospatial ability. Importantly, participants free from cognitive impairment at all time points were used in the analyses. Results showed that for all tests, higher age at baseline was significantly associated with lower scores, and performance declined over time. In addition, advancing age was associated with accelerated longitudinal declines in performance (trend for mental status). After adjusting for age, education, and race, sex differences were observed across most tests of specific cognitive abilities examined. At baseline, males outperformed females on the 2 tasks of visuospatial ability, and females outperformed males in most other tests of cognition. Sex differences in cognitive change over time indicated steeper rates of decline for men on measures of mental status, perceptuomotor speed and integration, and visuospatial ability, but no measures on which women showed significantly steeper declines. Our results highlight greater resilience to age-related cognitive decline in older women compared with men. PMID:26796792

  13. The effect of parasites on sex differences in selection

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, N P; Vincent, C M

    2015-01-01

    The life history strategies of males and females are often divergent, creating the potential for sex differences in selection. Deleterious mutations may be subject to stronger selection in males, owing to sexual selection, which can improve the mean fitness of females and reduce mutation load in sexual populations. However, sex differences in selection might also maintain sexually antagonistic genetic variation, creating a sexual conflict load. The overall impact of separate sexes on fitness is unclear, but the net effect is likely to be positive when there is a large sex difference in selection against deleterious mutations. Parasites can also have sex-specific effects on fitness, and there is evidence that parasites can intensify the fitness consequences of deleterious mutations. Using lines that accumulated mutations for over 60 generations, we studied the effect of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa on sex differences in selection in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Pseudomonas infection increased the sex difference in selection, but may also have weakened the intersexual correlation for fitness. Our results suggest that parasites may increase the benefits of sexual selection. PMID:25649503

  14. Sex Differences in Depression: Does Inflammation Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Heather M.; Padin, Avelina C.; Kuo, Jennifer L.; Hughes, Spenser; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2016-01-01

    Women become depressed more frequently than men, a consistent pattern across cultures. Inflammation plays a key role in initiating depression among a subset of individuals, and depression also has inflammatory consequences. Notably, women experience higher levels of inflammation and greater autoimmune disease risk compared to men. In the current review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression and describe how this link may be particularly relevant for women. Compared to men, women may be more vulnerable to inflammation-induced mood and behavior changes. For example, transient elevations in inflammation prompt greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection for women than for men, which can contribute to the onset of depression. Women also appear to be disproportionately affected by several factors that elevate inflammation, including prior depression, somatic symptomatology, interpersonal stressors, childhood adversity, obesity, and physical inactivity. Relationship distress and obesity, both of which elevate depression risk, are also more strongly tied to inflammation for women than for men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women’s susceptibility to inflammation and its mood effects may contribute to sex differences in depression. Depression continues to be a leading cause of disability worldwide, with women experiencing greater risk than men. Due to the depression-inflammation connection, these patterns may promote additional health risks for women. Considering the impact of inflammation on women’s mental health may foster a better understanding of sex differences in depression, as well as the selection of effective depression treatments. PMID:26272539

  15. Sex Differences in Depression: Does Inflammation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Derry, Heather M; Padin, Avelina C; Kuo, Jennifer L; Hughes, Spenser; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-10-01

    Women become depressed more frequently than men, a consistent pattern across cultures. Inflammation plays a key role in initiating depression among a subset of individuals, and depression also has inflammatory consequences. Notably, women experience higher levels of inflammation and greater autoimmune disease risk compared to men. In the current review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression and describe how this link may be particularly relevant for women. Compared to men, women may be more vulnerable to inflammation-induced mood and behavior changes. For example, transient elevations in inflammation prompt greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection for women than for men, which can contribute to the onset of depression. Women also appear to be disproportionately affected by several factors that elevate inflammation, including prior depression, somatic symptomatology, interpersonal stressors, childhood adversity, obesity, and physical inactivity. Relationship distress and obesity, both of which elevate depression risk, are also more strongly tied to inflammation for women than for men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women's susceptibility to inflammation and its mood effects may contribute to sex differences in depression. Depression continues to be a leading cause of disability worldwide, with women experiencing greater risk than men. Due to the depression-inflammation connection, these patterns may promote additional health risks for women. Considering the impact of inflammation on women's mental health may foster a better understanding of sex differences in depression, as well as the selection of effective depression treatments. PMID:26272539

  16. Sex differences in substrate metabolism and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cortright, R N; Koves, T R

    2000-08-01

    Females differ remarkably from males in the mechanisms that regulate substrate utilization and energy homeostasis. Females appear to be less affected in terms of growth and loss of body tissues when subjected to chronic periods of negative energy balance. The physiological trade-off appears to be a stronger propensity toward retention of fat mass during times of energy surfeit. The mechanism(s) that account for sex differences in energy metabolism are not known but most likely involve the sex steroids. Recent discoveries in the areas of endocrinology and metabolism may provide new insights into differences in the control of food intake and energy conservation between the sexes. Finally, the study of the mechanism(s) involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism represents a new frontier in skeletal muscle bioenergetics, and new discoveries may provide further explanations for the observed sex differences in substrate utilization and response(s) to alterations in energy homeostasis. PMID:10953067

  17. Understanding sex differences in environmental health: a thought leaders' roundtable.

    PubMed Central

    Keitt, Sarah K; Fagan, Thomas F; Marts, Sherry A

    2004-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Society for Women's Health Research, a thought leaders' roundtable was convened at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in October 2002 to discuss recent advances in environmental health research, particularly those findings that explain sex differences in response to environmental exposures. Researchers discussed the latest findings on the interaction between sex and environmental exposures on health. Participants concluded that a greater focus on interdisciplinary, hypothesis-driven research is essential to advancing the field. To understand fully the potential effect of chronic exposures, researchers need to develop models to explore not only physiologic sex differences but also behavioral responses to low-dose and multiple chemical exposures. Future research should examine sex differences from the cell line to behaviors and should track these differences across multiple generations. Federal agencies should support such research in their awards of investigator-initiated grants. PMID:15064168

  18. Assessing Mathematics 5. Attitudes and Sex Differences: Some APU Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joffe, Lynn; Foxman, Derek

    1984-01-01

    From the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) in Britain, illustrative comments of 11- and 15-year-olds concerning mathematics are presented. Sex differences in attitudes and in test performance are also given. (MNS)

  19. Sex differences in psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. A review and integration.

    PubMed

    Cale, Ellison M; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2002-11-01

    Although the correlates and causes of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been the subject of extensive investigation, researchers in this area have until recently focused almost exclusively on males. As a consequence, relatively little is known about psychopathy and ASPD in females. In this paper, we review the empirical literature on sex differences in the base rates, mean symptom levels, correlates, and factor structure of psychopathy and ASPD. In addition, we discuss the potential sex-differentiated phenotypic expressions of psychopathy and ASPD (e.g., somatization disorder [SD]) as well as sex differences in the developmental trajectories of these conditions. There is suggestive evidence that these conditions may be differentially expressed across biological sex, although further investigation of this issue is warranted. We conclude with recommendations for future research in this area, including suggestions for embedding the study of sex differences in psychopathy and ASPD within a construct validational framework. PMID:12436810

  20. Sex Differences in the Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Intapad, Suttira; Ojeda, Norma B.; Dasinger, John Henry

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) proposes that adverse events during early life program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Experimental models provide proof of concept but also indicate that insults during early life program sex differences in adult blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. This review will highlight the potential mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of sex differences in the developmental programming of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24583768

  1. Sex differences, gamma activity and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Slewa-Younan, S; Gordon, E; Williams, L; Haig, A R; Goldberg, E

    2001-03-01

    This study explores the possibility that the more favourable clinical prognosis in females with schizophrenia may be associated with their greater network interconnectedness, which is possibly reflected in enhanced "Gamma" (40 Hz) electrical brain activity. An auditory "oddball" task was administered to 35 patients with schizophrenia and 35 age and sex matched controls (25 males and 10 females). Peak Gamma amplitude (from a time series of Gamma activity averaged for 40 target stimuli, as well as the immediately preceding 40 background tones) was examined across 19 sites. Peak Gamma activity occurred 250 to 450 ms in targets and 350 to 550 ms in backgrounds. Multiple within and between group MANOVAs were undertaken analysing both Peak Gamma amplitude (microvolts) and latency (milliseconds). Within-group, the control males showed a pattern of earlier Gamma latency in the right compared with the left hemisphere (F(1, 33)=3.70, p<.06), while control females exhibited delayed latency frontally compared with the posterior region (F(1, 33)=6.25, p<.04). This male lateralization finding and the anterior/posterior gradient in females is consistent with Goldberg's model. The patient group however, failed to show this male lateralized and female frontal-posterior pattern of Gamma activity, suggesting suboptimal network integration in the patient group, in both males and females. PMID:11328687

  2. Sex Differences in Memory for Sexually-Relevant Information

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Seal, Brooke N.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually relevant information. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for different types of sexual information and we hoped to understand whether specific variables (sexual experiences, sexual functioning, and reactions to the sexual story) could explain such differences. Men were more likely to remember erotic or explicit details of the story, whereas women were more likely to remember love and emotional bonding details of the story. Additionally, women were more likely to recall information referencing the characters in the story. Results from regression analyses indicated that sexual desire and satisfaction were related to differences in recall and recognition of the love and emotional bonding aspects of the story, and that frequency of sexual intercourse was related to differences in the recall of erotic or explicit details of the story. The significant results obtained in this study correspond to previously established sex differences in memory for sexual information. PMID:17186127

  3. Sex differences in memory for sexually-relevant information.

    PubMed

    McCall, Katie M; Rellini, Alessandra H; Seal, Brooke N; Meston, Cindy M

    2007-08-01

    The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually relevant information. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for different types of sexual information and we hoped to understand whether specific variables (sexual experiences, sexual functioning, and reactions to the sexual story) could explain such differences. Men were more likely to remember erotic or explicit details of the story, whereas women were more likely to remember love and emotional bonding details of the story. Additionally, women were more likely to recall information referencing the characters in the story. Results from regression analyses indicated that sexual desire and satisfaction were related to differences in recall and recognition of the love and emotional bonding aspects of the story, and that frequency of sexual intercourse was related to differences in the recall of erotic or explicit details of the story. The significant results obtained in this study correspond to previously established sex differences in memory for sexual information. PMID:17186127

  4. Recombination Difference between Sexes: A Role for Haploid Selection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Why the autosomal recombination rate differs between female and male meiosis in most species has been a genetic enigma since the early study of meiosis. Some hypotheses have been put forward to explain this widespread phenomenon and, up to now, only one fact has emerged clearly: In species in which meiosis is achiasmate in one sex, it is the heterogametic one. This pattern, known as the Haldane-Huxley rule, is thought to be a side effect, on autosomes, of the suppression of recombination between the sex chromosomes. However, this rule does not hold for heterochiasmate species (i.e., species in which recombination is present in both sexes but varies quantitatively between sexes) and does not apply to species lacking sex chromosomes, such as hermaphroditic plants. In this paper, we show that in plants, heterochiasmy is due to a male-female difference in gametic selection and is not influenced by the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. This finding provides strong empirical support in favour of a population genetic explanation for the evolution of heterochiasmy and, more broadly, for the evolution of sex and recombination. PMID:15736976

  5. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving

    2013-02-17

    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise. PMID:23333554

  6. Sex Differences in Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rena; Singh, Meharvan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer’s disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as well as in activational effects, where the influence of the sex steroids influence brain function in adulthood. Further, the rate of cognitive decline with aging is also different between the sexes. Understanding the biology of sex differences in cognitive function will not only provide insight into Alzheimer’s disease prevention, but also is integral to the development of personalized, gender-specific medicine. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of sex differences in cognitive function from young to old, and examines the effects of sex hormone treatments on Alzheimer’s disease in men and women. PMID:24434111

  7. Sex differences in the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth.

    PubMed

    Ficks, Courtney A; Dong, Lu; Waldman, Irwin D

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have examined the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth, and even fewer have tested whether the genetic and environmental influences underlying these traits differ for boys and girls. We tested for sex differences in the etiology of 3 trait dimensions-impulsivity, narcissism, and callous-unemotionality (CU)-previously found to underlie youth psychopathy in our sample. Using biometric modeling we tested whether constraining the genetic and environmental influences for each dimension across sex reduced model fit. We also tested for qualitative sex differences in the influences underlying these dimensions by allowing the genetic and environmental correlations between opposite sex dizygotic twins to be less than their respective values in same-sex dizygotic twins. Although the magnitudes of the genetic and environmental influences underlying the CU and narcissistic trait dimensions did not differ for boys and girls, nonshared environmental influences contributed significantly greater variance to impulsive traits in boys. No qualitative sex differences were found in the influences underlying any of the 3 trait dimensions, suggesting that the same genes and environments contribute to these psychopathic traits in males and females. PMID:24886014

  8. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Piquero, Alex R; Odgers, Candice L; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-07-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  9. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  10. Sex differences in nutrient-dependent reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Hall, Matthew D; Simpson, Stephen J; Dessmann, Josephine; Clissold, Fiona J; Zajitschek, Felix; Lailvaux, Simon P; Raubenheimer, David; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging predict that fitness-related traits, including reproductive performance, will senesce because the strength of selection declines with age. Sexual selection theory predicts, however, that male reproductive performance (especially sexual advertisement) will increase with age. In both bodies of theory, diet should mediate age-dependent changes in reproductive performance. In this study, we show that the sexes exhibit dramatic, qualitative differences in age-dependent reproductive performance trajectories and patterns of reproductive ageing in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus. In females, fecundity peaked early in adulthood and then declined. In contrast, male sexual advertisement increased across the natural lifespan and only declined well beyond the maximum field lifespan. These sex differences were robust to deviations from sex-specific dietary requirements. Our results demonstrate that sexual selection can be at least as important as sex-dependent mortality in shaping the signal of reproductive ageing. PMID:19627271

  11. Neuroendocrine underpinnings of sex differences in circadian timing systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lily; Silver, Rae

    2016-06-01

    There are compelling reasons to study the role of steroids and sex differences in the circadian timing system. A solid history of research demonstrates the ubiquity of circadian changes that impact virtually all behavioral and biological responses. Furthermore, steroid hormones can modulate every attribute of circadian responses including the period, amplitude and phase. Finally, desynchronization of circadian rhythmicity, and either enhancing or damping amplitude of various circadian responses can produce different effects in the sexes. Studies of the neuroendocrine underpinnings of circadian timing systems and underlying sex differences have paralleled the overall development of the field as a whole. Early experimental studies established the ubiquity of circadian rhythms by cataloging daily and seasonal changes in whole organism responses. The next generation of experiments demonstrated that daily changes are not a result of environmental synchronizing cues, and are internally orchestrated, and that these differ in the sexes. This work was followed by the revelation of molecular circadian rhythms within individual cells. At present, there is a proliferation of work on the consequences of these daily oscillations in health and in disease, and awareness that these may differ in the sexes. In the present discourse we describe the paradigms used to examine circadian oscillation, to characterize how these internal timing signals are synchronized to local environmental conditions, and how hormones of gonadal and/or adrenal origin modulate circadian responses. Evidence pointing to endocrinologically and genetically mediated sex differences in circadian timing systems can be seen at many levels of the neuroendocrine and endocrine systems, from the cell, the gland and organ, and to whole animal behavior, including sleep/wake or rest/activity cycles, responses to external stimuli, and responses to drugs. We review evidence indicating that the analysis of the circadian

  12. Sex-Specific Differences in Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Varlamov, Oleg; Bethea, Cynthia L.; Roberts, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Energy metabolism in humans is tuned to distinct sex-specific functions that potentially reflect the unique requirements in females for gestation and lactation, whereas male metabolism may represent a default state. These differences are the consequence of the action of sex chromosomes and sex-specific hormones, including estrogens and progesterone in females and androgens in males. In humans, sex-specific specialization is associated with distinct body-fat distribution and energy substrate-utilization patterns; i.e., females store more lipids and have higher whole-body insulin sensitivity than males, while males tend to oxidize more lipids than females. These patterns are influenced by the menstrual phase in females, and by nutritional status and exercise intensity in both sexes. This minireview focuses on sex-specific mechanisms in lipid and glucose metabolism and their regulation by sex hormones, with a primary emphasis on studies in humans and the most relevant pre-clinical model of human physiology, non-human primates. PMID:25646091

  13. Sex Differences in Participation, Performance, and Age of Ultramarathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, Jonathon; Smith, Carolyn; Hunter, Sandra K

    2016-07-01

    The sex difference in marathon running is increased with lower participation of women than men, but whether this occurs for ultramarathon running is not known. The study purpose was to determine whether the sex difference in performance widens among lower-placed runners and the association between the sex difference in running speed and participation rates. The top-10 ultramarathon running times, age at performance date, and the number of men and women finishers were analyzed from 20 races (45-160 km) in the US Track and Field Ultra Running Grand Prix. Men were faster than women for all events (18.7% ± 5.8%, P < .001). The sex difference in speed was the least for 100 km (14.9% ± 4.2%) and greatest for 45-50 km (19.3% ± 5.8%). The top-10 men were younger than the top-10 women (37.7 ± 3.2 and 39.0 ± 3.1 y, respectively, P < .001). The sex difference in speed increased with finishing place (1st place 15.6% ± 6.6% vs 10th 20.8% ± 5.6%, P < .001). Association analysis showed that the sex difference in speed was largest when there were fewer women than men finishers in a race; the strength of the association was greatest for the 80-km distance and least for the 160-km. Lower participation rates of women than men in the lower-distance ultramarathons and less depth among lower-placed women runners inflate the sex difference in ultramarathon performance. PMID:26561864

  14. Sex differences in the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system and its regulation by stress.

    PubMed

    Bangasser, Debra A; Wiersielis, Kimberly R; Khantsis, Sabina

    2016-06-15

    Women are more likely than men to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. In addition to their sex bias, these disorders share stress as an etiological factor and hyperarousal as a symptom. Thus, sex differences in brain arousal systems and their regulation by stress could help explain increased vulnerability to these disorders in women. Here we review preclinical studies that have identified sex differences in the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) arousal system. First, we detail how structural sex differences in the LC can bias females towards increased arousal in response to emotional events. Second, we highlight studies demonstrating that estrogen can increase NE in LC target regions by enhancing the capacity for NE synthesis, while reducing NE degradation, potentially increasing arousal in females. Third, we review data revealing how sex differences in the stress receptor, corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1), can increase LC neuronal sensitivity to CRF in females compared to males. This effect could translate into hyperarousal in women under conditions of CRF hypersecretion that occur in PTSD and depression. The implications of these sex differences for the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders are discussed. Moreover, the value of using information regarding biological sex differences to aid in the development of novel pharmacotherapies to better treat men and women with PTSD and depression is also highlighted. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26607253

  15. Multifaceted origins of sex differences in the brain.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Margaret M

    2016-02-19

    Studies of sex differences in the brain range from reductionistic cell and molecular analyses in animal models to functional imaging in awake human subjects, with many other levels in between. Interpretations and conclusions about the importance of particular differences often vary with differing levels of analyses and can lead to discord and dissent. In the past two decades, the range of neurobiological, psychological and psychiatric endpoints found to differ between males and females has expanded beyond reproduction into every aspect of the healthy and diseased brain, and thereby demands our attention. A greater understanding of all aspects of neural functioning will only be achieved by incorporating sex as a biological variable. The goal of this review is to highlight the current state of the art of the discipline of sex differences research with an emphasis on the brain and to contextualize the articles appearing in the accompanying special issue. PMID:26833829

  16. Multifaceted origins of sex differences in the brain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Studies of sex differences in the brain range from reductionistic cell and molecular analyses in animal models to functional imaging in awake human subjects, with many other levels in between. Interpretations and conclusions about the importance of particular differences often vary with differing levels of analyses and can lead to discord and dissent. In the past two decades, the range of neurobiological, psychological and psychiatric endpoints found to differ between males and females has expanded beyond reproduction into every aspect of the healthy and diseased brain, and thereby demands our attention. A greater understanding of all aspects of neural functioning will only be achieved by incorporating sex as a biological variable. The goal of this review is to highlight the current state of the art of the discipline of sex differences research with an emphasis on the brain and to contextualize the articles appearing in the accompanying special issue. PMID:26833829

  17. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24697577

  18. Sex and Ethnic-Group Differences on Accomplishments Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Rock, Donald A.; Bennett, Randy Elliot

    2001-01-01

    Studied sex and ethnic group differences on 6 scales that measure accomplishments for 739 male and 1,746 female graduate school applicants. With the exception of the scale measuring mechanical accomplishment, men and women did not differ in performance, and ethnic groups did not differ on any scale. (SLD)

  19. Sex Differences and Neurodevelopmental Variables: A Vector Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Languis, Marlin; Naour, Paul

    For the individual, gender difference falls along the feminine-masculine continuum with strong neurodevelopmental influences at various points throughout the lifespan. Neurodevelopmental influences are conceptualized in a vector model of sex difference. Vector attributes, direction and magnitude, are influenced initially by differences in levels…

  20. EMERGENT PATTERNS OF SEX DIFFERENCE IN A STUDY OF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MINUCHIN, PATRICIA

    RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS INTO ACQUIRED VS. INHERENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS WERE PRESENTED. FINDING REVEALED THAT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS WERE AFFECTED BY THE ATTITUDES OF THEIR SCHOOLS TOWARD THEM AND TOWARD EDUCATION IN GENERAL. SEX DIFFERENCES IN BASIC INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY, ACHIEVEMENT, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITY…

  1. Sex differences in young gymnasts' postural steadiness.

    PubMed

    Milosis, Dimitrios C; Siatras, Theophanis A

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the differences between male and female gymnasts in bipedal standing position, back standing scale, and stork standing scale testing. 29 young gymnasts (13 boys, 16 girls; ages 12 to 15 years) participated. A portable posturographic digital platform was used to record foot pressure (Foot Checker, Comex SA). Barefoot sole area (cm2), maximal pressure (kPa), center of foot pressure (CoP), sway area (mm2), and CoP linear distance displacement (mm) were analyzed in an integrated software module (Foot Checker, Version 4.0). The intra-class correlation coefficient and the coefficient of variation supported the reliability of the measurements. Results indicated no differences between boys and girls on height, weight, and Body Mass Index. Differences indicated better performance by girls compared to boys in back standing and stork standing. PMID:22582699

  2. Sex Differences in Animal Models: Focus on Addiction.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jill B; Koob, George F

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss ways to think about and study sex differences in preclinical animal models. We use the framework of addiction, in which animal models have excellent face and construct validity, to illustrate the importance of considering sex differences. There are four types of sex differences: qualitative, quantitative, population, and mechanistic. A better understanding of the ways males and females can differ will help scientists design experiments to characterize better the presence or absence of sex differences in new phenomena that they are investigating. We have outlined major quantitative, population, and mechanistic sex differences in the addiction domain using a heuristic framework of the three established stages of the addiction cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Female rats, in general, acquire the self-administration of drugs and alcohol more rapidly, escalate their drug taking with extended access more rapidly, show more motivational withdrawal, and (where tested in animal models of "craving") show greater reinstatement. The one exception is that female rats show less motivational withdrawal to alcohol. The bases for these quantitative sex differences appear to be both organizational, in that estradiol-treated neonatal animals show the male phenotype, and activational, in that the female phenotype depends on the effects of gonadal hormones. In animals, differences within the estrous cycle can be observed but are relatively minor. Such hormonal effects seem to be most prevalent during the acquisition of drug taking and less influential once compulsive drug taking is established and are linked largely to progesterone and estradiol. This review emphasizes not only significant differences in the phenotypes of females and males in the domain of addiction but emphasizes the paucity of data to date in our understanding of those differences. PMID:26772794

  3. Sex differences in the chronic mild stress model of depression.

    PubMed

    Franceschelli, Anthony; Herchick, Samantha; Thelen, Connor; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M

    2014-09-01

    A large volume of clinical and experimental evidence documents sex differences in brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, as well as in stress and drug responses. The chronic mild stress model (CMS) is one of the most extensively investigated animal models of chronic stress. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in female rodents despite the markedly higher prevalence of major depression among women. Herein, we review CMS studies conducted in rats and mice of both sexes and further discuss intriguing sex-dependent behavioral and neurobiological findings. The PubMed literature search engine was used to find and collect all relevant articles analyzed in this review. Specifically, a multitermed search was performed with 'chronic mild stress', 'chronic unpredictable stress' and 'chronic variable stress' as base terms and 'sex', 'gender', 'females' and 'depression' as secondary terms in various combinations. Male and female rodents appear to be differentially affected by CMS application, depending on the behavioral, physiological, and neurobiological indices that are being measured. Importantly, the CMS paradigm, despite its limitations, has been successfully used to assess a constellation of interdisciplinary research questions in the sex differences field and has served as a 'silver bullet' in assessing the role of sex in the neurobiology of major depression. PMID:25025701

  4. Sex differences in locomotor effects of morphine in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Rebecca M.; Clark, James L.; Hart, Stephen P.; Pinckney, Megan K.

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in reinforcing, analgesic and other effects of opioids have been demonstrated; however, the extent to which sex differences in motoric effects of opioids contribute to apparent sex differences in their primary effects is not known. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of the prototypic mu opioid agonist morphine on locomotor activity in male vs. female rats. Saline or morphine (1-10 mg/kg) was administered s.c. to adult Sprague-Dawley rats, which were placed into a photobeam apparatus for 3-5 hr to measure activity. Modulation of morphine's effects by gonadal hormones and by handling (either during the test session or for 4 days before the test session) were examined. Morphine initially suppressed and later increased locomotor activity in both sexes relative to their saline-injected controls, but males were more sensitive than females to the initial locomotor suppressant effect of morphine. Intermittent, brief handling during the 3-hr test session blunted morphine-induced locomotor activation in both sexes. Females in proestrus were the most sensitive to morphine's locomotor-stimulant effect, with females in estrus showing the least response to morphine. Gonadectomized (GDX) males with or without testosterone were equally sensitive to morphine's effects, whereas GDX females treated with estradiol showed a blunted response to morphine's effects, similar to intact females in estrus. Brief handling on each of 4 consecutive days pre-test attenuated morphine's locomotor suppressant effect in males but had no effect in females, thereby eliminating the sex difference. These data suggest that sex differences in morphine's effects on locomotor activity can be attributed to gonadal hormones in females, and to differential stress-induced modulation of morphine's effects in males vs. females. PMID:17217999

  5. Gender vs. Sex: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, John D.

    2012-01-01

    As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…

  6. Sex and Age Differences in the Endorsement of Sex Stereotypes Associated with Driving.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Martha, Cécile; Cury, François; Granié, Marie-Axelle

    2015-01-01

    Sex and age differences are particularly pronounced in car accidents. Current psychological research is exploring the relationship between risky driving and compliance with sex stereotypes, notably conformity with social expectations concerning masculinity. Some studies have already shown that sex stereotypes associated with driving (SSAD) may influence driving behaviors. The aim of this research was to explore the participants' sex and age differences in SSAD endorsement. A questionnaire was developed and validated on four dimensions of SSAD: male's driving skills and female's compliance with traffic rules, courtesy behind the wheel, and risk avoidance in driving. SSAD endorsement was measured for 291 licensed drivers from 18 to 64 years of age. Results revealed that females endorsed the female's risk avoidance stereotype more (p < .05), whereas males endorsed the male drivers (driving skills) stereotype more (p < .05). Results also revealed that the endorsement of male's driving skills decreases with age (p < .01) and the endorsement of female's courtesy increases with age among all participants (p = .01), while the endorsement of female's compliance with traffic rules increases with age only among female participants (p < .05). The results are discussed in terms of in-group/out-group relations and sex and age differences. PMID:26695552

  7. Differences in Gay Male Couples' Use of Drugs and Alcohol With Sex by Relationship HIV Status.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2016-07-01

    Prior studies with men who have sex with men have documented a strong association between substance use with sex and risk for acquisition of HIV. However, few studies have been conducted about gay male couples' use of substances with sex, despite the fact that between one third and two thirds of men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their relationship partners. The present study sought to (1) describe whether one or both partners in the male couple uses substances with sex-by substance type-within and/or outside of their relationship, and (2) assess whether differences exist in those who use substances with sex within and outside the relationship by the couples' HIV status. Dyadic data for this analysis were collected in the United States from a nation-wide cross-sectional Internet study about male couples' relationships and behaviors. Couple-level descriptive and comparative analyses were employed with 361 male couples. Except for alcohol, most couples did not use substances with sex. Of those who did, rates of who used it with sex and substance type within the relationship varied; most couples only had one partner who used substances with sex outside the relationship. Significantly higher proportions of concordantly HIV-negative and HIV-positive couples had both partners who used substances (all types) with sex within their relationship over discordant couples. Most couples had one partner who used outside the relationship; only marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication use with sex significantly differed by couples' HIV status. Findings indicate the need to conduct additional research for prevention development. PMID:25424504

  8. The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Diane F.; Benbow, Camilla P.; Geary, David C.; Gur, Ruben C.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Summary Amid ongoing public speculation about the reasons for sex differences in careers in science and mathematics, we present a consensus statement that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Sex differences in science and math achievement and ability are smaller for the mid-range of the abilities distribution than they are for those with the highest levels of achievement and ability. Males are more variable on most measures of quantitative and visuospatial ability, which necessarily results in more males at both high- and low-ability extremes; the reasons why males are often more variable remain elusive. Successful careers in math and science require many types of cognitive abilities. Females tend to excel in verbal abilities, with large differences between females and males found when assessments include writing samples. High-level achievement in science and math requires the ability to communicate effectively and comprehend abstract ideas, so the female advantage in writing should be helpful in all academic domains. Males outperform females on most measures of visuospatial abilities, which have been implicated as contributing to sex differences on standardized exams in mathematics and science. An evolutionary account of sex differences in mathematics and science supports the conclusion that, although sex differences in math and science performance have not directly evolved, they could be indirectly related to differences in interests and specific brain and cognitive systems. We review the brain basis for sex differences in science and mathematics, describe consistent effects, and identify numerous possible correlates. Experience alters brain structures and functioning, so causal statements about brain differences and success in math and science are circular. A wide range of sociocultural forces contribute to sex differences in mathematics and science achievement and ability—including the effects of family, neighborhood, peer, and school

  9. The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Diane F; Benbow, Camilla P; Geary, David C; Gur, Ruben C; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2007-08-01

    Amid ongoing public speculation about the reasons for sex differences in careers in science and mathematics, we present a consensus statement that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Sex differences in science and math achievement and ability are smaller for the mid-range of the abilities distribution than they are for those with the highest levels of achievement and ability. Males are more variable on most measures of quantitative and visuospatial ability, which necessarily results in more males at both high- and low-ability extremes; the reasons why males are often more variable remain elusive. Successful careers in math and science require many types of cognitive abilities. Females tend to excel in verbal abilities, with large differences between females and males found when assessments include writing samples. High-level achievement in science and math requires the ability to communicate effectively and comprehend abstract ideas, so the female advantage in writing should be helpful in all academic domains. Males outperform females on most measures of visuospatial abilities, which have been implicated as contributing to sex differences on standardized exams in mathematics and science. An evolutionary account of sex differences in mathematics and science supports the conclusion that, although sex differences in math and science performance have not directly evolved, they could be indirectly related to differences in interests and specific brain and cognitive systems. We review the brain basis for sex differences in science and mathematics, describe consistent effects, and identify numerous possible correlates. Experience alters brain structures and functioning, so causal statements about brain differences and success in math and science are circular. A wide range of sociocultural forces contribute to sex differences in mathematics and science achievement and ability-including the effects of family, neighborhood, peer, and school influences

  10. Linked Sex Differences in Cognition and Functional Connectivity in Youth.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Wolf, Daniel H; Roalf, David R; Ruparel, Kosha; Erus, Guray; Vandekar, Simon; Gennatas, Efstathios D; Elliott, Mark A; Smith, Alex; Hakonarson, Hakon; Verma, Ragini; Davatzikos, Christos; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-09-01

    Sex differences in human cognition are marked, but little is known regarding their neural origins. Here, in a sample of 674 human participants ages 9-22, we demonstrate that sex differences in cognitive profiles are related to multivariate patterns of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rsfc-MRI). Males outperformed females on motor and spatial cognitive tasks; females were faster in tasks of emotion identification and nonverbal reasoning. Sex differences were also prominent in the rsfc-MRI data at multiple scales of analysis, with males displaying more between-module connectivity, while females demonstrated more within-module connectivity. Multivariate pattern analysis using support vector machines classified subject sex on the basis of their cognitive profile with 63% accuracy (P < 0.001), but was more accurate using functional connectivity data (71% accuracy; P < 0.001). Moreover, the degree to which a given participant's cognitive profile was "male" or "female" was significantly related to the masculinity or femininity of their pattern of brain connectivity (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)). This relationship was present even when considering males and female separately. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that sex differences in patterns of cognition are in part represented on a neural level through divergent patterns of brain connectivity. PMID:24646613

  11. Sex differences in risk taking behavior among Dutch cyclists.

    PubMed

    Cobey, Kelly D; Stulp, Gert; Laan, Freek; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research examining sex differences in risk-taking behavior focuses on overt physical risk measures in which failed risk attempts may result in serious injury or death. The present research describes sex differences in patterns of risk taking in day-to-day behavior among Dutch cyclists. Through three observational studies we test sex differences in risk taking in situations of financial risk (fines for failing to use bike lights, Study 1), theft risk (bike locking behavior, Study 2) as well as physical risk (risky maneuvers, Study 3). Results corroborate previous findings by showing that across these domains men are more inclined to take risks than women. We discuss how these findings might be used in an applied context. PMID:23674522

  12. Sex differences in the parental behavior of rodents.

    PubMed

    Lonstein, J S; De Vries, G J

    2000-08-01

    The reproductive strategy of many mammalian species that give birth to altricial young involves intense and prolonged care of their offspring. In most cases, the mother provides all nurturance, but in some cases fathers, older siblings, or unrelated conspecifics participate in parental care. The display of these behaviors by animals other than mothers is affected by numerous factors, including their sex. We herein review the literature on similarities and/or differences between male and female laboratory rodents (rats, mice, voles, gerbils, and hamsters) in their parental responsiveness and discuss how the parental behavior of males and females is influenced by hormones, developmental processes, and prior social experiences. Understanding the mechanisms that generate sex differences in the parental responsiveness of rodents may indicate how similar sex differences in parental care are generated in other mammals. PMID:10940441

  13. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  14. Gender Differences in Same-Sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Norman R.; And Others

    An investigation of differences in the friendship patterns of men and of women reported that women appeared to be expressive in their friendship styles while men's same-sex friendships were best characterized as being instrumental. To examine these differences further, a study was conducted which investigated the relationship of friendship and…

  15. Sex Differences in University Students' Attitudes toward Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Nona J.; Feild, Hubert S.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of sex differences among university students' attitudes toward rape. Results showed males were quite different from females in their attitudes and tended to support many myths regarding rape. Implications of the results concerning the nature and prevention of rape on college campuses are discussed. (Author)

  16. The Development of Sex Differences in Aggression: A Revised Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet S.; Schuck, John R.

