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Sample records for additionally sex differences

  1. Sex differences in stroke.

    PubMed

    Haast, Roy A M; Gustafson, Deborah R; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2012-12-01

    Sex differences in stroke are observed across epidemiologic studies, pathophysiology, treatments, and outcomes. These sex differences have profound implications for effective prevention and treatment and are the focus of this review. Epidemiologic studies reveal a clear age-by-sex interaction in stroke prevalence, incidence, and mortality. While premenopausal women experience fewer strokes than men of comparable age, stroke rates increase among postmenopausal women compared with age-matched men. This postmenopausal phenomenon, in combination with living longer, are reasons for women being older at stroke onset and suffering more severe strokes. Thus, a primary focus of stroke prevention has been based on sex steroid hormone-dependent mechanisms. Sex hormones affect different (patho)physiologic functions of the cerebral circulation. Clarifying the impact of sex hormones on cerebral vasculature using suitable animal models is essential to elucidate male-female differences in stroke pathophysiology and development of sex-specific treatments. Much remains to be learned about sex differences in stroke as anatomic and genetic factors may also contribute, revealing its multifactorial nature. In addition, the aftermath of stroke appears to be more adverse in women than in men, again based on older age at stroke onset, longer prehospital delays, and potentially, differences in treatment.

  2. Sex Differences in Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Austad, Steven N; Fischer, Kathleen E

    2016-06-14

    Sex differences in longevity can provide insights into novel mechanisms of aging, yet they have been little studied. Surprisingly, sex-specific longevity patterns are best known in wild animals. Evolutionary hypotheses accounting for longevity patterns in natural populations include differential vulnerability to environmental hazards, differential intensity of sexual selection, and distinct patterns of parental care. Mechanistic hypotheses focus on hormones, asymmetric inheritance of sex chromosomes and mitochondria. Virtually all intensively studied species show conditional sex differences in longevity. Humans are the only species in which one sex is known to have a ubiquitous survival advantage. Paradoxically, although women live longer, they suffer greater morbidity particularly late in life. This mortality-morbidity paradox may be a consequence of greater connective tissue responsiveness to sex hormones in women. Human females' longevity advantage may result from hormonal influences on inflammatory and immunological responses, or greater resistance to oxidative damage; current support for these mechanisms is weak. PMID:27304504

  3. Sex Differences in Influenceability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that women are more easily influenced than men by reviewing the literature on persuasion and conformity research. Persuasion research and conformity studies not involving group pressure show scant empirical support for sex differences. For group pressure conformity research, a substantial minority of studies support the…

  4. The codevelopment of skill at and preference for use of retrieval-based processes for solving addition problems: individual and sex differences from first to sixth grades.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Littlefield, Andrew; Geary, David C

    2012-09-01

    The ability to retrieve basic arithmetic facts from long-term memory contributes to individual and perhaps sex differences in mathematics achievement. The current study tracked the codevelopment of preference for using retrieval over other strategies to solve single-digit addition problems, independent of accuracy, and skilled use of retrieval (i.e., accuracy and reaction time [RT]) from first to sixth grades inclusive (N=311). Accurate retrieval in first grade was related to working memory capacity and intelligence, and it predicted a preference for retrieval in second grade. In later grades, the relation between skill and preference changed such that preference in one grade predicted accuracy and RT in the next grade as RT and accuracy continued to predict future gains in preference. In comparison with girls, boys had a consistent preference for retrieval over other strategies and had faster retrieval speeds, but the sex difference in retrieval accuracy varied across grades. Results indicate that ability influences early skilled retrieval, but both practice and skill influence each other in a feedback loop later in development and provide insights into the source of the sex difference in problem-solving approaches.

  5. Balance of the Sexes: Addressing Sex Differences in Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mazure, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical sciences and enhancing healthcare. Considering sex differences in all studies throughout the entire biomedical research pipeline is necessary to adequately inform clinical research and improve health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of information to date on sex differences in preclinical work. As of 2009, most (about 80 percent) rodent studies across 10 fields of biology were still conducted with only male animals. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health implemented a policy aimed to address this concern by requiring the consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research grant applications. This perspective piece aims to (1) provide a brief history of female inclusion in biomedical research, (2) describe the importance of studying sex differences, (3) explain possible reasons for opposition of female inclusion, and (4) present potential additional solutions to reduce sex bias in preclinical research. PMID:27354851

  6. Sex Differences in Constitutive Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Oliván, Sara; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Manzano, Raquel; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Sex bias has been described nowadays in biomedical research on animal models, although sexual dimorphism has been confirmed widely under pathological and physiological conditions. The main objective of our work was to study the sex differences in constitutive autophagy in spinal cord and skeletal muscle tissue from wild type mice. To examine the influence of sex on autophagy, mRNA and proteins were extracted from male and female mice tissues. The expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and sequestosome 1 (p62), markers to monitor autophagy, were analyzed at 40, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. We found significant sex differences in the expression of LC3 and p62 in both tissues at these ages. The results indicated that sex and tissue specific differences exist in constitutive autophagy. These data underlined the need to include both sexes in the experimental groups to minimize any sex bias. PMID:24719882

  7. Sex Differences in Frailty.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Although women live longer lives than men, they tend to have poorer health status. Here, we review the biological and socio-behavioral factors that may contribute to this sex-frailty paradox. The conceptual framework that frailty is a product of the environment and the recovery rate provides a new understanding of women's frailty burden. Even developed countries may present an environment more adverse for women, and lifestyle factors may increase women's vulnerability to stochastic subcellular events that increase recovery time. The frailty index does not reach the theoretical maximal value of 1; its limit is lower in men (0.61) compared to women (0.69). Perhaps deterministic characteristics omitted in current deficit counts, such as reduced emotional adaptability, are more prevalent in men. Alternatively, different limits may result from quantitative evolutionary design, such as a fitness-frailty pleiotropy in men or fertility-frailty pleiotropy in women. The engineering principle of safety factors (maximal capacity divided by routine functioning) may also be informative. If the human system has the same safety factor as its organs (approximately 2.5), men may be 'calibrated' around a frailty index of 0.244, compared to 0.276 for women. Because 0.25 represents the tipping point between functional independence and reliance on others, evolutionary design may have allowed for some limited dependence in women, perhaps motivated by the perinatal period. PMID:26301978

  8. Sex Differences in Work Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutell, Nicholas J.; Brenner, O. C.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated sex differences in work values. Significant sex differences were found on 18 of 25 values with women rating 12 of these values higher than men. However, despite item differences, there was a clear trend toward similarity in the importance of work outcomes among women and men. (Author/BL)

  9. Sex Differences in Fetal Habituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepper, Peter G.; Dornan, James C.; Lynch, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    There is some evidence for sex differences in habituation in the human fetus, but it is unknown whether this is due to differences in central processing (habituation) or in more peripheral processes, sensory or motor, involved in the response. This study examined whether the sex of the fetus influenced auditory habituation at 33 weeks of…

  10. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  11. Sex Differences in the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    1992-01-01

    Explores the neural and hormonal basis of human intellectual function that gives rise to sex differences in the brain. Discusses behavioral, neurological, endocrinological studies, and studies of the effects of hormones on brain functioning that show a relationship between cognitive variations and sex. (MCO)

  12. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. PMID:27433022

  13. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies.

  14. Sex differences in the HPA axis.

    PubMed

    Goel, Nirupa; Workman, Joanna L; Lee, Tiffany T; Innala, Leyla; Viau, Victor

    2014-07-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a major component of the systems that respond to stress, by coordinating the neuroendocrine and autonomic responses. Tightly controlled regulation of HPA responses is critical for maintaining mental and physical health, as hyper- and hypo-activity have been linked to disease states. A long history of research has revealed sex differences in numerous components of the HPA stress system and its responses, which may partially form the basis for sex disparities in disease development. Despite this, many studies use male subjects exclusively, while fewer reports involve females or provide direct sex comparisons. The purpose of this article is to present sex comparisons in the functional and molecular aspects of the HPA axis, through various phases of activity, including basal, acute stress, and chronic stress conditions. The HPA axis in females initiates more rapidly and produces a greater output of stress hormones. This review focuses on the interactions between the gonadal hormone system and the HPA axis as the key mediators of these sex differences, whereby androgens increase and estrogens decrease HPA activity in adulthood. In addition to the effects of gonadal hormones on the adult response, morphological impacts of hormone exposure during development are also involved in mediating sex differences. Additional systems impinging on the HPA axis that contribute to sex differences include the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin. Diverse signals originating from the brain and periphery are integrated to determine the level of HPA axis activity, and these signals are, in many cases, sex-specific.

  15. Sex differences in human gregariousness

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Sandra; Ferranti, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Research on human sociality rarely includes kinship, social structure, sex, and familiarity, even though these variables influence sociality in non-human primates. However, cross-cultural ethnographic and observational studies with humans indicate that, beginning after age 5 years, males and females form differing social structures with unrelated individuals in a community. Specifically, compared with females, human males exhibit greater tolerance for and form larger, interconnected groups of peers which we term “gregariousness.” To examine sex differences in gregariousness early in life when children first interact with peers without adult supervision, 3- to 6-year-old children were given the choice to enter one of three play areas: an empty one, one with an adult, or one with a familiar, same-sex peer. More males than females initially chose the play area with the same-sex peer, especially after age 5 years. Sex differences in gregariousness with same-sex peers likely constitute one facet of human sociality. PMID:26038729

  16. Sex differences in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Ros, Purificación; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and its associated secondary complications are active areas of investigation in search of effective treatments. As a result of this intensified research numerous differences between males and females at all levels of metabolic control have come to the forefront. These differences include not only the amount and distribution of adipose tissue, but also differences in its metabolic capacity and functions between the sexes. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of these dimorphisms and emphasize the fact that these differences between males and females must be taken into consideration in hopes of obtaining successful treatments for both sexes. PMID:23991358

  17. Sex Differences in Drug Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Chung, Sarah H.; Mattison, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological, hormonal, and genetic differences between males and females affect the prevalence, incidence, and severity of diseases and responses to therapy. Understanding these differences is important for designing safe and effective treatments. This paper summarizes sex differences that impact drug disposition and includes a general comparison of clinical pharmacology as it applies to men and women. PMID:21403873

  18. Sex differences in cardiovascular ageing.

    PubMed

    Merz, Allison A; Cheng, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in identifying and narrowing the gaps in cardiovascular outcomes between men and women, general understanding of how and why cardiovascular disease presentations differ between the sexes remains limited. Sex-specific patterns of cardiac and vascular ageing play an important role and, in fact, begin very early in life. Differences between the sexes in patterns of age-related cardiac remodelling are associated with the relatively greater prevalence in women than in men of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Similarly, sex variation in how vascular structure and function change with ageing contributes to differences between men and women in how coronary artery disease manifests typically or atypically over the adult life course. Both hormonal and non-hormonal factors underlie sex differences in cardiovascular ageing and the development of age-related disease. The midlife withdrawal of endogenous oestrogen appears to augment the age-related increase in cardiovascular risk seen in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. However, when compared with intrinsic biological differences between men and women that are present throughout life, this menopausal transition may not be as substantial an actor in determining cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26917537

  19. Sex Differences and Distributive Fairness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Terry Lee; Alexander, Sheldon

    In research on equity and justice some investigators have reported that men and women use different allocation norms in distributing rewards; men using an equity rule and women an equality rule, while others conclude that such sex differences in reward allocation appear primarily when the allocator is also a co-recipient of the reward. The present…

  20. Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, John; Fralley, Jacqueline S.

    1976-01-01

    The fact that males outperform females on specific spatial tests is not generally disputed, but the explanations for these differences are controversial. This paper highlights unresolved issues, such as definitions of space and measurement of abilities, and illustrates problems of interpretation of research regarding sex differences. (Author/HS)

  1. Sex differences in anxiety and emotional behavior

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Nina C.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy. We here review human gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety-relevant biological functions, discuss the limitations of classic conflict anxiety tests to measure naturally occurring sex differences in anxiety-like behaviors, describe sex-dependent manifestation of anxiety states after gestational, neonatal, or adolescent stressors, and present animal models of chronic anxiety states induced by acute or chronic stressors during adulthood. Potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in stress-related anxiety states include emerging evidence supporting the existence of two anatomically and functionally distinct serotonergic circuits that are related to the modulation of conflict anxiety and panic-like anxiety, respectively. We discuss how these serotonergic circuits may be controlled by reproductive steroid hormone-dependent modulation of crfr1 and crfr2 expression in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus and by estrous stage-dependent alterations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray, ultimately leading to sex differences in emotional behavior. PMID:23588380

  2. Sex Differences in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Edward S.

    1984-01-01

    Nine experiments were performed to verify and extend studies on sex differences in problem solving conducted in the 1950s by Sweeney, Carey, Milton, Nakamura, and Berry. A 20-item problem set was administered to over 1,000 college students. Results indicated a male advantage, averaging 35 percent, virtually identical with 1950s results. (Author/BS)

  3. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions.

  4. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions. PMID:24769267

  5. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis: Sex differences.

    PubMed

    Leyden, J J; Kligman, A M

    1977-12-01

    Using the repeated insult test, Jordan & King (1977) observed that contact sensitization was more readily induced in females than in males. We reviewed data obtained by maximization testing of 185 test substances of which 73 were allergenic. The overall male-female sensitization rates were respectively 9.9 and 9.2%. Only with the weakest allergens (sensitizing one or two subjects of a 25-member panel) was there a possibility of female predominance in that there were twice as many panels having only female reactors as males exclusively. In these instances, the test agents were mainly fragrances. We have concluded that sex differences, in the prevalence of sensitization to particular substances, reflect past exposure and are not due to sex differences.

  7. Sex differences in intimate relationships

    PubMed Central

    Palchykov, Vasyl; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, Janos; Barabási, Albert-László; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks based on dyadic relationships are fundamentally important for understanding of human sociality. However, we have little understanding of the dynamics of close relationships and how these change over time. Evolutionary theory suggests that, even in monogamous mating systems, the pattern of investment in close relationships should vary across the lifespan when post-weaning investment plays an important role in maximising fitness. Mobile phone data sets provide a unique window into the structure and dynamics of relationships. We here use data from a large mobile phone dataset to demonstrate striking sex differences in the gender-bias of preferred relationships that reflect the way the reproductive investment strategies of both sexes change across the lifespan, i.e. women's shifting patterns of investment in reproduction and parental care. These results suggest that human social strategies may have more complex dynamics than previously assumed and a life-history perspective is crucial for understanding them. PMID:22518274

  8. Galton and sex differences: an historical note.

    PubMed

    Buss, A R

    1976-07-01

    The psychological study of sex differences is a special area of interest within differential psychology. Differential psychology was launched as a scientific field of research in the latter half of the nineteenth century by Sir Francis Galton. Galton's early research on sex differences in psychological traits gives him the distinction of being the "father" of the modern study of sex differences. Galton's empirical findings and his interpretation of sex differences were heavily influenced by his Victorian sexist attitudes. The early history of the modern study of sex differences exemplifies the intimate relation between facts and values. PMID:797706

  9. Galton and sex differences: an historical note.

    PubMed

    Buss, A R

    1976-07-01

    The psychological study of sex differences is a special area of interest within differential psychology. Differential psychology was launched as a scientific field of research in the latter half of the nineteenth century by Sir Francis Galton. Galton's early research on sex differences in psychological traits gives him the distinction of being the "father" of the modern study of sex differences. Galton's empirical findings and his interpretation of sex differences were heavily influenced by his Victorian sexist attitudes. The early history of the modern study of sex differences exemplifies the intimate relation between facts and values.

  10. Sexually selected sex differences in competitiveness explain sex differences in changes in drinking game participation.

    PubMed

    Hone, Liana S E; McCullough, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drinking games are a risk factor for behavioral and health problems among university students. Previous cross-sectional research by Hone, Carter, and McCullough (2013) replicated well-established sex differences in drinking game behaviors (i.e., that men are more active drinking game participants than are women) and university drinking problems more generally. Hone et al. (2013) also found that these male-specific behavioral patterns are attributable in part to the fact that men's generally unrestricted sexual strategies, plus their social competitiveness, motivate them to participate in drinking games to display their fortitude and compete with same-sex rivals. Here, the authors conducted a study to evaluate with greater causal rigor whether sex differences in sexual restrictedness and social competitiveness-and sex differences in motivations for participating in drinking games in particular-are partially responsible for the sex differences in university students' drinking game behaviors and drinking problems. Sex differences in changes in frequency of drinking game participation were partially mediated by competitive motivations for participating in drinking games and by the effects of social competitiveness on competitive drinking game motivation. These findings lend additional support to the proposition that participation in drinking games is motivated in part by their suitability as a venue for sexual competition in university students' day-to-day lives. PMID:25974961

  11. Why we should consider sex (and study sex differences) in addiction research.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Segura, Carla; Becker, Jill B

    2016-09-01

    Among mammals, every cell has a biological sex, and the sex of an individual pervades its body and brain. In this review, we describe the processes through which mammals become phenotypically male or female by organizational and activational influences of genes and hormones throughout development. We emphasized that the molecular and cellular changes triggered by sex chromosomes and steroid hormones may generate sex differences in overt physiological functions and behavior, but they may alternatively promote end-point convergences between males and females. Clinical and pre-clinical evidences suggest that sex and gender differences modulate drug consumption as well as of the transition towards drug-promoted pathological states such as dependence and addiction. Additionally, sex differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics will also influence dependence and addiction as well as side effects of drugs. These effects will further interact with socially gendered factors to result in sex differences in the access to, engagement in and efficacy of any therapeutic attempt. Finally, we maintain that 'sex sameness' is as important as 'sex differences' when building a complete understanding of biology for both males and females and provide a framework with which to classify and guide investigation into the mechanisms mediating sex differences and sex sameness.

  12. The Co-Development of Skill at and Preference for Use of Retrieval-Based Processes for Solving Addition Problems: Individual and Sex Differences from First to Sixth Grade

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Drew H.; Littlefield, Andrew; Geary, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to retrieve basic arithmetic facts from long-term memory contributes to individual and perhaps sex differences in mathematics achievement. The current study tracked the co-development of preference for using retrieval over other strategies to solve single-digit addition problems, independent of accuracy, and skilled use of retrieval (i.e., accuracy and RT) from first to sixth grade, inclusive (n = 311). Accurate retrieval in first grade was related to working memory capacity and intelligence and predicted a preference for retrieval in second grade. In later grades, the relation between skill and preference changed such that preference in one grade predicted accuracy and RT in the next, as RT and accuracy continued to predict future gains in preference. In comparison to girls, boys had a consistent preference for retrieval over other strategies and had faster retrieval speeds, but the sex difference in retrieval accuracy varied across grades. Results indicate ability influences early skilled retrieval but both practice and skill influence each other in a feedback loop later in development, and provide insights into the source of the sex difference in problem solving approaches. PMID:22704036

  13. Genomic architecture of asthma differs by sex.

    PubMed

    Mersha, Tesfaye B; Martin, Lisa J; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M; Kovacic, Melinda Butsch; He, Hua; Lindsey, Mark; Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Chen, Weiguo; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K

    2015-07-01

    Asthma comprised of highly heterogeneous subphenotypes resulting from complex interplay between genetic and environmental stimuli. While much focus has been placed on extrinsic environmental stimuli, intrinsic environment such as sex can interact with genes to influence asthma risk. However, few studies have examined sex-specific genetic effects. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate if sex-based differences exist in genomic associations with asthma. We tested 411 asthmatics and 297 controls for presence of interactions and sex-stratified effects in 51 genes using both SNP and gene expression data. Logistic regression was used to test for association. Over half (55%) of the genetic variants identified in sex-specific analyses were not identified in the sex-combined analysis. Further, sex-stratified genetic analyses identified associations with significantly higher median effect sizes than sex-combined analysis for girls (p-value=6.5E-15) and for boys (p-value=1.0E-7). When gene expression data were analyzed to identify genes that were differentially expressed in asthma versus non-asthma, nearly one third (31%) of the probes identified in the sex-specific analyses were not identified in the sex-combined analysis. Both genetic and gene expression data suggest that the biologic underpinnings for asthma may differ by sex. Failure to recognize sex interactions in asthma greatly decreases the ability to detect significant genomic variation and may result in significant misrepresentation of genes and pathways important in asthma in different environments.

  14. Sex differences in the vomeronasal system.

    PubMed

    Guillamón, A; Segovia, S

    1997-01-01

    In the early eighties we found sex differences in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and hypothesized that the vomeronasal system (VNS), a complex neural network involved in the control of reproductive behavior, might be sexually dimorphic. At that time sex differences had already been described for some structures that receive VNO input, such as the medial amygdala, the medial preoptic area, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and the ventral region of the premammillary nucleus. Since then, we have shown sex differences in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT), and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). When new VNS connections were found, all of them ended in nuclei that present sex differences. In general, sex differences in the olfactory system show two morphological patterns: one in which males present greater morphological measures than females, and just the opposite. To explain the morphometric measures of males in the latter, it has been hypothesized that androgens serve as inhibitors. Our work on the involvement of the GABA(A) receptor in the development of AOB and maternal behavior sex differences also suggests that neonatal changes in neuronal membrane permeability to the ion Cl- differences. This might be the first animal model to help us to understand the situation in which human genetic and gonadal sex do not agree with brain and behavioral sex. Finally, we stress that sex differences in the VNS constitute a neurofunctional model for understanding sex differences in reproductive behaviors.