    In response to Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) conclusion that sex differences in aggression must be biological in origin, we suggest alternative social-learning mechanisms to explain the differences. These mechanisms include: (1) punishment for aggression increases aggression in boys, particularly because boys do not identify with the punisher; (2)…

  17. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Children's Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, Janet A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne F.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Dunkel, Stephanie B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined ethnic and sex differences in children's depressive symptoms, along with hypothesized mediators of those differences (academic achievement, peer acceptance), in a follow-up of African American (n = 179) and Euro-American (n= 462) children in Grades 3 to 5. African American boys reported more depressive symptoms than African…

  18. Sex differences in opioid antinociception: kappa and 'mixed action' agonists.

    PubMed

    Craft, R M; Bernal, S A

    2001-08-01

    A number of investigators have shown that male animals are more sensitive than females to the antinociceptive effects of mu-opioid agonists. The present study was conducted to examine sex differences in opioid antinociception in the rat using agonists known to differ in selectivity for and efficacy at kappa- versus mu-receptors. Dose- and time-effect curves were obtained for s.c. U69593, U50488, ethylketazocine, (-)-bremazocine, (-)-pentazocine, butorphanol and nalbuphine on the 50 or 54 degrees C hotplate and warm water tail withdrawal assays; spontaneous locomotor activity was measured 32-52 min post-injection in the same rats. On the hotplate assay, only butorphanol (54 degrees C) and nalbuphine (50 degrees C) were significantly more potent in males than females. On the tail withdrawal assay, all agonists were significantly more potent or efficacious in males than females at one or both temperatures. In contrast, no agonist was consistently more potent in one sex or the other in decreasing locomotor activity. Estrous stage in female rats only slightly influenced opioid effects, accounting for an average of 2.6% of the variance in females' antinociceptive and locomotor responses to drug (50 degrees C experiment). These results suggest that (1) sex differences in antinociceptive effects of opioids are not mu-receptor-dependent, as they may occur with opioids known to have significant kappa-receptor-mediated activity; (2) the mechanisms underlying sex differences in kappa-opioid antinociception may be primarily spinal rather than supraspinal; (3) sex differences in antinociceptive effects of opioid agonists are not secondary to sex differences in their sedative effects. PMID:11418226

  19. Sex differences in the fetal programming of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Grigore, Daniela; Ojeda, Norma B.; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Numerous clinical and experimental studies support the hypothesis that the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Objective This review examines the mechanisms linking an adverse fetal environment and increased risk for chronic adult disease, with an emphasis on gender differences and the role of sex hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism in response to a sub-optimal fetal environment. Methods This is a selective review that focuses on current findings regarding sex differences in fetal programming and the mechanisms involved in the fetal programming of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Results The mechanisms involved in the fetal programming of adult disease are multifactorial and involve alterations in the regulatory systems involved in the long-term control of arterial pressure. Sex differences are observed in animal models of fetal programming and recent studies suggests sex hormones modulate activity of regulatory systems leading to a lower incidence of hypertension and vascular dysfunction in females compared to males. Conclusions Animal models of fetal programming demonstrate that female offspring are protected from the adverse effects of fetal insult, and are providing insight into the mechanisms by which sex hormones contribute to sexual dimorphism in adult disease. PMID:18395678

  20. Sex differences in depression and explanatory style in children.

    PubMed

    Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Girgus, J S; Seligman, M E

    1991-04-01

    We report data from the first two years of a longitudinal study of depression, and explanatory style in children. Measures of these variables have been obtained from a group of elementary school children every six months since they were in the third grade. Results show that the boys consistently reported more depressive symptoms than the girls. This was particularly true for symptoms of anhedonia and behavioral disturbance. The boys also showed much more maladaptive explanatory styles than the girls. These results are discussed in light of previous studies of sex differences in children's attributions. Possible reasons for the expected switch in the sex differences in puberty are also discussed. PMID:24265008

  1. Sex Differences in the Dendritic Arbor of Hypothalamic Ventromedial Nucleus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Gerald D.; Flanagan-Cato, Loretta M.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH) displays sexual dichotomies in its overall size, neurochemistry, and neuronal morphology. These differences may underlie the sex differences observed in functions mediated by the VMH, such as reproductive behaviors and energy balance. A previous Golgi impregnation analysis of VMH dendrites reported sex differences in total dendrite length the ventrolateral region of the VMH [15]. The present study tested the hypothesis that this sex difference is localized to a specific dendrite type. VMH neurons were visualized with Golgi impregnation. Overall, male rats displayed significantly longer dendrites than females for VMH neurons. This sex difference was apparent in both the dorsomedial and the ventrolateral subdivisions of the VMH. When neurons were classified based on dendrite type, namely long primary, short primary and secondary dendrites, the increased length for males was observed for all dendrite types. Furthermore, when long primary dendrites were categorized according to whether they extended in the dorsomedial, ventrolateral, ventromedial or dorsolateral direction, the sex difference in length occurred for all directions. These results indicate that the previously identified dendrite categories for VMH neurons are integral to VMH circuitry for both males and females. Given that the sex difference in dendrite length applied to all dendrite types, the elongated male VMH dendrites may provide additional sites to process input from both local interneurons and extranuclear afferents. PMID:19254731

  2. Inbreeding removes sex differences in lifespan in a population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carazo, Pau; Green, Jared; Sepil, Irem; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in ageing rates and lifespan are common in nature, and an enduring puzzle for evolutionary biology. One possibility is that sex-specific mortality rates may result from recessive deleterious alleles in 'unguarded' heterogametic X or Z sex chromosomes (the unguarded X hypothesis). Empirical evidence for this is, however, limited. Here, we test a fundamental prediction of the unguarded X hypothesis in Drosophila melanogaster, namely that inbreeding shortens lifespan more in females (the homogametic sex in Drosophila) than in males. To test for additional sex-specific social effects, we studied the lifespan of males and females kept in isolation, in related same-sex groups, and in unrelated same-sex groups. As expected, outbred females outlived outbred males and inbreeding shortened lifespan. However, inbreeding-mediated reductions in lifespan were stronger for females, such that lifespan was similar in inbred females and males. We also show that the social environment, independent of inbreeding, affected male, but not female lifespan. In conjunction with recent studies, the present results suggest that asymmetric inheritance mechanisms may play an important role in the evolution of sex-specific lifespan and that social effects must be considered explicitly when studying these fundamental patterns. PMID:27354712

  3. Inbreeding removes sex differences in lifespan in a population of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jared; Sepil, Irem; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in ageing rates and lifespan are common in nature, and an enduring puzzle for evolutionary biology. One possibility is that sex-specific mortality rates may result from recessive deleterious alleles in ‘unguarded’ heterogametic X or Z sex chromosomes (the unguarded X hypothesis). Empirical evidence for this is, however, limited. Here, we test a fundamental prediction of the unguarded X hypothesis in Drosophila melanogaster, namely that inbreeding shortens lifespan more in females (the homogametic sex in Drosophila) than in males. To test for additional sex-specific social effects, we studied the lifespan of males and females kept in isolation, in related same-sex groups, and in unrelated same-sex groups. As expected, outbred females outlived outbred males and inbreeding shortened lifespan. However, inbreeding-mediated reductions in lifespan were stronger for females, such that lifespan was similar in inbred females and males. We also show that the social environment, independent of inbreeding, affected male, but not female lifespan. In conjunction with recent studies, the present results suggest that asymmetric inheritance mechanisms may play an important role in the evolution of sex-specific lifespan and that social effects must be considered explicitly when studying these fundamental patterns. PMID:27354712

  4. Eye tracking, strategies, and sex differences in virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Nicolas E; Dahmani, Louisa; Konishi, Kyoko; Bohbot, Véronique D

    2012-01-01

    Reports of sex differences in wayfinding have typically used paradigms sensitive to the female advantage (navigation by landmarks) or sensitive to the male advantage (navigation by cardinal directions, Euclidian coordinates, environmental geometry, and absolute distances). The current virtual navigation paradigm allowed both men and women an equal advantage. We studied sex differences by systematically varying the number of landmarks. Eye tracking was used to quantify sex differences in landmark utilisation as participants solved an eight-arm radial maze task within different virtual environments. To solve the task, participants were required to remember the locations of target objects within environments containing 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 landmarks. We found that, as the number of landmarks available in the environment increases, the proportion of time men and women spend looking at landmarks and the number of landmarks they use to find their way increases. Eye tracking confirmed that women rely more on landmarks to navigate, although landmark fixations were also associated with an increase in task completion time. Sex differences in navigational behaviour occurred only in environments devoid of landmarks and disappeared in environments containing multiple landmarks. Moreover, women showed sustained landmark-oriented gaze, while men's decreased over time. Finally, we found that men and women use spatial and response strategies to the same extent. Together, these results shed new light on the discrepancy in landmark utilisation between men and women and help explain the differences in navigational behaviour previously reported. PMID:22001012

  5. Sex differences in spatial memory using serial and search tasks.

    PubMed

    Shah, Darshna S; Prados, Jose; Gamble, Jasmin; De Lillo, Carlo; Gibson, Claire L

    2013-11-15

    The present study assessed the spatial abilities of male and female human participants using different versions of the non-navigational Corsi block-tapping test (CBT) and a search task. Males performed significantly better than females on the standard manual version of the CBT; however, the standard CBT does not allow discrimination between spatial memory span and the role of spatial organisational factors (structure, path length and presence of crossings) in the sequences to recall. These organisational factors were assessed, therefore, in an experiment in which 7-block-sequences had to be recalled in a computerised version of the CBT. No sex differences in performance were observed on the computerised CBT, indicating that males do not make better use of spatial organisational principles. Accordingly, sex differences observed in the manual CBT are likely to rely upon differences in memory span between males and females. In the search task, participants could locate a goal by reference to a Euclidian space (the geometry of a virtual enclose) or to proximal non-geometric cues. Both male and female participants showed a preference for the non-geometric cues, which overshadowed learning about the geometric cues when the two sets were available simultaneously during the training stage. These results indicate that sex differences do exist in those tests which are dependent on memory span. Sex differences were absent, however, in spatial organisational skills or in the usage of Euclidian and egocentric strategies to solve problems relying on spatial ability. PMID:24076150

  6. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Johanna W. M.; Kramer, Klaas; Arndt, Saskia S.; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary This study in laboratory rodents shows a sex specific effect of breeder to research facility transfer on several physiological parameters, such as heart rate and blood pressure. We recommend at least 8 days of acclimatization time after transfer in male rats and at least two weeks in female rats, before using these animals in research. Abstract Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal transfer, as well as between transferred and non-transferred Wistar rats. The impact of both external and internal transfer on body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and locomotor activity was studied in both male and female Wistar rats, taking into account the sex differences in stress responsivity. External transfer was found to decrease body weight, increase plasma corticosterone, increase activity, increase heart rate in female rats, but decrease heart rate in male rats. Parameters showed differences between the sexes and light phases. This study shows that acclimatization after transfer is sex-specific and researchers should take the sex into consideration when determining the acclimatization period. It is recommended to allow for acclimatization of at least 8 days in males and two weeks in females after external transfer and timely (2 days before starting experiments) transfer the animals internally to the testing room. PMID:26479007

  7. Biological and evolutionary contributions to developmental sex differences.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Geary, David C

    2007-12-01

    Boys and girls, and men and women show consistent differences, on average, in interests, activity preferences, and social styles. This article summarizes sex differences in human development from infancy through the childhood years and considers how these differences in developmental patterns relate to human evolutionary history. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that the psychological traits that were advantageous differed consistently for men and women during human evolution, consistent with Darwin's (1871) sexual selection as a mechanism through which cognitive and behavioural sex differences evolve and develop during lifetimes. The result is that some sex differences are found very early in development in predispositions to engage in different activities, to attend to different social information, and in methods of social influence. These early differences, in turn, prepare children for somewhat different tasks and roles in adulthood. Although these differences have strong biological origins, developmental experiences serve to flesh out and elaborate on these differences, or to minimize them, depending on the demands of the culture in which the child is situated. PMID:18088516

  8. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Morphology: Relationship to Mental Rotation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscik, Tim; O'Leary, Dan; Moser, David J.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2009-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain have reported evidence for sexual dimorphism. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume have been observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge there have been no…

  9. Sex differences in the neural mechanisms mediating addiction: a new synthesis and hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this review we propose that there are sex differences in how men and women enter onto the path that can lead to addiction. Males are more likely than females to engage in risky behaviors that include experimenting with drugs of abuse, and in susceptible individuals, they are drawn into the spiral that can eventually lead to addiction. Women and girls are more likely to begin taking drugs as self-medication to reduce stress or alleviate depression. For this reason women enter into the downward spiral further along the path to addiction, and so transition to addiction more rapidly. We propose that this sex difference is due, at least in part, to sex differences in the organization of the neural systems responsible for motivation and addiction. Additionally, we suggest that sex differences in these systems and their functioning are accentuated with addiction. In the current review we discuss historical, cultural, social and biological bases for sex differences in addiction with an emphasis on sex differences in the neurotransmitter systems that are implicated. PMID:22676718

  10. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    PubMed

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer. PMID:25331494

  11. Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending. PMID:14695017

  12. Sex and gender differences in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Griesbeck, Morgane; Scully, Eileen; Altfeld, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    The major burden of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) type 1 pandemic is nowadays carried by women from sub-Saharan Africa. Differences in the manifestations of HIV-1 infection between women and men have been long reported, and might be due to both socio-economic (gender) and biological (sex) factors. Several studies have shown that women are more susceptible to HIV-1 acquisition than men. Following HIV-1 infection, women have lower viral loads during acute infection and exhibit stronger antiviral responses than men, which may contribute to differences in the size of viral reservoirs. Oestrogen receptor signalling could represent an important mediator of sex differences in HIV-1 reservoir size and may represent a potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, immune activation, a hallmark of HIV-1 infection, is generally higher in women than in men and could be a central mechanism in the sex difference observed in the speed of HIV-1 disease progression. Here, we review the literature regarding sex-based differences in HIV-1 infection and discuss how a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms could improve preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27389589

  13. Sex differences in effects of mild chronic stress on seizure risk and GABAA receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Chadda, Ritu; Devaud, Leslie L

    2004-07-01

    Social stress is a common occurrence in our society that can negatively impact health. Therefore, we wanted to study the effects of a mild stressor designed to model social stress on seizure susceptibility and GABAA receptors in male and female rats. The mild chronic stress of individual housing consistently decreased bicuculline (but not pentylenetetrazol, PTZ) seizure thresholds by 10-15% in both sexes. Housing conditions did not alter the anticonvulsant activity of diazepam or ethanol, although the anticonvulsant effect of ethanol was significantly greater against PTZ-induced seizures. Experiments testing the addition of an acute restraint stress unmasked sex differences in seizure induction. The acute stress also selectively decreased the potency of GABA to modulate GABAA receptor-mediated chloride uptake in group-housed females. There were additional sex differences by housing condition for GABAA receptor-gated chloride uptake but no differences in [3H]flunitrazepam binding. We also found significant effects of sex and housing on ethanol-induced increases in corticosterone (CORT) levels. In summary, there were complex and sex-selective effects of mild chronic stress on seizure induction and GABAA receptors. Gaining a better understanding of mechanisms underlying interactions between sex and stress has important implications for addressing health concerns about stress in men and women. PMID:15251258

  14. Sex differences in orbito-frontal gray as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Adrian; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2009-01-01

    Attention is increasingly being given to understanding sex difference in psychopathology to better understand the etiology of disorders. This study tests the hypothesis that sex differences in ventral and middle frontal gray volume contribute to sex differences in antisocial personality disorder and crime. Participants were recruited from temporary employment agencies, consisting of normal controls, substance / alcohol dependent controls, Axis I/II psychiatric controls, and individuals with antisocial personality disorder (APD). An independent sample of female volunteers was also recruited. MRI volumes of superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, orbital frontal, and rectal gyral frontal gray matter, and dimensional scores of APD and criminal behavior. APD males compared to male controls showed an 8.7 % reduction in orbitofrontal gray volume, a 17.3% reduction in middle frontal gray, and a 16.1% reduction in right rectal gray. Reduced middle and orbito-frontal volumes were significantly associated with increased APD symptoms and criminal offending in both males and females. Males as a whole had reduced orbitofrontal and middle frontal gray volume compared to females, and controlling for these brain differences reduced the gender difference in antisocial personality/behavior by 77.3%. Findings were not a function of psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial risk factors, head injury, or trauma exposure. Findings implicate structural differences in the ventral and middle frontal gray as both a risk factor for antisocial personality disorder and as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality disorder. PMID:20029391

  15. Sex differences in sex drive, sociosexuality, and height across 53 nations: testing evolutionary and social structural theories.

    PubMed

    Lippa, Richard A

    2009-10-01

    By analyzing cross-cultural patterns in five parameters--sex differences, male and female trait means, male and female trait standard deviations--researchers can better test evolutionary and social structural models of sex differences. Five models of biological and social structural influence are presented that illustrate this proposal. Using data from 53 nations and from over 200,000 participants surveyed in a recent BBC Internet survey, I examined cross-cultural patterns in these five parameters for two sexual traits--sex drive and sociosexuality--and for height, a physical trait with a biologically based sex difference. Sex drive, sociosexuality, and height all showed consistent sex differences across nations (mean ds = .62, .74, and 1.63). Women were consistently more variable than men in sex drive (mean female to male variance ratio = 1.64). Gender equality and economic development tended to predict, across nations, sex differences in sociosexuality, but not sex differences in sex drive or height. Parameters for sociosexuality tended to vary across nations more than parameters for sex drive and height did. The results for sociosexuality were most consistent with a hybrid model--that both biological and social structural influences contribute to sex differences, whereas the results for sex drive and height were most consistent with a biological model--that evolved biological factors are the primary cause of sex differences. The model testing proposed here encourages evolutionary and social structural theorists to make more precise and nuanced predictions about the patterning of sex differences across cultures. PMID:17975724

  16. Sex differences in educational encouragement and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aqeel

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in educational encouragement and their predictiveness of academic achievement were examined among 442 secondary school students (M age = 13.2 yr., SD = 1.9). Education-related encouragement received from mothers, fathers, friends, and teachers was assessed. Academic achievement was based on student self-reports and grades. Female adolescents reported receiving statistically significantly more educational encouragement from their mothers, fathers, friends, and teachers than did male adolescents. In regression, sex and educational encouragement from parents, friends, and teachers were found to be significant predictors of academic achievement. PMID:23045856

  17. Sex differences in predictors of ischemic stroke: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Samai, Alyana A; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Globally, stroke is a significant public health concern affecting more than 33 million individuals. Of growing importance are the differences between males and females in the predictors and overall risk of stroke. Given that women have a higher lifetime risk for stoke and account for more than half of all stroke deaths, sex-specific stroke risk factors merit investigation and may help target public health interventions. This review aims to discuss the current body of knowledge regarding sex-specific predictors of ischemic stroke including both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, as well as specific pathologies known to increase stroke risk. PMID:26251609

  18. Individual and Sex Differences in the Zone of Acceptable Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, S. Alvin; Harmon, Lenore W.

    1990-01-01

    Examined zone of acceptable alternatives construct from Gottfredson's theory of career aspiration. College students' (N=246) responses to Occupations List were coded with measurements of sex type and prestige, and indicators of zone of acceptable alternatives for subjects' were computed. Found changes over time and differences related to gender…

  19. Sex Differences in Social Perception in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, M. C.; Anderson, L. C.; Naples, A. J.; McPartland, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more common in males than females. An underrepresentation of females in the ASD literature has led to limited knowledge of differences in social function across the sexes. Investigations of face perception represent a promising target for understanding variability in social functioning between males and females.…

  20. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  1. Sex Differences in Attitudes, Feelings, and Behaviors toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredenburg, Karel; And Others

    Despite the pervasiveness of computers and daily advances in computer technology, comparatively little is known about the psychological reactions and attitudes that individuals have toward computers. To investigate sex differences in attitudes, beliefs, feelings, thoughts, behaviors, and behavioral intentions toward computers, 157 male and 305…

  2. School Leadership, Sex and Gender: Welcome to Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Meta L.

    2008-01-01

    The biological basis for differences between the sexes has become increasingly clear in recent years. The nature-nurture debate has made way for the view that the individual is a product of the interaction between genes and environment. For the world of school leadership this means that instead of arguing about them, we should acknowledge the…

  3. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  4. Sex Differences in Perceptions and Punishment of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Margaret; And Others

    Two studies examined the effects of variations of intent, outcome and pain in depictions of rape on the perceptions and punishment of rape. Numerous sex differences in perceptions were found. Females perceived more pain and tended to focus on the effects of outcome while males tended to respond more to the intent variation. Females assigned more…

  5. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  6. Sex Differences In Intercultural Discourse: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael J.; Jordan, William J.

    Previous interpretations of male/female discourse were examined in light of new data generated from a study of intercultural mixed-sex dyads. Eleven dyads, each consisting of a Chinese and an American subject, were videotaped in 30-minute conversations about courtship in different cultures. The tapes were content analyzed to obtain information on…

  7. Sex Differences in Perceptions of the Implications of Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lori J.; And Others

    Values are guiding principles in an individual's life that transcend situations and guide selection and evaluation of behaviors and events. Frequently women are assumed to be less likely than men to make use of power. Several explanations may account for any sex differences in power values or power behavior. Women have not traditionally been…

  8. Sex Differences in Mathematics Performance and Perceptions of University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randhawa, Bikkar S.; And Others

    This study was intended to determine whether sex-linked mathematics achievement and contextual differences persist into the university years. A random sample of 150 first-year mathematics students enrolled at a midwestern university was identified. A common 30-item calculus readiness test and a 37-item questionnaire, dealing with students'…

  9. The Luscher Color Test: sex differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Seefeldt, F M

    1979-06-01

    Sex differences in color preference on the Luscher Color Test were investigated for the green and the yellow chips. 50 male and 79 female majors in education rated and ranked each color on the popular form of the test. Females ranked and rated yellow significantly higher than did the males. Implications regarding test validity for females are discussed. PMID:482042

  10. Sex Differences in Reported Profanity Uses and Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.

    A study examined sex differences in the usage and perceptions of profanity. Subjects, 135 undergraduate students (61 females and 74 males), completed a questionnaire requesting information about demographics, attitudes, and use of profanity. The initial series of questions sought to obtain a self-reported estimate of the frequency with which…

  11. Sex Differences and Science: The Etiology of Science Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: Are there sex differences in the etiology of high performance in science in childhood that could contribute to the under-representation of women in scientific careers? In this study the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences on high performance in science in both boys and girls were assessed using standard twin…

  12. Sex Differences in Response to an Observational Fear Conditioning Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Megan M.; Forsyth, John P.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated sex differences in observational fear conditioning using modeled ''mock'' panic attacks as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Fifty-nine carefully prescreened healthy undergraduate participants (30 women) underwent 3 consecutive differential conditioning phases: habituation, acquisition, and extinction. It was expected…

  13. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  14. Sex Differences in Phonological Awareness and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…

  15. Sex Differences in Global Self-Esteem. A Research Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaalvik, Einar M.

    1986-01-01

    Studies included in two major reviews of sex differences in global self-esteem have been reanalyzed on methodological grounds. A survey is also conducted of 29 studies reported between 1975 and 1985. Results show a strong indication that males had higher global self-esteem than females as measured by context-free instruments. (Author/LMO)

  16. Exploring Sex Differences in Worry with a Cognitive Vulnerability Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate model was developed to examine the relative contributions of mastery, stress, interpretive bias, and coping to sex differences in worry. Rumination was incorporated as a second outcome variable to test the specificity of these associations. Participants included two samples of undergraduates totaling 302 men and 379 women. A path…

  17. Sex Differences in Help-Seeking Appear in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Koulnazarian, Manouchak

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that sex differences in help-seeking, which have been obtained consistently with adults and adolescents, would appear in early childhood. To this end, 32 girls and 32 boys aged 3 and 6 years from lower and upper-middle socio-economic class schools were asked to perform four tasks (drawing an animal, building a…

  18. Sex Differences in Interpersonal Problems: A Circumplex Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtman, Michael B.; Lee, Debbiesiu L.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and magnitude of sex differences in interpersonal problems across several data sets were examined, guided by the interpersonal circumplex model and the structural summary method. Data were self-reported interpersonal difficulties, assessed with the 64-item version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP; L. M. Horowitz, S. E.…

  19. Sex Differences during Visual Scanning of Occlusion Events in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Teresa; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Wheeler, Lesley; Norvell, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of sex differences in infancy have been reported. One task on which they have been observed reliably is the event-mapping task. In event mapping, infants view an occlusion event involving 1 or 2 objects, the occluder is removed, and then infants see 1 object. Typically, boys are more likely than girls to detect an inconsistency…

  20. Sex Differences in Neural Processing of Language among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Douglas D.; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Why females generally perform better on language tasks than males is unknown. Sex differences were here identified in children (ages 9-15) across two linguistic tasks for words presented in two modalities. Bilateral activation in the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri and activation in the left fusiform gyrus of girls was greater than in…

  1. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Fujioka, Hitomi; Kimura, Fukuko; Akema, Tatsuo; Funabashi, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation), gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol), and diet (i.e., western-style diet) vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day), but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females. PMID:25870535

  2. Sex Differences in Serotonin 1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischette, Christine T.; Biegon, Anat; McEwen, Bruce S.

    1983-10-01

    Male and female rats exhibit sex differences in binding by serotonin 1 receptors in discrete areas of the brain, some of which have been implicated in the control of ovulation and of gonadotropin release. The sex-specific changes in binding, which occur in response to the same hormonal (estrogenic) stimulus, are due to changes in the number of binding sites. Castration alone also affects the number of binding sites in certain areas. The results lead to the conclusion that peripheral hormones modulate binding by serotonin 1 receptors. The status of the serotonin receptor system may affect the reproductive capacity of an organism and may be related to sex-linked emotional disturbances in humans.

  3. Fetal Sex Differences in Intrapartum Electronic Fetal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Porter, Anne C; Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Tuuli, Methodius; Caughey, Aaron B; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2016-07-01

    Objective The article aimed to estimate differences in electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) patterns in term gestations attributable to fetal sex. Study Design We conducted a prospective cohort study of consecutive, singleton, nonanomalous, term gestations that labored during admission. EFM characteristics in the 30 minutes prior to delivery were evaluated. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted risks for EFM features by sex. To further estimate the impact of sex, we limited the analysis to gestations without composite morbidity (morbidity defined as arterial cord pH <7.20, 5-minute Apgar <7, or neonatal intensive care unit admission). Results Of 2,639 deliveries, 1,400 (53%) were male. Male fetuses had a higher number of decelerations (median [interquartile range]: 8 [5, 11] vs. 7 [4, 10], p < 0.003) and increased total deceleration area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] :1.04, 1.18). Male fetuses were at increased risk for prolonged decelerations (aOR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42) and repetitive variable decelerations (aOR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.47). Among neonates without composite morbidity (n = 2,446, 92.7%), male sex conferred an increased risk of late decelerations (aOR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.43) and increased total deceleration area (aOR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.20). Conclusion There are significant sex differences in EFM patterns at term among pregnancies without evidence of acidemia. This suggests that interpretation of EFM patterns may need to take into account factors such as fetal sex. PMID:26906183

  4. Task differences confound sex differences in receiver permissiveness in túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Ximena E; Rand, A Stanley; Ryan, Michael J

    2009-04-01

    In many mating systems, both sexes respond to the same sexual signal. In frogs, males typically call in response to advertisement calls, while females approach male calls in choosing a mate. The costs of signal detection errors are expected to differ between the sexes. Missed opportunities are costly for males because ignoring a signal results in failing to compete with rivals for mates, while their cost for misidentification is lower (time and energy displaying to the incorrect target). By contrast, for females, the cost of misidentification is high (mating with incorrect species or low-quality partner), while their cost for missed opportunity is lower because the operational sex ratio puts females at a premium. Consequently, females should be more selective in their response to signal variation than males. We report that presumed sexual differences in selectivity in túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) are task-specific rather than sex-specific. As predicted, male túngara frogs are less selective in their vocal responses than are females in their phonotactic responses. Males exhibiting phonotaxis to the same calls, however, are as selective as females, and are significantly more selective than when they respond vocally to the same calls. Our study shows that apparent differences between the sexes emerge from differences in the behaviours themselves and are not intrinsic to each sex. Analogous behavioural differences might confound sex differences in other systems; thus, we suggest consideration of the behavioural plasticity of sex as well as its stereotypy. PMID:19141428

  5. Sex differences in hospital readmission among colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, J. R.; Fernandez, E.; Moreno, V.; Ribes, J.; Peris, M.; Navarro, M.; Cambray, M.; Borras, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: While several studies have analysed sex and socioeconomic differences in cancer incidence and mortality, sex differences in oncological health care have been seldom considered. Objective: To investigate sex based inequalities in hospital readmission among patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Hospital Universitary in L'Hospitalet (Barcelona, Spain). Participants: Four hundred and three patients diagnosed with colorectal between January 1996 and December 1998 were actively followed up until 2002. Main outcome measurements and methods: Hospital readmission times related to colorectal cancer after surgical procedure. Cox proportional model with random effect (frailty) was used to estimate hazard rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals of readmission time for covariates analysed. Results: Crude hazard rate ratio of hospital readmission in men was 1.61 (95% CI 1.21 to 2.15). When other significant determinants of readmission were controlled for (including Dukes's stage, mortality, and Charlson's index) a significant risk of readmission was still present for men (hazard rate ratio: 1.52, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.96). Conclusions: In the case of colorectal cancer, women are less likely than men to be readmitted to the hospital, even after controlling for tumour characteristics, mortality, and comorbidity. New studies should investigate the role of other non-clinical variable such as differences in help seeking behaviours or structural or personal sex bias in the attention given to patients. PMID:15911648

  6. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-02-19

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. PMID:26833838

  7. SEX DIFFERENCES DURING HUMOR APPRECIATION IN CHILD SIBLING-PAIRS

    PubMed Central

    Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to sex differences in rates of depression, a disorder afflicting twice as many women as men. In this study, we employed fMRI to investigate brain responses to funny versus positive (and neutral) video clips in 22 children ages 6 to 13 years, including 8 sibling pairs. Our data revealed increased activity to funny clips in bilateral temporo-occipital cortex, midbrain, and amygdala in girls. Conversely, we found heightened activation to positive clips in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in boys. Many of these effects persisted when looking at sibling-pairs only. We interpret such findings as reflecting the presence of early sex divergence in reward saliency / expectation and stimulus relevance attribution. These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary and developmental theories of humor function. PMID:23672302

  8. Explaining Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

    The relatively simple question of whether sex differences exist has evolved into the more theoretically interesting question of why sex differences occur. This transition has come about because of the meta-analytic investigations of sex differences in social behavior which established sex difference trends in a variety of social behaviors. Many…

  9. Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to 18 years of age) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after 17 years of age) were obtained 8 years later. Results revealed that either the genetic or the shared environmental factors influencing childhood conduct disorder differed for males and females (i.e., a qualitative sex difference), but by adulthood, these sex-specific influences on antisocial behavior were no longer apparent. Further, genetic and environmental influences accounted for proportionally the same amount of variance in antisocial behavior for males and females in childhood and adulthood (i.e., there were no quantitative sex differences). Additionally, the stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood was slightly greater for males than females. Though familial factors accounted for more of the stability of antisocial behavior for males than females, genetic factors accounted for the majority of the covariation between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior for both sexes. The genetic influences on adult antisocial behavior overlapped completely with the genetic influences on childhood conduct disorder for both males and females. Implications for future twin and molecular genetic studies are discussed. PMID:21319923

  10. The effects of death reminders on sex differences in prejudice toward gay men and lesbians.

    PubMed

    Webster, Russell J; Saucier, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    Terror management research shows that death reminders (mortality salience) increase prejudice toward worldview violators. Two studies investigated whether death reminders exacerbated differences in heterosexual men's and women's reports of sexual prejudice (negative attitudes based on sexual orientation). Results showed that following death reminders, sex differences in anti-gay discrimination and affective prejudice toward gay men (but not toward lesbians) were larger, and that these increased sex differences were mediated by gender role beliefs. The current studies suggest that researchers may attenuate the effects of death reminders by lessening the perceived worldview violation in addition to alleviating the existential terror of death. PMID:21360393

  11. Sex differences in health and mortality in Moscow and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Oksuzyan, A; Shkolnikova, M; Vaupel, J W; Christensen, K; Shkolnikov, V M

    2014-04-01

    In high income countries females outlive men, although they generally report worse health, the so-called male-female health-survival paradox. Russia has one of the world's largest sex difference in life expectancy with a male disadvantage of more than 10 years. We compare components of the paradox between Denmark and Moscow by examining sex differences in mortality and several health measures. The Human Mortality Database and the Russian Fertility and Mortality Database were used to examine sex differences in all-cause death rates in Denmark, Russia, and Moscow in 2007-2008. Self-reported health data were obtained from the Study of Middle-Aged Danish Twins (n = 4,314), the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (n = 4,731), and the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (n = 1,800). In both Moscow and Denmark there was a consistent female advantage at ages 55-89 years in survival and a male advantage in self-rated health, physical functioning, and depression symptomatology. Only on cognitive tests males performed similarly to or worse than women. Nevertheless, Muscovite males had more than twice higher mortality at ages 55-69 years compared to Muscovite women, almost double the ratio in Denmark. The present study showed that despite similar directions of sex differences in health and mortality in Moscow and Denmark, the male-female health-survival paradox is very pronounced in Moscow suggesting a stronger sex-specific disconnect between health indicators and mortality among middle-aged and young-old Muscovites. PMID:24668060

  12. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society

    PubMed Central

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J.; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20–40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt’s adaptation of Fishman’s three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament’s measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins. PMID:26689907

  13. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society.

    PubMed

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20-40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt's adaptation of Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament's measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins. PMID:26689907

  14. Exploring Sex and Gender Differences in Sleep Health: A Society for Women's Health Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Mallampalli, Monica P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions. PMID:24956068

  15. Issues, Problems, and Pitfalls in Assessing Sex Differences: A Critical Review of The Psychology of Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Jeanne H.

    1976-01-01

    Presents a detailed critical appraisal of the evidential support for the book's conclusions about sex differences. Criticisms cover data base quality, over-representation of younger age groups, problems of stereotypes, over-emphasis on the null hypothesis, and slippages in the evaluational sequence. (MS)

  16. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Rediske, Richard R; Krabbenhoft, David P; Stapanian, Martin A; Chernyak, Sergei M; O'Keefe, James P

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43 %. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males not only ingest Hg at a higher rate than females but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to

  17. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  18. Sex differences in bystander intervention in a theft.

    PubMed

    Austin, W

    1979-11-01

    A series of studies demonstrated a strong relationship among the situation-defining variable of degree of harm to victim, sexual configuration among participants, and bystanders' willingness to intervene to stop a theft. A pretest showed that a prior verbal commitment was absolutely necessary for intervention. The remaining data showed that high harm to a victim produced a high rate of intervention and showed strong sex differences in helping behavior in low-harm conditions. A high percentage of female bystanders helped in both low- and high-harm situations, whereas frequent helping by males was observed only when harm to the victim was high. Female victims elicited a significantly greater amount of helping, and sex of thief had no effect. A significant sex of bystander, sex of victim, and harm to victim interaction best describes the data. Results are interpreted in terms of different motivational sets held by males and females when they are responsible for the fate of others. Results also support the utility of an interactionist approach to the question of how individual and situational variables influence prosocial action. PMID:521904

  19. Sex and Gender Differences in Risk, Pathophysiology and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; Pacini, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The steep rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated complications go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. T2DM is more frequently diagnosed at lower age and body mass index in men; however, the most prominent risk factor, which is obesity, is more common in women. Generally, large sex-ratio differences across countries are observed. Diversities in biology, culture, lifestyle, environment, and socioeconomic status impact differences between males and females in predisposition, development, and clinical presentation. Genetic effects and epigenetic mechanisms, nutritional factors and sedentary lifestyle affect risk and complications differently in both sexes. Furthermore, sex hormones have a great impact on energy metabolism, body composition, vascular function, and inflammatory responses. Thus, endocrine imbalances relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic traits, observable in women with androgen excess or men with hypogonadism. Both biological and psychosocial factors are responsible for sex and gender differences in diabetes risk and outcome. Overall, psychosocial stress appears to have greater impact on women rather than on men. In addition, women have greater increases of cardiovascular risk, myocardial infarction, and stroke mortality than men, compared with nondiabetic subjects. However, when dialysis therapy is initiated, mortality is comparable in both males and females. Diabetes appears to attenuate the protective effect of the female sex in the development of cardiac diseases and nephropathy. Endocrine and behavioral factors are involved in gender inequalities and affect the outcome. More research regarding sex-dimorphic pathophysiological mechanisms of T2DM and its complications could contribute to more personalized diabetes care in the future and would thus promote more awareness in terms of sex- and gender-specific risk factors. PMID:27159875

  20. Sex and Gender Differences in Risk, Pathophysiology and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Pacini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The steep rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated complications go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. T2DM is more frequently diagnosed at lower age and body mass index in men; however, the most prominent risk factor, which is obesity, is more common in women. Generally, large sex-ratio differences across countries are observed. Diversities in biology, culture, lifestyle, environment, and socioeconomic status impact differences between males and females in predisposition, development, and clinical presentation. Genetic effects and epigenetic mechanisms, nutritional factors and sedentary lifestyle affect risk and complications differently in both sexes. Furthermore, sex hormones have a great impact on energy metabolism, body composition, vascular function, and inflammatory responses. Thus, endocrine imbalances relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic traits, observable in women with androgen excess or men with hypogonadism. Both biological and psychosocial factors are responsible for sex and gender differences in diabetes risk and outcome. Overall, psychosocial stress appears to have greater impact on women rather than on men. In addition, women have greater increases of cardiovascular risk, myocardial infarction, and stroke mortality than men, compared with nondiabetic subjects. However, when dialysis therapy is initiated, mortality is comparable in both males and females. Diabetes appears to attenuate the protective effect of the female sex in the development of cardiac diseases and nephropathy. Endocrine and behavioral factors are involved in gender inequalities and affect the outcome. More research regarding sex-dimorphic pathophysiological mechanisms of T2DM and its complications could contribute to more personalized diabetes care in the future and would thus promote more awareness in terms of sex- and gender-specific risk factors. PMID:27159875

  1. Pay Differences among the Highly Trained: Cohort Differences in the Sex Gap in Lawyers' Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Mary C.; Corcoran, Mary E.; Courant, Paul N.

    2005-01-01

    Using unique data from a survey of University of Michigan Law School graduates, we test various models of how sex differences in pay, labor supply and job settings should have evolved as women entered the elite male field of law. We compare the sex gap in earnings 15 years after graduation for two cohorts of lawyers and find that it has remained…

  2. Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, J. Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how educators…

  3. Sex differences in mitochondrial (dys)function: Implications for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have revealed numerous differences in brain structure size, connectivity and metabolism between males and females. Sex differences in neurobehavioral and cognitive function after various forms of central nervous system (CNS) injury are observed in clinical practice and animal research studies. Sources of sex differences include early life exposure to gonadal hormones, chromosome compliment and adult hormonal modulation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that mitochondrial metabolism and cell death signaling are also sexually dimorphic. Mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction is a common feature of CNS injury. Evidence suggests males predominantly utilize proteins while females predominantly use lipids as a fuel source within mitochondria and that these differences may significantly affect cellular survival following injury. These fundamental biochemical differences have a profound impact on energy production and many cellular processes in health and disease. This review will focus on the accumulated evidence revealing sex differences in mitochondrial function and cellular signaling pathways in the context of CNS injury mechanisms and the potential implications for neuroprotective therapy development. PMID:25293493

  4. Sex differences in the neural bases of social appraisals.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Jolles, Jelle; Croiset, Gerda; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral research has demonstrated an advantage for females compared with males in social information processing. However, little is known about sex-related differences in brain activation during understanding of self and others. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, this was assessed in late adolescents (aged 18-19) and young adults (aged 23-25) when making appraisals of self and other as well as reflected self-appraisals. Across all groups and for all appraisal conditions, activation was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex, medial posterior parietal cortex, left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left posterior parietal cortex. Males activated the medial posterior parietal cortex and bilateral temporoparietal junction more than females. The precuneus showed stronger activation in males compared with females specifically during appraisals of others. No differences between late adolescents and young adults were found. These results indicate that sex differences exist in the neural bases of social understanding. PMID:23386740

  5. Sex differences in language first appear in gesture

    PubMed Central

    Özçalişkan, Şeyda; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Children differ in how quickly they reach linguistic milestones. Boys typically produce their first multi-word sentences later than girls do. We ask here whether there are sex differences in children's gestures that precede, and presage, these sex differences in speech. To explore this question, we observed 22 girls and 18 boys every 4 months as they progressed from one-word speech to multi-word speech. We found that boys not only produced speech + speech (S+S) combinations (`drink juice') 3 months later than girls, but they also produced gesture + speech (G+S) combinations expressing the same types of semantic relations (`eat' + point at cookie) 3 months later than girls. Because G+S combinations are produced earlier than S+S combinations, children's gestures provide the first sign that boys are likely to lag behind girls in the onset of sentence constructions. PMID:20712741

  6. Sex differences in social perception in children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Coffman, M C; Anderson, L C; Naples, A J; McPartland, J C

    2015-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more common in males than females. An underrepresentation of females in the ASD literature has led to limited knowledge of differences in social function across the sexes. Investigations of face perception represent a promising target for understanding variability in social functioning between males and females. The current study analyzed electrophysiological brain recordings during face perception to investigate sex differences in the neural correlates of face perception and their relationship to social function. Event related potentials (ERP) were recorded from children with ASD while viewing faces, inverted faces, and houses. Relative to males, females showed attenuated response at an ERP marker of face perception, the N170. Among females, but not males, atypical face response was associated with symptom severity. Observed sex differences reflect influential differences in social information processing, and impairment in these features correlates with deficits in social information processing in females, but not males, with ASD. These findings hold significance for future treatment protocols, which should account for differences in males and females with ASD in clinical presentation and neural phenotypes. PMID:24293083

  7. Sex Differences in Social Perception in Children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, M.C.; Anderson, L.C.; Naples, A.J.; McPartland, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more common in males than females. An underrepresentation of females in the ASD literature has led to limited knowledge of differences in social function across the sexes. Investigations of face perception represent a promising target for understanding variability in social functioning between males and females. The current study analyzed electrophysiological brain recordings during face perception to investigate sex differences in the neural correlates of face perception and their relationship to social function. Event related potentials (ERP) were recorded from children with ASD while viewing faces, inverted faces, and houses. Relative to males, females showed attenuated response at an ERP marker of face perception, the N170. Among females, but not males, atypical face response was associated with symptom severity. Observed sex differences reflect influential differences in social information processing, and impairment in these features correlates with deficits in social information processing in females, but not males, with ASD. These findings hold significance for future treatment protocols, which should account for differences in males and females with ASD in clinical presentation and neural phenotypes. PMID:24293083

  8. Sex Differences in School Science Performance from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the sexes differ in science performance before they make important course and career selections. We collected teacher-report data from a sample of children from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) assessed at ages 9, 10 and 12 years (N greater than 2500 pairs). In addition we developed a test of scientific enquiry and…

  9. Sex Differences in the Content and Structure of College Students' Descriptions of Future Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Lynn; Thompson, Eileen

    A content analysis of college students' essays on their plans for the future revealed sex differences in both content and structure. Essays were coded for the presence or absence, and the order, of career and marriage/family plans. In addition, the certainty of the plans was inferred from the use of contingency and probability qualifiers. The 110…

  10. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753

  11. Sex differences and hemoglobin levels in relation to stroke outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Fabricio O.; O’Connor, Sydney; Furie, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Women have worse outcomes after stroke compared to men. Since women have lower hemoglobin values, we examined whether hemoglobin levels may associate with worse stroke outcomes in women. Methods: We retrospectively studied 274 patients enrolled in a prospective multicenter study. We explored the relationship of hemoglobin with clinical outcome at 6 months, as measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent effect of hemoglobin on clinical outcome, and to explore the influence of sex on that association. Results: Women had a lower mean hemoglobin level (11.7 ± 1.8 g/dL) compared to men (13.3 ± 1.7 g/dL). Low hemoglobin was associated with worse 6-month mRS outcomes in univariate analysis (p < 0.001). Lower hemoglobin remained independently associated with poor outcome after adjustment for comorbid disease, stroke severity, age, and sex. The inclusion of hemoglobin in the model attenuated the independent effect of sex on outcome. Conclusions: Sex differences in stroke outcome are linked to lower hemoglobin level, which is more prevalent in women. Further examination of this potentially modifiable predictor is warranted. PMID:23365064

  12. Is There a Sex Ratio Difference in the Familial Aggregation of Specific Language Impairment? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Specific language impairment (SLI) is known to aggregate in families. Debate exists on whether the male sex presents an additional risk for SLI. This meta-analysis examined whether there is a sex ratio difference in the risk for impairment among family members of an SLI proband and whether this is mediated by assessment method (direct…

  13. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  14. Sex Differences in Proximal Control of the Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Ford, Kevin R.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Following the onset of maturation, female athletes have a significantly higher risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared with male athletes. While multiple sex differences in lower-extremity neuromuscular control and biomechanics have been identified as potential risk factors for ACL injury in females, the majority of these studies have focused specifically on the knee joint. However, increasing evidence in the literature indicates that lumbopelvic (core) control may have a large effect on knee-joint control and injury risk. This review examines the published evidence on the contributions of the trunk and hip to knee-joint control. Specifically, the sex differences in potential proximal controllers of the knee as risk factors for ACL injury are identified and discussed. Sex differences in trunk and hip biomechanics have been identified in all planes of motion (sagittal, coronal and transverse). Essentially, female athletes show greater lateral trunk displacement, altered trunk and hip flexion angles, greater ranges of trunk motion, and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during sport manoeuvres, compared with their male counterparts. These differences may increase the risk of ACL injury among female athletes. Prevention programmes targeted towards trunk and hip neuromuscular control may decrease the risk for ACL injuries. PMID:21688868

  15. Sex differences in self-regulation: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Kamkar, Niki; Morton, J Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bjorklund and Kipp (1996) provide an evolutionary framework predicting that there is a female advantage in inhibition and self-regulation due to differing selection pressures placed on males and females. The majority of the present review will summarize sex differences in self-regulation at the behavioral level. The neural and hormonal underpinnings of this potential sexual dimorphism will also be investigated and the results of the experiments summarized will be related to the hypothesis advanced by Bjorklund and Kipp (1996). Paradoxically, sex differences in self-regulation are more consistently reported in children prior to the onset of puberty. In adult cohorts, the results of studies examining sex differences in self-regulation are mixed. A few recent experiments suggesting that females are less impulsive than males only during fertile stages of the menstrual cycle will be reviewed. A brief discussion of an evolutionary framework proposing that it is adaptive for females to employ a self-regulatory behavioral strategy when fertile will follow. PMID:25140126

  16. Sex differences in self-regulation: an evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini-Kamkar, Niki; Morton, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bjorklund and Kipp (1996) provide an evolutionary framework predicting that there is a female advantage in inhibition and self-regulation due to differing selection pressures placed on males and females. The majority of the present review will summarize sex differences in self-regulation at the behavioral level. The neural and hormonal underpinnings of this potential sexual dimorphism will also be investigated and the results of the experiments summarized will be related to the hypothesis advanced by Bjorklund and Kipp (1996). Paradoxically, sex differences in self-regulation are more consistently reported in children prior to the onset of puberty. In adult cohorts, the results of studies examining sex differences in self-regulation are mixed. A few recent experiments suggesting that females are less impulsive than males only during fertile stages of the menstrual cycle will be reviewed. A brief discussion of an evolutionary framework proposing that it is adaptive for females to employ a self-regulatory behavioral strategy when fertile will follow. PMID:25140126

  17. Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Smith, Alex; Parker, Drew; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Elliott, Mark A; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-14

    Sex differences in human behavior show adaptive complementarity: Males have better motor and spatial abilities, whereas females have superior memory and social cognition skills. Studies also show sex differences in human brains but do not explain this complementarity. In this work, we modeled the structural connectome using diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of 949 youths (aged 8-22 y, 428 males and 521 females) and discovered unique sex differences in brain connectivity during the course of development. Connection-wise statistical analysis, as well as analysis of regional and global network measures, presented a comprehensive description of network characteristics. In all supratentorial regions, males had greater within-hemispheric connectivity, as well as enhanced modularity and transitivity, whereas between-hemispheric connectivity and cross-module participation predominated in females. However, this effect was reversed in the cerebellar connections. Analysis of these changes developmentally demonstrated differences in trajectory between males and females mainly in adolescence and in adulthood. Overall, the results suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes. PMID:24297904

  18. Sex differences in fear conditioning in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Inslicht, Sabra S.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Garcia, Natalia M.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Orr, Scott P.; Marmar, Charles R.; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Women are twice as likely as men to develop Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Abnormal acquisition of conditioned fear has been suggested as a mechanism for the development of PTSD. While some studies of healthy humans suggest that women are either no different or express less conditioned fear responses during conditioning relative to men, differences in the acquisition of conditioned fear between men and women diagnosed with PTSD has not been examined. Methods Thirty-one participants (18 men; 13 women) with full or subsyndromal PTSD completed a fear conditioning task. Participants were shown computer-generated colored circles that were paired (CS+) or unpaired (CS−) with an aversive electrical stimulus and skin conductance levels were assessed throughout the task. Results Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant sex by stimulus interaction during acquisition. Women had greater differential conditioned skin conductance responses (CS + trials compared to CS− trials) than did men, suggesting greater acquisition of conditioned fear in women with PTSD. Conclusions In contrast to studies of healthy individuals, we found enhanced acquisition of conditioned fear in women with PTSD. Greater fear conditioning in women may either be a pre-existing vulnerability trait or an acquired phenomenon that emerges in a sex-dependent manner after the development of PTSD. Characterizing the underlying mechanisms of these differences is needed to clarify sex-related differences in the pathophysiology of PTSD. PMID:23107307

  19. At the frontier of epigenetics of brain sex differences

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Margaret M.; Nugent, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion that epigenetics may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of sex differences in the brain has garnered great enthusiasm but the reality in terms of actual advances has been slow. Two general approaches include the comparison of a particular epigenetic mark in males vs. females and the inhibition of key epigenetic enzymes or co-factors to determine if this eliminates a particular sex difference in brain or behavior. The majority of emphasis has been on candidate genes such as steroid receptors. Only recently have more generalized survey type approaches been achieved and these promise to open new vistas and accelerate discovery of important roles for DNA methylation, histone modification, genomic imprinting and microRNAs (miRs). Technical challenges abound and, while not unique to this field, will require novel thinking and new approaches by behavioral neuroendocrinologists. PMID:26347630

  20. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  1. Sex difference in Double Iron ultra-triathlon performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study examined the sex difference in swimming (7.8 km), cycling (360 km), running (84 km), and overall race times for Double Iron ultra-triathletes. Methods Sex differences in split times and overall race times of 1,591 men and 155 women finishing a Double Iron ultra-triathlon between 1985 and 2012 were analyzed. Results The annual number of finishes increased linearly for women and exponentially for men. Men achieved race times of 1,716 ± 243 min compared to 1,834 ± 261 min for women and were 118 ± 18 min (6.9%) faster (p < 0.01). Men finished swimming within 156 ± 63 min compared to women with 163 ± 31 min and were 8 ± 32 min (5.1 ± 5.0%) faster (p < 0.01). For cycling, men (852 ± 196 min) were 71 ± 70 min (8.3 ± 3.5%) faster than women (923 ± 126 min) (p < 0.01). Men completed the run split within 710 ± 145 min compared to 739 ± 150 min for women and were 30 ± 5 min (4.2 ± 3.4%) faster (p = 0.03). The annual three fastest men improved race time from 1,650 ± 114 min in 1985 to 1,339 ± 33 min in 2012 (p < 0.01). Overall race time for women remained unchanged at 1,593 ± 173 min with an unchanged sex difference of 27.1 ± 8.6%. In swimming, the split times for the annual three fastest women (148 ± 14 min) and men (127 ± 20 min) remained unchanged with an unchanged sex difference of 26.8 ± 13.5%. In cycling, the annual three fastest men improved the split time from 826 ± 60 min to 666 ± 18 min (p = 0.02). For women, the split time in cycling remained unchanged at 844 ± 54 min with an unchanged sex difference of 25.2 ± 7.3%. In running, the annual fastest three men improved split times from 649 ± 77 min to 532 ± 16 min (p < 0.01). For women, however, the split times remained unchanged at 657 ± 70 min with a stable sex difference of 32.4 ± 12.5%. Conclusions To summarize, the present findings showed that men were faster than women in Double Iron ultra-triathlon, men improved overall race times, cycling and running

  2. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  3. Sex Differences on the WISC-R in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.; Irwing, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences on the WISC-R (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised) are examined in a sample of 1258 11 year olds in Mauritius. Boys obtained a significantly higher Full Scale IQ by 5.8 IQ points. Boys obtained a higher Performance IQ by 6.5 IQ points and a higher Verbal IQ by 1.0 IQ points. On the subtests, girls obtained a…

  4. Sex differences in voice onset time: A developmental study of phonetic context effects in British English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, Sandra P.; Henry, Luisa; Dobbin, Rachel

    2004-08-01

    Voice onset time (VOT) data for the plosives /p b t d k g/ in two vowel contexts (eye opena) for 5 groups of 46 boys and girls aged 5; 8 (5 years, 8 months) to 13;2 years were investigated to examine patterns of sex differences. Results indicated that there was some evidence of females displaying longer VOT values than the males. In addition, these were found to be most marked for the data of the 13;2-year olds. Furthermore, the sex differences in the VOT values displayed phonetic context effects. For example, the greatest sex differences were observed for the voiceless plosives, and within the context of the vowel /i/.

  5. Sex differences in intrinsic brain functional connectivity underlying human shyness.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Siqi; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Xi; Yao, Li; Lei, Du; Kuang, Weihong; Bi, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqi; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-12-01

    Shyness is a fundamental trait associated with social-emotional maladaptive behaviors, including many forms of psychopathology. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that hyper-responsivity to social and emotional stimuli occurs in the frontal cortex and limbic system in shy individuals, but the relationship between shyness and brain-wide functional connectivity remains incompletely understood. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed this issue by exploring the relationship between regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) and scores of shyness in a cohort of 61 healthy young adults and controlling for the effects of social and trait anxiety scores. We observed that the rFCS of the insula positively correlated with shyness scores regardless of sex. Furthermore, we found that there were significant sex-by-shyness interactions in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and insula (two core nodes of the salience network) as well as the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex: the rFCS values of these regions positively correlated with shyness scores in females but negatively correlated in males. Taken together, we provide evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity differences in individuals with different degrees of shyness and that these differences are sex-dependent. These findings might have important implications on the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying emotional and cognitive processing associated with shyness. PMID:25994971

  6. Meta-analysis of sex differences in gene expression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wenyi; Liu, Cong; Sodhi, Monsheel; Lu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder which influences around 1% of the worldwide population. Differences between male and female patients with schizophrenia have been noted. There is an earlier age of onset in males compared with females with this diagnosis, and in addition, there are differences in symptom profiles between the sexes. The underlying molecular mechanism of sex difference remains unclear. Here we present a comprehensive analysis to reveal the sex differences in gene expression in schizophrenia with stringent statistics criteria. We compiled a data set consisting of 89 male controls, 90 male schizophrenia patients, 35 female controls and 32 female schizophrenia patients from six independent studies of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in postmortem brain. When we tested for a sex by diagnosis interaction on gene expression, 23 genes were up-regulated and 23 genes were down-regulated in the male group (q-value < 0.05), several genes are related to energy metabolism, while 4 genes are located on sex chromosome. No genes were statistically significant in the female group when multiple testing correction were conducted (q-value <0.05), most likely due to the small sample size. Our protocol and results from the male group provide a starting point for identifying the underlying different mechanism between male and female schizophrenia patients. PMID:26818902

  7. Sex Differences in Performance on Piagetian Spatial Tasks: Differences in Competence or Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liben, Lynn S.; Golbeck, Susan L.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate that the performance factors examined do, in part, account for subjects' difficulties on standard Piagetian horizontality and verticality tasks but that they cannot fully account for the overall sex differences. (RH)

  8. Difference without Dominance: Children's Talk in Mixed- and Same-Sex Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Laura A.; Coleman, Lerita M.

    1992-01-01

    This study assesses whether third graders verbalize gender differences in dominance in mixed- and same-sex interactions, using data from tape-recordings of 43 pairs of white children (14 female and 12 male same-sex dyads and 17 different-sex dyads) playing checkers in same- or mixed-sex conditions. Children develop gender-differentiated speech…

  9. The Anthropological Implications of Sex Role Differences: Class and Ethnic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jerome W.

    The implications of physical and biological sex differences on sex role behavior cannot be understood without analyzing the complementary role of the sociocultural meaning of sex roles. The normative aspect of gender role behavior is fluid and can be affected by culture, class, and ethnicity. All societies recognize differences between the sexes.…

  10. Sex Differences in Patients Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Molina, Angeles; Enea, Iolanda; Gadelha, Telma; Tufano, Antonella; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Bounameaux, Henri; González, José; Villalta, Jaume; Monreal, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), the outcome during the course of anticoagulant therapy may differ according to the patient’s sex. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) database to compare the rate of VTE recurrences, major bleeding, and mortality due to these events according to sex. As of August 2013, 47,499 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 24,280 (51%) were women. Women were older, more likely presented with pulmonary embolism (PE), and were more likely to have recent immobilization but less likely to have cancer than men. During the course of anticoagulation (mean duration: 253 d), 659 patients developed recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 576 recurrent PE, 1368 bled, and 4506 died. Compared with men, women had a lower rate of DVT recurrences (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.91), a similar rate of PE recurrences (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.83–1.15), a higher rate of major bleeding (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09–1.35), and higher mortality due to PE (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.04–1.47). On multivariable analysis, any influence of sex on the risk for recurrent DVT (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.75–1.03), major bleeding (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.98–1.24), or fatal PE (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.84–1.22) was no longer statistically significant. In conclusion, women had fewer DVT recurrences and more bleeds than men during the course of anticoagulation. These differences were not due to sex, but very likely to other patient characteristics more common in female patients and differences in treatment choice. PMID:25398066

  11. Sex Differences in Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Pediatric HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiko; Adland, Emily; Paioni, Paolo; Swordy, Alice; Mori, Luisa; Laker, Leana; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Matthews, Philippa C; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Lavandier, Nora; van Zyl, Anriette; Hurst, Jacob; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Prendergast, Andrew; Goulder, Philip; Jooste, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and severity of infections in childhood is typically greater in males. The basis for these observed sex differences is not well understood, and potentially may facilitate novel approaches to reducing disease from a range of conditions. We here investigated sex differences in HIV-infected children in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and post-treatment outcome. In a South African cohort of 2,101 HIV-infected children, we observed that absolute CD4+ count and CD4% were significantly higher in ART-naïve female, compared to age-matched male, HIV-infected children. Absolute CD4 count and CD4% were also significantly higher in HIV-uninfected female versus male neonates. We next showed that significantly more male than female children were initiated on ART (47% female); and children not meeting criteria to start ART by >5 yrs were more frequently female (59%; p<0.001). Among ART-treated children, immune reconstitution of CD4 T-cells was more rapid and more complete in female children, even after adjustment for pre-ART absolute CD4 count or CD4% (p=0.011, p=0.030, respectively). However, while ART was initiated as a result of meeting CD4 criteria less often in females (45%), ART initiation as a result of clinical disease in children whose CD4 counts were above treatment thresholds occurred more often in females (57%, p<0.001). The main sex difference in morbidity observed in children initiating ART above CD4 thresholds, above that of TB disease, was as a result of wasting and stunting observed in females with above-threshold CD4 counts (p=0.002). These findings suggest the possibility that optimal treatment of HIV-infected children might incorporate differential CD4 treatment thresholds for ART initiation according to sex. PMID:26151555

  12. Sex differences in tool use acquisition in bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Boose, Klaree J; White, Frances J; Meinelt, Audra

    2013-09-01

    All the great ape species are known tool users in both the wild and captivity, although there is great variation in ability and behavioral repertoire. Differences in tool use acquisition between chimpanzees and gorillas have been attributed to differing levels of social tolerance as a result of differences in social structure. Chimpanzees also show sex differences in acquisition and both chimpanzees and bonobos demonstrate a female bias in tool use behaviors. Studies of acquisition are limited in the wild and between species comparisons are complicated in captivity by contexts that often do not reflect natural conditions. Here we investigated tool use acquisition in a captive group of naïve bonobos by simulating naturalistic conditions. We constructed an artificial termite mound fashioned after those that occur in the wild and tested individuals within a social group context. We found sex differences in latencies to attempt and to succeed where females attempted to fish, were successful more quickly, and fished more frequently than males. We compared our results to those reported for chimpanzees and gorillas. Males across all three species did not differ in latency to attempt or to succeed. In contrast, bonobo and chimpanzee females succeeded more quickly than did female gorillas. Female bonobos and female chimpanzees did not differ in either latency to attempt or to succeed. We tested the social tolerance hypothesis by investigating the relationship between tool behaviors and number of neighbors present. We also compared these results to those reported for chimpanzees and gorillas and found that bonobos had the fewest numbers of neighbors present. The results of this study do not support the association between number of neighbors and tool behavior reported for chimpanzees. However, bonobos demonstrated a similar sex difference in tool use acquisition, supporting the hypothesis of a female bias in tool use in Pan. PMID:23606188

  13. Sex differences in cardiovascular and subjective stress reactions: prospective evidence in a realistic military setting.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Larson, Gerald E; Hiller Lauby, Melissa D; Padilla, Genieleah A; Wilson, Ingrid E; Schmied, Emily A; Highfill-McRoy, Robyn M; Morgan, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Evidence points to heightened physiological arousal in response to acute stress exposure as both a prospective indicator and a core characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because females may be at higher risk for PTSD development, it is important to evaluate sex differences in acute stress reactions. This study characterized sex differences in cardiovascular and subjective stress reactions among military survival trainees. One hundred and eighty-five military members (78% males) were studied before, during, and 24 h after stressful mock captivity. Cardiovascular (heart rate [HR], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) and dissociative states were measured at all three time points. Psychological impact of mock captivity was assessed during recovery. General linear modeling with repeated measures evaluated sex differences for each cardiovascular endpoint, and causal steps modeling was used to explore interrelationships among sex, cardiovascular reactions and psychological impact of mock captivity. Although females had lower SBP than males at all three time points, the difference was most pronounced at baseline and during stress. Accordingly, females showed greater residual elevation in SBP during recovery. Females had lower DBP at all three time points. In addition, females reported greater psychological impact of mock captivity than males. Exploratory causal steps modeling suggested that stress-induced HR may partially mediate the effect of sex on psychological impact of mock captivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated sex-specific cardiovascular stress reactions in military personnel, along with greater psychological impact of stress exposure in females. This research may elucidate sex differences in PTSD development. PMID:24320603

  14. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and How They Add to the Understanding of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Zapf, Alexandra C.; Glindemann, Liv A.; Vogeley, Kai; Falter, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The most consistent cognitive sex differences have been found in the visuo-spatial domain, using Mental Rotation (MR) tasks. Such sex differences have been suggested to bear implications on our understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, it is still debated how the sex difference in MR performance relates to differences between individuals with ASD compared to typically developed control persons (TD). To provide a detailed exploration of sex differences in MR performance, we studied rotational (indicated by slopes) and non-rotational aspects (indicated by intercepts) of the MR task in TD individuals (total N = 50). Second-to-fourth digit length ratios (2D:4D) were measured to investigate the associations between prenatal testosterone and performance on MR tasks. Handedness was assessed by the use of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory in order to examine the relation between handedness and MR performance. In addition, we investigated the relation of spatial to systemising abilities, both of which have been associated with sex differences and with ASD, employing the Intuitive Physics Test (IPT). Results showed a male advantage in rotational aspects of the MR task, which correlated with IPT results. These findings are in contrast to the MR performance of individuals with ASD who have been shown to outperform TD persons in the non-rotational aspects of the MR task. These results suggest that the differences in MR performance due to ASD are different from sex-related differences in TD persons, in other words, ASD is not a simple and continuous extension of the male cognitive profile into the psychopathological range as the extreme male brain hypothesis (EMB) of ASD would suggest. PMID:25884501