  15. Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Dalla, Christina; Shors, Tracey J

    2009-05-25

    Males and females learn and remember differently at different times in their lives. These differences occur in most species, from invertebrates to humans. We review here sex differences as they occur in laboratory rodent species. We focus on classical and operant conditioning paradigms, including classical eyeblink conditioning, fear-conditioning, active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion. Sex differences have been reported during acquisition, retention and extinction in most of these paradigms. In general, females perform better than males in the classical eyeblink conditioning, in fear-potentiated startle and in most operant conditioning tasks, such as the active avoidance test. However, in the classical fear-conditioning paradigm, in certain lever-pressing paradigms and in the conditioned taste aversion, males outperform females or are more resistant to extinction. Most sex differences in conditioning are dependent on organizational effects of gonadal hormones during early development of the brain, in addition to modulation by activational effects during puberty and adulthood. Critically, sex differences in performance account for some of the reported effects on learning and these are discussed throughout the review. Because so many mental disorders are more prevalent in one sex than the other, it is important to consider sex differences in learning when applying animal models of learning for these disorders. Finally, we discuss how sex differences in learning continue to alter the brain throughout the lifespan. Thus, sex differences in learning are not only mediated by sex differences in the brain, but also contribute to them.

  16. Psychological sex differences. Origins through sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M

    1995-03-01

    Men and women clearly differ in some psychological domains. A. H. Eagly (1995) shows that these differences are not artifactual or unstable. Ideally, the next scientific step is to develop a cogent explanatory framework for understanding why the sexes differ in some psychological domains and not in others and for generating accurate predictions about sex differences as yet undiscovered. This article offers a brief outline of an explanatory framework for psychological sex differences--one that is anchored in the new theoretical paradigm of evolutionary psychology. Men and women differ, in this view, in domains in which they have faced different adaptive problems over human evolutionary history. In all other domains, the sexes are predicted to be psychologically similar. Evolutionary psychology jettisons the false dichotomy between biology and environment and provides a powerful metatheory of why sex differences exist, where they exist, and in what contexts they are expressed (D. M. Buss, 1995). PMID:7726470

  17. The evolution of sex differences in disease.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    It is now becoming widely recognized that there are important sex differences in disease. These include rates of disease incidence, symptoms and age of onset. These differences between the sexes can be seen as a subset of the more general phenomenon of sexual dimorphism of quantitative phenotypes. From a genetic point of view, this is paradoxical, since the vast majority of genetic material is shared between the sexes. How can males and females differ in so many ways and yet have a common genetic code? Traditionally, the modifying action of hormones has been offered as a solution to this paradox, but experiments disentangling the effects of hormones and sex-chromosomes have shown that this cannot be the sole explanation. In this review, I outline current ideas about the evolutionary origins of sex differences in phenotypes, with a particular focus on how sex differences in disease can arise. I also discuss how sex differences in themselves can generate new risk factors for disease, in effect becoming a new environmental factor, as well as briefly reviewing more general evidence for sexually antagonistic selection and genetic variation within humans. Taking an evolutionary view on sex differences in disease provides an opportunity for greater understanding of mechanisms of disease and as such provides a clear motivation for clinicians to explore how therapies may be tailored to the individual in a sex-dependent way.

  18. Group Process and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Lynn Sandra

    1984-01-01

    Investigated theme development and role types in eight same-sex, self-analytic groups with male or female leadership, through the use of The General Inquirer, a computerized program of content analysis. All groups, male and female, showed a significant increase in the use of AFFILIATION words over time. (BH)

  19. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan. PMID:26404716

  20. Perils and pitfalls of reporting sex differences.

    PubMed

    Maney, Donna L

    2016-02-19

    The idea of sex differences in the brain both fascinates and inflames the public. As a result, the communication and public discussion of new findings is particularly vulnerable to logical leaps and pseudoscience. A new US National Institutes of Health policy to consider both sexes in almost all preclinical research will increase the number of reported sex differences and thus the risk that research in this important area will be misinterpreted and misrepresented. In this article, I consider ways in which we might reduce that risk, for example, by (i) employing statistical tests that reveal the extent to which sex explains variation, rather than whether or not the sexes 'differ', (ii) properly characterizing the frequency distributions of scores or dependent measures, which nearly always overlap, and (iii) avoiding speculative functional or evolutionary explanations for sex-based variation, which usually invoke logical fallacies and perpetuate sex stereotypes. Ultimately, the factor of sex should be viewed as an imperfect, temporary proxy for yet-unknown factors, such as hormones or sex-linked genes, that explain variation better than sex. As scientists, we should be interested in discovering and understanding the true sources of variation, which will be more informative in the development of clinical treatments. PMID:26833839

  1. Sex Differences in the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased divergence between males and females in physical characteristics, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Here we will review data regarding sex differences in brain structure and function during this period of the lifespan. The most consistent sex difference in brain morphometry is the 9-12% larger brain size…

  2. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    This book examines the science and politics of cognitive sex differences, reflecting theories and research in the area over the past several years. Eight chapters discuss: (1) "Introduction and Overview" (e.g., theoretical approaches, values and science, and terminology); (2) "Searching for Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" (e.g., the need…

  3. Sex Differences in Reading: A Biological Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliotti, Nicholas C.

    Although sex differences in reading and related language functions have frequently been reported for both average and retarded readers, the explanations thus far proposed (maturation rate, sex-role development, textbook content, "female bias," and psycho-social factors) do not satisfactorily account for these differences. One hypothesis that might…

  4. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  5. Molecular Sex Differences in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jordan M.; Schwarz, Emanuel; Guest, Paul C.; van Beveren, Nico J. M.; Leweke, F. Markus; Rothermundt, Matthias; Bogerts, Bernhard; Steiner, Johann; Ruta, Liliana; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bahn, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Background Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex. Methodology/Principal Findings Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition. Conclusions/Significance Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were

  6. Genomic Architecture of Asthma Differs by Sex

    PubMed Central

    Mersha, Tesfaye B.; Martin, Lisa J.; Myers, Jocelyn M. Biagini; Kovacic, Melinda Butsch; He, Hua; Lindsey, Mark; Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Chen, Weiguo; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana

    2015-01-01

    Asthma comprised of highly heterogeneous subphenotypes resulting from complex interplay between genetic and environmental stimuli. While much focus has been placed on extrinsic environmental stimuli, intrinsic environment such as sex can interact with genes to influence asthma risk. However, few studies have examined sex-specific genetic effects. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate if sex-based differences exist in genomic associations with asthma. We tested 411 asthmatics and 297 controls for presence of interactions and sex-stratified effects in 51 genes using both SNP and gene expression data. Logistic regression was used to test for association. Over half (55%) of the genetic variants identified in sex-specific analyses were not identified in the sex-combined analysis. Further, sex-stratified genetic analyses identified associations with significantly higher median effect sizes than sex-combined analysis for girls (p-value =6.5E-15) and for boys (p-value =1.0E-7). When gene expression data was analyzed to identify genes that were differentially expressed in asthma versus non-asthma, nearly one third (31%) of the probes identified in the sex-specific analyses were not identified in the sex-combined analysis. Both genetic and gene expression data suggest that the biologic underpinnings for asthma may differ by sex. Failure to recognize sex interactions in asthma greatly decreases the ability to detect significant genomic variation and may result in significant misrepresentation of genes and pathways important in asthma in different environments. PMID:25817197

  7. Sex differences in right hemisphere tasks.

    PubMed

    Crucian, G P; Berenbaum, S A

    1998-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sex differences in spatial ability and emotional perception are due to sex differences in intrahemispheric organization of the right hemisphere. If the right hemisphere is differently organized by sex-primarily specialized for spatial ability in men, but primarily specialized for emotional perception in women-then there should be a negative correlation between spatial ability and emotional perception within sex, and the greatest disparity between abilities should be found in people with characteristic arousal of the right hemisphere. Undergraduate men (N = 86) and women (N = 132) completed tests of Mental Rotation, Surface Development, Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity, Progressive Matrices, and Chimeric Faces. Although the expected pattern of sex differences was observed, there was no evidence for the hypothesized negative correlation between spatial ability and emotional perception, even after statistical control of general intelligence. PMID:9647685

  8. Sex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?

    PubMed

    Naninck, E F G; Lucassen, P J; Bakker, J

    2011-05-01

    Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is characterised by major physical and behavioural transformations, it is unclear why the incidence of depression increases so dramatically in girls during this otherwise generally healthy developmental period. Although psychological and environmental factors are also involved, we discuss the neuroendocrinological factors determining adolescent vulnerability to depression. In particular, we address the role of sex steroids in mood regulation, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis maturation and sexual differentiation of the brain, with a focus on hippocampal plasticity.

  9. Sex Differences in Learning: Some Open Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waetjen, Walter B.

    A common assumption is that boys are innately superior in analytical and quantitative skills and girls are superior in verbal skills. Research indicates, however, that these assumptions hold true only at certain times in the life cycle of each sex. There is evidence that cultural attitudes, rather than innate sex differences, account for…

  10. Sex Differences in Mathematics-Learning: Why???

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth

    1974-01-01

    Presents a brief review of the experimental literature pertaining to the apparent sex differences in mathematics learning after fourth grade. Factors discussed are inherent factors, spatial ability, verbal ability, attitudes, self-concept, and perceived sex role in mathematics. (Author/SDH)

  11. Sex differences in sleep: impact of biological sex and sex steroids.

    PubMed

    Mong, Jessica A; Cusmano, Danielle M

    2016-02-19

    Men and women sleep differently. While much is known about the mechanisms that drive sleep, the reason for these sex differences in sleep behaviour is unknown and understudied. Historically, women and female animals are underrepresented in studies of sleep and its disorders. Nevertheless, there is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Women typically report poorer quality and more disrupted sleep across various stages of life. Findings from clinical and basic research studies strongly implicate a role for sex steroids in sleep modulation. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. The investigation into sex differences and sex steroid modulation of sleep is in its infancy. Identifying the mechanisms underlying sex and gender differences in sleep will provide valuable insights leading to tailored therapeutics that benefit each sex. The goal of this review is to discuss our current understanding of how biological sex and sex steroids influence sleep behaviour from both the clinical and pre-clinical perspective. PMID:26833831

  12. Sex differences associated with intermittent swim stress.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Libman, Matthew K; Wooten, Katherine L; Drugan, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Various animal models of depression have been used to seek a greater understanding of stress-related disorders. However, there is still a great need for novel research in this area, as many individuals suffering from depression are resistant to current treatment methods. Women have a higher rate of depression, highlighting the need to investigate mechanisms of sex differences. Therefore, we employed a new animal model to assess symptoms of depression, known as intermittent swim stress (ISS). In this model, the animal experiences 100 trials of cold water swim stress. ISS has already been shown to cause signs of behavioral depression in males, but has yet to be assessed in females. Following ISS exposure, we looked at sex differences in the Morris water maze and forced swim test. The results indicated a spatial learning effect only in the hidden platform task between male and female controls, and stressed and control males. A consistent spatial memory effect was only seen for males exposed to ISS. In the forced swim test, both sexes exposed to ISS exhibited greater immobility, and the same males and females also showed attenuated climbing and swimming, respectively. The sex differences could be due to different neural substrates for males and females. The goal of this study was to provide the first behavioral examination of sex differences following ISS exposure, so the stage of estrous cycle was not assessed for the females. This is a necessary future direction for subsequent experiments. The current article highlights the importance of sex differences in response to stress.

  13. Sex differences in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Glenda E.; Pienaar, Ilse S.; Vohra, Shiv; Qamhawi, Zahi

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) displays a greater prevalence and earlier age at onset in men. This review addresses the concept that sex differences in PD are determined, largely, by biological sex differences in the NSDA system which, in turn, arise from hormonal, genetic and environmental influences. Current therapies for PD rely on dopamine replacement strategies to treat symptoms, and there is an urgent, unmet need for disease modifying agents. As a significant degree of neuroprotection against the early stages of clinical or experimental PD is seen, respectively, in human and rodent females compared with males, a better understanding of brain sex dimorphisms in the intact and injured NSDA system will shed light on mechanisms which have the potential to delay, or even halt, the progression of PD. Available evidence suggests that sex-specific, hormone-based therapeutic agents hold particular promise for developing treatments with optimal efficacy in men and women. PMID:24607323

  14. Sex differences in brain control of prosody.

    PubMed

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Grabowska, Anna

    2007-03-14

    Affective (emotional) prosody is a neuropsychological function that encompasses non-verbal aspects of language that are necessary for recognizing and conveying emotions in communication, whereas non-affective (linguistic) prosody indicates whether the sentence is a question, an order or a statement. Considerable evidence points to a dominant role for the right hemisphere in both aspects of prosodic function. However, it has yet to be established whether separate parts of the right hemisphere are involved in processing different kinds of emotional intonation. The aim of this study was to answer this question. In addition, the issue of sex differences in the ability to understand prosody was considered. Fifty-two patients with damage to frontal, temporo-parietal or subcortical (basal) parts of the right hemisphere and 26 controls were tested for their ability to assess prosody information in normal (well-formed) sentences and in pseudo-sentences. General impairment of prosody processing was seen in all patient groups but the effect of damage was more apparent for emotional rather than linguistic prosody. Interestingly, appreciation of emotional prosody appeared to depend on the type of emotional expression and the location of the brain lesion. The patients with frontal damage were mostly impaired in comprehension of happy intonations; those with temporo-parietal damage in assessment of sad intonations, while subcortical lesions mostly affected comprehension of angry intonations. Differential effects of lesion location on the performance of men and women were also observed. Frontal lesions were more detrimental to women, whereas subcortical lesions led to stronger impairment in men. This suggests sex differences in brain organization of prosodic functions. PMID:17005213

  15. A sex difference in visual influence on heard speech.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Julia R; Whalen, D H; Fowler, Carol A

    2006-05-01

    Reports of sex differences in language processing are inconsistent and are thought to vary by task type and difficulty. In two experiments, we investigated a sex difference in visual influence onheard speech (the McGurk effect). First, incongruent consonant-vowel stimuli were presented where the visual portion of the signal was brief (100 msec) or full (temporally equivalent to the auditory). Second, to determine whether men and women differed in their ability to extract visual speech information from these brief stimuli, the same stimuli were presented to new participants with an additional visual-only (lipread) condition. In both experiments, women showed a significantly greater visual influence on heard speech than did men for the brief visual stimuli. No sex differences for the full stimuli or in the ability to lipread were found. These findings indicate that the more challenging brief visual stimuli elicit sex differences in the processing of audiovisual speech.

  16. Sex differences in chemosensation: sensory or emotional?

    PubMed

    Ohla, Kathrin; Lundström, Johan N

    2013-01-01

    Although the first sex-dependent differences in chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the stimulants is still not known. We used simultaneous and complementary measures of electrophysiological (EEG), psychophysiological, and psychological responses to stimuli varying in intranasal irritation and odorousness to investigate whether sex differences in the processing of intranasal irritation are mediated by varying sensitivity of the involved sensory systems or by differences in cognitive and/or emotional evaluation of the irritants. Women perceived all stimulants more irritating and they exhibited larger amplitudes of the late positive deflection of the event-related potential than men. No significant differences in sensory sensitivity, anxiety, and arousal responses could be detected. Our findings suggest that men and women process intranasal irritation differently. Importantly, the differences cannot be explained by variation in sensory sensitivity to irritants, differences in anxiety, or differences in physiological arousal. We propose that women allocate more attention to potentially noxious stimuli than men do, which eventually causes differences in cognitive appraisal and subjective perception. PMID:24133429

  17. Size Matters: Cerebral Volume Influences Sex Differences in Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Towler, Stephen; Welcome, Suzanne; Halderman, Laura K.; Otto, Ron; Eckert, Mark A.; Chiarello, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Biological and behavioral differences between the sexes range from obvious to subtle or nonexistent. Neuroanatomical differences are particularly controversial, perhaps due to the implication that they might account for behavioral differences. In this sample of 200 men and women, large effect sizes (Cohen's d > 0.8) were found for sex differences in total cerebral gray and white matter, cerebellum, and gray matter proportion (women had a higher proportion of gray matter). The only one of these sex differences that survived adjustment for the effect of cerebral volume was gray matter proportion. Individual differences in cerebral volume accounted for 21% of the difference in gray matter proportion, while sex accounted for an additional 4%. The relative size of the corpus callosum was 5% larger in women, but this difference was completely explained by a negative relationship between relative callosal size and cerebral volume. In agreement with Jancke et al., individuals with higher cerebral volume tended to have smaller corpora callosa. There were few sex differences in the size of structures in Broca's and Wernicke's area. We conclude that individual differences in brain volume, in both men and women, account for apparent sex differences in relative size. PMID:18440950

  18. The new science of cognitive sex differences.

    PubMed

    Miller, David I; Halpern, Diane F

    2014-01-01

    Surprising new findings indicate that many conclusions about sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities need to be reexamined. Cognitive sex differences are changing, decreasing for some tasks whereas remaining stable or increasing for other tasks. Some sex differences are detected in infancy, but the data are complex and depend on task characteristics. Diverse disciplines have revolutionized our understanding of why these differences exist. For instance, fraternal-twin studies align with earlier literature to help establish the role of prenatal androgens and large international datasets help explain how cultural factors such as economic prosperity and gender equity affect females and males differently. Understanding how biological and environmental factors interact could help maximize cognitive potential and address pressing societal issues.

  19. Sex Differences in Learning Abilities and Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nass, Ruth D.

    1993-01-01

    This review of the male preponderance in the prevalence of learning disabilities examines such factors as gender-related etiology differences and learning style differences; complications of pregnancy and infancy; effects of male hormones on the nervous system; and sex differences in maturity rates. (JDD)

  20. Sex differences in dental caries experience: clinical evidence, complex etiology.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, John R

    2011-10-01

    A sex difference in oral health has been widely documented through time and across cultures. Women's oral health declines more rapidly than men's with the onset of agriculture and the associated rise in fertility. The magnitude of this disparity in oral health by sex increases during ontogeny: from childhood, to adolescence, and through the reproductive years. Representative studies of sex differences in caries, tooth loss, and periodontal disease are critically reviewed. Surveys conducted in Hungary, India, and in an isolated traditional Brazilian sample provide additional support for a significant sex bias in dental caries, especially in mature adults. Compounding hormonal and reproductive factors, the sex difference in oral health in India appears to involve social and religious causes such as son preference, ritual fasting, and dietary restrictions during pregnancy. Like the sex difference in caries, tooth loss in women is greater than in men and has been linked to caries and parity. Results of genome wide association studies have found caries susceptible and caries protective loci that influence variation in taste, saliva, and enamel proteins, affecting the oral environment and the micro-structure of enamel. Genetic variation, some of which is X-linked, may partly explain how sex differences in oral health originate. A primary, but neglected, factor in explaining the sex differential in oral health is the complex and synergistic changes associated with female sex hormones, pregnancy, and women's reproductive life history. Caries etiology is complex and impacts understanding of the sex difference in oral health. Both biological (genetics, hormones, and reproductive history) and anthropological (behavioral) factors such culture-based division of labor and gender-based dietary preferences play a role.

  1. Sex differences in the mechanisms underlying long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salama, Guy; Bett, Glenna C L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a well-established phenomenon, but its degree varies tremendously among species. Since the early days of Einthoven's development of the three-lead galvanometer ECG, we have known there are marked differences in QT intervals of men and women. It required over a century to appreciate the profound implications of sex-based electrophysiological differences in QT interval on the panoply of sex differences with respect to arrhythmia risk, drug sensitivity, and treatment modalities. Little is known about the fundamental mechanism responsible for sex differences in electrical substrate of the human heart, in large part due to the lack of tissue availability. Animal models are an important research tool, but species differences in the sexual dimorphism of the QT interval, the ionic currents underlying the cardiac repolarization, and effects of sex steroids make it difficult to interpolate animal to human sex differences. In addition, in some species, different strains of the same animal model yield conflicting data. Each model has its strengths, such as ease of genetic manipulation in mice or size in dogs. However, many animals do not reproduce the sexual dimorphism of QT seen in humans. To match sex linked prolongation of QT interval and arrhythmogenic phenotype, the current data suggest that the rabbit may be best suited to provide insight into sex differences in humans. In the future, emerging technologies such as induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiac myocyte systems may offer the opportunity to study sex differences in a controlled hormonal situation in the context of a sex specific human model system.

  2. Sex differences in the mechanisms underlying long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salama, Guy; Bett, Glenna C L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a well-established phenomenon, but its degree varies tremendously among species. Since the early days of Einthoven's development of the three-lead galvanometer ECG, we have known there are marked differences in QT intervals of men and women. It required over a century to appreciate the profound implications of sex-based electrophysiological differences in QT interval on the panoply of sex differences with respect to arrhythmia risk, drug sensitivity, and treatment modalities. Little is known about the fundamental mechanism responsible for sex differences in electrical substrate of the human heart, in large part due to the lack of tissue availability. Animal models are an important research tool, but species differences in the sexual dimorphism of the QT interval, the ionic currents underlying the cardiac repolarization, and effects of sex steroids make it difficult to interpolate animal to human sex differences. In addition, in some species, different strains of the same animal model yield conflicting data. Each model has its strengths, such as ease of genetic manipulation in mice or size in dogs. However, many animals do not reproduce the sexual dimorphism of QT seen in humans. To match sex linked prolongation of QT interval and arrhythmogenic phenotype, the current data suggest that the rabbit may be best suited to provide insight into sex differences in humans. In the future, emerging technologies such as induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiac myocyte systems may offer the opportunity to study sex differences in a controlled hormonal situation in the context of a sex specific human model system. PMID:24973386

  3. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  4. Do Psychological Sex Differences Reflect Evolutionary Bisexual Partitioning?