  15. Sex differences of COPD phenotypes in nonsmoking patients

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yoonki; Ji, Wonjun; An, Soojeong; Han, Seon-Sook; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence about sex-related phenotypes of COPD. However, the sex differences in COPD mainly result from smokers. This study evaluated the sex differences in nonsmoking patients with COPD, focusing on structural changes in the lungs in airway diseases and emphysema. Methods Ninety-seven nonsmoking patients, defined as having <1 pack-year of lifetime cigarette smoking, diagnosed with COPD were selected from a Korean COPD cohort. Emphysema extent and mean wall area percentage (WA%) on computed tomography were compared between the male and female groups. Results The 97 patients with COPD included 62 females and 35 males. Emphysema index was significantly lower (3.5±4.2 vs 6.2±5.7, P<0.01) and mean WA% on computed tomography was significantly higher (71.8%±5% vs 69.4%±5%, P<0.01) in females than in males, after adjusting for age, body mass index, history of biomass exposure, and postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (% of predicted). Conclusion WA% was higher and emphysema extent was lower in nonsmoking females with COPD than in nonsmoking males with COPD. These findings suggest that males may be predisposed to an emphysema phenotype and females may be predisposed to an airway phenotype of COPD. PMID:27524891

  16. A Preliminary Study of Sex Differences in Emotional Experience.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Aguilar, Azalea; Barrios, Fernando A

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary approaches have proposed that women possess an advantage over men in emotional functioning to promote attachment for child-rearing. Likewise, sex differences have been reported in traits such as personality and empathy, traits that likely modulate emotional processing. In this preliminary study, sex differences in emotional processing were analyzed, including empathy as a social emotion and personality traits, as well as whether there exist relationships between those measures. Young volunteers (N = 105) indicated the emotional valence, activation, and dominance that they experience in situations categorized as emotionally positive, negative, or neutral. The results of comparison between sexes supported the approach that women showed more sensitivity to high activation and dominance for positive emotions and empathy, and men were more sensitive to negative situations. Correlation analysis showed only one positive relationship between scores of Self-transcendence, a subscale of Temperament and Character Inventory, with activation scores of neutral situations, but not with emotionally charged situations, perhaps because emotions are context-dependent processes while personality traits are considered context-independent descriptions of habits. These findings should be replicated to enrich knowledge about problems in emotional processing. PMID:27154367

  17. Sex differences in the association between physical exercise and IQ.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J

    2012-10-01

    Previous research suggests that physical exercise may have beneficial effects on cognitive performance in children and the elderly, but little research has yet examined these associations in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that self-reported frequency and duration of physical exercise would correlate positively with measured intelligence on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence in healthy young to middle aged adults (25 men, 28 women). Although there was a modest positive association between physical exercise and intelligence (IQ) for the group as a whole, when examined separately by sex, greater physical activity was associated with higher intelligence scores for women, whereas exercise level was essentially unrelated to intelligence among men. These associations remained consistent even after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. The association between exercise and IQ appears to be moderated by sex in healthy adults, possibly through its effects on glucoregulation, insulin sensitivity, or other factors that differ between men and women. PMID:23265022

  18. Sex differences in a rat model of risky decision making.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Willis, Markie L; Gilbert, Ryan J; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2016-02-01

    Many debilitating psychiatric conditions, including drug addiction, are characterized by poor decision making and maladaptive risk-taking. Recent research has begun to probe this relationship to determine how brain mechanisms mediating risk-taking become compromised after chronic drug use. Currently, however, the majority of work in this field has used male subjects. Given the well-established sex differences in drug addiction, it is conceivable that such differences are also evident in risk-based decision making. To test this possibility, male and female adult rats were trained in a risky decision making task (RDT), in which they chose between a small, "safe" food reward and a large, "risky" food reward accompanied by an increasing probability of mild footshock punishment. Consistent with findings in human subjects, females were more risk averse, choosing the large, risky reward significantly less than males. This effect was not due to differences in shock reactivity or body weight, and risk-taking in females was not modulated by estrous phase. Systemic amphetamine administration decreased risk-taking in both males and females; however, females exhibited greater sensitivity to amphetamine, suggesting that dopaminergic signaling may partially account for sex differences in risk-taking. Finally, although males displayed greater instrumental responding for food reward, reward choice in the RDT was not affected by satiation, indicating that differences in motivation to obtain food reward cannot fully account for sex differences in risk-taking. These results should prove useful for developing targeted treatments for psychiatric conditions in which risk-taking is altered and that are known to differentially affect males and females. PMID:26653713

  19. Sex Education Knowledge Differences between Freshmen and Senior College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ruth M.; Dotger, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Abstinence sexuality education (sex ed) is the only federally funded sex ed in the United States. The strict curriculum of this education does not educate American adolescents about safer sex practices and leaves a knowledge gap in these adolescents that follows them into college. The Problem: This project aimed to identify sex knowledge…

  20. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Morphology: Relationship to Mental Rotation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Koscik, Tim; O’Leary, Dan; Moser, David J.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2009-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain have reported evidence for sexual dimorphism. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume have been observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge there have been no studies examining the relationship between the sex differences in parietal lobe structure and function. The parietal lobe is thought to be involved in spatial ability, and particularly involved in mental rotation. The purpose of this study is to examine whether sex differences in parietal lobe structure are present, and if present to relate these differences to performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT). We found that women had proportionately greater gray matter volume in the parietal lobe compared to men, and this morphologic difference was disadvantageous for women in terms of performance on the MRT. In contrast, we found that men compared to women had proportionately greater parietal lobe surface area, and this morphologic difference was associated with a performance advantage for men on mental rotation. These findings support the possibility that the sexual dimorphism in the structure of the parietal lobe is a neurobiological substrate for the sex difference in performance on the Mental Rotations Test. PMID:18980790

  1. Sex differences in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Keith R; Irvine, Karen; Gale, Tim M

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in neurocognitive abilities have been extensively explored both in the healthy population and in many disorders. Until recently, however, little work has examined such differences in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This is despite clear evidence that AD is more prevalent in women, and converging lines of evidence from brain imaging, post-mortem analyses, hormone therapy and genetics suggesting that AD affects men and women differently. We provide an overview of evidence attesting to the poorer cognitive profiles in women than in men at the same stage of AD. Indeed, men significantly outperform women in several cognitive domains, including: Language and semantic abilities, visuospatial abilities and episodic memory. These differences do not appear to be attributable to any differences in age, education, or dementia severity. Reasons posited for this female disadvantage include a reduction of estrogen in postmenopausal women, greater cognitive reserve in men, and the influence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. Assessment of cognitive abilities contributes to the diagnosis of the condition and thus, it is crucial to identify the role of sex differences if potentially more accurate diagnoses and treatments are to emerge. PMID:27014598

  2. Sex differences in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Laws, Keith R; Irvine, Karen; Gale, Tim M

    2016-03-22

    Sex differences in neurocognitive abilities have been extensively explored both in the healthy population and in many disorders. Until recently, however, little work has examined such differences in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is despite clear evidence that AD is more prevalent in women, and converging lines of evidence from brain imaging, post-mortem analyses, hormone therapy and genetics suggesting that AD affects men and women differently. We provide an overview of evidence attesting to the poorer cognitive profiles in women than in men at the same stage of AD. Indeed, men significantly outperform women in several cognitive domains, including: Language and semantic abilities, visuospatial abilities and episodic memory. These differences do not appear to be attributable to any differences in age, education, or dementia severity. Reasons posited for this female disadvantage include a reduction of estrogen in postmenopausal women, greater cognitive reserve in men, and the influence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. Assessment of cognitive abilities contributes to the diagnosis of the condition and thus, it is crucial to identify the role of sex differences if potentially more accurate diagnoses and treatments are to emerge. PMID:27014598

  3. Sex Differences in Sleep-Dependent Perceptual Learning

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Rokem, Ariel; Silver, Michael A.; Mednick, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in learning and memory suggest differences between men and women in mechanisms of neural plasticity. Such differences have been reported in a variety of explicit memory tasks, but implicit memory has not been studied in this context. We investigated differences between men and women in offline consolidation of perceptual learning (PL) of motion direction discrimination. Initially, discrimination thresholds were measured for two opposite directions of motion, followed by approximately forty minutes of training on one of the directions. During a post-training consolidation period, subjects either took a nap or remained awake. Thresholds were then reassessed for both directions of motion. We found that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep facilitates consolidation of PL but that the pattern of specificity in the REM condition differed between men and women. PL for men whose naps contained REM sleep was highly specific to the trained direction of motion, whereas REM sleep in women resulted in generalized learning to the untrained direction as well as to a novel direction that was not previously tested. Moreover, for subjects in the REM condition, men exhibited greater PL than women for the trained direction. Our findings provide the first evidence of sex differences in the magnitude and specificity of PL and in the role of REM sleep in implicit learning. Our results have important implications for optimization of educational and training strategies designed for males and females. PMID:24141074

  4. Sex Differences in Drosophila melanogaster Heterochromatin Are Regulated by Non-Sex Specific Factors

    PubMed Central

    Apte, Manasi S.; Meller, Victoria H.

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic genome is assembled into distinct types of chromatin. Gene-rich euchromatin has active chromatin marks, while heterochromatin is gene-poor and enriched for silencing marks. In spite of this, genes native to heterochromatic regions are dependent on their normal environment for full expression. Expression of genes in autosomal heterochromatin is reduced in male flies mutated for the noncoding roX RNAs, but not in females. roX mutations also disrupt silencing of reporter genes in male, but not female, heterochromatin, revealing a sex difference in heterochromatin. We adopted a genetic approach to determine how this difference is regulated, and found no evidence that known X chromosome counting elements, or the sex determination pathway that these control, are involved. This suggested that the sex chromosome karyotype regulates autosomal heterochromatin by a different mechanism. To address this, candidate genes that regulate chromosome organization were examined. In XX flies mutation of Topoisomerase II (Top2), a gene involved in chromatin organization and homolog pairing, made heterochromatic silencing dependent on roX, and thus male-like. Interestingly, Top2 also binds to a large block of pericentromeric satellite repeats (359 bp repeats) that are unique to the X chromosome. Deletion of X heterochromatin also makes autosomal heterochromatin in XX flies dependent on roX and enhances the effect of Top2 mutations, suggesting a combinatorial action. We postulate that Top2 and X heterochromatin in Drosophila comprise a novel karyotype-sensing pathway that determines the sensitivity of autosomal heterochromatin to loss of roX RNA. PMID:26053165

  5. Sleep Loss Activates Cellular Markers of Inflammation: Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammation and related disorders including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. Given sex differences in the prevalence of inflammatory disorders with stronger associations in females, this study was undertaken to test the effects of sleep loss on cellular mechanisms that contribute to proinflammatory cytokine activity. In 26 healthy adults (11 females; 15 males), monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed at 08:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, and 23:00 h during a baseline period and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 PM to 3 AM). In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor- α differentially changed between the two sexes. Whereas both females and males showed a marked increase in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the morning immediately after PSD, production of these cytokines during the early- and late evening was increased in the females as compared to decreases in the males. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of monocyte proinflammatory cytokine responses with females showing greater cellular immune activation as compared to changes in males. These results have implications for understanding the role of sleep disturbance in the differential risk profile for inflammatory disorders between the sexes. PMID:19520155

  6. Sex differences in coping strategies in military survival school.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Emily A; Padilla, Genieleah A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Lauby, Melissa D Hiller; Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of research has examined psychological responses to trauma among male military service members, but few studies have examined sex differences in response to trauma, such as coping strategies. This study assessed coping strategies used by male and female U.S. service members completing an intensely stressful mock-captivity exercise, compared strategies by sex, and assessed the relationship between coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Two hundred service members (78% male) completed self-report surveys before and after mock captivity. Surveys assessed demographics, service characteristics, PTSS, and coping strategies used during mock captivity. Participants used seven coping strategies: denial, self-blame, religion, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, positive reframing, and planning. Women used denial (p≤.05), self-blame (p≤.05), and positive reinterpretation (p≤.05) strategies more frequently than men, and they had higher PTSS levels following the exercise. Structural equation modeling showed that the relationship between sex and PTSS was fully mediated by coping strategies. The results of this study suggest that reducing the use of maladaptive coping strategies may mitigate PTSS among females. Future efforts should target improving coping during highly stressful and traumatic experiences. PMID:25465883

  7. Sex differences in pain: a tale of two immune cells.

    PubMed

    Mapplebeck, Josiane C S; Beggs, Simon; Salter, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Substantial evidence has implicated microglia in neuropathic pain. After peripheral nerve injury, microglia in the spinal cord proliferate and increase cell-surface expression of the purinergic receptor P2X4. Activation of P2X4 receptors results in release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which acts on neurons to produce disinhibition of dorsal horn neurons which transmit nociceptive information to the brain. Disinhibition of these neurons produces pain hypersensitivity, a hallmark symptom of neuropathic pain. However, elucidating this microglia-neuronal signalling pathway was based on studies using only male rodents. Recent evidence has shown that the role of microglia in pain is sexually dimorphic. Despite similar microglia proliferation in the dorsal horn in both sexes, females do not upregulate P2X4Rs and use a microglia-independent pathway to mediate pain hypersensitivity. Instead, adaptive immune cells, possibly T cells, may mediate pain hypersensitivity in female mice. This profound sex difference highlights the importance of including subjects of both sexes in preclinical pain research. PMID:26785152

  8. A heads up on concussions: are there sex-related differences?

    PubMed

    Brook, Emily M; Luo, Xuan; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries are a major concern for physicians in athletes of all ages. Specifically, sports-related concussions are becoming an all-too-common injury among female athletes. The incidence of concussions among female athletes has likely increased over the past few decades because of an increase in sports participation afforded by Title IX. It would be useful for physicians to have general knowledge of concussions and their potential sex-related differences. This review article summarizes the current body of research concerning sex-related differences in concussion epidemiology and outcomes. A literature search was performed using PubMed and included all articles published from 1993 to present, with a predominant focus on research conducted over the past fifteen years. Additional articles were found using the bibliography from articles found through the PubMed search. Several articles have compared incidence, severity of neurological deficit, constellation of symptoms, and length of recovery post-concussion in males and females. However, the literature does not unanimously support a significant sex-related difference in concussions. Lack of consensus in the literature can be attributed to differences between patient populations, different tools used to study concussions, including subjective or objective measures, and differences in mechanisms of injury. We conclude that concussions are a serious injury in both male and female athletes, and physicians should have a very high index of suspicion regardless of sex, because there currently is not sufficient consensus in the literature to institute sex-related changes to concussion management. Current research may suggest a sex-related difference pertaining to sports-related concussions, but further evaluation is needed on this topic. PMID:26781686

  9. On sex-related differences in auditory and visual sensory functioning.

    PubMed

    Rammsayer, Thomas H; Troche, Stefan J

    2012-06-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate sex-related differences in two basic auditory and one basic visual aspect of sensory functioning, namely sensory discrimination of pitch, loudness, and brightness. Although these three aspects of sensory functioning are of vital importance in everyday life, little is known about whether men and women differ from each other in these sensory functions. Participants were 100 male and 100 female volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. Since sensory sensitivity may be positively related to individual levels of intelligence and musical experience, measures of psychometric intelligence and musical background were also obtained. Reliably better performance for men compared to women was found for pitch and loudness, but not for brightness discrimination. Furthermore, performance on loudness discrimination was positively related to psychometric intelligence, while pitch discrimination was positively related to both psychometric intelligence and levels of musical training. Additional regression analyses revealed that each of three predictor variables (sex, psychometric intelligence, and musical training) accounted for a statistically significant portion of unique variance in pitch discrimination. With regard to loudness discrimination, regression analysis yielded a statistically significant portion of unique variance for sex as a predictor variable, whereas psychometric intelligence just failed to reach statistical significance. The potential influence of sex hormones on sex-related differences in sensory functions is discussed. PMID:22183583

  10. Sex Differences in Outcome after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian; Mookerjee, Sohug; He, Hua; McDermott, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to estimate the independent association of sex with outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We performed an analysis of a subset of an established cohort involving 1425 mTBI patients presenting to an academic emergency department (ED). The associations between sex and three outcomes determined 3 months after the initial ED visit were examined: post-concussive symptom (PCS) score (0, 1–5, 6–16, and >16), the number of days to return of normal activities (0, 1–7, and >7), and the number of days of work missed (0, 1–7,and >7). Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between sex and each outcome after controlling for 12 relevant subject-level variables. Of the 1425 subjects, 643 (45.1%) were female and 782 (54.9%) were male. Three months after mTBI, males had significantly lower odds of being in a higher PCS score category (odds ratio [OR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50, 0.78); this association appeared to be more prominent during child-bearing years for females. Males and females did not significantly differ with respect to the odds of poorer outcome as defined by the number of days to return of normal activities or the number of days of work missed. Female sex is associated with significantly higher odds of poor outcome after mTBI, as measured by PCS score, after control for appropriate confounders. The observed pattern of peak disability for females during the child-bearing years suggests disruption of endogenous estrogen or progesterone production. Attempts to better understand how mTBI affects production of these hormones acutely after injury and during the recovery period may shed light on the mechanism behind poorer outcome among females and putative therapeutic interventions. PMID:19938945

  11. Sex-specific strategy use and global-local processing: a perspective toward integrating sex differences in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on sex-specific strategy use in cognitive tasks with the aim to carve out a link between sex differences in different cognitive tasks. I conclude that male strategies are commonly holistic and oriented toward global stimulus aspects, while female strategies are commonly decomposed and oriented toward local stimulus aspects. Thus, the strategies observed in different tasks, may depend on sex differences in attentional focus and hence sex differences in global-local processing. I hypothesize that strategy use may be sex hormone dependent and hence subject to change over the menstrual cycle as evidenced by findings in global-local processing and emotional memory. Furthermore, I propose sex hormonal modulation of hemispheric asymmetries as one possible neural substrate for this theory, thereby building on older theories, emphasizing the importance of sex differences in brain lateralization. The ideas described in the current article represent a perspective toward a unifying approach to the study of sex differences in cognition and their neural correlates. PMID:25565953

  12. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  13. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  14. Sex differences in cardiovascular function during submaximal exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Courtney M; Snyder, Eric M; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Differences in cardiovascular function between sexes have been documented at rest and maximal exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex differences in cardiovascular function during submaximal constant-load exercise, which is not well understood. Thirty-one male and 33 female subjects completed nine minutes moderate and nine minutes vigorous intensity submaximal exercise (40 and 75% of peak watts determined by maximal exercise test). Measurements included: intra-arterial blood pressure (SBP and DBP), cardiac index (QI), heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2) and arterial catecholamines (epinephrine = EPI and norepinephrine = NE), and blood gases. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), stroke volume index (SVI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), arterial to venous O2 difference (AVO2) and systemic oxygen transport (SOT) were calculated. At rest and during submaximal exercise QI, SVI, SBP, MAP, NE, CaO2, and SOT were lower in females compared to males. VO2, AVO2, EPI were lower in females throughout exercise. When corrected for wattage, females had a higher Q, HR, SV, VO2 and AVO2 despite lower energy expenditure and higher mechanical efficiency. This study demonstrates sex differences in the cardiovascular response to constant-load submaximal exercise. Specifically, females presented limitations in cardiac performance in which they are unable to compensate for reductions in stroke volume through increases in HR, potentially a consequence of a female's blunted sympathetic response and higher vasodilatory state. Females demonstrated greater cardiac work needed to meet the same external work demand, and relied on increased peripheral oxygen extraction, lower energy expenditure and improvements in mechanical efficiency as compensatory mechanisms. PMID:25191635

  15. Sex differences in the rate of fatigue development and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Albert, WJ; Wrigley, AT; McLean, RB; Sleivert, GG

    2006-01-01

    Background Many musculoskeltal injuries in the workplace have been attributed to the repetitive loading of muscle and soft tissues. It is not disputed that muscular fatigue is a risk factor for musculoskeltal injury, however the disparity between gender with respect to muscular fatigability and rate of recovery is not well understood. Current health and safety guidelines do not account for sex differences in fatiguability and may be predisposing one gender to greater risk. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sex differences in fatigue development and recovery rate of lower and upper body musculature after repeated bouts of sustained isometric contractions. Methods Twenty-seven healthy males (n = 12) and females (n = 15) underwent bilateral localized fatigue of either the knee extensors (male: n = 8; female: n = 8), elbow flexors (male: n = 8; female: n = 10), or both muscle groups. The fatigue protocol consisted of ten 30-second sub-maximal isometric contractions. The changes in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), electrically evoked twitches, and motor unit activation (MUA) were assessed along with the ability to control the sustained contractions (SLP) during the fatigue protocol using a mixed four-factor repeated measures ANOVA (gender × side × muscle × time) design with significance set at p < 0.05. Results There was a significant loss of MVC, MUA, and evoked twitch amplitude from pre- to post-fatigue in both the arms and legs. Males had greater relative loss of isometric force, a higher rate of fatigue development, and were less capable of maintaining the fatiguing contractions in the legs when compared to the females. Conclusion The nature of the induced fatigue was a combination of central and peripheral fatigue that did not fully recover over a 45-minute period. The results appear to reflect sex differences that are peripheral, and partially support the muscle mass hypothesis for explaining differences in muscular fatigue. PMID:16412256

  16. Sex differences with aging in the fatigability of dynamic contractions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tejin; Doyel, Ryan; Widule, Claire; Hunter, Sandra K

    2015-10-01

    This study determined the sex difference with aging in fatigability of the elbow flexor muscles during a dynamic fatiguing task, and explored the associated mechanisms. We compared fatigability of the elbow flexor muscles in 18 young (20.2 ± 1 years: 9 men) and 36 old adults (73.5 ± 1 years: 16 men) during and in recovery from repeated dynamic contractions (~60°/s) with a load equivalent to 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque until failure. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess supraspinal fatigue (an increase in the superimposed twitch, SIT) and the peak rate of muscle relaxation. Time to failure was briefer for the men than the women (6.1 ± 2.1 vs. 9.7 ± 5.5 min, respectively; P=0.02) with no difference between young and old adults (7.2 ± 2.9 vs. 8.4 ± 5.2 min, respectively, P=0.45) and no interaction (P>0.05). The relative decline in peak relaxation rate with fatigability was similar for young and old adults (P=0.11), but greater for men than women (P=0.046). Supraspinal fatigue increased for all groups and was associated with the time to failure (P<0.05). Regression analysis however, indicated that the time to failure was best predicted by the peak relaxation rate (baseline values and slowing with fatigability) (r(2)=0.55). Rate-limiting contractile mechanisms (e.g. excitation-contraction coupling) were responsible for the increased fatigability of the elbow flexors of men compared with women for a dynamic fatiguing task of slow angular velocity, and this sex difference was maintained with aging. The age difference in fatigability for the dynamic task was diminished for both sexes relative to what is typically observed with isometric fatiguing contractions. PMID:26159162

  17. Race–Sex Differences in the Management of Hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Safford, Monika M.; Gamboa, Christopher M.; Durant, Raegan W.; Brown, Todd M.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Shikany, James M.; Zweifler, Richard M.; Howard, George; Muntner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipid management is less aggressive in blacks than whites and women than men. Purpose To examine whether differences in lipid management for race–sex groups compared to white men (WM) are due to factors influencing health services utilization or physician prescribing patterns. Methods Because coronary heart disease (CHD) risk influences physician prescribing, Adult Treatment Panel III CHD risk categories were constructed using baseline data from REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study participants (recruited 2003–2007). Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hyperlipidemia were examined for race–sex groups across CHD risk categories. Multivariable models conducted in 2013 estimated prevalence ratios adjusted for predisposing, enabling, and need factors influencing health services utilization. Results The analytic sample included 7,809 WM, 7,712 white women (WW), 4,096 black men (BM), and 6,594 black women (BW). Except in the lowest risk group, BM were less aware of hyperlipidemia than others. A higher percentage of WM in the highest risk group was treated (83.2%) and controlled (72.8%) than others (treatment, 68.6%–72.1%; control, 52.2%–65.5%), with BW treated and controlled the least. These differences remained significant after adjustment for predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Stratified analyses demonstrated that treatment and control were lower for other race–sex groups relative to WM only in the highest risk category. Conclusions Hyperlipidemia was more aggressively treated and controlled among WM compared with WW, BM, and especially BW among those at highest risk for CHD. These differences were not attributable to factors influencing health services utilization. PMID:25891050

  18. Sex and Gender Differences in Central Nervous System-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zagni, Emanuela; Simoni, Lucia; Colombo, Delia

    2016-01-01

    There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies. We here review the clinical literature on sex differences in pain and neurological and psychiatric diseases, with the aim to further stimulate interest in sexual dimorphisms in the brain and brain diseases, possibly encouraging more research in the field of the implications of sex differences for treating these conditions. PMID:27314003

  19. Sex and Gender Differences in Central Nervous System-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Zagni, Emanuela; Simoni, Lucia; Colombo, Delia

    2016-01-01

    There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies. We here review the clinical literature on sex differences in pain and neurological and psychiatric diseases, with the aim to further stimulate interest in sexual dimorphisms in the brain and brain diseases, possibly encouraging more research in the field of the implications of sex differences for treating these conditions. PMID:27314003

  20. Collegiate Swimmers: Sex Differences in Self Reported and Physiological Stress Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gackenbach, Jayne

    Research has suggested that sex role identity is a major factor in sports anxiety across the sexes. Sex and sex role differences in sports anxiety as expressed by collegiate swimmers prior to competition were investigated on both self-report and physiological levels. An hour before practice and competition the blood pressures of 13 female and 14…

  1. Sex differences in postsynaptic sweating and cutaneous vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Daniel; Crandall, Craig G.

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine whether a peripheral modulation of sweating contributes to the lower sudomotor thermosensitivity previously observed in females during exercise. We examined dose-response relationships in 12 males and 12 females to incremental doses of acetylcholine (ACh) and methylcholine (MCh) for sweating (ventilated capsule), as well as to ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for cutaneous vasodilation (laser-Doppler). All drugs were infused using intradermal microdialysis. On a separate day, potential sex differences in the onset threshold and/or thermosensitivity of heat loss responses were assessed during progressive increases in mean body temperature elicited by passive heating. Increases in sweating as a function of increasing concentration of ACh (P = 0.008) and MCh (P = 0.046) significantly differed between males and females. Although the concentration eliciting 50% of the maximal sweating response did not differ between sexes for either agonist (P > 0.1), maximum values were lower in females in response to ACh (0.34 ± 0.12 vs. 0.59 ± 0.19 mg·min−1·cm−2, P = 0.04) and MCh (0.48 ± 0.12 vs. 0.78 ± 0.26 mg·min−1·cm−2, P = 0.05). This observation was paralleled by a lower thermosensitivity of sudomotor activity in females during passive heating (1.29 ± 0.34 vs. 1.83 ± 0.33 mg·min−1·cm−2·°C−1, P = 0.03), with no significant differences in the change in mean body temperature at which onset of sweating occurred (0.85 ± 0.19 vs. 0.67 ± 0.13°C, P = 0.10). No sex differences in cutaneous vasodilation were observed in response to ACh and SNP, as well as during passive heating (all P > 0.1). These findings provide direct evidence for a peripheral modulation of sudomotor activity in females. In contrast, sex does not modulate cutaneous vasodilation. PMID:23154992

  2. [Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of psychotropic medications: Differences between sexes].

    PubMed

    Bergiannaki, J D; Kostaras, P

    2016-01-01

    The gender based or gender sensitive pharmacology is a new research area. Differences among sexes are observed in several parameters of their pharmacokinetic which may relate to alteration of their pharmacodynamic as well. Most psychotropics are given per os, and the greater part of their absorption takes place in the small intestine. Premenopausal women have slower gastric emptying times and lower gastrointestinal blood flow which probably reduces the extent of drug absorption. The distribution of drugs is influenced by the relative lower body mass index, the lower blood volume and flow and the greater percentage of body fat of women. Further, the elimination and renal clearance is reduced in women and the hepatic metabolism differ between sexes. Besides, women differ from men in physiological conditions which may have an impact on the psychotropic medication and dosage required for efficacy and response. Women are exposed to monthly hormonal fluctuations (menstruation), pregnancy, puerperium, menopause and use of contraceptives or synthetic hormonal replacement therapies. Throughout of these conditions changes may occur in total body water, in renal clearance, cardiovascular and autoimmune system, which may cause fluctuations in the activity of the psychotropics, changes in the central neurotransmitters, in the number and sensitivity of the receptors, and the general metabolism as well. Despite the fact that women are the primer consumers of psychotropic medication, taking more psychotropics as well as more multiple medications than men, little attention has been paid to sex differences in psychopharmacology. Till recently women were under-represented or excluded from most of the pharmacological clinical trials. The treatment guidelines for psychotropic medication are based on studies verified and investigated almost exclusively in men. Results from such studies were generalized and recommended for use in the clinical practice without any critique and

  3. Sex differences in discriminating between cues predicting threat and safety.

    PubMed

    Day, Harriet L L; Reed, Molly M; Stevenson, Carl W

    2016-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent in women than men. PTSD is characterized by overgeneralization of fear to innocuous stimuli and involves impaired inhibition of learned fear by cues that predict safety. While evidence indicates that learned fear inhibition through extinction differs in males and females, less is known about sex differences in fear discrimination and safety learning. Here we examined auditory fear discrimination in male and female rats. In Experiment 1A, rats underwent 1-3days of discrimination training consisting of one tone predicting threat (CS+; presented with footshock) and another tone predicting safety (CS-; presented alone). Females, but not males, discriminated between the CS+ and CS- after one day of training. After 2-3days of training, however, males discriminated whereas females generalized between the CS+ and CS-. In Experiment 1B, females showed enhanced anxiety-like behaviour and locomotor activity in the open field, although these results were unlikely to explain the sex differences in fear discrimination. In Experiment 2, we found no differences in shock sensitivity between males and females. In Experiment 3, males and females again discriminated and generalized, respectively, after three days of training. Moreover, fear generalization in females resulted from impaired safety learning, as shown by a retardation test. Whereas subsequent fear conditioning to the previous CS- retarded learning in males, females showed no such retardation. These results suggest that, while females show fear discrimination with limited training, they show fear generalization with extended training due to impaired safety learning. PMID:27423522

  4. Sex-related differences in explosive actions during late childhood.

    PubMed

    Meylan, César M P; Cronin, John B; Oliver, Jon L; Rumpf, Michael C

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex-related differences in explosive actions during late childhood, while accounting for body size and maturity, and determine the predictive model responsible for performance. Sixty-eight boys (11.0 ± 1.1 years) and 45 girls (11.3 ± 0.9 years) performed a vertical and horizontal jump, 30-m sprint, and change of direction (COD) time trial. After allometric analysis, a common sex scaling factor of body mass was used for vertical (b = 1.02) and horizontal (b = 0.97) power. No significant sex difference in relative leg power was found before and after controlling for maturity status. Gender differences in 10 m, the Zigzag section, and flying 10 m of the COD task were found significant once adjusted for maturity (p ≤ 0.05). However, boys performed better than girls in 20- and 30-m sprint and the COD time trial regardless of maturity status (p ≤ 0.05). Reduced endomorphy in boys was the best predictor of explosive actions (R = 7-22%), whereas female performance was best explained by mass and maturity status (R = 15-19%). Jump power-specific allometric scaling factors need to be determined to account for body size. A training emphasis on sprinting and COD at a younger age in girls compared with boys is recommended because of their earlier onset of puberty and reduced natural ability in these tasks. Somatotype, age, maturity, and body mass should be monitored during the development of youth athletes to better understand explosive performance. PMID:25054572

  5. Are There Differences in Ice Hockey Injuries Between Sexes?

    PubMed Central

    MacCormick, Lauren; Best, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men’s ice hockey allows for body checking, and women’s ice hockey prohibits it. Studies have reported injury data on both sexes, but no systematic reviews have compared the injury patterns between male and female ice hockey players. Hypothesis: Men’s and women’s ice hockey would have different types of injuries, and this difference would extend across the different age groups and levels of play. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Three databases, 3 scientific journals, and selected bibliographies were searched to identify articles relevant to this study. Articles were further screened by the use of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-two studies met these criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Results: Men sustained higher rates of injuries than women at all age levels, and both sexes sustained at least twice as many injuries in games than practices. Both sexes sustained most of their injuries from player contact. Men and women in college sustained most injuries to the head and face, and women suffered from higher percentages of concussion. At all ages and levels of play, men had higher rates of upper extremity injuries (shoulder), while women were found to sustain more injuries to the lower extremity (thigh, knee). Conclusion: Although findings showed men sustaining higher rates of injuries than women, the predominant mechanism of player contact was the same. The most common locations and types of injuries in female ice hockey players are comparable to other sports played by women, and similar interventions could offer protection against injury. Clinical Relevance: Further studies that report injury data for women playing ice hockey at all levels will assist in understanding what prevention strategies should be implemented. PMID:26535265

  6. Persistent Pain Model Reveals Sex Difference in Morphine Potency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoya; Traub, Richard J.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2010-01-01

    Central or systemic administration of agonists directed at the mu or delta opiate receptors generally produce a greater degree of analgesia in males than in females. To date, the majority of studies examining sex based differences in opioid analgesia have employed acute noxious stimuli (i.e. tail-flick and hot plate test); thus, the potential dimorphic response of centrally acting opiates in the alleviation of persistent inflammatory pain is not well established. In the present study, right hindpaw withdrawal latency (PWL) to radiant thermal stimuli was measured in intact male and cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats before and after unilateral hindpaw injection of the inflammatory agent complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). Control animals received intraplantar injection of saline. Twenty four hours after CFA or saline injection, animals received either saline or morphine bisulfate (0.5 – 15 mg/kg; s.c.). Separate groups of control or inflamed animals were tested on their responsiveness to morphine at 7, 14 and 21 days post-CFA or saline. No sex differences were noted for baseline PWLs, and females displayed slightly less thermal hyperalgesia at 24 hrs post-CFA. At all morphine doses administered, both the antihyperalgesic effects of morphine in the inflamed animals, and the antinociceptive effects of morphine in control animals, were significantly greater in males in comparison to females. Similarly, in males, the antihyperalgesic effects of morphine increased significantly at 7–21 days post-CFA; no significant shift in morphine potency was noted for females. These studies demonstrate sex-based differences in the effects of morphine on thermal hyperalgesia in a model of persistent inflammatory pain. PMID:16497818

  7. Acute Exercise Increases Sex Differences in Amateur Athletes' Risk Taking.

    PubMed

    Pighin, S; Savadori, L; Bonini, N; Andreozzi, L; Savoldelli, A; Schena, F

    2015-10-01

    The research presented here investigates the interaction between acute exercise, biological sex and risk-taking behavior. The study involved 20 amateur athletes (19-33 years old), 10 males and 10 females, who were asked to undergo subsequent experimental sessions designed to compare their risky behaviors on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) 34 at rest and while exercising at moderate intensity (60% of their maximal aerobic power). Results showed that physical exercise affected male and female participants differently: Whereas males became more risk seeking, females became more risk averse during exercise. PMID:26090877

  8. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  9. Responses of sex steroid hormones to different intensities of exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Kanao, Yoji; Saito, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute exercise elevates sex steroid hormone concentrations in rodents and that sprint exercise increases circulating testosterone in healthy young men. However, the effect of different exercise intensities on sex steroid hormone responses at different levels of physical fitness is still unclear. In this study, we compared circulating sex steroid hormone responses at different exercise intensities in athletes and non-athletes. Eight male endurance athletes and 11 non-athletes performed two 15 min sessions of submaximal exercise at 40 and 70% peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)), respectively, and exercised at 90% V̇(O2peak) until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected during the last minute of each submaximal exercise session and immediately after exhaustion. Acute exercise at 40, 70 and 90% V̇(O2peak) induced significant increases in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and free testosterone concentrations in non-athletes. On the contrary, only 90% V̇O2 peak exercise led to an increase in serum DHEA and free testosterone concentrations in athletes. Serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased with 90% V̇(O2peak) exercise in both athletes and non-athletes. Additionally, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly increased at moderate and high exercise intensities in both athletes and non-athletes. These results indicate that in endurance athletes, serum sex steroid hormone concentrations, especially serum DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations, increased only with high-intensity exercise, suggesting that different responses of sex steroid hormone secretion are induced by different exercise intensities in individuals with low and high levels of physical fitness. In athletes, therefore, high-intensity exercise may be required to increase circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. PMID:26518151

  10. Sex Genotype and Sex Phenotype Contribute to Growth Differences Between Male and Female Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish have an XX:XY genotypic system of sex determination, and until the present study, the influence of sex genotype on growth could not be distinguished from sex phenotype. Genotypic male fish (XY) were produced by mating normal (XX) female fish with YY male fish. A subsample from eac...

  11. Sex-Based Differences in HIV Type 1 Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Addo, Marylyn M.; Altfeld, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global infectious diseases threat that disproportionally affects women. Beyond social and political factors, biological and genetic differences have been identified that lead to differential disease courses and outcomes in men and women. Following HIV type 1 (HIV-1) seroconversion, women have up to 40% lower HIV loads and higher CD4+ T-cell counts than men. However, at the same level of viremia, progression to AIDS is faster in women. After adjustment for viral load, HIV-positive women also display increased levels of generalized immune activation and experience the consequences of elevated inflammatory activity more frequently than men. Part of these observations are linked to sex-based differences in innate immunity, in which the differential ability of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to produce interferon α following stimulation of Toll-like receptor 7 and upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes play a central role. Here, we review the current knowledge and remaining gaps therein regarding sex-based differences in HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:24966195

  12. How else can we study sex differences in early infancy?

    PubMed

    Fausto-Sterling, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits group difference and individual variability in birth weight, head size, Apgar score, and motor performance in neonatal and 8-month-old males and females using a large existing data set. The goal is primarily theoretical--to reframe existing analyses with an eye toward designing and executing more predictive analyses in the future. 3D graphing to visualize both the areas of overlap and regions of disparity between boys and girls has been used. A two-step cluster analysis of boys and girls together revealed three clusters. One was almost equally divided between boys and girls, but a second was highly enriched for boys and the third highly skewed toward girls. The relationship between cluster membership and Bayley motor scores at 8 months tested the hypothesis that initial differences that have no sex-related behavioral content might start processes that produce later sex-related differences. Initially, parental belief systems may be less important than infant care patterns evoked by basic size and health characteristics, even though later parental behaviors assume a decidedly gendered pattern. PMID:26284576

  13. Sex differences in reported and objectively measured sleep in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Ólafsdóttir, Inga Sif; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Gíslason, Thórarinn; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim was to assess and compare reported sleep disturbances and objectively measured sleep in men and women with COPD compared with controls and also explore sex differences. Methods A total of 96 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex-matched controls answered a sleep questionnaire, underwent ambulatory polysomnography, a post-bronchodilatory spirometry, and blood sampling. Results Of the patients with COPD, 51% reported sleep disturbances as compared with 31% in controls (P=0.008). Sleep disturbances were significantly more prevalent in males with COPD compared with controls, whereas there was no significant difference in females. The use of hypnotics was more common among patients with COPD compared with controls, both in men (15% vs 0%, P=0.009) and women (36% vs 16%, P=0.03). The men with COPD had significantly longer recorded sleep latency than the male control group (23 vs 9.3 minutes, P<0.001), while no corresponding difference was found in women. In men with COPD, those with reported sleep disturbances had lower forced vital capacity, higher C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, and higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis. Conclusion The COPD was associated with impaired sleep in men while the association was less clear in women. This was also confirmed by recorded longer sleep latency in male subjects with COPD compared with controls. PMID:26869781

  14. Sex differences in body fluid homeostasis: Sex chromosome complement influences on bradycardic baroreflex response and sodium depletion induced neural activity.

    PubMed

    Vivas, L; Dadam, F M; Caeiro, X E

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and basic findings indicate that angiotensin II (ANG II) differentially modulates hydroelectrolyte and cardiovascular responses in male and female. But are only the activational and organizational hormonal effects to blame for such differences? Males and females not only differ in their sex (males are born with testes and females with ovaries) but also carry different sex chromosome complements and are thus influenced throughout life by different genomes. In this review, we discuss our recent studies in order to evaluate whether sex chromosome complement is in part responsible for gender differences previously observed in ANG II bradycardic-baroreflex response and sodium depletion-induced sodium appetite and neural activity. To test the hypothesis that XX or XY contributes to the dimorphic ANG II bradycardic-baroreflex response, we used the four core genotype mouse model, in which the effects of gonadal sex (testes or ovaries) and sex chromosome complement (XX or XY) are dissociated. The results indicate that ANG II bradycardic-baroreflex sexual dimorphic response may be ascribed to differences in sex chromosomes, indicating an XX-sex chromosome complement facilitatory bradycardic-baroreflex control of heart rate. Furthermore, we evaluated whether genetic differences within the sex chromosome complement may differentially modulate the known sexually dimorphic sodium appetite as well as basal or induced brain activity due to physiological stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system by furosemide and low-sodium treatment. Our studies demonstrate an organizational hormonal effect on sexually dimorphic induced sodium intake in mice, while at the brain level (subfornical organ and area postrema) we showed a sex chromosome complement effect in sodium-depleted mice, suggesting a sex chromosome gene participation in the modulation of neural pathways underlying regulatory response to renin-angiotensin stimulation. PMID:26260434

  15. Utilization of same- vs. mixed-sex dyads impacts the observation of sex differences in juvenile social play behavior

    PubMed Central

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    The study of juvenile social play behavior has gained popularity due to the disruption of social behaviors in several psychiatric illnesses. In contrast to many tests currently utilized in animal models of psychiatric illness, juvenile social play behavior is part of the normal behavioral repertoire in the laboratory rat and can be observed in a controlled setting but without evocation by the experimenter. Understanding sources of naturally occurring differences in the juvenile social play behavior of the rat is a fundamental first step to guide future research on identifying factors that disrupt this behavior. One of the most commonly found variations is a sex difference, with male rats displaying higher levels of rough-and-tumble play behavior relative to females. This sex difference is also observed in human play. In our recent paper published in Biology of Sex Differences, we investigated how the sex and familiarity of the play partner can impact different components of rough-and-tumble play behavior (pouncing, pinning, boxing, and chasing) and the observation of sex differences within each of these components. Our findings suggest that juvenile male rough-and-tumble play behavior is impacted by the sex of their play partner, while females are more sensitive to the familiarity of their play partner. In this review, we discuss our recent findings and provide a comprehensive comparison of methodology and the reporting of sex differences in the literature on this topic. PMID:26924913

  16. Human sex differences in solving a virtual navigation problem.

    PubMed

    Astur, Robert S; Purton, Andrea J; Zaniewski, Melanie J; Cimadevilla, Jose; Markus, Etan J

    2016-07-15

    The current study examined sex differences in initial and subsequent strategies in solving a navigational problem within a virtual reality environment. We tested 163 undergraduates on a virtual T-maze task that included probe trials designed to assess whether participants were responding using either a place or response strategy. Participants were also tested on a mental rotation task and memory of the details of the virtual room. There were no differences between the sexes in copying or recalling a map of the room or on first trial performance of the T-maze. However, at trial two, males show a significant advantage in solving the task, and approximately 80% of the males adopt a place strategy to solve the T-maze whereas females at that point showed no strategy preference. Across all testing, both males and females preferentially used a place strategy. We discuss how factors such as spatial priming affect strategy preferences and how such factors may differentially affect males and females. PMID:27108050

  17. Sex differences in social modulation of learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mikosz, Marta; Nowak, Aleksandra; Werka, Tomasz; Knapska, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    In its simplest form, empathy can be characterized as the capacity to share the emotional experiences among individuals, a phenomenon known as emotional contagion. Recent research shows that emotional contagion and its adaptive role can be studied in rodents. However, it is not known whether sex differences observed in human empathy extend to its more primitive forms. In the present study, we used a rat model of emotional contagion to compare the behavioral consequences of social transfer of information about threat, and the subsequent neural activation patterns in male and female rats. We found that: (1) males and females display a similar behavioral pattern during the interaction with either a fear-conditioned or a control rat; (2) interaction with a fear-conditioned conspecific positively modulates two-way avoidance learning in male and diestral female rats but not in estral females; and (3) such interaction results in increased c-Fos expression in the central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex in males, whereas in females no such changes were observed. Collectively, our results point to the occurrence of sex and estrus cycle phase differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and underlying neuronal activation in rodents. PMID:26655917

  18. Sex Differences in Monocyte Activation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Lumin; Lang, Ren; Li, Zihai; Gilkeson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction TLR7/8 and TLR9 signaling pathways have been extensively studied in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as possible mediators of disease. Monocytes are a major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are understudied in SLE. In the current project, we investigated sex differences in monocyte activation and its implications in SLE disease pathogenesis. Methods Human blood samples from 27 healthy male controls, 32 healthy female controls, and 25 female patients with SLE matched for age and race were studied. Monocyte activation was tested by flow cytometry and ELISA, including subset proportions, CD14, CD80 and CD86 expression, the percentage of IL-6-producing monocytes, plasma levels of sCD14 and IL-6, and urine levels of creatinine. Results Monocytes were significantly more activated in women compared to men and in patients with SLE compared to controls in vivo. We observed increased proportions of non-classic monocytes, decreased proportions of classic monocytes, elevated levels of plasma sCD14 as well as reduced surface expression of CD14 on monocytes comparing women to men and lupus patients to controls. Plasma levels of IL-6 were positively related to sCD14 and serum creatinine. Conclusion Monocyte activation and TLR4 responsiveness are altered in women compared to men and in patients with SLE compared to controls. These sex differences may allow persistent systemic inflammation and resultant enhanced SLE susceptibility. PMID:25485543

  19. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. PMID:25687843

  20. Sex Differences in the Relationship between Harsh Discipline and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysenko, Laura J.; Barker, Edward D.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Research on sex differences in antisocial behaviour may shed light on the causes of childhood antisocial behaviour. Using a longitudinal design, we tested whether there were sex differences in the amount of harsh discipline children received or in the effect of harsh discipline and whether this accounted for sex differences in later conduct…

  1. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  6. Sex Differences in Technical Communication: A Perspective from Social Role Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    This article interprets technical communication research about sex differences according to social role theory, which argues that sex differences are enculturated through experiences associated with social positions in the family and the workplace. It reevaluates technical communication research about sex differences in communicative and…

  7. Sex-related differences in striatal dopaminergic system after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiupeng; Cao, Shengwu; Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Ji, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated alterations in the dopamine (DA) system after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Additionally, the existence of significant sex-related differences in the dopaminergic system has long been recognized. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether TBI would differentially alter, in female and male mice, the expression and the function of the striatal vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2), an important DA transporter. After controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, female mice showed significantly lower striatal DA concentrations and K(+)-evoked DA output. By contrast, no significant sex-related differences were observed in the mRNA and protein levels of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT-2 and the methamphetamine (MA)-evoked DA output. These results demonstrated clear sex-related differences in striatal VMAT-2 function in response to TBI and suggested that female mice may be more sensitive to the TBI-induced inhibition of the VMAT-2 function, as indicated by the greater degree of deficits observed when the VMAT-2 DA-storage function was inhibited by TBI. Moreover, the TBI-induced suppression of locomotion was more pronounced than female mice. Such findings highlight the need for sex-specific considerations when examining differences among brain injury conditions. PMID:27210290

  8. Sex differences in the functional and structural neuroanatomy of dental phobia.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Scharmüller, Wilfried; Leutgeb, Verena; Schäfer, Axel; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-05-01

    Although dental phobia is a common mental disorder, which afflicts both men and women, little is known about sex differences at the neural level. Patients suffering from dental phobia (20 men, 25 women) and healthy controls (18 men, 23 women) participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. They were shown pictures depicting dental treatment, generally fear-eliciting, disgust-eliciting and neutral contents. After the fMRI experiment, the participants rated the affective value of the pictures. Additionally, grey matter volume (GMV) was compared between patients and controls, as well as between the sexes. Male and female patients responded differently to the phobogenic pictures. Women showed greater activation of the caudate nucleus, whereas men exhibited enhanced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) involvement. Their DLPFC activation was negatively correlated with experienced arousal. Dentophobic females were characterized by a greater caudate volume relative to phobic males. The GMV of this structure was positively correlated with experienced arousal during exposure and symptom severity, only in female patients. This study provides first evidence of sex-specific brain activation and structure in patients suffering from dental phobia. The neural pattern during symptom provocation as well as the brain structural specificity might mirror different attention and self-control strategies of both sexes. The consideration of such differences could contribute to greater effectiveness in treating dental phobia. PMID:22644919

  9. Sex difference in the principal cytochrome P-450 for tributyltin metabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ohhira, Shuji . E-mail: s-ohhira@dokkyomed.ac.jp; Enomoto, Mitsunori; Matsui, Hisao

    2006-01-15

    Tributyltin is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) system enzymes, and its metabolic fate may contribute to the toxicity of the chemical. In the present study, it is examined whether sex differences in the metabolism of tributyltin exist in rats. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of tributyltin was investigated using rat hepatic CYP systems to confirm the principal CYP involved. A significant sex difference in metabolism occurred both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that one of the CYPs responsible for tributyltin metabolism in rats is male specific or predominant at least. Eight cDNA-expressed rat CYPs, including typical phenobarbital (PB)-inducible forms and members of the CYP2C subfamily, were tested to determine their capability for tributyltin metabolism. Among the enzymes studied, a statistically significant dealkylation of tributyltin was mediated by CYP2C6 and 2C11. Furthermore, the sex difference in metabolism disappeared in vitro after anti-rat CYP2C11 antibody pretreatment because CYP2C11 is a major male-specific form in rats. These results indicate that CYP2C6 is the principal CYP for tributyltin metabolism in female rats, whereas CYP2C11 as well as 2C6 is involved in tributyltin metabolism in male rats, and it is suggested that CYP2C11 is responsible for the significant sex difference in the metabolism of tributyltin observed in rats.

  10. Sex differences in synaptic plasticity in stress-responsive brain regions following chronic variable stress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo F; Myers, Brent; Jones, Kenneth; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2011-08-01

    Increased stress responsiveness is implicated in the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Additionally, stress-related affective disorders have a higher incidence in women than men. Chronic stress in rodents produces numerous neuromorphological changes in a variety of limbic brain regions. Here, we examined the sex-dependent differences in presynaptic innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), prefrontal cortex (PFC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and amygdala in response to chronic variable stress (CVS). Following 14 days of CVS, the presynaptic protein synaptophysin was assessed in male and female rats. Our results demonstrate that synaptophysin staining density was higher in females than males in all brain areas evaluated, indicating sex differences in the organization of presynaptic innervation. After CVS, the PVN, principal nucleus of the BST (BSTpr), and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) displayed significantly reduced synaptophysin density in females but not males. Furthermore, males showed an increase in synaptophysin in the PVN after CVS, suggesting a sex difference in the modulation of presynaptic inputs to the PVN following chronic stress. Overall, these data suggest marked sex differences in PVN, BSTpr, and BLA presynaptic innervation as a consequence of chronic stress, which may be associated with differential stress responsivity and perhaps susceptibility to pathologies in males and females. PMID:21315096

  11. Sex differences in lifting strategies during a repetitive palletizing task.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, A; Larivière, C; Denis, D; St-Vincent, M; Delisle, A

    2014-11-01

    Forty-five manual material handlers (15 females, 15 expert males and 15 novice males) performed series of box transfers under conditions similar to those of large distribution centers. The objective of the study was to verify whether sex differences in joint motions and in back loading variables (L5/S1 moments) exist during multiple box transfers. The task consisted in transferring 24 15-kg boxes from one pallet to another (4 layers of boxes; 6 boxes/layer: 3 in the front row, 3 in the back) at a self-determined pace and then at an imposed pace of 9 lifts/min. Full-body 3D kinematic data were collected as well as external foot forces. A dynamic 3D linked segment model was used to estimate the net moments at L5/S1. The results show that the peak L5/S1 moment during lifting for females was significantly lower than for males, but once normalized to body size the difference disappeared. In general, the female workers were very close to the posture adopted by the novice males at the instant of the peak resultant moment. However, females were closer to the box than the male workers. One major sex difference was seen when lifting from the ground, with the use of interjoint coordination analyses. Female workers showed a sequential motion initiated by the knees, followed by the hip and the back, while expert males showed a more synchronized motion. The lifting strategy of females likely stretches lumbar spine passive tissues, which in turn put them at greater risk of back injuries. As observed in our previous studies, these differences between expert males, novice males and females are especially notable when the box is lifted from the ground. PMID:24931477

  12. Sex differences in the lateralized processing of facial emotion.

    PubMed

    Burton, L A; Levy, J

    1989-11-01

    Two reaction time tasks were administered to male and female normal subjects, involving judgments of facial emotion. In the Word-Face task, judgments of similarity or difference of a centrally presented emotion word and an emotional face presented in the left or right visual field were required, and in the Face-Face task, comparisons of a centrally presented and a laterally presented emotional face were required. Results were significant for the matching trials only. Reaction times to negative emotions were faster overall than to positive emotions, and an Emotional Valence by Visual Field interaction was found such that reaction times were faster for negative emotions in the left visual field and for positive emotions in the right visual field. This interaction was significant for the female but not the male subjects, although similar patterns were observed in both sexes. Further, an interaction of Gender, Task, and Emotional Valence was found, such that the two tasks had opposite effects for the two sexes. The Face-Face task appeared to inhibit the performance of the male subjects and facilitate the performance of the female subjects in terms of reaction time. It was suggested that specifying the target emotion by an emotional face elicits a greater emotional response on the part of the subject than specification by a word, and that this emotional elicitation may result in a reactive inhibition in the male subjects and in an elaboration of the emotional response in the female subjects. PMID:2803761

  13. Sex differences in accuracy and precision when judging time to arrival: data from two Internet studies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff; Sinclair, Kamila

    2011-12-01

    We report two Internet studies that investigated sex differences in the accuracy and precision of judging time to arrival. We used accuracy to mean the ability to match the actual time to arrival and precision to mean the consistency with which each participant made their judgments. Our task was presented as a computer game in which a toy UFO moved obliquely towards the participant through a virtual three-dimensional space on route to a docking station. The UFO disappeared before docking and participants pressed their space bar at the precise moment they thought the UFO would have docked. Study 1 showed it was possible to conduct quantitative studies of spatiotemporal judgments in virtual reality via the Internet and confirmed reports that men are more accurate because women underestimate, but found no difference in precision measured as intra-participant variation. Study 2 repeated Study 1 with five additional presentations of one condition to provide a better measure of precision. Again, men were more accurate than women but there were no sex differences in precision. However, within the coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) literature, of those studies that report sex differences, a majority found that males are both more accurate and more precise than females. Noting that many CAT studies report no sex differences, we discuss appropriate interpretations of such null findings. While acknowledging that CAT performance may be influenced by experience we suggest that the sex difference may have originated among our ancestors with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting and women for gathering. PMID:21125324

  14. Sex- and Subtype-Related Differences in the Comorbidity of Adult ADHDs.

    PubMed

    Groß-Lesch, Silke; Dempfle, Astrid; Reichert, Susanne; Jans, Thomas; Geissler, Julia; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Jacob, Christian Peter

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Comorbidity in adult ADHD (aADHD) has been investigated in a large number of studies using varying research approaches with divergent results. In contrast, there is limited information about sex- or subtype-related differences from studies with small sample size. Method: A large sample of 910 individuals (458 males, 452 females) affected with aADHD was recruited at a tertiary referral center. All probands underwent a four-step procedure for diagnosing aADHD, including the Structured Clinical Interview of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) Axis I disorders to assess comorbidity. This study will provide additional information regarding the co-morbidity of Axis I disorders in the currently largest clinical referral sample. However, the main objective of this study is to gain information about sex- or subtype-related differences. Results: Affected females show higher rates of mood (61% vs. 49%), anxiety (32% vs. 22%), and eating disorders (16% vs. 1%) than affected males, while substance use disorders were more frequent in affected males (45% vs. 29%), which mirrors sex differences in prevalence in the general population. There were hardly any relevant differences in comorbidities between subtypes, with the exception of the inattentive subtype having an especially low prevalence of panic disorder. Comorbidity in general and substance use disorders in particular, but not sex or subtype, were highly predictive of lower psychosocial status. Conclusion: Sex-related differences in the comorbidity of aADHD are more pronounced than subtype-related differences. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24196345

  15. Sex-specific differences in cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Giampatzis, Vasilios; Baltatzi, Maria; Efthymiou, Elias; Psianou, Konstantia; Papastergiou, Natalia; Magkou, Dimitra; Bougatsa, Vagia; Savopoulos, Christos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular risk factors are frequently undertreated in women. However, it is unclear whether the prevalence of additional cardiovascular risk factors and the total cardiovascular risk differ between hypertensive men and women. There are also limited data regarding rates of blood pressure control in the two sexes outside the United States. The authors aimed to compare the cardiovascular risk profile between sexes. A total of 1810 hypertensive patients (40.4% men, age 56.5±13.5 years) attending the hypertension outpatient clinic of our department were studied. Men were more frequently smokers than women and were more heavy smokers than the latter. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower and serum triglyceride levels were higher in men. On the other hand, abdominal obesity and chronic kidney disease were more prevalent in women. The estimated cardiovascular risk was higher in men than in women but the prevalence of established CVD did not differ between the sexes. The percentage of patients with controlled hypertension and the number of antihypertensive medications were similar in men and women. In conclusion, hypertensive men have more adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile and greater estimated cardiovascular risk than women. However, the prevalence of established CVD does not differ between sexes. These findings further reinforce current guidelines that recommend that management of hypertension and of other cardiovascular risk factors should be as aggressive in women as in men in order to prevent cardiovascular events. PMID:24621371

  16. Early postnatal testosterone predicts sex-related differences in early expressive vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Kung, Karson T F; Browne, Wendy V; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Noorderhaven, Rebecca M; Hines, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    During the first few years of life, girls typically have a larger expressive vocabulary than boys. This sex difference is important since a small vocabulary may predict subsequent language difficulties, which are more prevalent in boys than girls. The masculinizing effects of early androgen exposure on neurobehavioral development are well-documented in nonhuman mammals. The present study conducted the first test of whether early postnatal testosterone concentrations influence sex differences in expressive vocabulary in toddlers. It was found that testosterone measured in saliva samples collected at 1-3 months of age, i.e., during the period called mini-puberty, negatively predicted parent-report expressive vocabulary size at 18-30 months of age in boys and in girls. Testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty also accounted for additional variance in expressive vocabulary after other predictors such as sex, child's age at vocabulary assessment, and paternal education, were taken into account. Furthermore, testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty mediated the sex difference in expressive vocabulary. These results suggest that testosterone during the early postnatal period contributes to early language development and neurobehavioral sexual differentiation in humans. PMID:26970201

  17. Sex differences and ovarian hormones in animal models of drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Anker, Justin J

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of sex differences in many aspects of drug abuse. Most studies reveal that females exceed males during the initiation, escalation, extinction, and reinstatement (relapse) of drug-seeking behavior, but males are more sensitive than females to the aversive effects of drugs such as drug withdrawal. Findings from human and animal research indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones account for these sex differences. Estrogen (E) facilitates drug-seeking behavior, while progesterone (P) and its metabolite, allopregnanalone (ALLO), counteract the effects of E and reduce drug seeking. Estrogen and P influence other behaviors that are affiliated with drug abuse such as drug-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. The enhanced vulnerability to drug seeking in females vs. males is also additive with the other risk factors for drug abuse (e.g., adolescence, sweet preference, novelty reactivity, and impulsivity). Finally, treatment studies using behavioral or pharmacological interventions, including P and ALLO, also indicate that females show greater treatment effectiveness during several phases of the addiction process. The neurobiological basis of sex differences in drug abuse appears to be genetic and involves the influence of ovarian hormones and their metabolites, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, dopamine (DA), and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GABA). Overall, sex and hormonal status along with other biological risk factors account for a continuum of addiction-prone and -resistant animal models that are valuable for studying drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:19818789

  18. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper’s knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball. PMID:25565908

  19. A preliminary study of sex differences in brain activation during a spatial navigation task in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Sava, Simona; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2011-10-01

    The hippocampus plays a significant role in spatial memory processing, with sex differences being prominent on various spatial tasks. This study examined sex differences in healthy adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in areas implicated in spatial processing during navigation of a virtual analogue of the Morris water-maze. There were three conditions: learning, hidden, and visible control. There were no significant differences in performance measures. However, sex differences were found in regional brain activation during learning in the right hippocampus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex. During the hidden condition, the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate cortex were activated in both men and women. Additional brain areas involved in spatial processing may be recruited in women when learning information about the environment, by utilizing external cues (landmarks) more than do men, contributing to the observed sex differences in brain activation. PMID:22185061

  20. The Staurotypus Turtles and Aves Share the Same Origin of Sex Chromosomes but Evolved Different Types of Heterogametic Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Kawagoshi, Taiki; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms and types of sex chromosomes. Turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination and genotypic sex determination, with male heterogametic (XX/XY) and female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW) sex chromosomes. Identification of sex chromosomes in many turtle species and their comparative genomic analysis are of great significance to understand the evolutionary processes of sex determination and sex chromosome differentiation in Testudines. The Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus, Kinosternidae, Testudines) and the giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii) have heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes with a low degree of morphological differentiation; however, their origin and linkage group are still unknown. Cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) revealed that the X and Y chromosomes of S. triporcatus have homology with P. sinensis chromosome 6, which corresponds to the chicken Z chromosome. We cloned cDNA fragments of S. triporcatus homologs of 16 chicken Z-linked genes and mapped them to S. triporcatus and S. salvinii chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sixteen genes were localized to the X and Y long arms in the same order in both species. The orders were also almost the same as those of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) Z chromosome, which retains the primitive state of the avian ancestral Z chromosome. These results strongly suggest that the X and Y chromosomes of Staurotypus turtles are at a very early stage of sex chromosome differentiation, and that these chromosomes and the avian ZW chromosomes share the same origin. Nonetheless, the turtles and birds acquired different systems of heterogametic sex determination during their evolution. PMID:25121779

  1. Review of Research--Sex Differences in Intellectual Functioning: Myth or Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickman, Judith R.