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes sex differences in communicative and exploratory abilities and mental disabilities from the rarely discussed perspective of sex differences in the shape of phenotypic distributions. The article reviews the most consistent findings related to such differences and compares them with the evolutionary theory of sex (ETS). The ETS considers sexual dimorphism as a functional specialization of a species into 2 partitions: variational and conservational. The analysis suggests that male superiority in risk and sensation seeking and physical abilities; higher rates of psychopathy, dyslexia, and autism; and higher birth and accidental death rates reflects the systemic variational function of the male sex. Female superiority in verbal abilities, lawfulness, socialization, empathy, and agreeableness is presented as a reflection of the systemic conservational function of the female sex. From this perspective psychological sex differences in communicative and exploratory abilities might not just be an accidental result of sexual selection or labor distribution in early humans. It might reflect a global functional differentiation tendency within a species to expand its phenotypic diversity and at the same time to conserve beneficial features in the species' behavior. The article also offers an addition to the ETS by suggesting that the male sex (variable partition) plays an evolutionary role in pruning of the redundant excesses in a species' bank of beneficial characteristics despite resistance from the conservational partition. PMID:26721176

  5. Early sex differences in spatial skill.

    PubMed

    Levine, S C; Huttenlocher, J; Taylor, A; Langrock, A

    1999-07-01

    This study investigated sex differences in young children's spatial skill. The authors developed a spatial transformation task, which showed a substantial male advantage by age 4 years 6 months. The size of this advantage was no more robust for rotation items than for translation items. This finding contrasts with studies of older children and adults, which report that sex differences are largest on mental rotation tasks. Comparable performance of boys and girls on a vocabulary task indicated that the male advantage on the spatial task was not attributable to an overall intellectual advantage of boys in the sample. PMID:10442863

  6. Sex Differences in Math-Intensive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, Stephen J.; Williams, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite impressive employment gains in many fields of science, women remain underrepresented in fields requiring intensive use of mathematics. Here we discuss three potential explanations for women's underrepresentation: (a) male–female mathematical and spatial ability gaps, (b) sex discrimination, and (c) sex differences in career preferences and lifestyle choices. Synthesizing findings from psychology, endocrinology, sociology, economics, and education leads to the conclusion that, among a combination of interrelated factors, preferences and choices—both freely made and constrained—are the most significant cause of women's underrepresentation. PMID:21152367

  7. Rogue Males: Sex Differences in Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary study into the commitment and academic confidence of male students in undergraduate psychology, prompted by our own observations of the performance of male students and the literature on sex differences in education. Method: Using an analytical survey, level 1 psychology students at a new university…

  8. Early Sex Differences in Weighting Geometric Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Fabian, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    When geometric and non-geometric information are both available for specifying location, men have been shown to rely more heavily on geometry compared to women. To shed insight on the nature and developmental origins of this sex difference, we examined how 18- to 24-month-olds represented the geometry of a surrounding (rectangular) space when…

  9. Sex Differences in Adults' Motivation to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…

  10. Sibling Aggression: Sex Differences and Parents' Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine families were observed extensively at home when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years of age and again 2 years later. The Social Relations Model is used to investigate children's sex differences in aggression and parents' prohibiting aggression during sibling conflict. In the first observation period, boys engaged in more severe and mild…

  11. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, Sarah-Jane

    1978-01-01

    Explores (1) problems of the validity of tests of spatial ability, and (2) problems of the recessive gene influence theory of the origin of sex differences in spatial ability. Studies of cognitive strategies in spatial problem solving are suggested as a way to further investigate recessive gene influence. (Author/RH)

  12. Cognitive Styles: Sex and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J.

    This paper reviews the hallmark studies of field dependence-independence and considers the evidence for sex and ethnic differences in cognitive style. Research has traditionally linked females' early verbal superiority with field dependence and males' superior visuospatial skills with field independence. Studies challenging this picture cite…

  13. Sex Differences in Attribution for Occupational Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reno, Rochelle

    1981-01-01

    Tested and extended Deaux's expectancy model of sex-linked differences in attribution for success. Finding's indicated that female occupational subjects, relative to males, tended to attribute success more to unstable causes of effort and luck. Male subjects attributed success more to the stable causes of ability and task ease. (Author/RC)

  14. Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Barrie, Ed.; Henley, Nancy, Ed.

    The twelve papers in this volume, which concerns the interrelationship of language and sex, include: (1) "Difference and Dominance: An Overview of Language, Gender, and Society," by Barrie Thorne and Nancy Henley; (2) "Women's Speech: Separate But Unequal?" by Cheris Kramer; (3) "The Making of a Nonsexist Dictionary," by Alma Graham; (4) "The…

  15. Sex Differences in Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, OP; Mattison, DR

    2013-01-01

    Males and females differ in their response to drug treatment. These differences can be critical in response to drug treatment. It is therefore essential to understand those differences to appropriately conduct risk assessment and to design safe and effective treatments. Even from that modest perspective, how and when we use drugs can result in unwanted and unexpected outcomes. We summarize the sex differences that impact pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and include a general comparison of clinical pharmacology as it applies to men, pregnant and non-pregnant women. Since this is an area rapidly evolving, it is essential for the practitioner to review drug prescribing information and recent literature to understand fully the impact of sex differences in clinical therapeutics. PMID:19385708

  16. Sex differences in the physiology of eating.

    PubMed

    Asarian, Lori; Geary, Nori

    2013-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating.

  17. Sex differences in the physiology of eating

    PubMed Central

    Asarian, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  18. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    PubMed

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  19. Sex Differences in the Heritability of Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Blalock, Casey L.; Button, Tanya M. M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the heritability of psychological resilience among US adults aged 25 to 74 years. Using monozygotic and same sex dizygotic twin pairs from the National Survey of Mid-Life Development in the United States (MIDUS) we show that positive affect is equally heritable among men (h2 = .60) and women (h2 = .59). We then estimate the heritability of positive affect after controlling for an exhaustive list of social and interpersonal stressors, and we operationalize the residual for positive affect as resilience. According to this specification, the heritability of resilience is higher among men (h2 = .52) compared to women (h2 = .38). We show that self-acceptance is one of the most important aspects of psychological functioning that accounts for the heritability of resilience among both men and women. However, compared to women, men appear to derive additional benefits from environmental mastery that may enable otherwise sex-neutral resilient tendencies to manifest. PMID:18251671

  20. Sex Differences in Stroke: The Contribution of Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Roy-O’Reilly, Meaghan; McCullough, Louise D.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is now the leading cause of adult disability in the United States. Women are disproportionately affected by stroke. Women increasingly outnumber men in the elderly population, the period of highest risk for stroke. However, there is also a growing recognition that fundamental sex differences are present that contribute to differential ischemic sensitivity. In addition, gonadal hormone exposure can impact coagulation and fibrinolysis, key factors in the initiation of thrombosis. In this review we will discuss sex differences in stroke, with a focus on platelets, vascular reactivity and coagulation. PMID:24560819

  1. Sociocultural context for sex differences in addiction.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michelle; Reed, Beth Glover

    2016-09-01

    In this review, we discuss the importance of investigating both sex and gender differences in addiction and relapse in studies of humans and in animal models. Addiction is both a cultural and biological phenomenon. Sex and gender differences are not solely determined by our biology, nor are they entirely cultural; they are interactions between biology and the environment that are continuously played out throughout development. Lessons from the historical record illustrate how context and attitudes affect the way that substance use in men and women is regarded. Finally, cultural and environmental influences may differentially affect men and women, and affect how they respond to drugs of abuse and to treatment protocols. We recommend that both animal models and clinical research need to be developed to consider how contextual and social factors may influence the biological processes of addiction and relapse differentially in men and women. PMID:26935336

  2. Early sex differences in weighting geometric cues.

    PubMed

    Lourenco, Stella F; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Fabian, Lydia

    2011-11-01

    When geometric and non-geometric information are both available for specifying location, men have been shown to rely more heavily on geometry compared to women. To shed insight on the nature and developmental origins of this sex difference, we examined how 18- to 24-month-olds represented the geometry of a surrounding (rectangular) space when direct non-geometric information (i.e. a beacon) was also available for localizing a hidden object. Children were tested on a disorientation task with multiple phases. Across experiments, boys relied more heavily than girls on geometry to guide localization, as indicated by their errors during the initial phase of the task, and by their search choices following transformations that left only geometry available, or that, under limited conditions, created a conflict between beacon and geometry. Analyses of search times suggested that girls, like boys, had encoded geometry, and testing in a square space ruled out explanations concerned with motivational and methodological variables. Taken together, the findings provide evidence for an early sex difference in the weighting of geometry. This sex difference, we suggest, reflects subtle variation in how boys and girls approach the problem of combining multiple sources of location information.

  3. Sex differences in learning in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Eberly, Lynn E; Pusey, Anne E

    2004-04-15

    The wild chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, fish for termites with flexible tools that they make out of vegetation, inserting them into the termite mound and then extracting and eating the termites that cling to the tool. Tools may be used in different ways by different chimpanzee communities according to the local chimpanzee culture. Here we describe the results of a four-year longitudinal field study in which we investigated how this cultural behaviour is learned by the community's offspring. We find that there are distinct sex-based differences, akin to those found in human children, in the way in which young chimpanzees develop their termite-fishing skills.

  4. Sex Differences in the Presentation of Chronic Low Back Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffer, Christine E.; Cassisi, Jeffrey E.; Ferraresi, Laurette M.; Lofland, Kenneth R.; McCracken, Lance M.

    2002-01-01

    Sex differences in 351 patients with chronic low back pain were examined. Biological, psychological, and psychosocial factors were considered. Sex differences in adaptive functioning were consistent with traditional gender roles. Significant interactions were found for sex and employment status, and sex and marital status. Retired women reported…

  5. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John; Klaver, Peter; O'Gorman, Ruth L

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  6. Commentary: sex difference differences? A reply to Constantino.

    PubMed

    Messinger, Daniel S; Young, Gregory S; Webb, Sara Jane; Ozonoff, Sally; Bryson, Susan E; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Dobkins, Karen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M; Landa, Rebecca; Nelson, Charles A; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2016-01-01

    Messinger et al. found a 3.18 odds ratio of male to female ASD recurrence in 1241 prospectively followed high-risk (HR) siblings. Among high-risk siblings (with and without ASD), as well as among 583 low-risk controls, girls exhibited higher performance on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, as well as lower restricted and repetitive behavior severity scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) than boys. That is, female-favoring sex differences in developmental performance and autism traits were evident among low-risk and non-ASD high-risk children, as well as those with ASD. Constantino (Mol Autism) suggests that sex differences in categorical ASD outcomes in Messinger et al. should be understood as a female protective effect. We are receptive to Constantino's (Mol Autism) suggestion, and propose that quantitative sex differences in autism-related features are keys to understanding this female protective effect. PMID:27358719

  7. Sex differences in stroke: a socioeconomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Delbari, Ahmad; Keyghobadi, Farzane; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Keyghobadi, Fariba; Akbari, Reza; Kamranian, Houman; Yazdi, Mohammad Shouride; Tabatabaei, Sayed Shahaboddin; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of studies have explored the issue of sex differences in stroke from biomedical perspective; however, there are still large gaps in the existing knowledge. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differences in socioeconomic status and living conditions between men and women may explain the part of the sex differences in incidence and outcomes of stroke. Methods All stroke participants aged ≥60 years admitted in Vaseie Hospital in Sabzevar, Iran, from March 21, 2013, until March 20, 2014, were included in this study. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to confirm stroke. A series of χ2 tests were performed and Statistical Program for Social Sciences, Version 21.0, was used to investigate the potential differences between older men and women in stroke incidence and outcomes. Results A total of 159 incident stroke cases were documented during 1 year. The annual rate of stroke was statistically significantly higher in elderly women than in elderly men (401 vs 357 per 100,000; P<0.001). Female elderly participants had significantly lower socioeconomic status, poorer living conditions, and higher lifetime history of depression, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus than their male counterparts. Conclusion The findings from this study showed that elderly women are more adversely affected by stroke in terms of incidence and outcomes of stroke than elderly men. The most noticeable result is that sex differences in socioeconomic status and living conditions may result in increased incidence of stroke and poorer outcomes in elderly women. Therefore, it is imperative to identify vulnerable elderly women and provide them appropriate treatment and services.

  8. Sex differences in stroke: a socioeconomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Delbari, Ahmad; Keyghobadi, Farzane; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Keyghobadi, Fariba; Akbari, Reza; Kamranian, Houman; Yazdi, Mohammad Shouride; Tabatabaei, Sayed Shahaboddin; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of studies have explored the issue of sex differences in stroke from biomedical perspective; however, there are still large gaps in the existing knowledge. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differences in socioeconomic status and living conditions between men and women may explain the part of the sex differences in incidence and outcomes of stroke. Methods All stroke participants aged ≥60 years admitted in Vaseie Hospital in Sabzevar, Iran, from March 21, 2013, until March 20, 2014, were included in this study. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to confirm stroke. A series of χ2 tests were performed and Statistical Program for Social Sciences, Version 21.0, was used to investigate the potential differences between older men and women in stroke incidence and outcomes. Results A total of 159 incident stroke cases were documented during 1 year. The annual rate of stroke was statistically significantly higher in elderly women than in elderly men (401 vs 357 per 100,000; P<0.001). Female elderly participants had significantly lower socioeconomic status, poorer living conditions, and higher lifetime history of depression, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus than their male counterparts. Conclusion The findings from this study showed that elderly women are more adversely affected by stroke in terms of incidence and outcomes of stroke than elderly men. The most noticeable result is that sex differences in socioeconomic status and living conditions may result in increased incidence of stroke and poorer outcomes in elderly women. Therefore, it is imperative to identify vulnerable elderly women and provide them appropriate treatment and services. PMID:27660426

  9. Defensiveness Effects on Sex Differences in Children's Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.

    Relationships among the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC), the Lie Scale for Children (LSC), and sex were estimated from a pooled sample of 1,755 children in grades 1 to l0. Defensiveness and test anxiety showed equally strong sex differences; sex effects in test anxiety were not completely attributable to sex effects in defensiveness, but…

  10. Sex differences in Portuguese lonely hearts advertisements.

    PubMed

    Neto, Félix

    2005-10-01

    Advertisements from "Lonely Hearts" columns in the major daily Portuguese newspaper (Jornal de Notícias) were used to test hypotheses about the mate preferences of men and women. A total of 484 advertisements were coded for demographic descriptors and offers of and appeals for attractiveness, financial security, sincerity, expressiveness, and instrumentality, e.g., intelligence and ambition. Some results supported social exchange and evolutionary predictions: men sought younger women and offered security; women sought older men with status and resources. However, other results challenged such predictions: attractiveness and expressiveness did not differ by sex. PMID:16383069

  11. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  12. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life. PMID:27383844

  13. Preschoolers' Mental Rotation: Sex Differences in Hemispheric Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nicola; Jansen, Petra; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mental rotation performance has been found to produce one of the largest sex differences in cognition accompanied by sex differences in functional cerebral asymmetry. Although sex differences in mental rotation performance can be reliably demonstrated as early as age 5 years old, that is, long before puberty, no data exist as to whether…

  14. Sex Differences in a Causal Model of Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Studied sex differences among high school students (N=318) in career development process to determine whether sex differences exist in way six independent variables interact in career maturity causal model of career maturity and to compare each variable's effect on career maturity. Results suggest significant sex differences consistent with…

  15. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women. PMID:27001402

  16. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women.

  17. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    PubMed

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant. PMID:9354085

  18. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    PubMed

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant.

  19. Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples. PMID:24585040

  20. Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples.

  1. Is There Any Reason to Research Sex Differences in Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canary, Daniel J.; Hause, Kimberley S.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes empirical findings and conceptual problems to clarify how sex differences are related to communication. Finds that conceptual reasons for the muddled picture of sex differences in communication research include reliance on stereotypes, polarization of the sexes, lack of valid reasons, and dearth of theory. (SR)

  2. Influence of sex differences in leaders' behavior.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jennifer A; Barbuto, John E; Matkin, Gina S; Chin, Tzu-Yun

    2005-04-01

    Sex differences in influence tactics were examined with a sample of 269 followers (67 men, 202 women) at a large midwestern national insurance company who rated the downward influence tactics used by their direct supervisors. Downward influence tactics are behaviors used by leaders to gain compliance from followers. One department within the organization was identified as a source for participants in the study. Participation was voluntary. The age range for the sample was 21 to 65 years, with the largest percentage falling in the 40-49 year range (M = 3.8, SD = .8). Hierarchical linear modeling procedures were utilized to analyze the multiple level data (leader and follower) and to examine variables within the organization at different levels of analysis. Leader participants were asked to solicit their followers to complete an influence tactic measure, which consisted of the most reliable subscales taken from the Influence Behavior Questionnaire, Schriesheim and Hinkin Influence Measure, and the Profiles of Organizational Influence Strategies. The integrated measure resulted in a 45-item scale. It was hypothesized that, overall, followers would report that male leaders would use hard influence tactics more frequently than female leaders. On the other hand, followers would report that female leaders would use soft influence tactics more frequently than male leaders. When differentiating followers by sex, however, we expected that male followers would report more than female followers that their leaders use hard tactics more frequently. Also, we expected that female followers would report (more than male followers) that their leaders use soft tactics more frequently. Overall, followers reported that male leaders used significantly more personal appeal and consultation, so called "soft tactics," with their followers than did female leaders. Female followers reported that their leaders (both male and female) used consultation and inspirational appeal more frequently

  3. Differences and Consistency between Same-Sex and Other-Sex Peer Relationships during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Found that individual differences in children's preference for same-sex peers were (1) derived from liking same-sex peers rather than disliking other-sex peers; (2) consistent over long intervals; and (3) related to children's preference for activities that required gross motor skills. (BC)

  4. Race and Sex Differences in Sex Role Attitudes of Southern College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyson, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated race and sex differences in sex role attitudes of southern college students (N=5,750). Black and white men shared similar sex role orientation; black and white women shared a similar world view. Blacks were more likely than whites to feel that woman's real fulfillment comes from motherhood and that it was appropriate for mothers with…

  5. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue.

  6. Sex differences in approaching friends with benefits relationships.

    PubMed

    Lehmiller, Justin J; VanderDrift, Laura E; Kelly, Janice R

    2011-03-01

    This research explored differences in how men and women approach "friends with benefits" (FWB) relationships. Specifically, this study examined sex differences in reasons for beginning such involvements, commitment to the friendship versus sexual aspects of the relationship, and partners'; anticipated hopes for the future. To do so, an Internet sample of individuals currently involved in FWB relationships was recruited. Results indicated many overall similarities in terms of how the sexes approach FWB relationships, but several important differences emerged. For example, sex was a more common motivation for men to begin such relationships, whereas emotional connection was a more common motivation for women. In addition, men were more likely to hope that the relationship stays the same over time, whereas women expressed more desire for change into either a full-fledged romance or a basic friendship. Unexpectedly, both men and women were more committed to the friendship than to the sexual aspect of the relationship. Although some additional similarities appeared, the findings were largely consistent with the notion that traditional gender role expectations and the sexual double standard may influence how men and women approach FWB relationships. PMID:20336576

  7. Sex Differences in the Experience of Widowhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Carol J.

    Previous writers have presumed that widowhood is more stressful for one sex or the other. Hypotheses derived from demographic considerations and sex role developmental theory compared the needs and resources of 147 widows and 42 widowers, relative to 190 married persons. All subjects were non-institutionalized urban residents aged 62 or over. The…

  8. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  9. Sex differences in acute energy intake regulation.

    PubMed

    Davy, Brenda M; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Orr, Jeb S

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if energy intake compensation is more accurate in males compared to females matched for age, habitual physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and dietary cognitive restraint. Healthy, nonobese young men (n=12) and women (n=12) were provided with an ad libitum lunch meal on two occasions. Thirty minutes prior to the lunch meals, subjects were given either a yogurt preload (YP; 500 mL, 1988 kJ, men; 375 mL, 1507 kJ, women) or no preload (NP). Energy intake at the two lunch meals was measured. Visual analog scales were used to assess changes in hunger and fullness. Blood glucose concentrations were also determined. Energy intake compensation for the YP was significantly more accurate in the male compared to the female subjects (86.2+/-5.0 vs. 73.6+/-4.8% compensation). There were no sex differences in perceptions of hunger and satiety. In the pooled sample, hunger ratings were significantly higher in the NP condition, but there were no significant differences in fullness ratings between test meals. In the YP condition, glycemic response to the preload and the ad libitum meal was significantly higher in males compared to females. These results suggest that under acute test meal conditions, energy intake regulation is more accurate in males. Relative inability to regulate energy intake may predispose females to gain weight over time.

  10. Sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia.

    PubMed

    Mogil, Jeffrey S; Bailey, Andrea L

    2010-01-01

    It is a clinical reality that women make up the large majority of chronic pain patients, and there is now consensus from laboratory experiments that when differences are seen, women are more sensitive to pain than men. Research in this field has now begun to concentrate on finding explanations for this sex difference. Although sex differences in sociocultural, psychological, and experiential factors likely play important roles, evidence largely from animal studies has revealed surprisingly robust and often qualitative sex differences at low levels of the neuraxis. Although not yet able to affect clinical practice, the continued study of sex differences in pain may have important implications for the development of new analgesic strategies.