    Sex difference research has been plagued with a myriad of problems,. Specifically, intelligence testing, if dependent on measurement of spatial or verbal proficiency, may not be an accurate indicator of native ability. Similarly, infrequent replication of studies, studies that only include subjects of one sex yet imply sex differences, and poor…

  2. The Transition to Adulthood: Sex Differences in Educational Attainment and Age at Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney

    1978-01-01

    Educational attainment is the most important variable mediating the transition to adulthood for both sexes. However, the relationship between educational attainment and the timing of entry into family roles differs for the two sexes. (Author/AM)

  3. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the 'tri-component theory of humor,' which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal-mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for 'theory of mind' processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different joke types

  4. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the ‘tri-component theory of humor,’ which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal–mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for ‘theory of mind’ processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different

  5. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  6. Sex differences in morning cortisol in youth at ultra-high-risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Carol, Emily E; Spencer, Robert L; Mittal, Vijay A

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function play an important role in the pathophysiology of psychosis. However, there is limited research on the biological stress system in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Morning cortisol levels are particularly relevant to study in this context, as these markers reflect HPA regulation. This is the first examination of sex differences in morning cortisol levels in UHR individuals. Twenty-eight UHR and 22 matched healthy control participants were assessed in respect to symptoms and had home-based collection of salivary cortisol over three time points in the morning. It was predicted that the UHR participants would exhibit lower morning cortisol levels and lower cortisol would be associated with greater symptomatology (i.e. higher positive, negative, and depressive symptoms). Additionally, sex differences in morning cortisol levels were explored based on recent evidence suggesting that sex differences may play an important role in the exacerbation of psychosis. While there were no group differences in morning salivary cortisol secretion, there was a sex by time interaction among UHR individuals, such that only UHR males exhibited flat cortisol levels across two hours after awakening, whereas UHR females had a pattern of cortisol secretion similar to healthy controls, even among medication-free individuals (F=6.34, p=0.004). Cortisol AUC (area under the curve) across the three time points had a trend association (medium effect size; r=0.34, p=0.08) with depressive, but not positive or negative, symptom severity. These results stress the importance of considering sex differences in the psychosis-risk period, as they improve understanding of pathogenic processes. PMID:27388688

  7. Sex differences and hormonal modulation of deep tissue pain

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Richard J.; Ji, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Women disproportionately suffer from many deep tissue pain conditions. Experimental studies show that women have lower pain thresholds, higher pain ratings and less tolerance to a range of painful stimuli. Most clinical and epidemiological reports suggest female gonadal hormones modulate pain for some, but not all, conditions. Similarly, animal studies support greater nociceptive sensitivity in females in many deep tissue pain models. Gonadal hormones modulate responses in primary afferents, dorsal horn neurons and supraspinal sites, but the direction of modulation is variable. This review will examine sex differences in deep tissue pain in humans and animals focusing on the role of gonadal hormones (mainly estradiol) as an underlying component of the modulation of pain sensitivity. PMID:23872333

  8. Oestradiol synthesized by female neurons generates sex differences in neuritogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Palmero, Isabel; Ortiz-Rodriguez, Ana; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Rune, Gabriele M; Arevalo, Maria-Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone produced by the foetal testis is converted by male neurons to oestradiol, which masculinizes neuronal morphology. Female neurons are known to synthesize oestradiol in absence of exogenous testosterone. However, the role of neuronal oestradiol on the differentiation of foetal female neurons is unknown. Here we show that, due to endogenous neuronal oestradiol synthesis, female hippocampal neurons have higher expression of the neuritogenic protein Neurogenin 3 and enhanced neuritogenesis than males. Exogenous application of testosterone or its metabolite dihydrotestosterone increases Neurogenin 3 expression and promotes neuritogenesis in males, but reduces these parameters in females. Together our data indicate that gonadal-independent oestradiol synthesis by female neurons participates in the generation of sex differences in hippocampal neuronal development. PMID:27553191

  9. Sex differences in masticatory muscle pain after chewing.

    PubMed

    Karibe, H; Goddard, G; Gear, R W

    2003-02-01

    Neither the etiology of muscle-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD) nor the reason for the disproportionate number of women suffering from these disorders is well-established. We tested the hypothesis that physiologically relevant exercise (i.e., chewing bubble gum for 6 min) increases masticatory muscle pain in patients, but not in asymptomatic control subjects, and that female patients experience a significantly greater increase than males. Chewing increased pain in both female and male patients and, unexpectedly, also in female control subjects. One hour after chewing, the pain remained above pre-test levels for female patients but not for the other groups. Thus, sex differences in chewing-induced pain were found in control subjects but not as hypothesized in patients. Because chewing-induced masticatory muscle pain was significantly greater in female control subjects than in males, and persisted longer in female patients than in males, these results suggest greater susceptibility in women. PMID:12562883

  10. Oestradiol synthesized by female neurons generates sex differences in neuritogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Palmero, Isabel; Ortiz-Rodriguez, Ana; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Rune, Gabriele M.; Arevalo, Maria-Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone produced by the foetal testis is converted by male neurons to oestradiol, which masculinizes neuronal morphology. Female neurons are known to synthesize oestradiol in absence of exogenous testosterone. However, the role of neuronal oestradiol on the differentiation of foetal female neurons is unknown. Here we show that, due to endogenous neuronal oestradiol synthesis, female hippocampal neurons have higher expression of the neuritogenic protein Neurogenin 3 and enhanced neuritogenesis than males. Exogenous application of testosterone or its metabolite dihydrotestosterone increases Neurogenin 3 expression and promotes neuritogenesis in males, but reduces these parameters in females. Together our data indicate that gonadal-independent oestradiol synthesis by female neurons participates in the generation of sex differences in hippocampal neuronal development. PMID:27553191

  11. Sex differences in beliefs about cues to deception.

    PubMed

    Sato, Taku; Nihei, Yoshiaki

    2009-06-01

    Sex differences in beliefs among Japanese students about cues to deception were explored. 171 participants (91 women, 80 men) read a scenario in which a protagonist caused a fatal traffic accident and told a lie to avoid responsibility. Then participants rated how the protagonist's behaviors would change when lying. Women participants believed significantly more than men that a liar shows body cues (e.g., body touching, biting lips) associated with anxiety, and that a liar has unsuccessful impression management (e.g., fewer smiles, fewer facial expressions). Furthermore, the women's scores also indicated that a liar would increase the amount of information (e.g., longer response length, gestures) and show more nonfluent speech (e.g., speech disturbances, inconsistency of speech contents). PMID:19708402

  12. Sex differences in perception of invisible facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Wook; Yoon, K Lira; Peaco, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that women are better at recognizing facial expressions than men. In the current study, we examined whether this female advantage in the processing of facial expressions also occurs at the unconscious level. In two studies, participants performed a simple detection task and a 4-AFC task while faces were rendered invisible by continuous flash suppression. When faces with full intensity expressions were suppressed, there was no significant sex difference in the time of breakup of suppression (Study 1). However, when suppressed faces depicted low intensity expressions, suppression broke up earlier in men than women, indicating that men may be more sensitive to facial features related to mild facial expressions (Study 2). The current findings suggest that the female advantage in processing of facial expressions is absent in unconscious processing of emotional information. The female advantage in facial expression processing may require conscious perception of faces. PMID:25883583

  13. Lateralization in appreciation of humor: sex differences vs stimulus effects.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, J

    1997-10-01

    The finding that women rate funnier humorous items with left-ear input, while men give higher ratings with right-ear input has been cited as evidence for a biological basis for sex differences in appreciation of humor. However, in 1991 Gallivan did not find this effect and suggested that the earlier finding could have been due to the use of 'male-oriented' stimuli. In this study, 72 subjects rated the funniness of 32 'female oriented' comedy excerpts, presented monaurally. Women gave higher ratings with right-ear input but men's ratings were not affected by ear of presentation. These findings represent another failure to replicate the earlier-reported hemispheric effect and support the conclusion that it may have been due to the stimuli used. PMID:9347538

  14. The effect of culture on the sex differences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cetingök, M; Chu, C C; Park, D B

    1990-01-01

    Cultural influences on sex differences in clinical characteristics and symptomatology of schizophrenia were studied among 369 schizophrenic patients from the United States and Turkey. Male schizophrenics were more likely to be single, and were younger than female schizophrenics at onset of symptoms and when first diagnosed, treated and hospitalised in both cultures. Turkish male and female schizophrenics were more ambivalent, inappropriate, "silly", euphoric, depersonalised, dissociated, mute, conceptually disorganised, and exhibiting more flight of ideas and thought than American male and female schizophrenics. Irrelevant thought and stereotypic behaviour were most severe in Turkish male and American female schizophrenics. Hallucinatory behaviour was most intense in Turkish separated, divorced, or widowed female schizophrenics and American married male schizophrenics. Turkish married female and Turkish separated, divorced, or widowed male schizophrenics were most disoriented. Turkish single female schizophrenics were most mute. Turkish separated, divorced, or widowed male schizophrenics showed most intense stupor behaviour. PMID:2079398

  15. Correlates of sex-related differences in logical reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehindero, O. J.

    The study utilized a post-test-only, no-control experimental design to investigate the influence of sex-related contextual nature of tasks and perceived difficulty of these tasks on logical reasoning among 70 randomly selected high schools pupils (35 boys and 35 girls) in Nigeria. Three categories of tasks were used-those whose context were male related, those whose context were female related, and those that were relatively content-free. Results of the study show that males scored higher than females on male-related tasks and females scored higher on female-related tasks. No significant difference, however, was observed on the relatively content-free tasks. The need to design problems and tasks that are relatively nonsex-related is discussed.Received: 19 March 1982;

  16. Sex differences in comorbidity at diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Scott B.; Tremlett, Helen; Wolfson, Christina; Warren, Sharon; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Jette, Nathalie; Fisk, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of comorbidity in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population at the time of MS diagnosis. We also compared the prevalence of comorbidity in the MS population to that in a matched cohort from the general population. Methods: Using population-based administrative health data from 4 Canadian provinces, we identified 23,382 incident MS cases and 116,638 age-, sex-, and geographically matched controls. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, chronic lung disease, epilepsy, fibromyalgia, inflammatory bowel disease, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia at MS diagnosis using validated case definitions. We compared the populations using rate ratios. Results: Of the MS cases, 16,803 (71.9%) were female. The most prevalent comorbidity was depression (19.1%). Compared to the matched population, all comorbidities except hyperlipidemia were more common in the MS population. Relative to the matched populations, the prevalence of hypertension was 16% higher for women with MS and 48% higher for men with MS, thus there was a disproportionately higher prevalence of hypertension in men with MS than women. Men with MS also had a disproportionately higher prevalence than women with MS for diabetes, epilepsy, depression, and anxiety. Conclusions: Comorbidity is more common than expected in MS, even around the time of diagnosis. The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity is particularly high and highlights the need for clinical attention to this issue. The observed sex-specific differences in the burden of comorbidity in MS, which differ from those in the matched population, warrant further investigation. PMID:26962066

  17. Differences between the sexes in technical mastery of rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine possible differences between the sexes in specific rhythmic gymnastics techniques, and to examine the influence of various aspects of technique on rhythmic composition performance. Seventy-five students aged 21 ± 2 years (45 males, 30 female) undertook four test sessions to determine: coefficients of asymmetry, stability, versatility, and the two rhythmic compositions (without apparatus and with rope). An independent-sample t-test revealed sex-based differences in technique acquisition: stability for ball (P < 0.05; effect size = 0.65) and club (P < 0.05; effect size = 0.79) performance and rhythmic composition without apparatus (P < 0.05; effect size = 0.66). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the variables for assessing stability (beta = 0.44; P < 0.05) and versatility (beta = 0.61; P < 0.05) explained 61% of the variance in the rhythmic composition performance of females, and the variables for assessing asymmetry (beta = -0.38; P < 0.05), versatility (beta = 0.32; P < 0.05), and stability (beta = 0.29; P < 0.05) explained 52% of the variance in the rhythmic composition performance of males. The results suggest that female students dominate in body skill technique, while male students have the advantage with apparatus. There was a lack of an expressive aesthetic component in performance for males. The need for ambidexterity should be considered in the planning of training programmes. PMID:21259154

  18. Sex Differences in Adult Cognitive Deficits after Adolescent Nicotine Exposure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Laura R. G.; Rowan, James D.; Bevins, Rick A.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether deficits in adult serial pattern learning caused by adolescent nicotine exposure persist as impairments in asymptotic performance, whether adolescent nicotine exposure differentially retards learning about pattern elements that are inconsistent with “perfect” pattern structure, and whether there are sex differences in rats’ response to adolescent nicotine exposure as assessed by a serial multiple choice task. The current study replicated the results of our initial report (Fountain, Rowan, Kelley, Willey, & Nolley, 2008) using this task by showing that adolescent nicotine exposure (1.0 mg/kg/day nicotine for 35 days) produced a specific cognitive impairment in male rats that persisted into adulthood at least a month after adolescent nicotine exposure ended. In addition, sex differences were observed even in controls, with additional evidence that adolescent nicotine exposure significantly impaired learning relative to same-sex controls for chunk boundary elements in males and for violation elements in females. All nicotine-induced impairments were overcome by additional training so that groups did not differ at asymptote. An examination of the types of errors rats made indicated that adolescent nicotine exposure slowed learning without affecting rats’ cognitive strategy in the task. This data pattern suggests that exposure to nicotine in adolescence may have impaired different aspects of adult stimulus-response discrimination learning processes in males and females, but left abstract rule learning processes relatively spared in both sexes. These effects converge with other findings in the field and reinforce the concern that adolescent nicotine exposure poses an important threat to cognitive capacity in adulthood. PMID:23673345

  19. Sex Differences in Sex-Role Conceptions and Family Orientation of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angrist, Shirley S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Findings show that high school males are more sexist than females; and blacks, more so that whites. Women who are bright, from upper class backgrounds, and whose mothers work are more egalitarian in sex role conceptions. Unlike women, men's sex role attitudes have little connection to their family background. (Author/MV)

  20. Neural Control of the Circulation: How Sex and Age Differences Interact in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J.; Barnes, Jill N.; Hart, Emma C.; Wallin, B. Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of cardiovascular system. In this review we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to how the autonomic nervous system regulates blood pressure, and the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked inter-individual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2 mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast post-menopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These central findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  1. Neural control of the circulation: how sex and age differences interact in humans.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J; Barnes, Jill N; Hart, Emma C; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked interindividual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2-mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast postmenopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These major findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  2. Sex differences in sex-role conceptions and family orientation of high school students.

    PubMed

    Angrist, S S; Mickelsen, R; Penna, A N

    1977-06-01

    Studies of college freshmen find that men are more sexist in their attitudes than women. Does this hold also for high school students? This paper reports the relationship of (1) sex-role attitudes to selected school and family characteristics and (2) attitudes toward family life to sex-role conceptions for women and men. The study is based on 529 students in grades 9 to 12 attending four high schools. The findings show that males are more sexist than females and Blacks more so than Whites. Women who are bright, from upper class backgrounds, and whose mothers work are more equalitarian in sex-role conceptions. For men, family background is unimportant, but attending an elite public school seems to foster equalitarian sex-role conceptions. Men's sex-role attitudes are harder to explain than women's, and, unlike women, their role attitudes have little connection to their family orientation. PMID:24408393

  3. Fear Conditioned Responses and PTSD Symptoms in Children: Sex Differences in Fear-Related Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gamwell, Kaitlyn; Nylocks, Maria; Cross, Dorthie; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D.

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning studies in adults have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with heightened fear responses and impaired discrimination. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between PTSD symptoms and fear conditioned responses in children from a highly traumatized urban population. Children between 8 and 13 years old participated in a fear conditioning study in addition to providing information about their trauma history and PTSD symptoms. Results showed that females showed less discrimination between danger and safety signals during conditioning compared to age-matched males. In boys, intrusive symptoms were predictive of fear responses, even after controlling for trauma exposure. However, in girls, conditioned fear to the danger cue was predictive of self-blame and fear of repeated trauma. This study suggests there are early sex differences in the patterns of fear conditioning and that these sex differences may translate to differential risk for trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:26011240

  4. Fear conditioned responses and PTSD symptoms in children: Sex differences in fear-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gamwell, Kaitlyn; Nylocks, Maria; Cross, Dorthie; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Fear conditioning studies in adults have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with heightened fear responses and impaired discrimination. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between PTSD symptoms and fear conditioned responses in children from a highly traumatized urban population. Children between 8 and 13 years old participated in a fear conditioning study in addition to providing information about their trauma history and PTSD symptoms. Results showed that females showed less discrimination between danger and safety signals during conditioning compared to age-matched males. In boys, intrusive symptoms were predictive of fear responses, even after controlling for trauma exposure. However, in girls, conditioned fear to the danger cue was predictive of self-blame and fear of repeated trauma. This study suggests there are early sex differences in the patterns of fear conditioning and that these sex differences may translate to differential risk for trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:26011240

  5. Gender roles as mediators of sex differences in expressions of pathology.

    PubMed

    Huselid, R F; Cooper, M L

    1994-11-01

    This study tested the extent to which gender role attributes and gender role ideology account for sex differences in internally directed psychological distress and in externally directed deviant behavior in a random sample of 2,013 adolescents. Results indicate that gender roles substantially mediate sex differences in both types of pathology: Masculine instrumental attributes reduce internalized distress, whereas feminine expressive attributes reduce externalized behavior problems. In addition, conventional gender role attitudes were positively related to externalizing problems among male adolescents, but were unrelated to pathology among female adolescents. These associations were largely equivalent across Black and White racial groups and across age groups (13 to 19 years). Two alternative theoretical models linking gender roles and pathology are discussed. PMID:7822560

  6. Sex differences in recovery from PTSD in male and female interpersonal assault survivors

    PubMed Central

    Galovski, Tara E.; Blain, Leah M.; Chappuis, Courtney; Fletcher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Men and women differ in exposure to trauma and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, research regarding sex differences in recovery from PTSD has been sparse. This study evaluated the treatment response trajectory for 69 male and female interpersonal assault survivors, using a modified Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) protocol that allowed survivors to receive up to18 sessions of CPT, with treatment end determined by therapy progress. Few sex differences were observed in trauma history, baseline PTSD and depressive severity, Axis I comorbidity, anger, guilt and dissociation. Women did report more sexual assault in adulthood and elevated baseline guilt cognitions, whereas men reported more baseline anger directed inward. Attrition and total number of sessions did not differ by sex. Over the course of treatment and follow-up, men and women demonstrated similar rates of change in PTSD and depressive symptoms. However, medium effect sizes on both of these primary outcomes at the 3-month follow-up assessment favored women. Several differences in the slope of change emerged on secondary outcomes such that women evidenced more rapid gains on global guilt, guilt cognitions, anger/irritability, and dissociation. Results suggest that male survivors may warrant additional attention to address these important clinical correlates. PMID:23510841

  7. Relationship between Sex Role Conflict and Work-Related Variables: Gender and Hierarchical Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koberg, Christine S.; Chusmir, Leonard H.

    1989-01-01

    Tested 200 managerial and nonmanagerial women and men for degree of sex role conflict and work-related attitudes. Results showed that sex role conflict was related to low job involvement for managerial women. Overall, women scored higher in sex role conflict but not significantly different in other job-related variables being tested. (GG)

  8. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Scott A.; Miranda, Robbin A.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  9. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies.

    PubMed

    Miles, Scott A; Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  10. Sex differences in endocrine response to hyperthermia in sauna.

    PubMed

    Jezová, D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

    1994-03-01

    Neuroendocrine response was investigated during and after a single 20 min bath in sauna (80 degrees C) in a group of 8 healthy men and 8 healthy women. In an additional group of 8 young men, the dynamics of plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were studied during a 30 min sauna exposure (90 degrees C). This dynamic study showed a biphasic response of plasma cortisol which decreased during the initial phase of sauna bath (15 min) and increased thereafter, reaching its maximum 15 min after the end of bathing. Maximal increase in plasma ACTH levels occurred 15 min earlier. In the first sauna exposed group the increase in body temperature was the same (about 2 degrees C) in both sexes. Nevertheless, the elevation in plasma ACTH concentration was significantly more pronounced in women than in men. In the plasma collected at the end of sauna bath inside the sauna room, a significant rise in both adrenaline and noradrenaline levels was found. Though the catecholamine responses were similar in both groups, the increase in heart rate during sauna bath was significantly higher in women. Sauna-induced prolactin release was also more pronounced in women compared with men. Thus hyperthermia induced by sauna exposure resulted in a more pronounced neuroendocrine activation in women compared with men. Moreover, it is evident that repeated blood sampling is necessary to reveal the sauna-induced activation of some hormonal systems. PMID:8010136

  11. Sex attracts: investigating individual differences in attentional bias to sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

  12. Sex differences in the incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Jankovic, Gradimir M; Tiu, Ramon V; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Jackson, Robert C; Hlatky, Lynn R; Gale, Robert Peter; Sachs, Rainer K

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), which is caused by BCR/ABL chimeric oncogene formation in a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), increases with age and exposure to ionizing radiation. CML is a comparatively well-characterized neoplasm, important for its own sake and useful for insights into other neoplasms. Here, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) CML data are analyzed after considering possible misclassification of chronic myelo-monocytic leukemia as CML. For people older than 25 years, plots of male and female CML log incidences versus age at diagnosis are approximately parallel straight lines with males either above or to the left of females. This is consistent with males having a higher risk of developing CML or a shorter latency from initiation to diagnosis of CML. These distinct mechanisms cannot be distinguished using SEER data alone. Therefore, CML risks among male and female Japanese A-bomb survivors are also analyzed. The present analyses suggest that sex differences in CML incidence more likely result from differences in risk than in latency. The simplest but not the sole interpretation of this is that males have more target cells at risk to develop CML. Comprehensive mathematical models of CML could lead to a better understanding of the role of HSCs in CML and other preleukemias that can progress to acute leukemia. PMID:24337217

  13. Sex-Differences and Temporal Consistency in Stickleback Fish Boldness

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J.; Fürtbauer, Ines; Mamuneas, Diamanto; James, Charlotte; Manica, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural traits that co-vary across contexts or situations often reflect fundamental trade-offs which individuals experience in different contexts (e.g. fitness trade-offs between exploration and predation risk). Since males tend to experience greater variance in reproductive success than females, there may be considerable fitness benefits associated with “bolder” behavioural types, but only recently have researchers begun to consider sex-specific and life-history strategies associated with these. Here we test the hypothesis that male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) show high risk but potentially high return behaviours compared to females. According to this hypothesis we predicted that male fish would show greater exploration of their environment in a foraging context, and be caught sooner by an experimenter than females. We found that the time fish spent out of cover exploring their environment was correlated over two days, and males spent significantly more time out of cover than females. Also, the order in which fish were net-caught from their holding aquarium by an experimenter prior to experiments was negatively correlated with the time spent out of cover during tests, and males tended to be caught sooner than females. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the catch number prior to our experiments and nine months after, pointing towards consistent, long-term individual differences in behaviour. PMID:24324664

  14. Sex differences in the incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, Gradimir M.; Tiu, Ramon V.; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Jackson, Robert C.; Hlatky, Lynn R.; Gale, Robert Peter; Sachs, Rainer K.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), which is caused by BCR/ABL chimeric oncogene formation in a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), increases with age and exposure to ionizing radiation. CML is a comparatively well-characterized neoplasm, important for its own sake and useful for insights into other neoplasms. Here, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) CML data are analyzed after considering possible misclassification of chronic myelo-monocytic leukemia as CML. For people older than 25 years, plots of male and female CML log incidences versus age at diagnosis are approximately parallel straight lines with males either above or to the left of females. This is consistent with males having a higher risk of developing CML or a shorter latency from initiation to diagnosis of CML. These distinct mechanisms cannot be distinguished using SEER data alone. Therefore, CML risks among male and female Japanese A-bomb survivors are also analyzed. The present analyses suggest that sex differences in CML incidence more likely result from differences in risk than in latency. The simplest but not the sole interpretation of this is that males have more target cells at risk to develop CML. Comprehensive mathematical models of CML could lead to a better understanding of the role of HSCs in CML and other preleukemias that can progress to acute leukemia. PMID:24337217

  15. Exploring mechanisms underlying sex-specific differences in mortality of Lake Michigan bloaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Madenjian, C.P.; Rogers, M.W.; Holuszko, J.D.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex-specific differences in mortality rates have been observed among freshwater and marine fish taxa, and underlying mechanisms can include sex-specific differences in (1) age at maturity, (2) growth rate, or (3) activity or behavior during the spawning period. We used a long-term (1973–2009) Lake Michigan data set to evaluate whether there were sex-specific differences in catch per unit effort, mortality, age at maturity, and length at age in bloaters Coregonus hoyi. Because bloater population biomass varied 200-fold during the years analyzed, we divided the data into three periods: (1) 1973–1982 (low biomass), (2) 1983–1997 (high biomass), and (3) 1998–2009 (low biomass). Mortality was higher for males than for females in periods 2 and 3; the average instantaneous total mortality rate (Z) over these two periods was 0.71 for males and 0.57 for females. Length at age was slightly greater (2–6%) for females than for males in different age-classes (3–6 years) during each period. Age at maturity was earlier for males than for females in periods 1 and 2, but the mean difference was only 0.2–0.4 years. To test the hypothesis that somatic lipids declined more in males than in females during spawning (perhaps due to increased activity or reduced feeding), we estimated sex-specific percent somatic lipids for fish sampled in 2005–2006 and 2007–2008. During 2005–2006, somatic lipids declined from prespawning to postspawning for males but were unchanged for females. During 2007–2008, however, somatic lipids were unchanged for males, whereas they increased for females. We found that sex-specific differences in Z occurred in the Lake Michigan bloater population, but our hypotheses that sex-specific differences in maturity and growth could explain this pattern were generally unsupported. Our hypothesis that somatic lipids in males declined during spawning at a faster rate than in females will require additional research to clarify its importance.

  16. Marked effects of intracranial volume correction methods on sex differences in neuroanatomical structures: a HUNT MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Pintzka, Carl W. S.; Hansen, Tor I.; Evensmoen, Hallvard R.; Håberg, Asta K.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus whether sexual dimorphism in the size of neuroanatomical structures exists, or if such differences are caused by choice of intracranial volume (ICV) correction method. When investigating volume differences in neuroanatomical structures, corrections for variation in ICV are used. Commonly applied methods are the ICV-proportions, ICV-residuals and ICV as a covariate of no interest, ANCOVA. However, these different methods give contradictory results with regard to presence of sex differences. Our aims were to investigate presence of sexual dimorphism in 18 neuroanatomical volumes unrelated to ICV-differences by using a large ICV-matched subsample of 304 men and women from the HUNT-MRI general population study, and further to demonstrate in the entire sample of 966 healthy subjects, which of the ICV-correction methods gave results similar to the ICV-matched subsample. In addition, sex-specific subsamples were created to investigate whether differences were an effect of head size or sex. Most sex differences were related to volume scaling with ICV, independent of sex. Sex differences were detected in a few structures; amygdala, cerebellar cortex, and 3rd ventricle were larger in men, but the effect sizes were small. The residuals and ANCOVA methods were most effective at removing the effects of ICV. The proportions method suffered from systematic errors due to lack of proportionality between ICV and neuroanatomical volumes, leading to systematic mis-assignment of structures as either larger or smaller than their actual size. Adding additional sexual dimorphic covariates to the ANCOVA gave opposite results of those obtained in the ICV-matched subsample or with the residuals method. The findings in the current study explain some of the considerable variation in the literature on sexual dimorphisms in neuroanatomical volumes. In conclusion, sex plays a minor role for neuroanatomical volume differences; most differences are related to ICV

  17. Sex differences in fetal growth responses to maternal height and weight

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in fetal growth have been reported, but how this happens remains to be described. It is unknown if fetal growth rates, a reflection of genetic and environmental factors, express sexually dimorphic sensitivity to the mother herself. This analysis investigated homogeneity of male and female growth responses to maternal height and weight. The study sample included 3495 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies followed longitudinally. Analytic models regressed fetal and neonatal weight on tertiles of maternal height and weight, and modification by sex was investigated (n=1814 males, n=1681 females) with birth gestational age, maternal parity and smoking as covariates. Sex modified the effects of maternal height and weight on fetal growth rates and birth weight. Among boys, tallest maternal height influenced fetal weight growth prior to 18 gestational weeks of age (p=0.006), pre-pregnancy maternal weight and BMI subsequently had influence (p<0.001); this was not found among girls. Additionally, interaction terms between sex, maternal height, and maternal weight identified that males were more sensitive to maternal weight among shorter mothers (p=0.003), and more responsive to maternal height among lighter mothers (p<=0.03), compared to females. Likewise, neonatal birth weight dimorphism varied by maternal phenotype. A male advantage of 60 grams occurred among neonates of the shortest and lightest mothers (p=0.08), compared to 150 and 191 grams among short and heavy mothers, and tall and light weight mothers, respectively (p=0.01). Sex differences in response to maternal size are underappreciated sources of variation in fetal growth studies and may reflect differential growth strategies. PMID:19950190

  18. Sex differences in DNA methylation and expression in zebrafish brain: a test of an extended 'male sex drive' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Rodger, Euan J; Zhen, Li; Stockwell, Peter A; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Horsfield, Julia A; Jeyakani, Justin; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ozaki, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-09-30

    The sex drive hypothesis predicts that stronger selection on male traits has resulted in masculinization of the genome. Here we test whether such masculinizing effects can be detected at the level of the transcriptome and methylome in the adult zebrafish brain. Although methylation is globally similar, we identified 914 specific differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) between males and females (435 were hypermethylated and 479 were hypomethylated in males compared to females). These DMCs were prevalent in gene body, intergenic regions and CpG island shores. We also discovered 15 distinct CpG clusters with striking sex-specific DNA methylation differences. In contrast, at transcriptome level, more female-biased genes than male-biased genes were expressed, giving little support for the male sex drive hypothesis. Our study provides genome-wide methylome and transcriptome assessment and sheds light on sex-specific epigenetic patterns and in zebrafish for the first time. PMID:27259666

  19. Sex differences in the response to emotional distraction: an event-related fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Iordan, Alexandru D; Dolcos, Sanda; Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Florin

    2013-03-01

    Evidence has suggested that women have greater emotional reactivity than men. However, it is unclear whether these differences in basic emotional responses are also associated with differences in emotional distractibility, and what the neural mechanisms that implement differences in emotional distractibility between women and men are. Functional MRI recording was used in conjunction with a working memory (WM) task, with emotional distraction (angry faces) presented during the interval between the memoranda and the probes. First, we found an increased impact of emotional distraction among women in trials associated with high-confidence responses, in the context of overall similar WM performance in women and men. Second, women showed increased sensitivity to emotional distraction in brain areas associated with "hot" emotional processing, whereas men showed increased sensitivity in areas associated with "cold" executive processing, in the context of overall similar patterns of response to emotional distraction in women and men. Third, a sex-related dorsal-ventral hemispheric dissociation emerged in the lateral PFC related to coping with emotional distraction, with women showing a positive correlation with WM performance in left ventral PFC, and men showing similar effects in the right dorsal PFC. In addition to extending to men results that have previously been reported in women, by showing that both sexes engage mechanisms that are similar overall in response to emotional distraction, the present study identifies sex differences in both the response to and coping with emotional distraction. These results have implications for understanding sex differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders, in which basic emotional responses, emotional distractibility, and coping abilities are altered. PMID:23293019

  20. Sex differences in the regulation of embryonic brain aromatase.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, J B; Beyer, C; Hutchison, R E; Wozniak, A

    1997-04-01

    Oestrogen formed from androgen by aromatization plays a critical role in the sexual differentiation of the male brain and behaviour. A question which has still to be answered is what regulates the gender-specific changes in aromatase activity forming oestrogen during sensitive periods of brain growth. Using a primary cell culture technique and sexed embryos, we have shown that in the fetal mouse brain, oestrogen formation in the male is neuronal rather than glial and aromatase activity is regionally localized, being higher in the hypothalamus than in the cortex. The aromatase activity measured from cells in culture has the same enzyme binding affinity (apparent Km approximately 40 nM) as intact brain samples. Neurones developing in the embryonic male brain (embryonic day (ED) 15) contain higher aromatase activity (Vmax, 895 fmol/h/mg protein) than the female (Vmax, 604). Although a sex difference exists at early stages of embryonic development (ED 13), the embryonic aromatase system is regulated by steroids later in fetal development. The developing aromatase-containing neuroblasts probably form processes which connect to other aromatase neurones. Immunoreactive staining with an aromatase polyclonal antibody identifies an increase in numbers of aromatase-immunoreactive hypothalamic neuronal cell bodies following testosterone treatment. Testosterone treatment also causes both stimulation of neurite growth and branching as well as functional maturation of aromatase neurones. In particular, there is an increase in aromatase activity per neurone as well as a dramatic increase in the number of neurones expressing the enzyme. Both the functional and morphological changes depend on androgen receptor stimulation for several days in vitro. This conclusion is supported by colocalization studies which reveal a high number of fetal hypothalamic aromatase neurones co-expressing androgen receptor. We conclude that testosterone influences the growth of male hypothalamic neurones

  1. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K.; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Martin, William J.; Kosgei, Rose J.; Carter, E. Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M.; George, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided. PMID:25945507

  2. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Kent E; Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S; Martin, William J; Kosgei, Rose J; Carter, E Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M; George, Maureen

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided. PMID:25945507

  3. Determinants of food label use differ by sex.

    PubMed

    Stran, Kimberly A; Knol, Linda L

    2013-05-01

    Although the Nutrition Facts label has been a requirement on food packages for more than 20 years, few studies have conducted comprehensive assessments of food label use. The purpose of this study was to assess the demographic and psychosocial correlates of food label use using a comprehensive approach. A sample of 1,382 males and females (n=573 and n=809, respectively) aged 19 to 70 years was drawn from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The food label Check and Use subscales are the sums of multiple questions on frequency of checking and using each separate component on a Nutrition Facts label. Multiple linear regression was used to assess differences in predictors of Check and Use. Determinants of food label use differed by sex. Women check and use food label components more often and thoroughly than men. Older adults and adults with good diet-quality perception were significant predictors of food label use for both men and women. Race was a significant predictor for men only. Mexican-American and other Hispanic groups check (P=0.03) and use (P=0.01) the food label more frequently than non-Hispanic white men. Men who do not receive Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits also check (P<0.01) and use (P=0.01) food labels more frequently than those who receive assistance. The findings of this study could be used to improve nutrition education efforts. It may be beneficial to target men and women separately, as food label use determinants are different. PMID:23402696

  4. Sex differences in the brain's dopamine signature of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Wang, Shuo; Kim, Su-Jin; McGovern, Erin; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Gao, Hong; Labaree, David; Tagare, Hemant D; Sullivan, Jenna M; Morris, Evan D

    2014-12-10

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health danger. Women and men smoke for different reasons and cessation treatments, such as the nicotine patch, are preferentially beneficial to men. The biological substrates of these sex differences are unknown. Earlier PET studies reported conflicting findings but were each hampered by experimental and/or analytical limitations. Our new image analysis technique, lp-ntPET (Normandin et al., 2012; Morris et al., 2013; Kim et al., 2014), has been optimized for capturing brief (lasting only minutes) and highly localized dopaminergic events in dynamic PET data. We coupled our analysis technique with high-resolution brain scanning and high-frequency motion correction to create the optimal experiment for capturing and characterizing the effects of smoking on the mesolimbic dopamine system in humans. Our main finding is that male smokers smoking in the PET scanner activate dopamine in the right ventral striatum during smoking but female smokers do not. This finding-men activating more ventrally than women-is consistent with the established notion that men smoke for the reinforcing drug effect of cigarettes whereas women smoke for other reasons, such as mood regulation and cue reactivity. lp-ntPET analysis produces a novel multidimensional endpoint: voxel-level temporal patterns of neurotransmitter release ("DA movies") in individual subjects. By examining these endpoints quantitatively, we demonstrate that the timing of dopaminergic responses to cigarette smoking differs between men and women. Men respond consistently and rapidly in the ventral striatum whereas women respond faster in a discrete subregion of the dorsal putamen. PMID:25505336

  5. Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2015-07-22

    Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime remains elusive. Here, we show using a 35 year study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), that (i) males show higher body mass senescence rates than females and (ii) this sex difference is largely attributable to sex-specific downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual competition experienced during early adulthood. Our findings provide rare support for the view that somatic maintenance costs arising from intra-sexual competition can cause both individual variation and sex differences in senescence. PMID:26156771

  6. Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime remains elusive. Here, we show using a 35 year study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), that (i) males show higher body mass senescence rates than females and (ii) this sex difference is largely attributable to sex-specific downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual competition experienced during early adulthood. Our findings provide rare support for the view that somatic maintenance costs arising from intra-sexual competition can cause both individual variation and sex differences in senescence. PMID:26156771

  7. Sex differences in experimental measures of pain sensitivity and endogenous pain inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bulls, Hailey W; Freeman, Emily L; Anderson, Austen JB; Robbins, Meredith T; Ness, Timothy J; Goodin, Burel R

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that increased pain sensitivity and disruption of endogenous pain inhibitory processes may account, at least in part, for the greater prevalence and severity of chronic pain in women compared to men. However, previous studies addressing this topic have produced mixed findings. This study examined sex differences in pain sensitivity and inhibition using quantitative sensory testing (QST), while also considering the influence of other important factors such as depressive symptoms and sleep quality. Healthy men (n=24) and women (n=24) each completed a QST battery. This battery included an ischemic pain task (IPT) that used a submaximal effort tourniquet procedure as well as a conditioned pain modulation (CPM) procedure for the assessment of endogenous pain inhibition. Prior to QST, participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Analyses revealed significant sex differences for the ischemic pain task and the conditioned pain modulation procedure, such that women tolerated the ischemic pain for a shorter amount of time and demonstrated less pain inhibition compared with men. This remained true even when accounting for sex differences in depressive symptoms and sleep quality. The results of this study suggest that women may be more pain sensitive and possess less-efficient endogenous pain inhibitory capacity compared with men. Whether interventions that decrease pain sensitivity and enhance pain inhibition in women ultimately improve their clinical pain outcomes is an area of research that deserves additional attention in the future. PMID:26170713

  8. Different stage, different performance: the protective strategy of role play on emotional health in sex work.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gillian M

    2011-04-01

    This paper uses Arlie Hochschild's (1983) concept of emotion management and "surface" and "deep acting" to explore how sex workers separate and distance themselves from their public role. Experiences of stigmatisation prevail among sex workers and how stigma is resisted or managed has an impact on their health. In-depth interviews were carried out between August 2006 and April 2007 with 58 sex workers in five cities in New Zealand following decriminalisation of the sex industry. Most participants drew on ideas of professionalism in sustaining a psychological distance between their private and public lives. They utilised "deep acting", transmuting private experiences for use in the work environment, to accredit themselves as professional in their business practices. They also constructed different meanings for sex between public and private relationships with the condom providing an important symbol in separating the two. A few (mostly female street-based) participants were less adept at "deep acting" and relied on drugs to maintain a separation of roles. This paper argues that in an occupation which is highly stigmatised and in which depersonalisation as an aspect of burn-out has been reported as a common occurrence, the ability to draw on strategies which require "deep acting" provides a healthy estrangement between self and role and can be seen as protective. The separation of self from work identity is not damaging as many radical feminists would claim, but an effective strategy to manage emotions. Hochschild, A. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press. PMID:21392874

  9. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis: the transition in sex differences and interracial characteristics between 1965 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takashi; Katoh, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Kabashima, Kenji; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is characterized by a non-infectious infiltration of eosinophils in the hair follicles. It has three variants: (i) classic EPF; (ii) immunosuppression-associated EPF, which herein is subdivided into HIV-associated (IS/HIV) and non-HIV-associated (IS/non-HIV); and (iii) infancy-associated EPF (I-EPF). The rarity of EPF has hindered our understanding of this entity. To examine the characteristics of EPF, with respect to age, sex, race, and chronology, published in case reports to date, we queried PubMed using the following terms: ("eosinophilic pustular folliculitis" [All Fields] OR "eosinophilic folliculitis" [All Fields]) AND ("1965/1/1" [PDAT]: "2013/12/31" [PDAT]). Additional Japanese cases were collected from Igaku Chuo Zasshi through Ichushi-Web, JDream III, and secondhand quotations from domestic periodicals published in Japan. Proceedings were excluded. The PubMed search produced 275 citations containing 358 cases of EPF (224 men, 132 women, and two of unspecified sex); these cases involved classic EPF (101 Japanese and 81 non-Japanese), IS/HIV (4 Japanese and 85 non-Japanese), IS/non-HIV (4 Japanese and 20 non-Japanese), and I-EPF (4 Japanese and 59 non-Japanese). Ichushi generated an additional 148 citations containing 207 cases of Japanese (148 men and 59 women), which included cases of classic EPF (181 cases), IS/HIV (14 cases), IS/non-HIV (9 cases), and I-EPF (3 cases). There was no sex difference in the classic EPF cases reported between 2003 and 2013, whereas IS/HIV, IS/non-HIV, and I-EPF were predominated by men. There is room for reconsideration of sex differences, particularly with regard to classic EPF. The rarity and specificity of I-EPF in Japan may reflect a state of uncertainty about this entity. PMID:25675987

  10. Sex differences in mechanical allodynia: how can it be preclinically quantified and analyzed?

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Lauren; Tuke, Jonathan; Grace, Peter M; Rolan, Paul E; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Translating promising preclinical drug discoveries to successful clinical trials remains a significant hurdle in pain research. Although animal models have significantly contributed to understanding chronic pain pathophysiology, the majority of research has focused on male rodents using testing procedures that produce sex difference data that do not align well with comparable clinical experiences. Additionally, the use of animal pain models presents ongoing ethical challenges demanding continuing refinement of preclinical methods. To this end, this study sought to test a quantitative allodynia assessment technique and associated statistical analysis in a modified graded nerve injury pain model with the aim to further examine sex differences in allodynia. Graded allodynia was established in male and female Sprague Dawley rats by altering the number of sutures placed around the sciatic nerve and quantified by the von Frey test. Linear mixed effects modeling regressed response on each fixed effect (sex, oestrus cycle, pain treatment). On comparison with other common von Frey assessment techniques, utilizing lower threshold filaments than those ordinarily tested, at 1 s intervals, appropriately and successfully investigated female mechanical allodynia, revealing significant sex and oestrus cycle difference across the graded allodynia that other common behavioral methods were unable to detect. Utilizing this different von Frey approach and graded allodynia model, a single suture inflicting less allodynia was sufficient to demonstrate exaggerated female mechanical allodynia throughout the phases of dioestrus and pro-oestrus. Refining the von Frey testing method, statistical analysis technique and the use of a graded model of chronic pain, allowed for examination of the influences on female mechanical nociception that other von Frey methods cannot provide. PMID:24592221

  11. Structural and molecular brain sexual differences: A tool to understand sex differences in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Panzica, GianCarlo; Melcangi, Roberto C

    2016-08-01

    Sex differences are present both in the genotype and in the phenotype of all vertebrates, and they have been evidenced also within the central and peripheral nervous system. Earlier studies on brain sex differences suggested a relatively simple view based on (1) the presence of sexually dimorphic circuits in the hypothalamus (or in regions related to reproductive behaviors), (2) the action of gonadal hormones to masculinize the brain, and (3) the gonadal steroids' action to modulate gene transcription through nuclear receptors. These assumptions are today contradicted by the findings accumulated in the last 20 years. We know now that mechanisms determining sexual dimorphisms may vary according to location and species, and may involve several factors, as genes, epigenetic factors, gonadal hormones and neurosteroids. Sex differences were also revealed by epidemiological studies in several neural pathologies. This suggests that the approach to understand the genesis of these pathologies, should involve specific attention to interactions among genes, gonadal and brain-born steroid hormones, epigenetic and environmental factors. PMID:27113294

  12. Modality and sex differences in pain sensitivity during human endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Karshikoff, B; Lekander, M; Soop, A; Lindstedt, F; Ingvar, M; Kosek, E; Olgart Höglund, C; Axelsson, J

    2015-05-01

    Systemic inflammation can induce pain hypersensitivity in animal and human experimental models, and has been proposed to be central in clinical pain conditions. Women are overrepresented in many chronic pain conditions, but experimental studies on sex differences in pain regulation during systemic inflammation are still scarce. In two randomized and double blind placebo controlled experiments, we used low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an experimental model of systemic inflammation. The first study employed 0.8ng/kg LPS in a within-subject design of 8 individuals (1 woman), and the second study 0.6ng/kg LPS in a between-subject design of 52 participants (29 women). We investigated the effect on (a) pressure, heat, and cold pain thresholds, (b) suprathreshold noxious heat and cold sensitivity, and (c) conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and differences between men and women. LPS induced significantly lower pressure pain thresholds as compared to placebo (mean change with the 0.8ng/kg dose being -64±30kPa P=.04; with the 0.6ng/kg dose -58±55kPa, P<.01, compared to before injection), whereas heat and cold pain thresholds remained unaffected (P's>.70). Suprathreshold noxious pain was not affected by LPS in men (P's⩾.15). However, LPS made women rated suprathreshold noxious heat stimuli as more painful (P=.01), and showed a tendency to rate noxious cold pain as more painful (P=.06) as compared to placebo. Furthermore, LPS impaired conditioned pain modulation, a measure of endogenous pain inhibition, but this effect was also restricted to women (P<.01, for men P=.27). Pain sensitivity correlated positively with plasma IL-6 and IL-8 levels. The results show that inflammation more strongly affects deep pain, rather than cutaneous pain, and suggest that women's pain perception and modulation is more sensitive to immune activation than men's. PMID:25486090

  13. Estimation of the size of the female sex worker population in Rwanda using three different methods.

    PubMed

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gwiza, Aimé; Ruton, Hinda; Koleros, Andrew; Gupta, Neil; Balisanga, Helene; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2015-10-01

    HIV prevalence is disproportionately high among female sex workers compared to the general population. Many African countries lack useful data on the size of female sex worker populations to inform national HIV programmes. A female sex worker size estimation exercise using three different venue-based methodologies was conducted among female sex workers in all provinces of Rwanda in August 2010. The female sex worker national population size was estimated using capture-recapture and enumeration methods, and the multiplier method was used to estimate the size of the female sex worker population in Kigali. A structured questionnaire was also used to supplement the data. The estimated number of female sex workers by the capture-recapture method was 3205 (95% confidence interval: 2998-3412). The female sex worker size was estimated at 3348 using the enumeration method. In Kigali, the female sex worker size was estimated at 2253 (95% confidence interval: 1916-2524) using the multiplier method. Nearly 80% of all female sex workers in Rwanda were found to be based in the capital, Kigali. This study provided a first-time estimate of the female sex worker population size in Rwanda using capture-recapture, enumeration, and multiplier methods. The capture-recapture and enumeration methods provided similar estimates of female sex worker in Rwanda. Combination of such size estimation methods is feasible and productive in low-resource settings and should be considered vital to inform national HIV programmes. PMID:25336306

  14. Evaluating Three Different Methods of Determining Addition in Presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Negareh; Khorasani, Abbas Azimi; Moghadam, Hanieh Mirhajian; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Shandiz, Javad Heravian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare three different methods for determining addition in presbyopes. Methods: The study included 81 subjects with presbyopia who aged 40-70 years. Reading addition values were measured using 3 approaches including the amplitude of accommodation (AA), dynamic retinoscopy (DR), and increasing plus lens (IPL). Results: IPL overestimated reading addition relative to other methods. Mean near addition obtained by AA, DR and IPL were 1.31, 1.68 and 1.77, respectively. Our results showed that IPL method could provide 20/20 vision at near in the majority of presbyopic subjects (63.4%). Conclusion: The results were approximately the same for 3 methods and provided comparable final addition; however, mean near additions were higher with increasing plus lens compared with the other two methods. In presbyopic individuals, increasing plus lens is recommended as the least time-consuming method with the range of ±0.50 diopter at the 40 cm working distance. PMID:27621785

  15. Why women see differently from the way men see? A review of sex differences in cognition and sports

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rena

    2014-01-01

    The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire life span. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory – especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports. PMID:25520851

  16. Sex and gender differences in Alzheimer's disease: recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Christine L; Resnick, Eileen M; Mallampalli, Monica; Kalbarczyk, Anna

    2012-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both prevalence and severity; however, the biologic mechanisms underlying these sex differences are not fully understood. Sex differences in the brain, such as in brain anatomy, age-related declines in brain volume, and brain glucose metabolism, have been documented and may be important in understanding AD etiology. The full impact of sex as a basic biologic variable on this neurodegenerative disease remains elusive. To address the evidence for sex differences in AD, the Society for Women's Health Research (SWHR) convened an interdisciplinary roundtable of experts from academia, clinical medicine, industry, and the government to discuss the state-of-the-science in sex and gender differences in AD. Roundtable participants were asked to address gaps in our knowledge and identify specific sex-based research questions for future areas of study. PMID:22917473

  17. [Sex differences in drug action: the role of multidrug-resistance proteins (MRPs)].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, O V

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of participation of multidrug-resistance proteins (MRPs) in sex difference pattern of drug efficiency and side effects have been analyzed. MRPs structure, their tissue and cellular localization, substrate specificity, and functions have been considered. Regulation of expression and activity of MRPs by endogenous metabolites, signal compounds, including sex hormones, as well as by drug agents have been represented. The role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of MRPs expression has been demonstrated. The data on sex differences in hepatic and renal MRPs expression and expression of nuclear receptors, participating in their induction, have been shown. The participation of MRPs in the formation of sex differences of drug pharmacokinetics has been discussed. Sex differences in representation and functional activity of MRPs in such excretory organs as liver and kidney was concluded would play the essential role in sex dependence of pharmacokinetics and efficiency of drug action. PMID:22830252

  18. Other-Sex Relationship Stress and Sex Differences in the Contribution of Puberty to Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the pubertal transition, particularly when experienced earlier than age-matched peers, is associated with heightened depression in girls but less depression in boys. This study examined whether stress within other-sex relationships serves as one process through which puberty differentially contributes to depression for girls…

  19. Sex differences in the neural basis of false-belief and pragmatic language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Frank, Chiyoko Kobayashi; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Ganzel, Barbara L

    2015-01-15

    Increasing research evidence suggests that women are more advanced than men in pragmatic language comprehension and Theory of Mind (ToM), which is a cognitive component of empathy. We measured the hemodynamic responses of men and women while they performed a second-order false-belief (FB) task and a coherent story (CS) task. During the FB condition relative to the baseline (unlinked sentences [US]), we found convergent activity in ToM network regions, such as the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) bilaterally and precuneus, in both sexes. We also found a greater activity in the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a greater deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)/orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) bilaterally in women compared to men. However, we did not find difference in the brain activity between the sexes during the FB condition relative to the CS condition. The results suggest a significant overlap between neural bases of pragmatic language comprehension and ToM in both men and women. Taken together, these results are in line with the extreme male brain (EMB) hypothesis by demonstrating sex difference in the neural basis of ToM and pragmatic language, both of which are found to be impaired in individuals with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). In addition, the results also suggest that on average women use both cognitive empathy (dorsal mPFC) and affective empathy (vmPFC) networks more than men for false-belief reasoning. PMID:25264229

  20. Sex Differences in Parenting Behaviors in Single-Mother and Single-Father Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Howell, Nyssa C.; Downey, Douglas B.; Ainsworth, James W.; Lapray, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    Research on family structure has led some to claim that sex-based parenting differences exist. But if such differences exist in single-parent families, the absence of a second parent rather than specific sex-typed parenting might explain them. We examine differences in mothering and fathering behavior in single-parent households, where number of…

  1. Rethinking Difference and Sex Education: From Cultural Inclusivity to Normative Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggis, Jane; Mulholland, Monique

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to problematise what is meant by 'difference' and consider what such a reinterpretation might mean for methodological interventions in sex education research. Our concern is the tendency for sex education research to treat difference as a set of categories to be "added-on", such as religious difference,…

  2. Sex Differences in the Expression of Depressive Responses on the Beck Depression Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance L.; Padesky, Christine A.

    1977-01-01

    Although epidemiological data have documented sex differences in depression, the nature and origins of the differences are unclear. Depression in a large sample of young, unmarried college students was measured and described by the Beck Depression Inventory. Considers the consequences of sex differences in depressive responses, including…

  3. Maturation and Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Characteristics of Youth Athletes.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Lindsay J; Martinez, Jessica C; Crowley, Elizabeth; Matteau, Erin; Kerner, Michael S; Boling, Michelle C; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Trojian, Thomas H

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how neuromuscular factors that are associated with lower extremity injury risk, such as landing kinematics, muscle strength, and flexibility, change as children mature may enhance age-specific recommendations for injury prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to compare these factors in prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal male and female athletes. Subjects were classified on maturation stage (prepubertal: 16 males, 15 females, age: 9 ± 1 years; pubertal: 13 males, 12 females, age: 12 ± 3 years; postpubertal: 30 males, 27 females, age: 16 ± 2 years). Researchers measured lower extremity isometric muscle strength and flexibility and evaluated kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs) during a jump-landing task. Three-dimensional kinematics at initial contact (IC), joint displacements, and peak VGRF were calculated. Separate multivariate analyses of variance were performed to evaluate sex and maturation differences (α ≤ 0.05). Postpubertal females landed with less knee flexion at IC (p = 0.006) and demonstrated lower knee extension strength (p = 0.01) than prepubertal and pubertal females. Postpubertal males landed with less hip adduction displacement (postpubertal males = 12.53 ± 6.15°, prepubertal males = 18.84 ± 7.47°; p = 0.04) and less peak VGRF (postpubertal males = 1.53 ± 0.27% body weight [BW], prepubertal males = 1.99 ± 0.32% BW; p = 0.03) compared with prepubertal males. These findings suggest encouraging sagittal plane absorption and decreasing frontal plane motion at the hip, whereas maintaining quadriceps strength may be important for reducing injury risk in postpubertal athletes. PMID:26313573

  4. Sex differences in white matter integrity in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    King, Jace B.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Stoeckel, Amanda; DiMuzio, Jennifer M.; Lopez-Larson, Melissa P.

    2015-01-01

    Widespread disparities in white matter (WM) microstructure and organization have been found in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, little is known about the role sex plays in these differences. The present diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study performed whole-brain, tract-based, voxel-wise, and region of interest (ROI) analyses to investigate WM microstructure differences between ADHD and healthy control (HC) adolescents to examine the impact of sex on measures of fractional anisotropy (FA). Eighteen adolescents with ADHD and 24 HC were included in this study. All participants received a 64-direction DTI scan on a 3 Tesla Siemens scanner. FSL's TBSS was used to perform whole-brain, tract-based, voxel-wise analyses. Tracts demonstrating significant sex-by-diagnosis interactions were further evaluated using univariate analyses performed on mean FA data that were extracted from ROIs using the Johns Hopkins University WM tractography atlas. TBSS analyses between diagnostic groups revealed significantly increased FA in HC relative to ADHD in the bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), forceps major, left cingulum, and bilateral callosal regions. In addition, both TBSS and separate ROI analyses revealed significant sex-by-diagnosis interactions for the corticospinal tract (CST), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and SLF. In the HC group, FA was increased in males relative to females for all analyses. In WM regions demonstrating a significant sex-by-diagnosis, FA was increased in females relative to males in the ADHD group. Our findings suggest that WM microstructure in several major WM tracts differs between males and females with ADHD. These differences in WM microstructure may account for some of the differences in ADHD subtypes and comorbidities seen between the sexes. Additional studies in ADHD, examining sex differences in phenotypic expression, treatment response and brain network trajectories are warranted. PMID

  5. Sex Differences on the WISC-R in Belgium and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Bartels, Meike; Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Verhulst, F. C.; Jacobs, Nele; van Gestel, Sofie; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Dolan, Conor V.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences on the Dutch WISC-R were examined in Dutch children (350 boys, 387 girls, age 11-13 years) and Belgian children (370 boys, 391 girls, age 9.5-13 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis was used to establish whether the WISC-R was measurement invariant across sex, and whether sex differences on the level of the…

  6. Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Diastolic Dysfunction in Cardiac Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Renata G.; Worthington, Andrea; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Aranki, Sary F.; Muehlschlegel, Jochen D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The mortality from diastolic dysfunction is approximately 9% to 28%. In patients with ischemic heart disease, female sex and advanced age are associated with increases in ventricular diastolic stiffness. Clinical studies have found higher rates of diastolic dysfunction in women, despite higher ejection fractions, than in men post–myocardial infarction. Therefore, we hypothesized that female patients undergoing cardiac surgery have higher degrees of diastolic dysfunction and experience more adverse outcomes, such as prolonged hospitalization. Methods We prospectively enrolled 153 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Diastolic function was assessed using early transmitral velocity (E) and early diastolic lateral mitral annular tissue velocity (e′). Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was defined as binary and a continuous outcome (E/e′). Results Females were more likely than malesto present with higher E/e′ (11.5 vs. 7.9, p = 0.001) and higher left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (71% vs. 36%, p< 0.001). The addition of sex to the model for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was significant. The relationship between sex and E/e′ ratio showed the biggest difference between males and females in the 56–72-year-old age brackets, where women were much more likely to have a higher E/e′ than males. Conclusions We identified a significantly higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction among females presenting for elective cardiac surgery compared to males. This finding is more pronounced with age. Additionally, we found that female sex is at higher risk of prolonged ICU and hospital length of stay. PMID:25571945

  7. Sex Differences in Seoul Virus Infection Are Not Related to Adult Sex Steroid Concentrations in Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sabra L.; Bird, Brian H.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Field studies of hantavirus infection in rodents report that a higher percentage of infected individuals are males than females. To determine whether males were more susceptible to hantavirus infection than females, adult male and female Long Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus) were inoculated with doses of Seoul virus ranging from 10−4 to 106 PFU. The 50% infective doses (ID50) were not significantly different for male and female rats (100.05 and 100.8 PFU, respectively). To determine whether sex differences in response to infection were related to circulating sex steroid hormones, sex steroid concentrations were manipulated and antibody responses and virus shedding were assessed following inoculation with the ID90. Regardless of hormone treatment, males had higher anti-Seoul virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG2a (i.e., Th1) responses than females and IgG1 (i.e., Th2) responses similar to those of females. Males also shed virus in saliva and feces longer than females. Manipulation of sex steroids in adulthood did not alter immune responses or virus shedding, suggesting that sex steroids may organize adult responses to hantavirus earlier during ontogeny. PMID:10933735

  8. Rapid comparison of metabolites in humans and rats of different sexes using untargeted UPLC-TOFMS and an in-house software platform.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiande; Xu, Wangyanjun; Hong, Qian; Xiao, Chengrong; Yang, Liang; Ma, Zengchun; Wang, Yuguang; Tan, Hongling; Tang, Xianglin; Gao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Metabolite differences between sexes have rarely been observed in a global manner, but it has recently been made possible by the advancement in metabolomics techniques. In this study, untargeted ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry and an in-house software platform were used for a rapid comparison of sex differences in urinary metabolites in humans and in urinary and serum metabolites in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. In addition, the species differences of urinary metabolites between humans and SD rats were also observed. Principle component analysis showed that all the observed metabolite sex differences were more distinct in SD rats than in humans, indicating that the sex differences of human urinary metabolites is small compared with that of SD rats. In SD rats, the observed metabolite sex differences were more distinct in urine than in serum, indicating the importance of urine analysis for metabolomics studies. The species differences in the urinary metabolites of humans and SD rats were much more distinct than any of the observed sex differences. Many sex- and species-related markers were discovered and putatively identified. In both humans and SD rats, steroid metabolites appeared to constitute a major sex difference in urinary metabolites. This provides new proof of the special importance of steroid metabolites in sex differences from an untargeted metabolomics investigation, which is rare for sex differences. Contrary patterns involving adrenocortical activity appeared to exist between rodents and humans, which agrees with previous reports. In the serum metabolites of SD rats, sex differences in ascorbic acid or its isomer and pantothenic acid or its isomer, but not in steroid metabolites, were prominent. Human-specific α-N- phenylacetyl-l-glutamine and androsterone glucuronide were among the putative identities of the markers discriminating humans and SD rats. This study demonstrated the feasibility of an in

  9. Phenotypic differences between the sexes in the sexually plastic mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus).

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mark J; Ferro, Jack M; Mattox, Tyler; Kopelic, Sydney; Marson, Kristine; Jones, Ryan; Svendsen, Jon C; Earley, Ryan L

    2016-04-01

    To maximize reproductive success, many animal species have evolved functional sex change. Theory predicts that transitions between sexes should occur when the fitness payoff of the current sex is exceeded by the fitness payoff of the opposite sex. We examined phenotypic differences between the sexes in a sex-changing vertebrate, the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), to elucidate potential factors that might drive the 'decision' to switch sex. Rivulus populations consist of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males. Hermaphrodites transition into males under certain environmental conditions, affording us the opportunity to generate 40 hermaphrodite-male pairs where, within a pair, individuals possessed identical genotypes despite being different sexes. We quantified steroid hormone levels, behavior (aggression and risk taking), metabolism and morphology (organ masses). We found that hermaphrodites were more aggressive and risk averse, and had higher maximum metabolic rates and larger gonadosomatic indices. Males had higher steroid hormone levels and showed correlations among hormones that hermaphrodites lacked. Males also had greater total mass and somatic body mass and possessed considerable fat stores. Our findings suggest that there are major differences between the sexes in energy allocation, with hermaphrodites exhibiting elevated maximum metabolic rates, and showing evidence of favoring investments in reproductive tissues over somatic growth. Our study serves as the foundation for future research investigating how environmental challenges affect both physiology and reproductive investment and, ultimately, how these changes dictate the transition between sexes. PMID:27030777

  10. Sex differences in socioemotional functioning, attentional bias, and gray matter volume in maltreated children: A multilevel investigation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Philip A; Viding, Essi; Puetz, Vanessa B; Palmer, Amy L; Mechelli, Andrea; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Samuel, Sophie; McCrory, Eamon J

    2015-11-01

    While maltreatment is known to impact social and emotional functioning, threat processing, and neural structure, the potentially dimorphic influence of sex on these outcomes remains relatively understudied. We investigated sex differences across these domains in a large community sample of children aged 10 to 14 years (n = 122) comprising 62 children with verified maltreatment experience and 60 well-matched nonmaltreated peers. The maltreated group relative to the nonmaltreated comparison group exhibited poorer social and emotional functioning (more peer problems and heightened emotional reactivity). Cognitively, they displayed a pattern of attentional avoidance of threat in a visual dot-probe task. Similar patterns were observed in males and females in these domains. Reduced gray matter volume was found to characterize the maltreated group in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobes, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus; sex differences were observed only in the supramarginal gyrus. In addition, a disordinal interaction between maltreatment exposure and sex was found in the postcentral gyrus. Finally, attentional avoidance to threat mediated the relationship between maltreatment and emotional reactivity, and medial orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume mediated the relationship between maltreatment and peer functioning. Similar mediation patterns were observed across sexes. This study highlights the utility of combining multiple levels of analysis when studying the "latent vulnerability" engendered by childhood maltreatment and yields tentative findings regarding a neural basis of sex differences in long-term outcomes for maltreated children. PMID:26535946

  11. Sex Differences in Responsiveness to Babies among Mature Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, S. Shirley; Nash, Sharon Churnin

    1979-01-01

    Interest in babies was assessed in 30 parents of adolescents, 28 parents whose grown children were no longer living at home, and 26 grandparents of an infant. Measures included responsivity to an unfamiliar baby in a waiting room situation, interest in pictures of babies, and a sex-role self-concept inventory. (JMB)

  12. The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna G.; Allison, Carrie; Scott, Fiona J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST) (formally known as the Childhood Asperger Screening Test) identifies autism spectrum conditions by measuring social and communication skills. The present study explored the sex distribution of scores. The CAST was distributed to 11,635 children aged 4-9 years in Cambridgeshire primary schools (UK). 3,370…

  13. Determinant Factors of Attitude towards Quantitative Subjects: Differences between Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, almost all curricula in the social sciences contain at least one course in statistics, given the importance of this discipline as an analytical tool. This work identifies the latent factors relating to students' motivation and attitude towards statistics, tests their covariance structure for samples of both sexes, and identifies the…

  14. Sex Differences in Science Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deidra J.; Fraser, Barry J.

    The assertion that girls and boys in single-sex schools outperform their peers attending coeducational schools was investigated in this study with particular reference to physics achievement. The relationship between the school, the home and the student's performance in physics was also explored tentatively using multilevel analysis. The average…

  15. Sex differences in cognitive regulation of psychosocial achievement stress: brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Lydia; Gur, Ruben C; Derntl, Birgit

    2015-03-01

    Although cognitive regulation of emotion has been extensively examined, there is a lack of studies assessing cognitive regulation in stressful achievement situations. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 23 females and 20 males to investigate cognitive downregulation of negative, stressful sensations during a frequently used psychosocial stress task. Additionally, subjective responses, cognitive regulation strategies, salivary cortisol, and skin conductance response were assessed. Subjective response supported the experimental manipulation by showing higher anger and negative affect ratings after stress regulation than after the mere exposure to stress. On a neural level, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG) were more strongly activated during regulation than nonregulation, whereas the hippocampus was less activated during regulation. Sex differences were evident: after regulation females expressed higher subjective stress ratings than males, and these ratings were associated with right hippocampal activation. In the nonregulation block, females showed greater activation of the left amygdala and the right STG during stress than males while males recruited the putamen more robustly in this condition. Thus, cognitive regulation of stressful achievement situations seems to induce additional stress, to recruit regions implicated in attention integration and working memory and to deactivate memory retrieval. Stress itself is associated with greater activation of limbic as well as attention areas in females than males. Additionally, activation of the memory system during cognitive regulation of stress is associated with greater perceived stress in females. Sex differences in cognitive regulation strategies merit further investigation that can guide sex sensitive interventions for stress-associated disorders. PMID:25376429

  16. The Relationship between Sex Differences and Reading Ability: A Study of Children's Performance in an Israeli Kibbutz System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Alice Dzen

    This study tested two long-standing assumptions in education: that reading ability in the elementary grades is differentiated by sex and that boys experience a higher incidence of reading disability than do girls. In addition, three biological explanations for this difference were tested: maturational lag, cerebral dominance, and vulnerability of…

  17. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying

    PubMed Central

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination. PMID:17148197

  18. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-09-22

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination. PMID:17148197

  19. Sex differences in intensity of emotional experience: a social role interpretation.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M; Wood, W

    1993-11-01

    According to gender role theory, women's greater emotional intensity than men's stems from normative expectations for sex differences that arise as a result of men's and women's social roles. In the 1st experiment, endorsement of normative expectations for sex differences was associated with sex differences in Ss' own emotions: To the extent that they endorsed stereotypical differences between men and women, female Ss reported personally experiencing emotions of greater intensity and male Ss reported experiencing emotions of lesser intensity. The 2nd study manipulated expectations for responsiveness while Ss viewed a series of emotion-inducing slides. When instructions rendered normative expectations comparable for men and women, no sex differences were obtained in emotion self-reports. Furthermore, women evidenced more extreme electromyograph physiological responding than men, suggesting general sex differences in emotion that are not limited to self-report. PMID:8246109

  20. The Role of Harsh Discipline in Explaining Sex Differences in Conduct Disorder: A Study of Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Madeline H.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, two hypotheses about the role of harsh discipline (HD) in explaining the sex difference in the prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) were evaluated: that boys exhibit more CD than girls because (1) they are exposed to more HD and/or (2) there is a greater association between HD and CD in boys. These hypotheses were evaluated in…

  1. The role of mood states underlying sex differences in the perception and tolerance of pain.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, John P; Lawler, Casey; Robinson, Richard; Morgan, Michael; Kenworthy-Heinige, Tawni

    2006-09-01

    While sex differences in pain reporting are frequently observed, the reasons underlying these differences remain unclear. The present study examined sex differences in self-report and physiological measures of pain threshold and tolerance following the administration of two laboratory pain-induction tasks. The primary study aim centered on determining whether repeated exposure to such tasks would yield sex differences in terms of pain threshold and tolerance. In addition, it was hypothesized that if such differences did exist, negative mood states might account for changes in pain ratings, threshold, and/or tolerance in subsequent exposure to noxious stimuli. Recruited from a convenience sample, 66 participants (44 female and 22 male) were exposed to both thermal and cold noxious stimuli at three separate times, while psychophysiological and self-report data were collected. Because women outnumbered men 2:1, Fisher z transformations were performed to determine whether the observed associations between mood states and pain ratings differed. We found stronger associations between fatigue and thermal-heat pain ratings for men at their first and third exposure to the pain task compared to women (z = 2.11, P < 0.05; z = 3.14, P < 0.001, respectively). Results indicated that women evidenced greater pain tolerance than men on both a behavioral and physiological level; however, they reported greater pain severity than men. Fatigue was also found to be particularly important to reports of pain severity in men and pain tolerance in response to noxious stimuli for women. Possible pathways in which mood states influenced these endpoints are discussed. PMID:17147596

  2. Sex differences in cerebral palsy on neuromotor outcome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Domenico M; Sini, Francesca; Brogna, Claudia; Albamonte, Emilio; Ricci, Daniela; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2016-08-01

    Sex differences have been reported in children with cerebral palsy (CP), with males having a higher risk of developing CP, but it is not entirely clear whether sex may also affect the severity of motor impairment. The aim of the present study was to critically review the existing literature on sex influence on neuromotor outcome in children with CP. The published papers confirm that CP occurs more frequently in males than in females. Within different types of CP or individual level of impairment, however, there was limited evidence that sex also had an effect on their performance. PMID:27098195

  3. [Intersex and differences of sex development: background, diagnostics, and concepts of care].