  11. National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement.

    PubMed

    Nosek, Brian A; Smyth, Frederick L; Sriram, N; Lindner, Nicole M; Devos, Thierry; Ayala, Alfonso; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Bergh, Robin; Cai, Huajian; Gonsalkorale, Karen; Kesebir, Selin; Maliszewski, Norbert; Neto, Félix; Olli, Eero; Park, Jaihyun; Schnabel, Konrad; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Tulbure, Bogdan Tudor; Wiers, Reinout W; Somogyi, Mónika; Akrami, Nazar; Ekehammar, Bo; Vianello, Michelangelo; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Greenwald, Anthony G

    2009-06-30

    About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement.

  12. National differences in gender–science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, Brian A.; Smyth, Frederick L.; Sriram, N.; Lindner, Nicole M.; Devos, Thierry; Ayala, Alfonso; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Bergh, Robin; Cai, Huajian; Gonsalkorale, Karen; Kesebir, Selin; Maliszewski, Norbert; Neto, Félix; Olli, Eero; Park, Jaihyun; Schnabel, Konrad; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Tulbure, Bogdan Tudor; Wiers, Reinout W.; Somogyi, Mónika; Akrami, Nazar; Ekehammar, Bo; Vianello, Michelangelo; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2009-01-01

    About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement. PMID:19549876

  13. Sex Differences in Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Franco, R Lee; Bowen, Mary K; Arena, Ross; Privett, Stacey H; Acevedo, Edmund O; Wickham, Edmond P; Evans, Ronald K

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if sex differences exist in the pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) uptake on-kinetic response to moderate exercise in obese adolescents. Additionally, we examined if a relationship exists between the VO2 on-transient response to moderate intensity exercise, steady state VO2, and peak VO2 between obese male and female adolescents. Study design Male (n=12) and female (n=28) adolescents completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Data from the initial 4-min of treadmill walking were used to determine the time constant. Results The time constant was significantly different (P=0.001) between obese male and female adolescents (15.17±8.45 s vs. 23.07±8.91 s, respectively). No significant relationships were observed between the time constant and variables of interest in either sex. Conclusions Sex differences exist in VO2 uptake on-kinetics during moderate exercise in obese adolescents, indicating an enhanced potential for males to deliver and/or utilize oxygen. It may be advantageous for females to engage in a longer warm-up period prior to initiation of an exercise regimen, preventing an early termination of the exercise session. PMID:25241180

  14. Sex-different response in growth traits to resource heterogeneity explains male-biased sex ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Michinari; Takao, Mikako; Makita, Akifumi

    2016-08-01

    In dioecious plants, differences in growth traits between sexes in a response to micro-environmental heterogeneity may affect sex ratio bias and spatial distributions. Here, we examined sex ratios, stem growth traits and spatial distribution patterns in the dioecious clonal shrub Aucuba japonica var. borealis, in stands with varying light intensities. We found that male stems were significantly more decumbent (lower height/length ratio) but female stems were upright (higher height/length ratio). Moreover, we found sex-different response in stem density (no. of stems per unit area) along a light intensity gradient; in males the stem density increased with increases in canopy openness, but not in females. The higher sensitivity of males in increasing stem density to light intensity correlated with male-biased sex ratio; fine-scale sex ratio was strongly male-biased as canopy openness increased. There were also differences between sexes in spatial distributions of stems. Spatial segregation of sexes and male patches occupying larger areas than female patches might result from vigorous growth of males under well-lit environments. In summary, females and males showed different growth responses to environmental variation, and this seemed to be one of possible causes for the sex-differential spatial distributions and locally biased sex ratios.

  15. Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Slade, Martin D.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Studies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish cultural gendered factors influencing employment decisions (e.g., expected work roles, family responsibilities) from sex-linked biological differences shaping physiological response to workplace physical hazards. Methods We examined effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims data for 14,618 white- and blue-collar aluminum manufacturing employees in eight U.S. states. To explore gender differences in job status, we developed sex-stratified propensity score models identifying key socioeconomic predictors of hourly status for men and women. To examine effects of hourly employment on hypertension risk, after adjusting for gender differences in job placement, we applied time-weighted logistic regression models, stratified by propensity score, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Results Family structure (partnership, parity) influenced job status for both sexes; single mothers were more likely to hold hourly jobs (OR = 2.02 (95% CI = 1.37–2.97)), partnered men with children less likely (OR = 0.68 (0.56–0.83)). Education, age at hire, and race influenced job placement for both sexes. The effect of hourly status on hypertension was significant only among women predicted to be hourly (OR = 1.78 (1.34 – 2.35)). Conclusions Our results indicate significant risks of hypertension associated with hourly status for women, possibly exacerbated by sociodemographic factors predicting hourly status (e.g., single parenthood, low education). Greater attention to gender differences in job status, workplace stressors, and health risks associated with hourly work, is warranted. PMID:20864467

  16. Sex Differences in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  17. Sex Differences in Language First Appear in Gesture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcaliskan, Seyda; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Children differ in how quickly they reach linguistic milestones. Boys typically produce their first multi-word sentences later than girls do. We ask here whether there are sex differences in children's gestures that precede, and presage, these sex differences in speech. To explore this question, we observed 22 girls and 18 boys every 4 months as…

  18. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  19. Sex Differences on the Dutch WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Posthuma, Danielle; Dolan, Conor V.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Colom, Roberto; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2006-01-01

    Using multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA), this study investigated whether sex differences were present on the Dutch WAIS-III, and if so, whether these sex differences were attributable to differences in general intelligence ("g"). The sample consisted of 294 females and 228 males between 18 and 46 years old. Both first…

  20. The Mandarin Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Matthews, Fiona E.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in social and communication behaviours related to autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have been investigated mainly in Western populations. Little research has been done in Chinese populations. This study explored sex differences related to ASC characteristics by examining differences in item responses and score distributions in…

  1. Monozygotic twins of different apparent sex

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Yukifumi; Fujino, Nobuyuki; Sato, Yoshiaki; Matsunobu, Akira; Tadokoro, Mamoru; Akane, Atsushi; Matsuura, Nobuo; Maeda, Tohru; Nakahori, Yutaka; Nakagome, Yasuo

    1994-10-15

    We report on twins of unlike sex who shared a 45,X/46,X, +mar karyotype. The mar chromosome was found to be Yq- by DNA analysis. Marker studies, including 8 VNTR loci, yielded a probability of monozygosity of 0.99999996. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Sex Differences on Televised Toy Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.; Feldstein, Sandra

    1982-01-01

    Observation of televised toy commercials during holiday periods in 1977 and 1978 revealed that: 1) more boys than girls appeared in commercials in both years; 2) girls had more passive roles in 1977 commercials; and 3) vehicles and male dolls were primarily aimed at boys, while manipulative toys were aimed at both sexes. (Author/MJL)

  3. Sex Differences in Children's Trust in Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.

    1984-01-01

    Children (in Grades K, 2, and 4) were required to judge how much they trusted each of their classmates. A same sex pattern of peer trust was found in fourth and second graders, but not in kindergarten children. Contrary to expectation, girls were not significantly more trusting in peers than were boys. (KH)

  4. Equity vs. Equality: Sex Differences in Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbins, Gregory H.

    1986-01-01

    Male and female managers responded to a vignette about a subordinate who performed poorly. The corrective actions proposed by female leaders were more affected by the likableness and sex of the subordinate than were those of the male leaders. The implications of these findings for management training and practice are discussed. (KH)

  5. Sex differences in the neurobiology of epilepsy: a preclinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; MacLusky, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    When all of the epilepsies are considered, sex differences are not always clear, despite the fact that many sex differences are known in the normal brain. Sex differences in epilepsy in laboratory animals are also unclear, although robust effects of sex on seizures have been reported, and numerous effects of gonadal steroids have been shown throughout the rodent brain. Here we discuss several reasons why sex differences in seizure susceptibility are unclear or are difficult to study. Examples of robust sex differences in laboratory rats, such as the relative resistance of adult female rats to the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine compared to males, are described. We also describe a novel method that has shed light on sex differences in neuropathology, which is a relatively new techniques that will potentially contribute to sex differences research in the future. The assay we highlight uses the neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN to probe sex differences in adult male and female rats and mice. In females, weak NeuN expression defines a sex difference that previous neuropathological studies have not described. We also show that in adult rats, social isolation stress can obscure the normal effects of 17β-estradiol to increase excitability in area CA3 of hippocampus. These data underscore the importance of controlling behavioral stress in studies of seizure susceptibility in rodents and suggest that behavioral stress may be one factor that has led to inconsistencies in outcomes of sex differences research. These and other issues have made it difficult to translate our increasing knowledge about the effects of gonadal hormones on the brain to improved treatment for men and women with epilepsy. PMID:25058745

  6. Sex differences in spatial cognition: advancing the conversation.

    PubMed

    Levine, Susan C; Foley, Alana; Lourenco, Stella; Ehrlich, Stacy; Ratliff, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a sex difference in spatial thinking, notably on tasks involving mental rotation, has been a topic of considerable research and debate. We review this literature, with a particular focus on the development of this sex difference, and consider four key questions: (1) When does the sex difference emerge developmentally and does the magnitude of this difference change across development? (2) What are the biological and environmental factors that contribute to sex differences in spatial skill and how might they interact? (3) How malleable are spatial skills, and is the sex difference reduced as a result of training? and (4) Does 'spatializing' the curriculum raise the level of spatial thinking in all students and hold promise for increasing and diversifying the STEM pipeline? Throughout the review, we consider promising avenues for future research. PMID:26825049

  7. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Prediction of Adult Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, B.; Rosenberg, B. G.

    This paper deals with two sets of data-one that fails to find any long-term sex differences in adults, and another which seems to find such differences. The Berkeley Guidance Study offers longitudinal data in which no variables differentiate between the two sexes at all age levels. From these results, the authors conclude that the normal course of…

  8. Sex Differences in Arithmetical Performance Scores: Central Tendency and Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, R.; Hurks, P. P. M.; Meijs, C.; Wassenberg, R.; Jolles, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze sex differences in arithmetical performance in a large-scale sample of 390 children (193 boys) frequenting grades 1-9. Past research in this field has focused primarily on average performance, implicitly assuming homogeneity of variance, for which support is scarce. This article examined sex differences in…

  9. Sex Differences for Selective Forms of Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Albert; Jager, Gerry; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Koppeschaar, Hans P. F.; van Honk, Jack

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, a systematic comparison of sex differences for several tests of spatial memory was conducted. Clear evidence for more accurate male performance was obtained for precise metric positional information in a wayfinding task and in an object location memory task. In contrast, no sex difference characterized topological information…

  10. Sex Differences in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alice S.; Black, David O.; Tewani, Sonia; Connolly, Christine E.; Kadlec, Mary Beth; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females, few studies address sex differences in developmental functioning or clinical manifestations. Participants in this study of sex differences in developmental profiles and clinical symptoms were 22 girls and 68 boys with ASD (mean age = 28 months). All children…

  11. Sex Differences in Children's Discrepant Perceptions of Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephanie D.; Van Gessel, Christine A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kistner, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in children's play patterns during middle childhood are thought to promote greater awareness of social acceptance among girls compared with boys. The present study posited that girls are more discerning of peer acceptance than are boys; however, these sex differences were predicted to vary depending on how discrepant perceptions…

  12. Absenteeism, Burnout and Symptomatology of Teacher Stress: Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermejo-Toro, Laura; Prieto-Ursúa, María

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been carried out confirming high levels in symptomatology of stress and depression in the teaching profession, research focusing on sex differences in these problems has been both scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study is to analyse differences with regards to sex in the incidence of absenteeism, work-related…

  13. Sex Differences in the Mental Rotation of Chemistry Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Mental-rotation ability modestly predicts chemistry achievement. As such, sex differences in mental-rotation ability have been implicated as a causal factor that can explain sex differences in chemistry achievement and degree attainment. Although there is a correlation between mental-rotation ability and chemistry achievement, laboratory and field…

  14. The Development of Sex-Related Differences in Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.

    Although sex differences in research have received considerable attention, few researchers have examined the bias, social context, and process of that research. In analyzing sex differences in academic achievement over the past 10 years, three areas (mathematics, spatial ability, and verbal ability) would appear to establish consistent sex…

  15. Searching for sex differences in the vomeronasal pathway.

    PubMed

    Segovia, S; Guillamón, A

    1996-12-01

    The sexual differentiation of brain and behavior is reviewed from the findings of sex differences in the vomeronasal pathway. A motivational approach to sex differences in reproductive behavior is stressed by taking into account that sex differences are present in neural networks: from the receptor organ (the vomeronasal organ) to effector nuclei. Sex differences in the brain appear in two morphological patterns. In one, the male presents greater morphological measurements than the female; in the other, the opposite occurs. These two morphological patterns are actively differentiated by gonadal steroids. The functional significance of these two morphological patterns is addressed. Moreover, since the GABA(A) receptor is involved in the organization of sex differences in vomeronasal structures such as the accessory olfactory bulb and in maternal behavior, the role of membrane mechanisms, 5alpha reduced hormones, and neurosteroids in the sexual differentiation process is discussed.

  16. Surprising origins of sex differences in the brain.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Margaret M; Pickett, Lindsay A; VanRyzin, Jonathan W; Kight, Katherine E

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Discerning the biologic origins of neuroanatomical sex differences has been of interest since they were first reported in the late 60's and early 70's. The centrality of gonadal hormone exposure during a developmental critical window cannot be denied but hormones are indirect agents of change, acting to induce gene transcription or modulate membrane bound signaling cascades. Sex differences in the brain include regional volume differences due to differential cell death, neuronal and glial genesis, dendritic branching and synaptic patterning. Early emphasis on mechanism therefore focused on neurotransmitters and neural growth factors, but by and large these endpoints failed to explain the origins of neural sex differences. More recently evidence has accumulated in favor of inflammatory mediators and immune cells as principle regulators of brain sexual differentiation and reveal that the establishment of dimorphic circuits is not cell autonomous but instead requires extensive cell-to-cell communication including cells of non-neuronal origin. Despite the multiplicity of cells involved the nature of the sex differences in the neuroanatomical endpoints suggests canalization, a process that explains the robustness of individuals in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic variability. We propose that some neuroanatomical endpoints are canalized to enhance sex differences in the brain by reducing variability within one sex while also preventing the sexes from diverging too greatly. We further propose mechanisms by which such canalization could occur and discuss what relevance this may have to sex differences in behavior.

  17. Sex differences in strength - some observations on their variability.

    PubMed

    Pheasant, S T

    1983-09-01

    One hundred and twelve datasets, which allowed a direct comparison of the strengths of men and women, were located in the published literature. For each of these, three indices of sex difference were calculated: the ratio of the mean female strength to the mean male (F/M), the proportion of the total variance in strength attributable to sex (R(2)) and the "percentage of chance encounters between members of the opposite sex in which the female is stronger" (%CEFS). Sex difference was shown to be very variable, the values of these indices being both task and population specific. An experiment was conducted in which male and female subjects gripped and turned knurled cylindrical handles of 10, 30, 50 and 70 mm diameter. Maximum isometric torques were recorded. Sex differences became more pronounced as handle size increased. The optimal handle-size was 50 mm for both male and female subjects. Data concerning whole body exertion (Pheasant et al, 1982) were also analysed for sex differences. It was concluded that very similar tests of strength could exhibit very different levels of sex difference. The task or equipment designer should not make assumptions about sex differences in strength for a particular action, but should rely on empirical investigation.

  18. Surprising Origins of Sex Differences in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Margaret M.; Pickett, Lindsay A.; VanRyzin, Jonathan W.; Kight, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Discerning the biologic origins of neuroanatomical sex differences has been of interest since they were first reported in the late 60’s and early 70’s. The centrality of gonadal hormone exposure during a developmental critical window cannot be denied but hormones are indirect agents of change, acting to induce gene transcription or modulate membrane bound signaling cascades. Sex differences in the brain include regional volume differences due to differential cell death, neuronal and glial genesis, dendritic branching and synaptic patterning. Early emphasis on mechanism therefore focused on neurotransmitters and neural growth factors, but by and large these endpoints failed to explain the origins of neural sex differences. More recently evidence has accumulated in favor of inflammatory mediators and immune cells as principle regulators of brain sexual differentiation and reveal that the establishment of dimorphic circuits is not cell autonomous but instead requires extensive cell-to-cell communication including cells of non-neuronal origin. Despite the multiplicity of cells involved the nature of the sex differences in the neuroanatomical endpoints suggests canalization, a process that explains the robustness of individuals in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic variability. We propose that some neuroanatomical endpoints are canalized to enhance sex differences in the brain by reducing variability within one sex while also preventing the sexes from diverging too greatly. We further propose mechanisms by which such canalization could occur and discuss what relevance this may have to sex differences in behavior. PMID:25917865

  19. Sex differences in the activation of language cortex during childhood.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Schmithorst, Vince J; Holland, Scott K; Byars, Anna W

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences have been well documented in the behavioral literature but have occurred inconsistently in the neuroimaging literature. This investigation examined the impact of subject age, language task, and cortical region on the occurrence of sex differences in functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two hundred and five (104 m, 101 f) right handed, monolingual English speaking children between the ages of 5 and 18 years were enrolled in this study. The study used fMRI at 3T to evaluate BOLD signal variation associated with sex, age, and their interaction. Children completed up to four language tasks, which involved listening to stories, prosody processing, single word vocabulary identification, and verb generation. A sex difference for behavioral performance was found for the prosodic processing task only. Brain activation in the classical left hemisphere language areas of the brain and their right homologues were assessed for sex differences. Although left lateralization was present for both frontal and temporal regions for all but the prosody task, no significant sex differences were found for the degree of lateralization. Sex x age interaction effects were found for all but the task involving single word vocabulary. However effect sizes associated with the sex differences were small, which suggests that relatively large sample sizes would be needed to detect these effects reliably.

  20. Cigarette Smoking in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions: The Role of Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997–2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter’s education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed. PMID:25346559

  1. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented. PMID:24923876

  2. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  3. Pharmacogenetic analysis of sex differences in opioid antinociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Terner, Jolan M; Lomas, Lisa M; Smith, Eric S; Barrett, Andrew C; Picker, Mitchell J

    2003-12-01

    Sex differences in opioid antinociception have been reported in rodents and monkeys, with opioids being more potent in males than females. In the present study, the influence of rat strain on sex differences in opioid antinociception was examined in a warm water tail-withdrawal procedure. Antinociceptive tests were conducted with the high-efficacy micro-opioid morphine, and the less efficacious opioids buprenorphine, butorphanol and nalbuphine. Baseline nociceptive latencies were consistently higher in males than their female counterparts. Sex differences in opioid antinociception were observed in all strains tested, with the opioids being more potent and/or effective in males. The magnitude of the sex differences was related to the relative efficacy of the opioid, with morphine, buprenorphine, butorphanol and nalbuphine being on average 2.2-, 2.6-, 15.9- and 11.9-fold more potent in males. Sex differences also varied markedly across strains, with large differences consistently obtained in the F344 and F344-Sasco strains, moderate differences in the ACI, DA, Lewis, Sprague Dawley, Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto strains, and small differences in the Long Evans-Blue Spruce, Long Evans, Brown Norway and Holtzman strains. When compared across strains, there was no relationship between sex differences in nociceptive sensitivity and opioid sensitivity. These findings provide strong support for the role of genetic factors in determining sex differences in opioid antinociception, and suggest that the use of low-efficacy opioids, coupled with the use of rat strains that display small and large sex differences in opioid antinociception, may provide a sensitive tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying sex differences in opioid antinociception. PMID:14659521

  4. Sex Differences in Circadian Timing Systems: Implications for Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Matthew; Silver, Rae

    2014-01-01

    Virtually every eukaryotic cell has an endogenous circadian clock and a biological sex. These cell-based clocks have been conceptualized as oscillators whose phase can be reset by internal signals such as hormones, and external cues such as light. The present review highlights the inter-relationship between circadian clocks and sex differences. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as a master clock synchronizing the phase of clocks throughout the body. Gonadal steroid receptors are expressed in almost every site that receives direct SCN input. Here we review sex differences in the circadian timing system in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG), the hypothalamicadrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis, and sleep-arousal systems. We also point to ways in which disruption of circadian rhythms within these systems differs in the sexes and is associated with dysfunction and disease. Understanding sex differentiated circadian timing systems can lead to improved treatment strategies for these conditions. PMID:24287074

  5. Sex differences in circadian timing systems: implications for disease.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Matthew; Silver, Rae

    2014-01-01

    Virtually every eukaryotic cell has an endogenous circadian clock and a biological sex. These cell-based clocks have been conceptualized as oscillators whose phase can be reset by internal signals such as hormones, and external cues such as light. The present review highlights the inter-relationship between circadian clocks and sex differences. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as a master clock synchronizing the phase of clocks throughout the body. Gonadal steroid receptors are expressed in almost every site that receives direct SCN input. Here we review sex differences in the circadian timing system in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG), the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis, and sleep-arousal systems. We also point to ways in which disruption of circadian rhythms within these systems differs in the sexes and is associated with dysfunction and disease. Understanding sex differentiated circadian timing systems can lead to improved treatment strategies for these conditions.

  6. Sex differences in circadian timing systems: implications for disease.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Matthew; Silver, Rae

    2014-01-01

    Virtually every eukaryotic cell has an endogenous circadian clock and a biological sex. These cell-based clocks have been conceptualized as oscillators whose phase can be reset by internal signals such as hormones, and external cues such as light. The present review highlights the inter-relationship between circadian clocks and sex differences. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as a master clock synchronizing the phase of clocks throughout the body. Gonadal steroid receptors are expressed in almost every site that receives direct SCN input. Here we review sex differences in the circadian timing system in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG), the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis, and sleep-arousal systems. We also point to ways in which disruption of circadian rhythms within these systems differs in the sexes and is associated with dysfunction and disease. Understanding sex differentiated circadian timing systems can lead to improved treatment strategies for these conditions. PMID:24287074

  7. Developmental Trends in the Sex Differences of Proxemic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Audrey A.

    In order to investigate developmental trends in the sex differences of two dimensions of proxemic behavior, distance and shoulder orientation, 406 elementary and junior high school students were studied while interacting in same-sex and heterosexual pairs. After engaging in discussion for one minute, the pairs were asked to stop and hold still…

  8. Same, Different, Equal: Rethinking Single-Sex Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Rosemary C.

    This book presents an argument for supporting single-sex education. It examines the history and politics of gender and schooling; philosophical and psychological theories of sameness and differences; findings on educational achievement and performance; research evidence on single-sex schooling; and the legal questions that arise from single-sex…

  9. Cognitive Mediators and Sex-Related Differences in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

    2004-01-01

    Sex-related differential studies on mathematical abilities have hardly taken into account the mediator role of the verbal factor, which contrasts with the interest shown in the mediator role of visuospatial aptitude. We predicted that if sex-related differences were found, mental rotation would mediate mathematical abilities typically favoring…

  10. Sex Differences in Helping Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Patricia; Eagly, Alice H.

    Whether or not there are sex differences in helping behavior is a question that has attracted interest from both theoretical and applied perspectives. A meta-analysis was conducted of 172 studies of helping behavior, coded for publication date, source, sex of author, sample size, setting, type of appeal for help, availability of other helpers, sex…

  11. Sex differences in responsiveness to begging in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Madden, Joah R; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-08-23

    In species where young are provisioned by both parents, males commonly contribute less to parental care than females, and are less responsive to variation in begging rates. Similar differences in the care of young occur among adults in cooperative breeders, but fewer studies have investigated whether these are associated with differences in responsiveness. Here, we present results from a playback experiment investigating responsiveness to begging in the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a cooperatively breeding mammal. Although increased begging rate raised the feeding rate of adults of both sexes, there was no consistent tendency for females to be more responsive than males. However, when we examined changes in the proportion of food items found that were fed to pups (generosity), we found that females were more responsive than males to increased begging rate. These results can be explained in terms of sex differences in dispersal: in meerkats, females are philopatric and receive considerable benefits from investing in young, both directly, by increasing group size, and indirectly, by recruiting helpers if they inherit the breeding position. In addition, they emphasize that generosity provides a more sensitive measure of responsiveness to begging than feeding rate, as it accounts for variation in foraging success.

  12. Sex differences in responsiveness to begging in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Madden, Joah R; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-08-23

    In species where young are provisioned by both parents, males commonly contribute less to parental care than females, and are less responsive to variation in begging rates. Similar differences in the care of young occur among adults in cooperative breeders, but fewer studies have investigated whether these are associated with differences in responsiveness. Here, we present results from a playback experiment investigating responsiveness to begging in the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a cooperatively breeding mammal. Although increased begging rate raised the feeding rate of adults of both sexes, there was no consistent tendency for females to be more responsive than males. However, when we examined changes in the proportion of food items found that were fed to pups (generosity), we found that females were more responsive than males to increased begging rate. These results can be explained in terms of sex differences in dispersal: in meerkats, females are philopatric and receive considerable benefits from investing in young, both directly, by increasing group size, and indirectly, by recruiting helpers if they inherit the breeding position. In addition, they emphasize that generosity provides a more sensitive measure of responsiveness to begging than feeding rate, as it accounts for variation in foraging success. PMID:18505713

  13. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  14. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-06-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997-2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status-not same-sex status-that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  15. The Genetics of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ngun, Tuck C; Ghahramani, Negar; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Bocklandt, Sven; Vilain, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Biological differences between men and women contribute to many sex-specific illnesses and disorders. Historically, it was argued that such differences were largely, if not exclusively, due to gonadal hormone secretions. However, emerging research has shown that some differences are mediated by mechanisms other than the action of these hormone secretions and in particular by products of genes located on the X and Y chromosomes, which we refer to as direct genetic effects. This paper reviews the evidence for direct genetic effects in behavioral and brain sex differences. We highlight the `four core genotypes' model and sex differences in the midbrain dopaminergic system, specifically focusing on the role of Sry. We also discuss novel research being done on unique populations including people attracted to the same sex and people with a cross-gender identity. As science continues to advance our understanding of biological sex differences, a new field is emerging that is aimed at better addressing the needs of both sexes: gender-based biology and medicine. Ultimately, the study of the biological basis for sex differences will improve healthcare for both men and women. PMID:20951723

  16. The genetics of sex differences in brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ngun, Tuck C; Ghahramani, Negar; Sánchez, Francisco J; Bocklandt, Sven; Vilain, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Biological differences between men and women contribute to many sex-specific illnesses and disorders. Historically, it was argued that such differences were largely, if not exclusively, due to gonadal hormone secretions. However, emerging research has shown that some differences are mediated by mechanisms other than the action of these hormone secretions and in particular by products of genes located on the X and Y chromosomes, which we refer to as direct genetic effects. This paper reviews the evidence for direct genetic effects in behavioral and brain sex differences. We highlight the 'four core genotypes' model and sex differences in the midbrain dopaminergic system, specifically focusing on the role of Sry. We also discuss novel research being done on unique populations including people attracted to the same sex and people with a cross-gender identity. As science continues to advance our understanding of biological sex differences, a new field is emerging that is aimed at better addressing the needs of both sexes: gender-based biology and medicine. Ultimately, the study of the biological basis for sex differences will improve healthcare for both men and women. PMID:20951723

  17. A study of the dynamics of sex differences in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Studies of gender differences using primarily young individuals show that males, on average, perform better than females in physical activities but worse than females on tests of verbal abilities. There is however a controversy about the existence of these sex differences in adulthood. Our study used 1271 participants from four cultural backgrounds (Chinese, multi-generation Canadians, Indu-Canadians, and European-Canadians) divided in five age groups. We measured sex differences in the time required for participants to complete a lexical task experiment, and also assessed their verbal tempo and physical endurance using a validated temperament test (Structure of Temperament Questionnaire). We found a significant female advantage in time on the lexical task and on the temperament scale of social-verbal tempo, and a male advantage on the temperament scale of physical endurance. These sex differences, however, were more pronounced in young age groups (17-24), fading in older groups. This "middle age-middle sex" phenomenon suggests that sex differences in these two types of abilities observed in younger groups might be "a matter of age," and should not be attributed to gender in general. A one-dimensional approach to sex differences (common in meta-analytic studies) therefore overlooks a possible interaction of sex differences with age. PMID:23442018

  18. The genetics of sex differences in brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ngun, Tuck C; Ghahramani, Negar; Sánchez, Francisco J; Bocklandt, Sven; Vilain, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Biological differences between men and women contribute to many sex-specific illnesses and disorders. Historically, it was argued that such differences were largely, if not exclusively, due to gonadal hormone secretions. However, emerging research has shown that some differences are mediated by mechanisms other than the action of these hormone secretions and in particular by products of genes located on the X and Y chromosomes, which we refer to as direct genetic effects. This paper reviews the evidence for direct genetic effects in behavioral and brain sex differences. We highlight the 'four core genotypes' model and sex differences in the midbrain dopaminergic system, specifically focusing on the role of Sry. We also discuss novel research being done on unique populations including people attracted to the same sex and people with a cross-gender identity. As science continues to advance our understanding of biological sex differences, a new field is emerging that is aimed at better addressing the needs of both sexes: gender-based biology and medicine. Ultimately, the study of the biological basis for sex differences will improve healthcare for both men and women.

  19. Estimators of the Human Effective Sex Ratio Detect Sex Biases on Different Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Leslie S.; Felsenstein, Joseph; Akey, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    Determining historical sex ratios throughout human evolution can provide insight into patterns of genomic variation, the structure and composition of ancient populations, and the cultural factors that influence the sex ratio (e.g., sex-specific migration rates). Although numerous studies have suggested that unequal sex ratios have existed in human evolutionary history, a coherent picture of sex-biased processes has yet to emerge. For example, two recent studies compared human X chromosome to autosomal variation to make inferences about historical sex ratios but reached seemingly contradictory conclusions, with one study finding evidence for a male bias and the other study identifying a female bias. Here, we show that a large part of this discrepancy can be explained by methodological differences. Specifically, through reanalysis of empirical data, derivation of explicit analytical formulae, and extensive simulations we demonstrate that two estimators of the effective sex ratio based on population structure and nucleotide diversity preferentially detect biases that have occurred on different timescales. Our results clarify apparently contradictory evidence on the role of sex-biased processes in human evolutionary history and show that extant patterns of human genomic variation are consistent with both a recent male bias and an earlier, persistent female bias. PMID:21109223

  20. Biological factors underlying sex differences in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Loke, Hannah; Harley, Vincent; Lee, Joohyung

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of many neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions differ significantly between males and females. Females suffer more from mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, whereas males are more susceptible to deficits in the dopamine system including Parkinson's disease (PD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Until recently, these sex differences have been explained solely by the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in females. Emerging evidence however indicates that the sex chromosome genes (i.e. X- and Y-linked genes) also contribute to brain sex differences. In particular, the Y-chromosome gene, SRY (Sex-determining Region on the Y chromosome) is an interesting candidate as it is expressed in dopamine-abundant brain regions, where it regulates dopamine biosynthesis and dopamine-mediated functions such as voluntary movement in males. Furthermore, SRY expression is dysregulated in a toxin-induced model of PD, suggesting a role for SRY in the pathogenesis of dopamine cells. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between sex-specific hormones and sex-specific genes in healthy and diseased brain. In particular, better understanding of regulation and function of SRY in the male brain could provide entirely novel and important insights into genetic factors involved in the susceptibility of men to neurological disorders, as well as development of novel sex-specific therapies.

  1. Biological factors underlying sex differences in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Loke, Hannah; Harley, Vincent; Lee, Joohyung

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of many neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions differ significantly between males and females. Females suffer more from mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, whereas males are more susceptible to deficits in the dopamine system including Parkinson's disease (PD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Until recently, these sex differences have been explained solely by the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in females. Emerging evidence however indicates that the sex chromosome genes (i.e. X- and Y-linked genes) also contribute to brain sex differences. In particular, the Y-chromosome gene, SRY (Sex-determining Region on the Y chromosome) is an interesting candidate as it is expressed in dopamine-abundant brain regions, where it regulates dopamine biosynthesis and dopamine-mediated functions such as voluntary movement in males. Furthermore, SRY expression is dysregulated in a toxin-induced model of PD, suggesting a role for SRY in the pathogenesis of dopamine cells. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between sex-specific hormones and sex-specific genes in healthy and diseased brain. In particular, better understanding of regulation and function of SRY in the male brain could provide entirely novel and important insights into genetic factors involved in the susceptibility of men to neurological disorders, as well as development of novel sex-specific therapies. PMID:26028290

  2. Systematic Analysis of Adverse Event Reports for Sex Differences in Adverse Drug Events.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Chen, Jun; Li, Dingcheng; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-04-22

    Increasing evidence has shown that sex differences exist in Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). Identifying those sex differences in ADEs could reduce the experience of ADEs for patients and could be conducive to the development of personalized medicine. In this study, we analyzed a normalized US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Chi-squared test was conducted to discover which treatment regimens or drugs had sex differences in adverse events. Moreover, reporting odds ratio (ROR) and P value were calculated to quantify the signals of sex differences for specific drug-event combinations. Logistic regression was applied to remove the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events. We detected among 668 drugs of the most frequent 20 treatment regimens in the United States, 307 drugs have sex differences in ADEs. In addition, we identified 736 unique drug-event combinations with significant sex differences. After removing the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events, there are 266 combinations remained. Drug labels or previous studies verified some of them while others warrant further investigation.

  3. Systematic Analysis of Adverse Event Reports for Sex Differences in Adverse Drug Events

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Chen, Jun; Li, Dingcheng; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that sex differences exist in Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). Identifying those sex differences in ADEs could reduce the experience of ADEs for patients and could be conducive to the development of personalized medicine. In this study, we analyzed a normalized US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Chi-squared test was conducted to discover which treatment regimens or drugs had sex differences in adverse events. Moreover, reporting odds ratio (ROR) and P value were calculated to quantify the signals of sex differences for specific drug-event combinations. Logistic regression was applied to remove the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events. We detected among 668 drugs of the most frequent 20 treatment regimens in the United States, 307 drugs have sex differences in ADEs. In addition, we identified 736 unique drug-event combinations with significant sex differences. After removing the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events, there are 266 combinations remained. Drug labels or previous studies verified some of them while others warrant further investigation. PMID:27102014

  4. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. PMID:24697577

  5. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. PMID:26237316

  6. Sex differences in cognitive trajectories in clinically normal older adults.

    PubMed

    McCarrey, Anna C; An, Yang; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-03-01

    Age effects on cognitive functioning are well-documented, but effects of sex on trajectories of cognitive aging are less clear. We examined cognitive ability across a variety of measures for 1,065 to 2,127 participants (mean baseline age 64.1 to 69.7 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who were repeatedly tested over a mean follow-up interval of 3.0 to 9.0 years with a mean of 2.3 to 4.4 assessments. Memory and other cognitive tests were administered at each visit, assessing mental status, verbal learning and memory, figural memory, language, attention, perceptuomotor speed and integration, executive function, and visuospatial ability. Importantly, participants free from cognitive impairment at all time points were used in the analyses. Results showed that for all tests, higher age at baseline was significantly associated with lower scores, and performance declined over time. In addition, advancing age was associated with accelerated longitudinal declines in performance (trend for mental status). After adjusting for age, education, and race, sex differences were observed across most tests of specific cognitive abilities examined. At baseline, males outperformed females on the 2 tasks of visuospatial ability, and females outperformed males in most other tests of cognition. Sex differences in cognitive change over time indicated steeper rates of decline for men on measures of mental status, perceptuomotor speed and integration, and visuospatial ability, but no measures on which women showed significantly steeper declines. Our results highlight greater resilience to age-related cognitive decline in older women compared with men. PMID:26796792

  7. Sex Differences in Wild Chimpanzee Behavior Emerge during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Markham, A. Catherine; Heintz, Matthew R.; Anderson, Karen E.; Ciuk, David J.; Goodall, Jane; Murray, Carson M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of biological and social influences on sex differences in human child development is a persistent topic of discussion and debate. Given their many similarities to humans, chimpanzees are an important study species for understanding the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. In this study, we present the most detailed analyses of wild chimpanzee infant development to date, encompassing data from 40 infants from the long-term study of chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Our goal was to characterize age-related changes, from birth to five years of age, in the percent of observation time spent performing behaviors that represent important benchmarks in nutritional, motor, and social development, and to determine whether and in which behaviors sex differences occur. Sex differences were found for indicators of social behavior, motor development and spatial independence with males being more physically precocious and peaking in play earlier than females. These results demonstrate early sex differentiation that may reflect adult reproductive strategies. Our findings also resemble those found in humans, which suggests that biologically-based sex differences may have been present in the common ancestor and operated independently from the influences of modern sex-biased parental behavior and gender socialization. PMID:24911160

  8. Sex differences in antiplatelet response in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Dawn M; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Compton, Margaret P; Gylys, Karen; Zivin, Justin A; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    Sex differences exist in the occurrence, treatment and outcome of ischemic stroke. Compared with men, women have more stroke events and are less likely to fully recover from a stroke. Given the rapidly aging population, stroke incidence and mortality among women are projected to substantially rise by 2050. This has important public health consequences. Mitigating the burden of stroke among women will require a fundamental understanding of sex differences and sex-specific issues including cerebrovascular disease pathophysiology, treatment and outcome. An aspect of stroke treatment receiving increasing but insufficient attention involves possible interactions between estrogen levels, antiplatelet drugs and stroke outcome. Emerging evidence suggests that antiplatelet therapy may provide primary stroke protection but not primary myocardial infarction prevention in women, while the opposite may be true among men. Understanding sex-specific issues related to women who experience stroke is critical to clinicians who treat women with antiplatelet medications as part of a secondary stroke prevention regimen; however, the ideal antiplatelet medication, and dose, in women requires further research. In this article we present a conceptual framework for sex differences in antiplatelet treatment response in ischemic stroke, thrombus formation and the mediating role of estrogen, sex differences in antiplatelet treatment response in clinical trials, and sex differences in antiplatelet treatment use in ischemic stroke.

  9. Sex differences in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Carter, Alice S; Black, David O; Tewani, Sonia; Connolly, Christine E; Kadlec, Mary Beth; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females, few studies address sex differences in developmental functioning or clinical manifestations. Participants in this study of sex differences in developmental profiles and clinical symptoms were 22 girls and 68 boys with ASD (mean age = 28 months). All children achieved strongest performance in visual reception and fine motor followed by gross motor and language functioning. Sex differences emerged in developmental profiles. Controlling for language, girls achieved higher visual reception scores than boys; boys attained higher language and motor scores and higher social-competence ratings than girls, particularly when controlling for visual reception. Longitudinal, representative studies are needed to elucidate the developmental and etiological significance of the observed sex differences.

  10. Assessing Mathematics 5. Attitudes and Sex Differences: Some APU Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joffe, Lynn; Foxman, Derek

    1984-01-01

    From the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) in Britain, illustrative comments of 11- and 15-year-olds concerning mathematics are presented. Sex differences in attitudes and in test performance are also given. (MNS)

  11. Understanding sex differences in environmental health: a thought leaders' roundtable.

    PubMed

    Keitt, Sarah K; Fagan, Thomas F; Marts, Sherry A

    2004-04-01

    Under the auspices of the Society for Women's Health Research, a thought leaders' roundtable was convened at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in October 2002 to discuss recent advances in environmental health research, particularly those findings that explain sex differences in response to environmental exposures. Researchers discussed the latest findings on the interaction between sex and environmental exposures on health. Participants concluded that a greater focus on interdisciplinary, hypothesis-driven research is essential to advancing the field. To understand fully the potential effect of chronic exposures, researchers need to develop models to explore not only physiologic sex differences but also behavioral responses to low-dose and multiple chemical exposures. Future research should examine sex differences from the cell line to behaviors and should track these differences across multiple generations. Federal agencies should support such research in their awards of investigator-initiated grants.

  12. Understanding sex differences in environmental health: a thought leaders' roundtable.

    PubMed Central

    Keitt, Sarah K; Fagan, Thomas F; Marts, Sherry A

    2004-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Society for Women's Health Research, a thought leaders' roundtable was convened at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in October 2002 to discuss recent advances in environmental health research, particularly those findings that explain sex differences in response to environmental exposures. Researchers discussed the latest findings on the interaction between sex and environmental exposures on health. Participants concluded that a greater focus on interdisciplinary, hypothesis-driven research is essential to advancing the field. To understand fully the potential effect of chronic exposures, researchers need to develop models to explore not only physiologic sex differences but also behavioral responses to low-dose and multiple chemical exposures. Future research should examine sex differences from the cell line to behaviors and should track these differences across multiple generations. Federal agencies should support such research in their awards of investigator-initiated grants. PMID:15064168

  13. The Devil's Advocate: Sex Differences in Mathematical Reasoning Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Drs. Camilla Parson Benbow and Julian C. Stanley of the Johns Hopkins University Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth discuss the question of whether there are sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability. (DB)

  14. Sex differences in substrate metabolism and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cortright, R N; Koves, T R

    2000-08-01

    Females differ remarkably from males in the mechanisms that regulate substrate utilization and energy homeostasis. Females appear to be less affected in terms of growth and loss of body tissues when subjected to chronic periods of negative energy balance. The physiological trade-off appears to be a stronger propensity toward retention of fat mass during times of energy surfeit. The mechanism(s) that account for sex differences in energy metabolism are not known but most likely involve the sex steroids. Recent discoveries in the areas of endocrinology and metabolism may provide new insights into differences in the control of food intake and energy conservation between the sexes. Finally, the study of the mechanism(s) involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism represents a new frontier in skeletal muscle bioenergetics, and new discoveries may provide further explanations for the observed sex differences in substrate utilization and response(s) to alterations in energy homeostasis. PMID:10953067

  15. Discourses on sex differences in medieval scholarly Islamic thought.

    PubMed

    Gadelrab, Sherry Sayed

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how medical authorities in medieval Islamic society understood and analyzed Greek authorities on the differences between men and women and their mutual contributions to the process of reproduction. As this research illustrates, such thinkers' interpretations of sex differences did not form a consistent corpus, and were in fact complex and divergent, reflecting, and contributing to, the social and cultural constructs of gender taken up by European authors in the Middle Ages. While some scholars have argued for a "one sex" view of human beings in the medieval period, a close reading of Islamic medical authors shows that the plurality and complexity of ideas about sex differences and the acceptance of the flexibility of barriers between the sexes make it difficult to assume that the biological knowledge about sex differences formed a unitary ideological foundation for a system of gender hierarchy. It is clear, however, that whatever their differences, medieval Islamic discussions of sex differences implicitly or explicitly emphasized the inferiority of the female body.