    PubMed

    Holterhus, P-M

    2013-12-01

    Intersex is an inherited incongruence of chromosomal, gonadal, and genital sexual characteristics. A typical clinical situation of intersex is the ambiguous genitalia in the newborn. Diagnostics, counseling, and therapy should be offered by specialized multidisciplinary health-care teams. The focus is not only on medical issues but also on psychological, social, and ethical aspects. In the international literature, intersex is now termed "disorders of sex development" (DSD). Alternatively, some authors use "differences of sex development" to underline that patients do not necessarily feel they have a "disorder" but rather a "difference" of sex development compared with normal sex development. PMID:24337131

  4. Response Biases and Their Relation to Sex Differences in Multiple Domains of Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vispoel, Walter P.; Forte Fast, Ellen E.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the influence of two forms of socially desirable responding on scores within 17 domains of self-concept from 3 measures completed by 390 college students. Found significant sex differences in 12 domains. Discusses the role of impression management in creating some apparent sex differences. (SLD)

  5. Sex Differences in the Forms of Aggression among Adolescent Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedahe, Francis K.; Owusu-Banahene, Nana Opoku

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated sex differences in the forms of aggression exhibited by adolescent students, particularly in the Western world. No such study has been done among sub-Saharan Africa students. The aim was to examine the sex differences in forms of aggression among adolescent students in Ghana. A total of 800 adolescent students…

  6. Sex Differences in Facial Scanning: Similarities and Dissimilarities between Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Cummings, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    When face processing studies find sex differences, male infants appear better at face recognition than female infants, whereas female adults appear better at face recognition than male adults. Both female infants and adults, however, discriminate emotional expressions better than males. To investigate if sex and age differences in facial scanning…

  7. Sex Differences in Environmental Concern and Knowledge: The Case of Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a telephone survey of 516 adults which focused on sex differences in concern and knowledge about one environmental issue, acid rain. The findings contradict predictions that women are more concerned about environmental issues: if there is a sex difference, men are found to be more concerned and knowledgeable about acid rain.…

  8. Mental Rotation Does Not Account for Sex Differences in Left-Right Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Hirnstein, Marco; Ohmann, Hanno Andreas; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that women believe they are more prone to left-right confusion (LRC) than men. However, while some studies report that there is also a sex difference in LRC tasks favouring men, others report that men and women perform equally well. Recently, it was suggested that sex differences only emerge in LRC tasks when they…

  9. Sex Differences in Infants' Mapping of Complex Occlusion Sequences: Further Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Recently, infant researchers have reported sex differences in infants' capacity to map their representation of an occlusion sequence onto a subsequent no-occlusion display. The research reported here sought to identify the extent to which these sex differences are observed in event-mapping tasks and to identify the underlying basis for these…

  10. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a Large Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandy, William; Chilvers, Rebecca; Chowdhury, Uttom; Salter, Gemma; Seigal, Anna; Skuse, David

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences have been found amongst toddlers and young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated the presence and stability of these ASD sex differences throughout childhood and adolescence. Participants (N = 325, 52 females; aged 3-18 years) consecutively received an ASD diagnosis at a clinic for assessing high-functioning…

  11. High School Seniors' Occupational Plans and Values: Trends in Sex Differences 1976 through 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, A. Regula

    1982-01-01

    Examines occupational plans and values of high school seniors for evidence of declining sex differences between 1976-1980. Questionnaire data collected from 3000 students indicated marked sex differences in the kinds of work boys and girls planned to do at age 30 and the work settings and characteristics they desired. (Author/AM)

  12. Summary of Effects of Biological Factors on Sex-Related Differences in Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Julia

    Critically reviewed evidence relevant to hypotheses of biological sources of sex-related cognitive differences as they relate to mathematics achievement include the following: explanations based on the assumption of greater variability in male cognitive performance; sex-related differences in serum urate; effects of estrogens compared to androgens…

  13. Six Degrees of Separation: What Teachers Need to Know about the Emerging Science of Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several research reports demonstrating the existence of sex differences in cognitive function and language skills. Although dozens of studies published in the past five years have demonstrated dramatic sex differences in autonomic function, the educational literature has not emphasized those studies and their…

  14. The Variability Hypothesis: The History of a Biological Model of Sex Differences in Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the origin and development of the variability hypothesis as applied to the study of social and psychological sex differences. Explores changes in the hypothesis over time, social and scientific factors that fostered its acceptance, and possible parallels between the variability hypothesis and contemporary theories of sex differences.…

  15. Understanding the Sex Difference in Vulnerability to Adolescent Depression: An Examination of Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Shih, Josephine H.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in risk factors associated with adolescent depression in a large sample of boys and girls. Moderation and mediation explanatory models of the sex difference in likelihood of depression were examined. Findings indicate that the factors associated with depression in adolescent boys and girls are quite similar. All…

  16. Surprising Lack of Sex Differences in Normal Cognitive Aging in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the etiology of normal cognitive functioning in aging remain largely unexplored. We conducted an investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to sex differences in level of cognitive performance and rate of decline in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) (Finkel & Pedersen, 2004) data set. Behavioral…

  17. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  18. Sex Differences in the Relation between Statistics Anxiety and Cognitive/Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodarte-Luna, Bertha; Sherry, Alissa

    2008-01-01

    Three hundred twenty three students were recruited in order to investigate sex differences on measures of statistics anxiety and learning strategies. Data was analyzed using descriptive discriminant analysis and canonical correlation analysis. Findings indicated that sex differences on these measures were statistically significant, but with small…

  19. Sex Differences in the Play Configurations of Pre-Adolescents: A Replication and Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Allison Hadley

    Erikson found sex differences in the play configurations of pre-adolescents who were given a variety of toys and blocks. Wamback, Cramer and Hogan's replications of Erikson's work revealed that sex differences of this type lack sensitivity to inter-school variation among subjects, time or locality. Two possible alternatives to Erikson's hypothesis…

  20. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Relations among Family Risk Factors and Childhood Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children's externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children's externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal…

  1. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Cortical Activation Patterns: Can Training Change Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments the neuronal mechanisms of sex differences in mental rotation were investigated. In Experiment 1 cortical activation was studied in women and men with similar levels of mental rotation ability (high, and average to low), who were equalized with respect to general intelligence. Sex difference in neuroelectric patterns of brain…

  2. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in a College Population: General Trends and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Janis; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer; Purington, Amanda; Eckenrode, John; Barreira, Paul; Abrams, Gina Baral; Marchell, Tim; Kress, Victoria; Girard, Kristine; Chin, Calvin; Knox, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe basic nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) characteristics and to explore sex differences. Methods: A random sample from 8 universities were invited to participate in a Web-based survey in 2006-2007; 38.9% (n = 14,372) participated. Analysis assessed sex differences in NSSI prevalence, practices, severity, perceived dependency,…

  3. Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities of Medical Graduates Entering Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, Georges A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences favoring males in spatial abilities have been known by cognitive psychologists for more than half a century. Spatial abilities have been related to three-dimensional anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The issue of sex differences in spatial abilities has not been addressed formally in the medical field. The…

  4. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  5. Sex Differences in the Response of Children with ADHD to Once-Daily Formulations of Methylphenidate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, J. S.; Coghill, David; Markowitz, John S.; Swanson, James M.; Vandenberghe, Mieke; Hatch, Simon J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Studies of sex differences in methylphenidate response by children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have lacked methodological rigor and statistical power. This paper reports an examination of sex differences based on further analysis of data from a comparison of two once-daily methylphenidate formulations (the COMACS…

  6. Sex Differences in the Relation between Math Performance, Spatial Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…

  7. Sex Differences in Neural Activation to Facial Expressions Denoting Contempt and Disgust

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, André; Swart, Marte

    2008-01-01

    The facial expression of contempt has been regarded to communicate feelings of moral superiority. Contempt is an emotion that is closely related to disgust, but in contrast to disgust, contempt is inherently interpersonal and hierarchical. The aim of this study was twofold. First, to investigate the hypothesis of preferential amygdala responses to contempt expressions versus disgust. Second, to investigate whether, at a neural level, men would respond stronger to biological signals of interpersonal superiority (e.g., contempt) than women. We performed an experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in which participants watched facial expressions of contempt and disgust in addition to neutral expressions. The faces were presented as distractors in an oddball task in which participants had to react to one target face. Facial expressions of contempt and disgust activated a network of brain regions, including prefrontal areas (superior, middle and medial prefrontal gyrus), anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala, parietal cortex, fusiform gyrus, occipital cortex, putamen and thalamus. Contemptuous faces did not elicit stronger amygdala activation than did disgusted expressions. To limit the number of statistical comparisons, we confined our analyses of sex differences to the frontal and temporal lobes. Men displayed stronger brain activation than women to facial expressions of contempt in the medial frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus. Conversely, women showed stronger neural responses than men to facial expressions of disgust. In addition, the effect of stimulus sex differed for men versus women. Specifically, women showed stronger responses to male contemptuous faces (as compared to female expressions), in the insula and middle frontal gyrus. Contempt has been conceptualized as signaling perceived moral violations of social hierarchy, whereas disgust would signal violations of physical purity. Thus, our results suggest a

  8. Sex differences in parental care: Gametic investment, sexual selection, and social environment.

    PubMed

    Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Remeš, Vladimir; Székely, Tamás

    2015-11-01

    Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (1) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (2) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (3) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here, we provide the most comprehensive assessment of these hypotheses using detailed parental care data from 792 bird species covering 126 families. We found no evidence for the gametic investment hypothesis: neither gamete sizes nor gamete production by males relative to females was related to sex difference in parental care. However, sexual selection correlated with parental sex roles, because the male share in care relative to female decreased with both extra-pair paternity and frequency of male polygamy. Parental sex roles were also related to social environment, because male parental care increased with male-biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). Taken together, our results are consistent with recent theories suggesting that gametic investment is not tied to parental sex roles, and highlight the importance of both sexual selection and ASR in influencing parental sex roles. PMID:26420758

  9. Sex differences in conditioned stimulus discrimination during context-dependent fear learning and its retrieval in humans: the role of biological sex, contraceptives and menstrual cycle phases

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdorf, Tina B.; Haaker, Jan; Schümann, Dirk; Sommer, Tobias; Bayer, Janine; Brassen, Stefanie; Bunzeck, Nico; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than in men. Despite this sexual dimorphism, most experimental studies are conducted in male participants, and studies focusing on sex differences are sparse. In addition, the role of hormonal contraceptives and menstrual cycle phase in fear conditioning and extinction processes remain largely unknown. Methods We investigated sex differences in context-dependent fear acquisition and extinction (day 1) and their retrieval/expression (day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs), fear and unconditioned stimulus expectancy ratings were obtained. Results We included 377 individuals (261 women) in our study. Robust sex differences were observed in all dependent measures. Women generally displayed higher subjective ratings but smaller SCRs than men and showed reduced excitatory/inhibitory conditioned stimulus (CS+/CS−) discrimination in all dependent measures. Furthermore, women using hormonal contraceptives showed reduced SCR CS discrimination on day 2 than men and free-cycling women, while menstrual cycle phase had no effect. Limitations Possible limitations include the simultaneous testing of up to 4 participants in cubicles, which might have introduced a social component, and not assessing postexperimental contingency awareness. Conclusion The response pattern in women shows striking similarity to previously reported sex differences in patients with anxiety. Our results suggest that pronounced deficits in associative discrimination learning and subjective expression of safety information (CS− responses) might underlie higher prevalence and higher symptom rates seen in women with anxiety disorders. The data call for consideration of biological sex and hormonal contraceptive use in future studies and may suggest that targeting inhibitory learning during therapy might aid precision medicine. PMID:26107163

  10. Coming of Age in the Kisspeptin Era: Sex differences, Development, and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    The status of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis differs dramatically between early development, puberty, and various stages of adulthood, and also differs in several critical ways between the sexes, including its earlier pubertal activation in females than males and the presence of neural circuitry that generates preovulatory hormone surges in females but not males. The reproductive axis is controlled by various hormonal and neural pathways that converge upon forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, and many of the critical age and sex differences in the reproductive axis likely reflect differences in the “upstream” circuits and factors that regulate the GnRH system. Recently, the neural kisspeptin system has been implicated as an important regulator of GnRH neurons. Here I discuss the evidence supporting a critical role of kisspeptin signaling at different stages of life, including early postnatal and pubertal development, as well as in adulthood, focusing primarily on information gleaned from mammalian studies. I also evaluate key aspects of sexual differentiation and development of the brain as it relates to the Kiss1 system, with special emphasis on rodents. In addition to discussing recent advances in the field of kisspeptin biology, this paper will highlight a number of unanswered questions and future challenges for kisspeptin investigators, and will stress the importance of studying the kisspeptin system in both males and females, as well as in multiple species. PMID:20083160

  11. Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) Reveal Modest Sex Differences and Nonlinear Signals of Sexual Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Johnston, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1) calling rates, 2) composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena) and 3) acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual arousal and

  12. A garter snake transcriptome: pyrosequencing, de novo assembly, and sex-specific differences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The reptiles, characterized by both diversity and unique evolutionary adaptations, provide a comprehensive system for comparative studies of metabolism, physiology, and development. However, molecular resources for ectothermic reptiles are severely limited, hampering our ability to study the genetic basis for many evolutionarily important traits such as metabolic plasticity, extreme longevity, limblessness, venom, and freeze tolerance. Here we use massively parallel sequencing (454 GS-FLX Titanium) to generate a transcriptome of the western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) with two goals in mind. First, we develop a molecular resource for an ectothermic reptile; and second, we use these sex-specific transcriptomes to identify differences in the presence of expressed transcripts and potential genes of evolutionary interest. Results Using sex-specific pools of RNA (one pool for females, one pool for males) representing 7 tissue types and 35 diverse individuals, we produced 1.24 million sequence reads, which averaged 366 bp in length after cleaning. Assembly of the cleaned reads from both sexes with NEWBLER and MIRA resulted in 96,379 contigs containing 87% of the cleaned reads. Over 34% of these contigs and 13% of the singletons were annotated based on homology to previously identified proteins. From these homology assignments, additional clustering, and ORF predictions, we estimate that this transcriptome contains ~13,000 unique genes that were previously identified in other species and over 66,000 transcripts from unidentified protein-coding genes. Furthermore, we use a graph-clustering method to identify contigs linked by NEWBLER-split reads that represent divergent alleles, gene duplications, and alternatively spliced transcripts. Beyond gene identification, we identified 95,295 SNPs and 31,651 INDELs. From these sex-specific transcriptomes, we identified 190 genes that were only present in the mRNA sequenced from one of the sexes (84

  13. Sex differences in color preferences transcend extreme differences in culture and ecology.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Witzel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    At first glance, color preferences might seem to be the most subjective and context-dependent aspects of color cognition. Yet they are not. The present study compares color preferences of women and men from an industrialized and a remote, nonindustrialized culture. In particular, we investigated preferences in observers from Poland and from the Yali in Papua, respectively. Not surprisingly, we found that color preferences clearly differed between the two communities and also between sexes. However, despite the pronounced cultural differences, the way in which men and women differed from each other was almost the same in both cultures. At the same time, this sexual contrast was not specific to biological components of color vision. Our results reveal a pattern of sexual dimorphism that transcends extreme differences in culture and ecology. They point toward strong cross-cultural constraints beyond the biological predispositions of nature and the cultural particularities of nurture. PMID:24570324

  14. Explaining sex differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain in a general population.

    PubMed

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; de Vet, Henrica C W; Picavet, H Susan J

    2006-09-01

    Many studies report a female predominance in the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) but the mechanisms explaining these sex differences are poorly understood. Data from a random postal questionnaire survey in the Dutch general population were used to examine whether sex differences in the prevalences of CMP are due to sex differences in the distribution of known potential risk factors for CMP (exposure model) and/or to the different importance of risk factors for CMP (i.e. show different strength of association) in men and women (vulnerability model). In the present analyses, 909 men and 1178 women aged 25-65 were included. CMP was defined as pain lasting longer than 3 months and was assessed for 10 anatomical locations (neck, shoulder, higher back, elbow, wrist/hand, lower back, hip, knee, ankle, foot). Sex differences in CMP could not be explained by a different distribution of age, educational level, smoking status, overweight, physical activity, and pain catastrophizing. Having no paid job was associated with CMP, explaining part of the sex differences, but its role seems complex. Risk factors with a sex-specific association were: overweight (all pain locations) and older age (lower extremities)--both having only an effect among women--and pain catastrophizing (upper extremities), which was stronger associated with CMP among men than among women. In conclusion, sex differences in prevalence of CMP may partly be explained by sex differences in vulnerability to risk factors for CMP. Future research towards sex-specific identification of risk factors for CMP is warranted. Eventually this may lead to sex-specific prevention and management of CMP. PMID:16716517

  15. Subgroup analysis of sex difference on the Vandenberg-Kuse mental rotation test.

    PubMed

    Karádi, Kázmér; Csathó, Arpád; Kovács, Beatrix; Kosztolányi, Péter

    2003-02-01

    A large sex difference has been elicited on the Vandenberg-Kuse mental rotation test. Prior research emphasizes the biological root of this sex difference. In recent experiments we confirmed this viewpoint. A large sample was administered the test, and the distributions of scores for men and women (N = 138; 68 men and 70 women: ages 19 to 23 years). The mean scores were used as cut-off points to group the men and the women in different subgroups (Low/Women, High/Women, Low/Men, High/Men). There were large differences among all subgroups, reinforcing Kimura's testosterone hypothesis for sex differences in spatial ability. PMID:12705526

  16. Risks and benefits of sex-mismatched hematopoietic cell transplantation differ according to conditioning strategy

    PubMed Central

    Nakasone, Hideki; Remberger, Mats; Tian, Lu; Brodin, Petter; Sahaf, Bita; Wu, Fang; Mattsson, Jonas; Lowsky, Robert; Negrin, Robert; Miklos, David B.; Meyer, Everett

    2015-01-01

    Sex-mismatched hematopoietic cell transplantation is linked to increased graft-versus-host disease and mortality in myeloablative conditioning. Here we evaluated outcomes of 1,041 adult transplant recipients at two centers between 2006 and 2013 and investigated how the effect of sex-mismatching differed in myeloablative, reduced-intensity, and non-myeloablative total lymphoid irradiation with anti-thymocyte globulin conditioning. Among patients who underwent myeloablative conditioning, male recipients with female donors had increased chronic graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio 1.83, P<0.01), increased non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 1.84, P=0.022) and inferior overall survival (hazard ratio 1.59, P=0.018). In contrast, among patients who received reduced-intensity conditioning, male recipients with female donors had increased acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio 1.96, P<0.01) but no difference in non-relapse mortality or overall survival. Among the patients who underwent total lymphoid irradiation with anti-thymocyte globulin, male recipients with female donors showed no increase in graft-versus-host disease or non-relapse mortality. Notably, only in the cohort receiving total lymphoid irradiation with anti-thymocyte globulin were male recipients with female donors significantly associated with reduced relapse (hazard ratio 0.64, P<0.01), and allo-antibody responses against H-Y antigens were predictive of reduced relapse. In the cohort given total lymphoid irradiation with anti-thymocyte globulin, the graft-versus-leukemia effect resulted in superior overall survival in recipients of sex-mismatched grafts (HR 0.69, P=0.037). In addition, only in the cohort treated with total lymphoid irradiation with anti-thymocyte globulin were female recipients with male donors associated with reduced relapse (hazard ratio 0.59, P<0.01) and superior survival (hazard ratio 0.61, P=0.014) compared with sex-matched pairs. We conclude that the risks and benefits of

  17. Sex differences in the neurobiology of fear conditioning and extinction: a preliminary fMRI study of shared sex differences with stress-arousal circuitry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and brain-stem subregions are implicated in fear conditioning and extinction, and are brain regions known to be sexually dimorphic. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate sex differences in brain activity in these regions during fear conditioning and extinction. Methods Subjects were 12 healthy men comparable to 12 healthy women who underwent a 2-day experiment in a 3 T MR scanner. Fear conditioning and extinction learning occurred on day 1 and extinction recall occurred on day 2. The conditioned stimuli were visual cues and the unconditioned stimulus was a mild electric shock. Skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded throughout the experiment as an index of the conditioned response. fMRI data (blood-oxygen-level-dependent [BOLD] signal changes) were analyzed using SPM8. Results Findings showed no significant sex differences in SCR during any experimental phases. However, during fear conditioning, there were significantly greater BOLD-signal changes in the right amygdala, right rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in women compared with men. In contrast, men showed significantly greater signal changes in bilateral rACC during extinction recall. Conclusions These results indicate sex differences in brain activation within the fear circuitry of healthy subjects despite similar peripheral autonomic responses. Furthermore, we found that regions where sex differences were previously reported in response to stress, also exhibited sex differences during fear conditioning and extinction. PMID:22738021

  18. A meta-analysis of sex differences in physical ability: revised estimates and strategies for reducing differences in selection contexts.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Stephen H; McCormick, Brian W; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Reeves, Cody J; Mount, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    Despite the wide use of physical ability tests for selection and placement decisions in physically demanding occupations, research has suggested that there are substantial male-female differences on the scores of such tests, contributing to adverse impact. In this study, we present updated, revised meta-analytic estimates of sex differences in physical abilities and test 3 moderators of these differences-selection system design, specificity of measurement, and training-in order to provide insight into possible methods of reducing sex differences on physical ability test scores. Findings revealed that males score substantially better on muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance tests but that there are no meaningful sex differences on movement quality tests. These estimates differ in several ways from past estimates. Results showed that sex differences are similar across selection systems that emphasize basic ability tests versus job simulations. Results also showed that sex differences are smaller for narrow dimensions of muscular strength and that there is substantial variance in the sex differences in muscular strength across different body regions. Finally, we found that training led to greater increases in performance for women than for men on both muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance tests. However, training reduced the male-female differences on muscular strengths tests only modestly and actually increased male-female differences on cardiovascular endurance. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on physical ability testing and adverse impact, as well as the practical implications of the results. PMID:23731029

  19. An investigation of whether there are sex differences in certain behavioural and neurochemical parameters in the rat.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joy; Kelly, John P

    2012-04-01

    In clinical populations, sex differences in disease prevalence, symptoms and outcome have been established. Despite this, female rats are frequently omitted from preclinical research; growing preclinical evidence, however, illustrates meaningful sex differences in behavioural, neurochemical and neuroanatomical endpoints. This review outlines the effects of sex on tests of depression- and anxiety-like symptoms, learning and memory, and responses to stress in rats. In addition, sexual dimorphisms in monoamine neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factor levels, neurogenesis and plasticity, and responsiveness to drugs of abuse are reviewed. Female rats display greater baseline activity levels compared to males, test-specific sex differences also exist in learning and memory protocols as females respond more actively in conditioning paradigms and are somewhat impaired in tests of spatial memory compared to males. Differential baseline and stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses between male and female rats depend on the nature of the stressor. Females are more responsive to the effects of psychomotor stimulant drugs; sexual dimorphisms in response to psychotropic drugs are likely mediated by neurochemical differences between male and female rats. Differences exist in neurotransmitter activity, transporter and receptor expression between the sexes. Studies of ovariectomised and intact female rats demonstrate a potent impact of elevated estrogen during the estrous cycle on behaviour, neurochemistry, dendritic growth and drug response. Sex differences in baseline behaviours and the methodological procedures employed can influence behavioural pharmacology result interpretation. In addition, the inclusion of both male and female rats in studies investigating neurochemistry and neuromorphology may enhance the validity of drug or rehabilitative treatments. PMID:22230114

  20. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law. PMID:24190101

  1. Estimation of adjusted rate differences using additive negative binomial regression.

    PubMed

    Donoghoe, Mark W; Marschner, Ian C

    2016-08-15

    Rate differences are an important effect measure in biostatistics and provide an alternative perspective to rate ratios. When the data are event counts observed during an exposure period, adjusted rate differences may be estimated using an identity-link Poisson generalised linear model, also known as additive Poisson regression. A problem with this approach is that the assumption of equality of mean and variance rarely holds in real data, which often show overdispersion. An additive negative binomial model is the natural alternative to account for this; however, standard model-fitting methods are often unable to cope with the constrained parameter space arising from the non-negativity restrictions of the additive model. In this paper, we propose a novel solution to this problem using a variant of the expectation-conditional maximisation-either algorithm. Our method provides a reliable way to fit an additive negative binomial regression model and also permits flexible generalisations using semi-parametric regression functions. We illustrate the method using a placebo-controlled clinical trial of fenofibrate treatment in patients with type II diabetes, where the outcome is the number of laser therapy courses administered to treat diabetic retinopathy. An R package is available that implements the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27073156

  2. Sex Differences in Social Responsiveness between Six Months and Twelve Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Donahue, Margaret

    1980-01-01

    This study of mother-infant pairs investigates sex differences and age differences (infants of 6, 9, and 12 months of age) in mother and infant initiations of interactions and responses to the other's initiations. (SS)

  3. Sex and Urban-Rural Differences in Self-Concepts among Nigerian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeilo, Bernice N.

    1983-01-01

    The Tennessee Self-concept Scale was administered to 200 Igbo male and female adolescents from rural and urban secondary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria. Sex differences among rural residents and rural-urban differences were found. (Author/RH)

  4. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Dadda, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition (NOR) test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test. PMID:27305102

  5. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test

    PubMed Central

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Dadda, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition (NOR) test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test. PMID:27305102

  6. Sex Differences in Time Perception During Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making, which reflects a preference for smaller, immediate rewards and often prompts a relapse to smoking. The mechanism by which nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making is not well known. An essential dimension of decision-making is time perception. Impulsive decisions reflect intolerance of temporal delays and the perception that time is passing more slowly. Sex may be an important factor in impulsive decision-making and time perception, but no studies have investigated whether sex moderates the effects of nicotine withdrawal on impulsive decision-making and time perception. Methods: Thirty-three (12 female) adult smokers completed 2 laboratory sessions: following 24-hr abstinence and once smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced, abstinence biochemically verified). Participants completed 2 time perception tasks, a decision-making task, and self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, and mood. Results: During time reproduction, males overestimated time during abstinence compared to smoking, whereas there was no session effect for females. On the time discrimination task, smokers were less accurate during abstinence, and this effect tended to be stronger among females. In general, males had higher discounting rates compared with females, but there was no effect of abstinence. Conclusions: The current data suggest that the effect of abstinence on time perception may be stronger in males and that males generally exhibit steeper delay discounting rates. Time perception may be an important mechanism in smoking abstinence. Our future work will investigate the role of time perception in smoking relapse and whether this is moderated by sex. PMID:25762755

  7. Sex Differences in Substance Use Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: Prevalence, Severity, and Need for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Francesca L.; Baird, Janette; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients, and sex has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology, pathophysiology, sequelae, and treatment of substance use disorders. However, additional information is needed about the epidemiology of substance use as it relates to sex among ED patients. Objectives This study examined sex differences in the prevalence and severity of self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among adult ED patients. Methods A random sample of English- or Spanish-speaking, non–critically ill or injured, 18- to 64-year-old patients was approached at two urban EDs and asked to self-report their lifetime and past 3-month tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Participants completed the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were categorized by their substance severity (ASSIST score) and need for a brief or more intensive intervention per World Health Organization recommendations. Substance misuse prevalence, frequency, severity, and need for interventions were compared between sexes by substance category. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sexes and the need for intervention after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Of the 6,432 participants in the study, the median age was 37 years (interquartile range = 26 to 48 years), and 56.6% were female. Overall, lifetime, and past 3-month use was higher for men across all substances (tobacco, alcohol, and drugs). Among those reporting past 3-month use, the frequency of use was similar between sexes for tobacco and all drugs, but men reported more frequent alcohol use. Men had higher mean ASSIST scores compared to women, 30.3 (standard error [SE] ± 0.8) vs. 21.1 (SE ± 0.5); mean difference 9.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.4 to 10.9). The need for any intervention (brief or intensive) was similar

  8. Sexual history disclosure polygraph outcomes: do juvenile and adult sex offenders differ?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Todd M; Shafer, Kevin; Roby, C Y; Roby, Jini L

    2015-03-01

    Despite the empirical and theoretical chasm between the opponents and proponents of polygraphy, its use is prominent among sex offender agencies in the United States. However, current research on polygraph examination outcomes among juvenile sex offenders, along with potential differences from their adult counterparts, is scarce and outdated. In the present study, we assess the difference between juvenile and adult sex offenders in terms of the propensity for passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. A sample of 324 sex offenders (86 juveniles and 238 adults) who engaged in a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination as part of their treatment in an Intermountain West sex offender treatment agency was used for the analysis. Results from preliminary and logistic regression analyses indicate that juvenile and adult offenders do not significantly differ in the likelihood of passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:25049032

  9. An Investigation of the Effects of School Context and Sex Differences on Students' Motivational Goal Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowson, Martin; McInerney, Dennis M.; Nelson, Genevieve F.

    2006-01-01

    It is widely postulated that school context characteristics and sex may influence students' motivational orientations. However, relatively little empirical evidence exists to support this postulate. Hence the present study sought to examine both the individual and interactive effects of school and sex differences on students' motivational goals.…

  10. Sex and Ear Differences in Spontaneous and Click-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snihur, Adrian W. K.; Hampson, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sex and handedness on the production of spontaneous and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were explored in a non-hearing impaired population (ages 17-25 years). A sex difference in OAEs, either produced spontaneously (spontaneous OAEs or SOAEs) or in response to auditory stimuli (click-evoked OAEs or CEOAEs) has been reported in…

  11. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  12. Sex differences in animal models of schizophrenia shed light on the underlying pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rachel Anne

    2016-08-01

    Sex differences in schizophrenia are apparent in almost all features of the illness, from incidence and mean age of onset to symptomatology, course of illness and response to pharmacological treatments. Understanding how men and women with schizophrenia differ provides significant clues into the pathophysiology of the disorder. Animal models are powerful tools when dissecting the molecular biology which underlies behavioural disturbances, and allow structured comparisons of biological sex differences without the social environmental gender influence that so often confounds human sex comparison studies. This review will provide a summary of sex differences described in developmental, genetic and drug-induced animal models of schizophrenia and will link sex-specific molecular and behavioural phenotypes of these models in an attempt to unravel the role that sex plays in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Both sex and stress hormones interact to shape the developing brain and behaviour and animal models of schizophrenia that include both sexes provide significant insight into the complexities of these interactions and can direct toward novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26743857

  13. An Investigation of Sex Difference in Word Ratings across Concrete, Abstract, and Emotion Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lisa M.; Altaribba, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have often overlooked the relationships between sex and ratings of word characteristics, such as concreteness, context-availability, imageability, and emotionality. The current study investigated whether or not sex differences exist in such ratings for abstract, concrete, and emotion words. The results indicated that females rated…

  14. Sex Differences in High Mathematical Reasoning Ability: A Theory to Fit the Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hoben

    In talent searches for gifted junior high school youth, those who score in the top two to five percent on a standardized achievement test are eligible to take the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) which is regarded as a high-level ability test. While no important sex differences on the SAT verbal test have been observed, substantial sex differences…

  15. A Theoretical Note on Sex Linkage and Race Differences in Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1975-01-01

    Evidence on the poorer spatial visualization ability in various Negro populations compared to the White populations and on the direction and magnitude of sex differences in spatial ability relative to other abilities suggests the genetic hypothesis that spatial ability is enhanced by a sex-linked recessive gene and that, since the 20-30 percent…

  16. Sex Differences in Cognitive Domains and Their Clinical Correlates in Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on…

  17. The Differences in Academic Achievement between Single-Sex Education and Coeducation Classes in Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoggins, Donna K.

    2009-01-01

    Single-sex education is an instructional innovation implemented to improve student academic achievement by teaching to the learning styles and interests of boys and/or girls. This ex post facto quantitative study examined the differences in academic achievement between single-sex education and coeducation classes on students' achievement in…

  18. Sex Differences in the Effects of Unilateral Brain Damage on Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, James; Lawson, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    A sexual dimorphism in the functional asymmetry of the damaged human brain is reflected in a test-specific laterality effect in male but not in female patients. This sex difference explains some contradictions concerning the effects of unilateral brain damage on intelligence in studies in which the influence of sex was overlooked.

  19. Sex differences in career progression and satisfaction in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Lynn C

    2002-01-01

    Are differences in men's and women's career progression and satisfaction in academia related to their sex? This article discusses the variables that contribute to sex-based career differentials and the implications both for the individual and for society. PMID:12405235

  20. Sex Differences in Emotion: A Critical Review of the Literature and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Pressly, Page K.; Heesacker, Martin

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the findings of several reviews of the empirical literature on biological sex and emotion, focusing on the degree to which perceived sex differences in emotionality are, and in most cases are not, supported while at the same time addressing the implications this body of research has for counseling psychologists. This article…