  16. The development of brain sex differences: a multisignaling process.

    PubMed

    Segovia, S; Guillamón, A; del Cerro, M C; Ortega, E; Pérez-Laso, C; Rodriguez-Zafra, M; Beyer, C

    1999-11-01

    In order to account for the development of sex differences in the brain, we took, as an integrative model, the vomeronasal pathway, which is involved in the control of reproductive physiology and behavior. The fact that brain sex differences take place in complex neural networks will help to develop a motivational theory of sex differences in reproductive behaviors. We also address the classic genomic actions in which three agents (the hormone, the intracellular receptor, and the transcription function) play an important role in brain differentiation, but we also point out refinements that such a theory requires if we want to account of the existence of two morphological patterns of sex differences in the brain, one in which males show greater morphological measures (neuron numbers and/or volume) than females and the opposite. Moreover, we also consider very important processes closely related to neuronal afferent input and membrane excitability for the developing of sex differences. Neurotransmission associated to metabotropic and ionotropic receptors, neurotrophic factors, neuroactive steroids that alter membrane excitability, cross-talk (and/or by-pass) phenomena, and second messenger pathways appear to be involved in the development of brain sex differences. The sexual differentiation of the brain and reproductive behavior is regarded as a cellular multisignaling process.

  17. Sex Differences in Cognition in Healthy Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Cynthia A.; Winicki, Jessica M.; Schretlen, David J.; Gower, Emily W.; Turano, Kathleen A.; Muñoz, Beatriz; Keay, Lisa; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance have been attributed to factors, such as sex hormones or sexual dimorphisms in brain structure, that change with normal aging. The current study examined sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance in healthy elderly individuals. Cognitive test scores of 957 men and women (age 67–89), matched for overall level of cognitive test performance, age, education, and depression scale score, were compared. Men and women were indistinguishable on tests of auditory divided attention, category fluency, and executive functioning. In contrast, women performed better than men on tests of psychomotor speed and verbal learning and memory, whereas men outperformed women on tests of visuoconstruction and visual perception. Our finding that the pattern of sex differences in cognition observed in young adults is observed in old age has implications for future studies of both healthy elderly individuals and of those with cognitive disorders. PMID:22670852

  18. Homage to Bateman: sex roles predict sex differences in sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Karoline; Arnqvis, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Classic sex role theory predicts that sexual selection should be stronger in males in taxa showing conventional sex roles and stronger in females in role reversed mating systems. To test this very central prediction and to assess the utility of different measures of sexual selection, we estimated sexual selection in both sexes in four seed beetle species with divergent sex roles using a novel experimental design. We found that sexual selection was sizeable in females and the strength of sexual selection was similar in females and males in role-reversed species. Sexual selection was overall significantly stronger in males than in females and residual selection formed a substantial component of net selection in both sexes. Furthermore, sexual selection in females was stronger in role-reversed species compared to species with conventional sex roles. Variance-based measures of sexual selection (the Bateman gradient and selection opportunities) were better predictors of sexual dimorphism in reproductive behavior and morphology across species compared to trait-based measures (selection differentials). Our results highlight the importance of using assays that incorporate components of fitness manifested after mating. We suggest that the Bateman gradient is generally the most informative measure of the strength of sexual selection in comparisons across sexes and/or species.

  19. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving

    2013-02-17

    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise.

  20. Drivers of protogynous sex change differ across spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brett M.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of social demography on sex change schedules in protogynous reef fishes is well established, yet effects across spatial scales (in particular, the magnitude of natural variation relative to size-selective fishing effects) are poorly understood. Here, I examine variation in timing of sex change for exploited parrotfishes across a range of environmental, anthropogenic and geographical factors. Results were highly dependent on spatial scale. Fishing pressure was the most influential factor determining length at sex change at the within-island scale where a wide range of anthropogenic pressure existed. Sex transition occurred at smaller sizes where fishing pressure was high. Among islands, however, differences were overwhelmingly predicted by reefal-scale structural features, a pattern evident for all species examined. For the most abundant species, Chlorurus spilurus, length at sex change increased at higher overall densities and greater female-to-male sex ratios at all islands except where targeted by fishermen; here the trend was reversed. This implies differing selective pressures on adult individuals can significantly alter sex change dynamics, highlighting the importance of social structure, demography and the selective forces structuring populations. Considerable life-history responses to exploitation were observed, but results suggest potential fishing effects on demography may be obscured by natural variation at biogeographic scales. PMID:24307668

  1. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving

    2013-02-17

    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise. PMID:23333554

  2. Sex Differences in Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rena; Singh, Meharvan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer’s disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as well as in activational effects, where the influence of the sex steroids influence brain function in adulthood. Further, the rate of cognitive decline with aging is also different between the sexes. Understanding the biology of sex differences in cognitive function will not only provide insight into Alzheimer’s disease prevention, but also is integral to the development of personalized, gender-specific medicine. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of sex differences in cognitive function from young to old, and examines the effects of sex hormone treatments on Alzheimer’s disease in men and women. PMID:24434111

  3. Sex differences in steroidogenesis in skeletal muscle following a single bout of exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Katsuji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Otsuki, Takeshi; Maeda, Seiji; Miyauchi, Takashi; Mesaki, Noboru

    2008-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol, play important roles in developing both strength and mass of skeletal muscle. Recently, we demonstrated that skeletal muscle can synthesize sex steroid hormones. Whether there are sex differences in basal steroidogenesis or acute exercise-induced alterations of steroidogenesis in the skeletal muscle is unknown. We examined sex differences in the levels of testosterone, estradiol, and steroidogenesis-related enzymes, such as 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 3beta-HSD, and aromatase cytochrome P-450 (P450arom), in the skeletal muscle at rest and after exercise. We studied the gastrocnemius muscles of resting rats (10 wk old) and exercised rats (10 wk old, treadmill running, 30 m/min, 30 min). Basal muscular testosterone levels were higher in males than females, whereas estradiol did not differ between sexes. Additionally, 17beta-HSD, 3beta-HSD, and P450arom transcript and protein expression were greater in females. After acute exercise, testosterone levels and 17beta-HSD expression increased in muscle in both sexes. By comparison, muscular estradiol levels increased in males following exercise but were unchanged in females. Expression of P450arom, which regulates estrogen synthesis, increased after acute exercise in males but decreased after exercise in females. Thus a single bout of exercise can influence the steroidogenic system in skeletal muscle, and these alterations differ between sexes. The acute exercise-induced alteration of steroidogenic enzymes may enhance the local steroidogenesis in the skeletal muscle in both sexes.

  4. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  5. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity are influenced by gonadal hormones, not by sex chromosome complement.

    PubMed

    Manwani, Bharti; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Benashski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Xu, Yan; Arnold, Arthur P; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown sex differences in ischemic stroke. The four core genotype (FCG) mouse model, in which the testes determining gene, Sry, has been moved from Y chromosome to an autosome, was used to dissociate the effects of sex hormones from sex chromosome in ischemic stroke outcome. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in gonad intact FCG mice revealed that gonadal males (XXM and XYM) had significantly higher infarct volumes as compared with gonadal females (XXF and XYF). Serum testosterone levels were equivalent in adult XXM and XYM, as was serum estrogen in XXF and XYF mice. To remove the effects of gonadal hormones, gonadectomized FCG mice were subjected to MCAO. Gonadectomy significantly increased infarct volumes in females, while no change was seen in gonadectomized males, indicating that estrogen loss increases ischemic sensitivity. Estradiol supplementation in gonadectomized FCG mice rescued this phenotype. Interestingly, FCG male mice were less sensitive to effects of hormones. This may be due to enhanced expression of the transgene Sry in brains of FCG male mice. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity appear to be shaped by organizational and activational effects of sex hormones, rather than sex chromosomal complement.

  6. Sex-Specific Differences in Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Varlamov, Oleg; Bethea, Cynthia L.; Roberts, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Energy metabolism in humans is tuned to distinct sex-specific functions that potentially reflect the unique requirements in females for gestation and lactation, whereas male metabolism may represent a default state. These differences are the consequence of the action of sex chromosomes and sex-specific hormones, including estrogens and progesterone in females and androgens in males. In humans, sex-specific specialization is associated with distinct body-fat distribution and energy substrate-utilization patterns; i.e., females store more lipids and have higher whole-body insulin sensitivity than males, while males tend to oxidize more lipids than females. These patterns are influenced by the menstrual phase in females, and by nutritional status and exercise intensity in both sexes. This minireview focuses on sex-specific mechanisms in lipid and glucose metabolism and their regulation by sex hormones, with a primary emphasis on studies in humans and the most relevant pre-clinical model of human physiology, non-human primates. PMID:25646091

  7. Sex differences in young gymnasts' postural steadiness.

    PubMed

    Milosis, Dimitrios C; Siatras, Theophanis A

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the differences between male and female gymnasts in bipedal standing position, back standing scale, and stork standing scale testing. 29 young gymnasts (13 boys, 16 girls; ages 12 to 15 years) participated. A portable posturographic digital platform was used to record foot pressure (Foot Checker, Comex SA). Barefoot sole area (cm2), maximal pressure (kPa), center of foot pressure (CoP), sway area (mm2), and CoP linear distance displacement (mm) were analyzed in an integrated software module (Foot Checker, Version 4.0). The intra-class correlation coefficient and the coefficient of variation supported the reliability of the measurements. Results indicated no differences between boys and girls on height, weight, and Body Mass Index. Differences indicated better performance by girls compared to boys in back standing and stork standing.

  8. Multifaceted origins of sex differences in the brain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Studies of sex differences in the brain range from reductionistic cell and molecular analyses in animal models to functional imaging in awake human subjects, with many other levels in between. Interpretations and conclusions about the importance of particular differences often vary with differing levels of analyses and can lead to discord and dissent. In the past two decades, the range of neurobiological, psychological and psychiatric endpoints found to differ between males and females has expanded beyond reproduction into every aspect of the healthy and diseased brain, and thereby demands our attention. A greater understanding of all aspects of neural functioning will only be achieved by incorporating sex as a biological variable. The goal of this review is to highlight the current state of the art of the discipline of sex differences research with an emphasis on the brain and to contextualize the articles appearing in the accompanying special issue. PMID:26833829

  9. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24697577

  10. EMERGENT PATTERNS OF SEX DIFFERENCE IN A STUDY OF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MINUCHIN, PATRICIA

    RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS INTO ACQUIRED VS. INHERENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS WERE PRESENTED. FINDING REVEALED THAT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS WERE AFFECTED BY THE ATTITUDES OF THEIR SCHOOLS TOWARD THEM AND TOWARD EDUCATION IN GENERAL. SEX DIFFERENCES IN BASIC INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY, ACHIEVEMENT, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITY…

  11. Sex Differences and Neurodevelopmental Variables: A Vector Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Languis, Marlin; Naour, Paul

    For the individual, gender difference falls along the feminine-masculine continuum with strong neurodevelopmental influences at various points throughout the lifespan. Neurodevelopmental influences are conceptualized in a vector model of sex difference. Vector attributes, direction and magnitude, are influenced initially by differences in levels…

  12. Sex Differences in Animal Models: Focus on Addiction.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jill B; Koob, George F

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss ways to think about and study sex differences in preclinical animal models. We use the framework of addiction, in which animal models have excellent face and construct validity, to illustrate the importance of considering sex differences. There are four types of sex differences: qualitative, quantitative, population, and mechanistic. A better understanding of the ways males and females can differ will help scientists design experiments to characterize better the presence or absence of sex differences in new phenomena that they are investigating. We have outlined major quantitative, population, and mechanistic sex differences in the addiction domain using a heuristic framework of the three established stages of the addiction cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Female rats, in general, acquire the self-administration of drugs and alcohol more rapidly, escalate their drug taking with extended access more rapidly, show more motivational withdrawal, and (where tested in animal models of "craving") show greater reinstatement. The one exception is that female rats show less motivational withdrawal to alcohol. The bases for these quantitative sex differences appear to be both organizational, in that estradiol-treated neonatal animals show the male phenotype, and activational, in that the female phenotype depends on the effects of gonadal hormones. In animals, differences within the estrous cycle can be observed but are relatively minor. Such hormonal effects seem to be most prevalent during the acquisition of drug taking and less influential once compulsive drug taking is established and are linked largely to progesterone and estradiol. This review emphasizes not only significant differences in the phenotypes of females and males in the domain of addiction but emphasizes the paucity of data to date in our understanding of those differences.

  13. Sex Differences in Animal Models: Focus on Addiction.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jill B; Koob, George F

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss ways to think about and study sex differences in preclinical animal models. We use the framework of addiction, in which animal models have excellent face and construct validity, to illustrate the importance of considering sex differences. There are four types of sex differences: qualitative, quantitative, population, and mechanistic. A better understanding of the ways males and females can differ will help scientists design experiments to characterize better the presence or absence of sex differences in new phenomena that they are investigating. We have outlined major quantitative, population, and mechanistic sex differences in the addiction domain using a heuristic framework of the three established stages of the addiction cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Female rats, in general, acquire the self-administration of drugs and alcohol more rapidly, escalate their drug taking with extended access more rapidly, show more motivational withdrawal, and (where tested in animal models of "craving") show greater reinstatement. The one exception is that female rats show less motivational withdrawal to alcohol. The bases for these quantitative sex differences appear to be both organizational, in that estradiol-treated neonatal animals show the male phenotype, and activational, in that the female phenotype depends on the effects of gonadal hormones. In animals, differences within the estrous cycle can be observed but are relatively minor. Such hormonal effects seem to be most prevalent during the acquisition of drug taking and less influential once compulsive drug taking is established and are linked largely to progesterone and estradiol. This review emphasizes not only significant differences in the phenotypes of females and males in the domain of addiction but emphasizes the paucity of data to date in our understanding of those differences. PMID:26772794

  14. Gender vs. Sex: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, John D.

    2012-01-01

    As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…

  15. Sex differences in the pulmonary circulation: implications for pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Yvette N.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a form of pulmonary hypertension, is a complex disease of multifactorial origin. While new developments regarding pathophysiological features and therapeutic options in PAH are being reported, one important fact has emerged over the years: there is a sex difference in the incidence of this disease such that while there is a higher incidence in females, disease outcomes are much worse in males. Accordingly, recent attention has been focused on understanding the features of sex differences in the pulmonary circulation and the contributory mechanisms, particularly sex hormones and their role in the pathological and pathophysiological features of PAH. However, to date, there is no clear consensus whether sex hormones (particularly female sex steroids) are beneficial or detrimental in PAH. In this review, we highlight some of the most recent evidence regarding the influence of sex hormones (estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) and estrogen metabolites on key pathophysiological features of PAH such as proliferation, vascular remodeling, vasodilation/constriction, and inflammation, thus setting the stage for research avenues to identify novel therapeutic target for PAH as well as potentially other forms of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24610923

  16. Sex differences in cardiac autonomic regulation and in repolarisation electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Peter; Malik, Marek

    2013-05-01

    The review summarises the present knowledge on the sex differences in cardiac autonomic regulations and in related aspects of electrocardiography with particular attention to myocardial repolarisation. Although some of the sex differences are far from fully established, multitude of observations show consistent differences between women and men. Despite more pronounced parasympathetic cardiac regulation, women have higher resting heart rate and lower baroreflex sensitivity. Of the electrocardiographic phenomena, women have longer QT interval duration, repolarisation sequence more synchronised with the inverse of the depolarisation sequence, and likely increased regional heterogeneity of myocardial repolarisation. Studies investigating the relationship of these sex disparities to hormonal differences led frequently to conflicting results. Although sex hormones seem to play a key role by influencing both autonomic tone and electrophysiological properties at the cellular level, neither the truly relevant hormones nor their detailed actions are known. Physiologic usefulness of the described sex differences is also unknown. The review suggests that new studies are needed to advance the understanding of the physiologic mechanisms responsible for these inequalities between women and men and provides key methodological suggestions that need to be followed in future research.

  17. [Sex and gender: Two different scientific domains to be clarified].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy.

  18. Sex and Age Differences in the Endorsement of Sex Stereotypes Associated with Driving.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Martha, Cécile; Cury, François; Granié, Marie-Axelle

    2015-01-01

    Sex and age differences are particularly pronounced in car accidents. Current psychological research is exploring the relationship between risky driving and compliance with sex stereotypes, notably conformity with social expectations concerning masculinity. Some studies have already shown that sex stereotypes associated with driving (SSAD) may influence driving behaviors. The aim of this research was to explore the participants' sex and age differences in SSAD endorsement. A questionnaire was developed and validated on four dimensions of SSAD: male's driving skills and female's compliance with traffic rules, courtesy behind the wheel, and risk avoidance in driving. SSAD endorsement was measured for 291 licensed drivers from 18 to 64 years of age. Results revealed that females endorsed the female's risk avoidance stereotype more (p < .05), whereas males endorsed the male drivers (driving skills) stereotype more (p < .05). Results also revealed that the endorsement of male's driving skills decreases with age (p < .01) and the endorsement of female's courtesy increases with age among all participants (p = .01), while the endorsement of female's compliance with traffic rules increases with age only among female participants (p < .05). The results are discussed in terms of in-group/out-group relations and sex and age differences. PMID:26695552

  19. Sex differences in cardiovascular and subjective stress reactions: prospective evidence in a realistic military setting.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Larson, Gerald E; Hiller Lauby, Melissa D; Padilla, Genieleah A; Wilson, Ingrid E; Schmied, Emily A; Highfill-McRoy, Robyn M; Morgan, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Evidence points to heightened physiological arousal in response to acute stress exposure as both a prospective indicator and a core characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because females may be at higher risk for PTSD development, it is important to evaluate sex differences in acute stress reactions. This study characterized sex differences in cardiovascular and subjective stress reactions among military survival trainees. One hundred and eighty-five military members (78% males) were studied before, during, and 24 h after stressful mock captivity. Cardiovascular (heart rate [HR], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) and dissociative states were measured at all three time points. Psychological impact of mock captivity was assessed during recovery. General linear modeling with repeated measures evaluated sex differences for each cardiovascular endpoint, and causal steps modeling was used to explore interrelationships among sex, cardiovascular reactions and psychological impact of mock captivity. Although females had lower SBP than males at all three time points, the difference was most pronounced at baseline and during stress. Accordingly, females showed greater residual elevation in SBP during recovery. Females had lower DBP at all three time points. In addition, females reported greater psychological impact of mock captivity than males. Exploratory causal steps modeling suggested that stress-induced HR may partially mediate the effect of sex on psychological impact of mock captivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated sex-specific cardiovascular stress reactions in military personnel, along with greater psychological impact of stress exposure in females. This research may elucidate sex differences in PTSD development.

  20. Somatic sex-specific transcriptome differences in Drosophila revealed by whole transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding animal development and physiology at a molecular-biological level has been advanced by the ability to determine at high resolution the repertoire of mRNA molecules by whole transcriptome resequencing. This includes the ability to detect and quantify rare abundance transcripts and isoform-specific mRNA variants produced from a gene. The sex hierarchy consists of a pre-mRNA splicing cascade that directs the production of sex-specific transcription factors that specify nearly all sexual dimorphism. We have used deep RNA sequencing to gain insight into how the Drosophila sex hierarchy generates somatic sex differences, by examining gene and transcript isoform expression differences between the sexes in adult head tissues. Results Here we find 1,381 genes that differ in overall expression levels and 1,370 isoform-specific transcripts that differ between males and females. Additionally, we find 512 genes not regulated downstream of transformer that are significantly more highly expressed in males than females. These 512 genes are enriched on the × chromosome and reside adjacent to dosage compensation complex entry sites, which taken together suggests that their residence on the × chromosome might be sufficient to confer male-biased expression. There are no transcription unit structural features, from a set of features, that are robustly significantly different in the genes with significant sex differences in the ratio of isoform-specific transcripts, as compared to random isoform-specific transcripts, suggesting that there is no single molecular mechanism that generates isoform-specific transcript differences between the sexes, even though the sex hierarchy is known to include three pre-mRNA splicing factors. Conclusions We identify thousands of genes that show sex-specific differences in overall gene expression levels, and identify hundreds of additional genes that have differences in the abundance of isoform-specific transcripts. No

  1. The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Diane F; Benbow, Camilla P; Geary, David C; Gur, Ruben C; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2007-08-01

    Amid ongoing public speculation about the reasons for sex differences in careers in science and mathematics, we present a consensus statement that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Sex differences in science and math achievement and ability are smaller for the mid-range of the abilities distribution than they are for those with the highest levels of achievement and ability. Males are more variable on most measures of quantitative and visuospatial ability, which necessarily results in more males at both high- and low-ability extremes; the reasons why males are often more variable remain elusive. Successful careers in math and science require many types of cognitive abilities. Females tend to excel in verbal abilities, with large differences between females and males found when assessments include writing samples. High-level achievement in science and math requires the ability to communicate effectively and comprehend abstract ideas, so the female advantage in writing should be helpful in all academic domains. Males outperform females on most measures of visuospatial abilities, which have been implicated as contributing to sex differences on standardized exams in mathematics and science. An evolutionary account of sex differences in mathematics and science supports the conclusion that, although sex differences in math and science performance have not directly evolved, they could be indirectly related to differences in interests and specific brain and cognitive systems. We review the brain basis for sex differences in science and mathematics, describe consistent effects, and identify numerous possible correlates. Experience alters brain structures and functioning, so causal statements about brain differences and success in math and science are circular. A wide range of sociocultural forces contribute to sex differences in mathematics and science achievement and ability-including the effects of family, neighborhood, peer, and school influences

  2. The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Diane F.; Benbow, Camilla P.; Geary, David C.; Gur, Ruben C.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Summary Amid ongoing public speculation about the reasons for sex differences in careers in science and mathematics, we present a consensus statement that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Sex differences in science and math achievement and ability are smaller for the mid-range of the abilities distribution than they are for those with the highest levels of achievement and ability. Males are more variable on most measures of quantitative and visuospatial ability, which necessarily results in more males at both high- and low-ability extremes; the reasons why males are often more variable remain elusive. Successful careers in math and science require many types of cognitive abilities. Females tend to excel in verbal abilities, with large differences between females and males found when assessments include writing samples. High-level achievement in science and math requires the ability to communicate effectively and comprehend abstract ideas, so the female advantage in writing should be helpful in all academic domains. Males outperform females on most measures of visuospatial abilities, which have been implicated as contributing to sex differences on standardized exams in mathematics and science. An evolutionary account of sex differences in mathematics and science supports the conclusion that, although sex differences in math and science performance have not directly evolved, they could be indirectly related to differences in interests and specific brain and cognitive systems. We review the brain basis for sex differences in science and mathematics, describe consistent effects, and identify numerous possible correlates. Experience alters brain structures and functioning, so causal statements about brain differences and success in math and science are circular. A wide range of sociocultural forces contribute to sex differences in mathematics and science achievement and ability—including the effects of family, neighborhood, peer, and school

  3. Linked Sex Differences in Cognition and Functional Connectivity in Youth.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Wolf, Daniel H; Roalf, David R; Ruparel, Kosha; Erus, Guray; Vandekar, Simon; Gennatas, Efstathios D; Elliott, Mark A; Smith, Alex; Hakonarson, Hakon; Verma, Ragini; Davatzikos, Christos; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-09-01

    Sex differences in human cognition are marked, but little is known regarding their neural origins. Here, in a sample of 674 human participants ages 9-22, we demonstrate that sex differences in cognitive profiles are related to multivariate patterns of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rsfc-MRI). Males outperformed females on motor and spatial cognitive tasks; females were faster in tasks of emotion identification and nonverbal reasoning. Sex differences were also prominent in the rsfc-MRI data at multiple scales of analysis, with males displaying more between-module connectivity, while females demonstrated more within-module connectivity. Multivariate pattern analysis using support vector machines classified subject sex on the basis of their cognitive profile with 63% accuracy (P < 0.001), but was more accurate using functional connectivity data (71% accuracy; P < 0.001). Moreover, the degree to which a given participant's cognitive profile was "male" or "female" was significantly related to the masculinity or femininity of their pattern of brain connectivity (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)). This relationship was present even when considering males and female separately. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that sex differences in patterns of cognition are in part represented on a neural level through divergent patterns of brain connectivity.

  4. Sex differences in aggression: a rejoinder and reprise.

    PubMed

    Maccoby, E E; Jacklin, C N

    1980-12-01

    A meta analysis of observational studies of peer-directed aggression by children aged 6 and younger yields a highly significant sex difference. Out of 32 studies, z values reflected higher male aggression in 24, no difference in 8, higher female aggression in none. Furthermore, boys' aggression is most often displayed in the presence of male partners. Evidence is presented that the sex difference is probably not merely an artifact of higher rates of male activity or social interaction. Existing cross-cultural evidence also shows higher rates of male aggression, as does most of the work on free-living primates. Specifically, the 3 observational studies of chimpanzees show considerably more aggression in males. Evidence for a hormonal contribution to male aggression is clear in animals and inconclusive in human beings, although the existing human findings are consistent with such a contribution. Recent evidence on the differential socialization of boys and girls supports our earlier view: that boys do not receive more reinforcement for aggression than girls, and that rates of punishment are also similar once the differential base rates in aggression are taken into account. The role of self-socialization (including choice of same-sex models) is discussed, and the view is expressed that this probably depends upon the development of certain cognitions about sex identity which normally do not develop until a later age than the age at which a consistent sex difference in aggression first appears.

  5. Differences in Gay Male Couples' Use of Drugs and Alcohol With Sex by Relationship HIV Status.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2016-07-01

    Prior studies with men who have sex with men have documented a strong association between substance use with sex and risk for acquisition of HIV. However, few studies have been conducted about gay male couples' use of substances with sex, despite the fact that between one third and two thirds of men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their relationship partners. The present study sought to (1) describe whether one or both partners in the male couple uses substances with sex-by substance type-within and/or outside of their relationship, and (2) assess whether differences exist in those who use substances with sex within and outside the relationship by the couples' HIV status. Dyadic data for this analysis were collected in the United States from a nation-wide cross-sectional Internet study about male couples' relationships and behaviors. Couple-level descriptive and comparative analyses were employed with 361 male couples. Except for alcohol, most couples did not use substances with sex. Of those who did, rates of who used it with sex and substance type within the relationship varied; most couples only had one partner who used substances with sex outside the relationship. Significantly higher proportions of concordantly HIV-negative and HIV-positive couples had both partners who used substances (all types) with sex within their relationship over discordant couples. Most couples had one partner who used outside the relationship; only marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication use with sex significantly differed by couples' HIV status. Findings indicate the need to conduct additional research for prevention development.

  6. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  7. Measuring sex differences in violence victimization and perpetration within date and same-sex peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Simon, Thomas R; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all public school students enrolled in grades 7, 9, 11 and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk school district. Analyses of adolescents who dated in the past year (n = 2,888) show that girls are significantly more likely than boys to report physical violence and psychological aggression perpetration within dating relationships. However, boys are significantly more likely than girls to report physically injuring a date. Boys are also significantly more likely than girls to report physical violence victimization and perpetration within same-sex peer relationships. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Relevant Sex Appeals in Advertising: Gender and Commitment Context Differences

    PubMed Central

    Lanseng, Even J.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates differences in men's and women's attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality. Commitment thoughts were manipulated by two types of prime, a parenting prime (study1) and a romantic prime (study 2). Results are explained by differences in how men and women react to sexual material and by differences in men's and women's evolved mating preferences. PMID:27746749

  9. Genetic regulation of sex differences in songbirds and lizards.

    PubMed

    Wade, Juli

    2016-02-19

    Sex differences in the morphology of neural and peripheral structures related to reproduction often parallel the frequency of particular behaviours displayed by males and females. In a variety of model organisms, these sex differences are organized in development by gonadal steroids, which also act in adulthood to modulate behavioural expression and in some cases to generate parallel anatomical changes on a seasonal basis. Data collected from diverse species, however, suggest that changes in hormone availability are not sufficient to explain sex and seasonal differences in structure and function. This paper pulls together some of this literature from songbirds and lizards and considers the information in the broader context of taking a comparative approach to investigating genetic mechanisms associated with behavioural neuroendocrinology.

  10. Understanding misunderstanding: a study of sex differences in meaning attribution.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Ira

    2013-11-01

    There are biologically based sex differences in verbal abilities and in neuropsychological systems of verbal processing. Measurement of observable behaviour, however, does not say much about sex differences in the internal, semantic processing of verbal material. The present study, which was conducted in Canada, China and Russia, investigated sex differences in connotative meaning attribution to the most common concepts using an object scale symmetry in the choice of the nouns and bipolar adjectives (projective semantic method). The results showed that males had a tendency to estimate reality- and work-related concepts more negatively and social- and physical attractors more positively than women. The paper hypothesizes that at the level of the most fundamental semantic processing men favour more exceptional objects than women, and women favour more predictable objects, including rules and routines. PMID:23179581

  11. Sex differences in the parental behavior of rodents.

    PubMed

    Lonstein, J S; De Vries, G J

    2000-08-01

    The reproductive strategy of many mammalian species that give birth to altricial young involves intense and prolonged care of their offspring. In most cases, the mother provides all nurturance, but in some cases fathers, older siblings, or unrelated conspecifics participate in parental care. The display of these behaviors by animals other than mothers is affected by numerous factors, including their sex. We herein review the literature on similarities and/or differences between male and female laboratory rodents (rats, mice, voles, gerbils, and hamsters) in their parental responsiveness and discuss how the parental behavior of males and females is influenced by hormones, developmental processes, and prior social experiences. Understanding the mechanisms that generate sex differences in the parental responsiveness of rodents may indicate how similar sex differences in parental care are generated in other mammals. PMID:10940441

  12. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Children's Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, Janet A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne F.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Dunkel, Stephanie B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined ethnic and sex differences in children's depressive symptoms, along with hypothesized mediators of those differences (academic achievement, peer acceptance), in a follow-up of African American (n = 179) and Euro-American (n= 462) children in Grades 3 to 5. African American boys reported more depressive symptoms than African…

  13. The Development of Sex Differences in Aggression: A Revised Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet S.; Schuck, John R.

    In response to Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) conclusion that sex differences in aggression must be biological in origin, we suggest alternative social-learning mechanisms to explain the differences. These mechanisms include: (1) punishment for aggression increases aggression in boys, particularly because boys do not identify with the punisher; (2)…

  14. Sex Differences in Faculty Salaries: A Cohort Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura Walter

    This study examined sex differences in faculty salaries, exploring how lower salaries for women varied across different rank/experience cohorts. Data came from the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. Six cohorts were defined: assistant professors with 1-2 years experience, 3-6 years experience, 7-12 years experience, or 13-20 years…

  15. Sex and Gender Differences in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Gwang Ha

    2016-01-01

    It is important to understand sex and gender-related differences in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) because gender-related biologic factors might lead to better prevention and therapy. Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) affects more women than men. GERD symptoms are more frequent in patients with NERD than in those with reflux esophagitis. However, men suffer pathologic diseases such as reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) more frequently than women. The prevalence of reflux esophagitis is significantly increased with age in women, especially after their 50s. The mean age of EAC incidence in women is higher than in men, suggesting a role of estrogen in delaying the onset of BE and EAC. In a chronic rat reflux esophagitis model, nitric oxide was found to be an aggravating factor of esophageal injury in a male-predominant way. In addition, the expression of esophageal occludin, a tight junction protein that plays an important role in the esophageal defense mechanism, was up-regulated in women. This explains the male predominance of reflux esophagitis and delayed incidence of BE or EAC in women. Moreover, the symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, and extra-esophageal symptoms have been more frequently reported by women than by men, suggesting that sex and gender play a role in symptom perception. Differential sensitivity with augmented symptoms in women might have diagnostic and therapeutic influence. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that hormone replacement therapy has a protective effect against esophageal cancer. However, an anti-inflammatory role of estrogen remains compelling, which means further study is necessary in this area. PMID:27703114

  16. Sex differences in opioid antinociception: kappa and 'mixed action' agonists.

    PubMed

    Craft, R M; Bernal, S A

    2001-08-01

    A number of investigators have shown that male animals are more sensitive than females to the antinociceptive effects of mu-opioid agonists. The present study was conducted to examine sex differences in opioid antinociception in the rat using agonists known to differ in selectivity for and efficacy at kappa- versus mu-receptors. Dose- and time-effect curves were obtained for s.c. U69593, U50488, ethylketazocine, (-)-bremazocine, (-)-pentazocine, butorphanol and nalbuphine on the 50 or 54 degrees C hotplate and warm water tail withdrawal assays; spontaneous locomotor activity was measured 32-52 min post-injection in the same rats. On the hotplate assay, only butorphanol (54 degrees C) and nalbuphine (50 degrees C) were significantly more potent in males than females. On the tail withdrawal assay, all agonists were significantly more potent or efficacious in males than females at one or both temperatures. In contrast, no agonist was consistently more potent in one sex or the other in decreasing locomotor activity. Estrous stage in female rats only slightly influenced opioid effects, accounting for an average of 2.6% of the variance in females' antinociceptive and locomotor responses to drug (50 degrees C experiment). These results suggest that (1) sex differences in antinociceptive effects of opioids are not mu-receptor-dependent, as they may occur with opioids known to have significant kappa-receptor-mediated activity; (2) the mechanisms underlying sex differences in kappa-opioid antinociception may be primarily spinal rather than supraspinal; (3) sex differences in antinociceptive effects of opioid agonists are not secondary to sex differences in their sedative effects. PMID:11418226

  17. Sex differences in molecular and cellular substrates of stress.

    PubMed

    Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

    2012-07-01

    Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from stress-related psychiatric disorders, like unipolar depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although the underlying neural mechanisms are not well characterized, the pivotal role of stress in the onset and severity of these diseases has led to the idea that sex differences in stress responses account for this sex bias. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) orchestrates stress responses by acting both as a neurohormone to initiate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and as a neuromodulator in the brain. One target of CRF modulation is the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine system, which coordinates arousal components of the stress response. Hypersecretion of CRF and dysregulation of targets downstream from CRF, such as the HPA axis and LC-norepinephrine system, are characteristic features of many stress-related psychiatric diseases, suggesting a causal role for CRF and its targets in the development of these disorders. This review will describe sex differences in CRF and the LC-norepinephrine system that can increase stress sensitivity in females, making them vulnerable to stress-related disorders. Evidence for gonadal hormone regulation of hypothalamic CRF is discussed as an effect that can lead to increased HPA axis activity in females. Sex differences in the structure of LC neurons that create the potential for hyperarousal in response to emotional stimuli are described. Finally, sex differences at the molecular level of the CRF(1) receptor that make the LC-norepinephrine system more reactive in females are reviewed. The implications of these sex differences for the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders also will be discussed.

  18. Sex differences in spatial memory using serial and search tasks.

    PubMed

    Shah, Darshna S; Prados, Jose; Gamble, Jasmin; De Lillo, Carlo; Gibson, Claire L

    2013-11-15

    The present study assessed the spatial abilities of male and female human participants using different versions of the non-navigational Corsi block-tapping test (CBT) and a search task. Males performed significantly better than females on the standard manual version of the CBT; however, the standard CBT does not allow discrimination between spatial memory span and the role of spatial organisational factors (structure, path length and presence of crossings) in the sequences to recall. These organisational factors were assessed, therefore, in an experiment in which 7-block-sequences had to be recalled in a computerised version of the CBT. No sex differences in performance were observed on the computerised CBT, indicating that males do not make better use of spatial organisational principles. Accordingly, sex differences observed in the manual CBT are likely to rely upon differences in memory span between males and females. In the search task, participants could locate a goal by reference to a Euclidian space (the geometry of a virtual enclose) or to proximal non-geometric cues. Both male and female participants showed a preference for the non-geometric cues, which overshadowed learning about the geometric cues when the two sets were available simultaneously during the training stage. These results indicate that sex differences do exist in those tests which are dependent on memory span. Sex differences were absent, however, in spatial organisational skills or in the usage of Euclidian and egocentric strategies to solve problems relying on spatial ability.

  19. Inbreeding removes sex differences in lifespan in a population of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jared; Sepil, Irem; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in ageing rates and lifespan are common in nature, and an enduring puzzle for evolutionary biology. One possibility is that sex-specific mortality rates may result from recessive deleterious alleles in ‘unguarded’ heterogametic X or Z sex chromosomes (the unguarded X hypothesis). Empirical evidence for this is, however, limited. Here, we test a fundamental prediction of the unguarded X hypothesis in Drosophila melanogaster, namely that inbreeding shortens lifespan more in females (the homogametic sex in Drosophila) than in males. To test for additional sex-specific social effects, we studied the lifespan of males and females kept in isolation, in related same-sex groups, and in unrelated same-sex groups. As expected, outbred females outlived outbred males and inbreeding shortened lifespan. However, inbreeding-mediated reductions in lifespan were stronger for females, such that lifespan was similar in inbred females and males. We also show that the social environment, independent of inbreeding, affected male, but not female lifespan. In conjunction with recent studies, the present results suggest that asymmetric inheritance mechanisms may play an important role in the evolution of sex-specific lifespan and that social effects must be considered explicitly when studying these fundamental patterns. PMID:27354712

  20. Inbreeding removes sex differences in lifespan in a population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carazo, Pau; Green, Jared; Sepil, Irem; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in ageing rates and lifespan are common in nature, and an enduring puzzle for evolutionary biology. One possibility is that sex-specific mortality rates may result from recessive deleterious alleles in 'unguarded' heterogametic X or Z sex chromosomes (the unguarded X hypothesis). Empirical evidence for this is, however, limited. Here, we test a fundamental prediction of the unguarded X hypothesis in Drosophila melanogaster, namely that inbreeding shortens lifespan more in females (the homogametic sex in Drosophila) than in males. To test for additional sex-specific social effects, we studied the lifespan of males and females kept in isolation, in related same-sex groups, and in unrelated same-sex groups. As expected, outbred females outlived outbred males and inbreeding shortened lifespan. However, inbreeding-mediated reductions in lifespan were stronger for females, such that lifespan was similar in inbred females and males. We also show that the social environment, independent of inbreeding, affected male, but not female lifespan. In conjunction with recent studies, the present results suggest that asymmetric inheritance mechanisms may play an important role in the evolution of sex-specific lifespan and that social effects must be considered explicitly when studying these fundamental patterns. PMID:27354712

  1. Inbreeding removes sex differences in lifespan in a population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carazo, Pau; Green, Jared; Sepil, Irem; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in ageing rates and lifespan are common in nature, and an enduring puzzle for evolutionary biology. One possibility is that sex-specific mortality rates may result from recessive deleterious alleles in 'unguarded' heterogametic X or Z sex chromosomes (the unguarded X hypothesis). Empirical evidence for this is, however, limited. Here, we test a fundamental prediction of the unguarded X hypothesis in Drosophila melanogaster, namely that inbreeding shortens lifespan more in females (the homogametic sex in Drosophila) than in males. To test for additional sex-specific social effects, we studied the lifespan of males and females kept in isolation, in related same-sex groups, and in unrelated same-sex groups. As expected, outbred females outlived outbred males and inbreeding shortened lifespan. However, inbreeding-mediated reductions in lifespan were stronger for females, such that lifespan was similar in inbred females and males. We also show that the social environment, independent of inbreeding, affected male, but not female lifespan. In conjunction with recent studies, the present results suggest that asymmetric inheritance mechanisms may play an important role in the evolution of sex-specific lifespan and that social effects must be considered explicitly when studying these fundamental patterns.

  2. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Morphology: Relationship to Mental Rotation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscik, Tim; O'Leary, Dan; Moser, David J.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2009-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain have reported evidence for sexual dimorphism. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume have been observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge there have been no…

  3. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    PubMed

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer.

  4. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    PubMed

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer. PMID:25331494

  5. Sex differences in coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT): a review.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff

    2011-02-01

    Coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) is the ability to judge when a moving stimulus will arrive at a target. 43 articles were reviewed which investigated sex differences in this skill. Performance was typically recorded as one or more of three error measures, absolute error (AE), constant error (CE), and variable error (VE). Despite many null findings, it is argued that the evidence for a male advantage is strong, particularly for AE and VE. 10 parameters typically associated with CAT studies were analyzed (e.g., knowledge of results, number of trials, stimulus duration, and stimulus speed), but none differentiated clearly between the presence and absence of the sex difference. However, when the mean AE score was used as a measure of task difficulty, a male advantage was reliably associated with lower values of AE (easier tasks) and null findings with higher values (more difficult tasks). An attempt to compare sex difference findings from Bassin timer and real-world tasks was thwarted by the lack of studies using real-world tasks. Given little evidence for the influence of socialization on sex differences in CAT, it is suggested that the difference may have originated from the evolutionary selection of women for gathering and men for hunting.

  6. Sex differences in the neural mechanisms mediating addiction: a new synthesis and hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this review we propose that there are sex differences in how men and women enter onto the path that can lead to addiction. Males are more likely than females to engage in risky behaviors that include experimenting with drugs of abuse, and in susceptible individuals, they are drawn into the spiral that can eventually lead to addiction. Women and girls are more likely to begin taking drugs as self-medication to reduce stress or alleviate depression. For this reason women enter into the downward spiral further along the path to addiction, and so transition to addiction more rapidly. We propose that this sex difference is due, at least in part, to sex differences in the organization of the neural systems responsible for motivation and addiction. Additionally, we suggest that sex differences in these systems and their functioning are accentuated with addiction. In the current review we discuss historical, cultural, social and biological bases for sex differences in addiction with an emphasis on sex differences in the neurotransmitter systems that are implicated. PMID:22676718

  7. Sex differences in predictors of ischemic stroke: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Samai, Alyana A; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Globally, stroke is a significant public health concern affecting more than 33 million individuals. Of growing importance are the differences between males and females in the predictors and overall risk of stroke. Given that women have a higher lifetime risk for stoke and account for more than half of all stroke deaths, sex-specific stroke risk factors merit investigation and may help target public health interventions. This review aims to discuss the current body of knowledge regarding sex-specific predictors of ischemic stroke including both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, as well as specific pathologies known to increase stroke risk. PMID:26251609

  8. Intrinsic sex-specific differences in microvascular endothelial cell phosphodiesterases

    PubMed Central

    Bingaman, Susan; Huxley, Virginia H.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of gonadal hormones in the regulation of vascular function has been documented. An alternate and essential contribution of the sex chromosomes to sex differences in vascular function is poorly understood. We reported previously sex differences in microvessel permeability (Ps) responses to adenosine that were mediated by the cAMP signaling pathway (Wang J, PhD thesis, 2005; Wang J and Huxley V, Proceedings of the VIII World Congress of Microcirculation, 2007; Wang J and Huxley VH, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291: H3094–H3105, 2006). The two cyclic nucleotides, cAMP and cGMP, central to the regulation of vascular barrier integrity, are hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterases (PDE). We hypothesized that microvascular endothelial cells (EC) would retain intrinsic and inheritable sexually dimorphic genes with respect to the PDEs modulating EC barrier function. Primary cultured microvascular EC from skeletal muscles isolated from male and female rats, respectively, were used. SRY (a sex-determining region Y gene) mRNA expression was observed exclusively in male, not female, cells. The predominant isoform among PDE1–5, present in both XY and XX EC, was PDE4. Expression mRNA levels of PDE1A (male > female) and PDE3B (male < female) were sex dependent; PDE2A, PDE4D, and PDE5A were sex independent. Barrier function, Ps, was determined from measures of albumin flux across confluent primary cultured microvessel XY and XX EC monolayers. Consistent with intact in situ microvessels, basal monolayer Ps did not differ between XY (1.7 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm/s; n = 8) and XX (1.8 ± 0.1 × 10−6 cm/s; n = 10) EC. Cilostazol, a PDE3 inhibitor, reduced (11%, P < 0.05) Ps in XX, not XY, cells. These findings demonstrate the presence and maintenance of intrinsic sex-related differences in gene expression and cellular phenotype by microvascular EC in a gonadal-hormone-free environment. Furthermore, intrinsic cell-sex likely contributes significantly to sexual dimorphism in

  9. Gender and Sex Role Differences in Computer Attitudes and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Gary S.; And Others

    Research suggests that males tend to have a more positive attitude toward computers than do females; that males outnumber females in computer camps; and that males have greater access to, and report more frequent use of, computers at home than do females. It has been suggested that these findings may be based on sex role differences and not on…

  10. Sex Differences in Phonological Awareness and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…

  11. A Sex Difference in the Distribution of Oversufficient Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Marsha G.; Messe, Lawrence A.

    The present research examined possible sex differences in the relative strengths of the norms of equity and equality as determinants of reward distribution behavior. The subjects of the study were 72 male and 78 female undergraduate students. It was predicted that females would be more concerned with equality than males. Results supported the…

  12. Situational Influences and Sex Differences in Children's Reward Allocation Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Mark A.

    The effects of situational influences and sex differences in the reward allocation behavior of children was investigated in four studies. Experiment 1 focused on the distribution of rewards to workers presented as being in either a unit or non-unit relationship with each other. The second experiment determined whether a similar pattern of sex…

  13. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  14. Sex Differences in Perceptions and Punishment of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Margaret; And Others

    Two studies examined the effects of variations of intent, outcome and pain in depictions of rape on the perceptions and punishment of rape. Numerous sex differences in perceptions were found. Females perceived more pain and tended to focus on the effects of outcome while males tended to respond more to the intent variation. Females assigned more…

  15. Exploring Sex Differences in Worry with a Cognitive Vulnerability Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate model was developed to examine the relative contributions of mastery, stress, interpretive bias, and coping to sex differences in worry. Rumination was incorporated as a second outcome variable to test the specificity of these associations. Participants included two samples of undergraduates totaling 302 men and 379 women. A path…

  16. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  17. Sex Differences in Response to an Observational Fear Conditioning Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Megan M.; Forsyth, John P.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated sex differences in observational fear conditioning using modeled ''mock'' panic attacks as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Fifty-nine carefully prescreened healthy undergraduate participants (30 women) underwent 3 consecutive differential conditioning phases: habituation, acquisition, and extinction. It was expected…

  18. Age, Sex, and Cultural Differences in the Meaning of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salili, Farideh

    This study explored variations in the meaning and psychological dimensions of achievement among people of different ages, sexes, and cultures. Subjects were 504 male and female British and Chinese students aged 13-55 in Hong Kong. Repertory grid technique was used to elicit success situations and related constructs. A group grid was then…

  19. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  20. High School Mathematics Preparation and Sex Differences in Quantitative Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    1981-01-01

    On six mathematical subtests studied, males scored higher plus took significantly more algebra, geometry, advanced mathematics, and physics coursework. Females earned higher overall mathematics grades. After statistically controlling for the amount of coursework taken, sex differences disappeared on two quantitative tests and on spatial ability.…

  1. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  2. Sex Differences in Phonological Coding: Alphabet Transformation Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majeres, Raymond L.

    2007-01-01

    A previous explanation of the sex difference on so-called perceptual speed tests was in terms of a female advantage in accessing and using phonological name codes in making item comparisons. That explanation was extended to a task involving alphabetical transformations without the requirement for comparison of perceptually available items. A…

  3. Sex Differences in Interpersonal Problems: A Circumplex Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtman, Michael B.; Lee, Debbiesiu L.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and magnitude of sex differences in interpersonal problems across several data sets were examined, guided by the interpersonal circumplex model and the structural summary method. Data were self-reported interpersonal difficulties, assessed with the 64-item version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP; L. M. Horowitz, S. E.…

  4. Sex-Related Differences in the Color Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowaczyk, Ronald H.

    1982-01-01

    Reports experiments in which college students provided color names for a series of color stimuli, matched color names with the same stimuli, and described colors represented by a series of elaborate color terms. Sex-related differences were found in the matching task. Women used more elaborate descriptions than men. (Author/AMH)

  5. Sex Differences in the Social Bases of Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, David C.; Schwab, Mary R.

    The study examined sex differences in the influence of perceived evaluations of self by various types of referent others upon self-esteem. Distinctions were made between authority and peer relationships and between close and distant relationships. The status dimension proved particularly important for males, their variation in self-esteem being…

  6. Sex Differences during Visual Scanning of Occlusion Events in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Teresa; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Wheeler, Lesley; Norvell, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of sex differences in infancy have been reported. One task on which they have been observed reliably is the event-mapping task. In event mapping, infants view an occlusion event involving 1 or 2 objects, the occluder is removed, and then infants see 1 object. Typically, boys are more likely than girls to detect an inconsistency…

  7. Sex Differences and Science: The Etiology of Science Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: Are there sex differences in the etiology of high performance in science in childhood that could contribute to the under-representation of women in scientific careers? In this study the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences on high performance in science in both boys and girls were assessed using standard twin…

  8. Sex Differences in Conformity: Status and Gender Role Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Chrvala, Carole

    1986-01-01

    Examines status and gender role explanations of the tendency for women to conform more than men in group pressure settings. Analysis of age and sex differences revealed that older females were significantly more conforming than older males when under surveillance and when subjects formed impressions of group members' likability. Among younger…

  9. School Leadership, Sex and Gender: Welcome to Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Meta L.

    2008-01-01

    The biological basis for differences between the sexes has become increasingly clear in recent years. The nature-nurture debate has made way for the view that the individual is a product of the interaction between genes and environment. For the world of school leadership this means that instead of arguing about them, we should acknowledge the…

  10. Sex Differences in Social Perception in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, M. C.; Anderson, L. C.; Naples, A. J.; McPartland, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more common in males than females. An underrepresentation of females in the ASD literature has led to limited knowledge of differences in social function across the sexes. Investigations of face perception represent a promising target for understanding variability in social functioning between males and females.…

  11. Sex Differences in Help-Seeking Appear in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Koulnazarian, Manouchak

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that sex differences in help-seeking, which have been obtained consistently with adults and adolescents, would appear in early childhood. To this end, 32 girls and 32 boys aged 3 and 6 years from lower and upper-middle socio-economic class schools were asked to perform four tasks (drawing an animal, building a…

  12. Sex Differences in Attitudes, Feelings, and Behaviors toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredenburg, Karel; And Others

    Despite the pervasiveness of computers and daily advances in computer technology, comparatively little is known about the psychological reactions and attitudes that individuals have toward computers. To investigate sex differences in attitudes, beliefs, feelings, thoughts, behaviors, and behavioral intentions toward computers, 157 male and 305…

  13. Sex Differences in Serotonin 1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischette, Christine T.; Biegon, Anat; McEwen, Bruce S.

    1983-10-01

    Male and female rats exhibit sex differences in binding by serotonin 1 receptors in discrete areas of the brain, some of which have been implicated in the control of ovulation and of gonadotropin release. The sex-specific changes in binding, which occur in response to the same hormonal (estrogenic) stimulus, are due to changes in the number of binding sites. Castration alone also affects the number of binding sites in certain areas. The results lead to the conclusion that peripheral hormones modulate binding by serotonin 1 receptors. The status of the serotonin receptor system may affect the reproductive capacity of an organism and may be related to sex-linked emotional disturbances in humans.

  14. Sex, stress, and fear: individual differences in conditioned learning.

    PubMed

    Zorawski, Michael; Cook, Craig A; Kuhn, Cynthia M; LaBar, Kevin S

    2005-06-01

    It has long been recognized that humans vary in their conditionability, yet the factors that contribute to individual variation in emotional learning remain to be delineated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship among sex, stress hormones, and fear conditioning in humans. Forty-five healthy adults (22 females) underwent differential delay conditioning, using fear-relevant conditioned stimuli and a shock unconditioned stimulus. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at baseline and after acquisition training and a 24-h-delayed retention test. The results showed that acquisition of conditioning significantly correlated with postacquisition cortisol levels in males, but not in females. This sex-specific relationship was found despite similar overall levels of conditioning, unconditioned responding, and cortisol. There was no effect of postacquisition cortisol on consolidation of fear learning in either sex. These findings have implications for the understanding of individual differences in fear acquisition and risk factors for the development of affective disorders.

  15. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Fujioka, Hitomi; Kimura, Fukuko; Akema, Tatsuo; Funabashi, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation), gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol), and diet (i.e., western-style diet) vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day), but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females. PMID:25870535

  16. Task differences confound sex differences in receiver permissiveness in túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Ximena E; Rand, A Stanley; Ryan, Michael J

    2009-04-01

    In many mating systems, both sexes respond to the same sexual signal. In frogs, males typically call in response to advertisement calls, while females approach male calls in choosing a mate. The costs of signal detection errors are expected to differ between the sexes. Missed opportunities are costly for males because ignoring a signal results in failing to compete with rivals for mates, while their cost for misidentification is lower (time and energy displaying to the incorrect target). By contrast, for females, the cost of misidentification is high (mating with incorrect species or low-quality partner), while their cost for missed opportunity is lower because the operational sex ratio puts females at a premium. Consequently, females should be more selective in their response to signal variation than males. We report that presumed sexual differences in selectivity in túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) are task-specific rather than sex-specific. As predicted, male túngara frogs are less selective in their vocal responses than are females in their phonotactic responses. Males exhibiting phonotaxis to the same calls, however, are as selective as females, and are significantly more selective than when they respond vocally to the same calls. Our study shows that apparent differences between the sexes emerge from differences in the behaviours themselves and are not intrinsic to each sex. Analogous behavioural differences might confound sex differences in other systems; thus, we suggest consideration of the behavioural plasticity of sex as well as its stereotypy. PMID:19141428

  17. SEX DIFFERENCES DURING HUMOR APPRECIATION IN CHILD SIBLING-PAIRS

    PubMed Central

    Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to sex differences in rates of depression, a disorder afflicting twice as many women as men. In this study, we employed fMRI to investigate brain responses to funny versus positive (and neutral) video clips in 22 children ages 6 to 13 years, including 8 sibling pairs. Our data revealed increased activity to funny clips in bilateral temporo-occipital cortex, midbrain, and amygdala in girls. Conversely, we found heightened activation to positive clips in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in boys. Many of these effects persisted when looking at sibling-pairs only. We interpret such findings as reflecting the presence of early sex divergence in reward saliency / expectation and stimulus relevance attribution. These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary and developmental theories of humor function. PMID:23672302

  18. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-02-19

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present.

  19. Sex differences in the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Russo, Scott J; Jenab, Shirzad; Fabian, Sosimo J; Festa, Eugene D; Kemen, Lynne M; Quinones-Jenab, Vanya

    2003-04-25

    Several recent reports have demonstrated sex differences in the behavioral and neurochemical response to cocaine. However, it is not clear whether differences exist in cocaine reward or the extent to which adrenal hormones regulate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in either sex. To address these questions, side-by-side comparisons were conducted to determine the effects of conditioning length, cocaine dose and adrenalectomy on cocaine CPP in male and female rats. Female rats demonstrated cocaine CPP after four pairing sessions, while male rats required eight pairing sessions to develop CPP for cocaine. Also, female rats developed CPP at cocaine doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg while male rats required higher cocaine doses (20 mg/kg). Overall, females had higher blood serum levels of corticosterone. Furthermore, a dose-dependent effect on serum levels of corticosterone was observed only in female rats, where rats conditioned with 20 mg/kg cocaine had significantly higher serum levels of corticosterone than rats conditioned with 5 mg/kg cocaine. However, adrenalectomy did not affect CPP for cocaine in either sex. These results suggest that a female's higher sensitivity to cocaine's rewarding effects is not completely mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Therefore, sex differences in the acquisition and/or expression of cocaine CPP may be regulated by other mechanisms, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  20. Sex differences during humor appreciation in child-sibling pairs.

    PubMed

    Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-01-01

    The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span, and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to sex differences in rates of depression, a disorder afflicting twice as many women as men. In this study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain responses to funny versus positive (and neutral) video clips in 22 children, ages 6-13 years, including eight sibling-pairs. Our data revealed increased activity to funny clips in bilateral temporo-occipital cortex, midbrain, and amygdala in girls. Conversely, we found heightened activation to positive clips in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in boys. Many of these effects persisted when looking at sibling-pairs only. We interpret such findings as reflecting the presence of early sex divergence in reward saliency or expectation and stimulus relevance attribution. These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary and developmental theories of humor function.

  1. Sex differences on prefrontally-dependent cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kelly L; Hampson, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    There is preliminary evidence to suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is modulated by sex steroids in humans and other primates. The current study examined whether sex differences in performance could be discerned on two working memory tasks that emphasize monitoring and updating processes, and on two tasks that engage the ventromedial PFC/orbitofrontal cortex (VMPFC/OFC). Healthy young adults (48 females; 45 males) completed the n-back, Self-Ordered Pointing (SOP), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and a probabilistic reversal learning task. On the IGT, males selected more cards from the advantageous decks than females. On the reversal learning task, there was no significant sex difference in acquisition of the reinforcement contingencies, but males made fewer errors than females during the reversal phase. The sexes did not differ significantly on the n-back or SOP tasks. These findings provide tentative support for the hypothesis that functions carried out by the VMPFC/OFC are sexually differentiated in humans. PMID:25528435

  2. SEX DIFFERENCES IN DRUG USE AMONG POLYSUBSTANCE USERS

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ben; Hoffman, Lauren A.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background Available evidence indicates women with substance use disorders may experience more rapid progression through usage milestones (telescoping). The few investigations of sex differences in treatment-seeking populations often focus on single substances and typically do not account for significant polysubstance abuse. The current study examined sex differences in a heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking polysubstance users. We examined patterns of drug use, age at drug use milestones (e.g., initial use, regular use), and progression rates between milestones. Nicotine and alcohol use were also evaluated. Methods Participants (N=543; 288 women) completed personal histories of substance use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, as well as inventories assessing affect, and intellectual ability. Results Rates of drug use and milestone ages varied by sex and specific drug. Analyses suggested pronounced telescoping effects for pain medication and marijuana, with women progressing more rapidly through usage milestones. Conclusions Our data were generally supportive of telescoping effects, although considerable variance in progression measures was noted. The contrast between the marked telescoping observed in pain medication use and the absence of telescoping in other opioids was of particular interest. The discrepancy in telescoping effects, despite shared pharmacologies, suggests the need for further work examining underlying psychosocial factors. These results highlight that the specific sample population, substance, and outcome measure should be carefully considered when interpreting sex differences in substance use. PMID:25454410

  3. Explaining sex differences in reactions to relationship infidelities: comparisons of the roles of sex, gender, beliefs, attachment, and sociosexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Brase, Gary L; Adair, Lora; Monk, Kale

    2014-02-04

    To the extent that sex differences are mediated by mechanisms such as sex-roles and beliefs, individual differences in these more proximate traits should account for significant portions of relevant sex differences. Differences between women and men in reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity were assessed in a large sample of participants (n = 477), and these target reactions were evaluated as a function of many potential proximate mediators (infidelity implications beliefs, gender-role beliefs, interpersonal trust, attachment style, sociosexuality, and culture of honor beliefs) and as a function of participant sex. Results found a consistent sex difference that was not mediated by any other variables, although a handful of other variables were related to male, but not female, individual differences. These findings suggest particularly promising directions for future research on integrating evolutionarily based sex differences and proximate individual differences.

  4. Sex differences in health and mortality in Moscow and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Oksuzyan, A; Shkolnikova, M; Vaupel, J W; Christensen, K; Shkolnikov, V M

    2014-04-01

    In high income countries females outlive men, although they generally report worse health, the so-called male-female health-survival paradox. Russia has one of the world's largest sex difference in life expectancy with a male disadvantage of more than 10 years. We compare components of the paradox between Denmark and Moscow by examining sex differences in mortality and several health measures. The Human Mortality Database and the Russian Fertility and Mortality Database were used to examine sex differences in all-cause death rates in Denmark, Russia, and Moscow in 2007-2008. Self-reported health data were obtained from the Study of Middle-Aged Danish Twins (n = 4,314), the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (n = 4,731), and the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (n = 1,800). In both Moscow and Denmark there was a consistent female advantage at ages 55-89 years in survival and a male advantage in self-rated health, physical functioning, and depression symptomatology. Only on cognitive tests males performed similarly to or worse than women. Nevertheless, Muscovite males had more than twice higher mortality at ages 55-69 years compared to Muscovite women, almost double the ratio in Denmark. The present study showed that despite similar directions of sex differences in health and mortality in Moscow and Denmark, the male-female health-survival paradox is very pronounced in Moscow suggesting a stronger sex-specific disconnect between health indicators and mortality among middle-aged and young-old Muscovites. PMID:24668060

  5. Explaining Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

    The relatively simple question of whether sex differences exist has evolved into the more theoretically interesting question of why sex differences occur. This transition has come about because of the meta-analytic investigations of sex differences in social behavior which established sex difference trends in a variety of social behaviors. Many…

  6. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society

    PubMed Central

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J.; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20–40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt’s adaptation of Fishman’s three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament’s measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins. PMID:26689907

  7. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society.

    PubMed

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20-40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt's adaptation of Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament's measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins. PMID:26689907

  8. Sex differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm: the role of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Courtois, Audrey; Drion, Pierre; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2014-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental components. AAA is more common in men, whereas women have a greater risk of rupture and more frequently have concomitant thoracic aortic aneurysms. Moreover, women are diagnosed with AAA about 10 years later and seem to be protected by female sex hormones. In this MEDLINE-based review of literature, we examined human and animal in vivo and in vitro studies to further deepen our understanding of the sexual dimorphism of AAA. We focus on the role of sex hormones during the formation and growth of AAA. Endogenous estrogens and exogenous 17β-estradiol were found to exert favorable actions protecting from AAA in animal models, whereas exogenous hormone replacement therapy in humans had inconclusive results. Androgens, known to have detrimental effects in the vasculature, in sufficient levels maintain the integrity of the aortic wall through their anabolic actions and act differentially in men and women, whereas lower levels of testosterone have been associated with AAA in humans. In conclusion, sex differences remain an important area of AAA research, but further studies especially in humans are needed. Furthermore, differential molecular mechanisms of sex hormones constitute a potential therapeutic target for AAA.

  9. Issues, Problems, and Pitfalls in Assessing Sex Differences: A Critical Review of The Psychology of Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Jeanne H.

    1976-01-01

    Presents a detailed critical appraisal of the evidential support for the book's conclusions about sex differences. Criticisms cover data base quality, over-representation of younger age groups, problems of stereotypes, over-emphasis on the null hypothesis, and slippages in the evaluational sequence. (MS)

  10. Sex of Researchers and Sex-Typed Communications as Determinants of Sex Differences in Influenceability: A Meta-Analysis of Social Influence Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Carli, Linda L.

    1981-01-01

    By analyzing the aggregated results of independent studies for possible sex biases in "influenceability" experiments, two hypotheses were tested: (1) content of influence inductions is biased in the masculine direction, and (2) sex typing of content relates to the sex difference outcomes of the experiments, with more masculine content associated…

  11. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43%. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males ingest Hg at a higher rate than females, but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to higher

  12. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Rediske, Richard R; Krabbenhoft, David P; Stapanian, Martin A; Chernyak, Sergei M; O'Keefe, James P

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43 %. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males not only ingest Hg at a higher rate than females but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to

  13. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Rediske, Richard R; Krabbenhoft, David P; Stapanian, Martin A; Chernyak, Sergei M; O'Keefe, James P

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43 %. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males not only ingest Hg at a higher rate than females but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to

  14. Exploring sex and gender differences in sleep health: a Society for Women's Health Research Report.

    PubMed

    Mallampalli, Monica P; Carter, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions.

  15. Exploring Sex and Gender Differences in Sleep Health: A Society for Women's Health Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Mallampalli, Monica P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions. PMID:24956068

  16. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Arts, Johanna W M; Kramer, Klaas; Arndt, Saskia S; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-10-30

    Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal transfer, as well as between transferred and non-transferred Wistar rats. The impact of both external and internal transfer on body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and locomotor activity was studied in both male and female Wistar rats, taking into account the sex differences in stress responsivity. External transfer was found to decrease body weight, increase plasma corticosterone, increase activity, increase heart rate in female rats, but decrease heart rate in male rats. Parameters showed differences between the sexes and light phases. This study shows that acclimatization after transfer is sex-specific and researchers should take the sex into consideration when determining the acclimatization period. It is recommended to allow for acclimatization of at least 8 days in males and two weeks in females after external transfer and timely (2 days before starting experiments) transfer the animals internally to the testing room.

  17. Sex and Gender Differences in Risk, Pathophysiology and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Pacini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The steep rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated complications go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. T2DM is more frequently diagnosed at lower age and body mass index in men; however, the most prominent risk factor, which is obesity, is more common in women. Generally, large sex-ratio differences across countries are observed. Diversities in biology, culture, lifestyle, environment, and socioeconomic status impact differences between males and females in predisposition, development, and clinical presentation. Genetic effects and epigenetic mechanisms, nutritional factors and sedentary lifestyle affect risk and complications differently in both sexes. Furthermore, sex hormones have a great impact on energy metabolism, body composition, vascular function, and inflammatory responses. Thus, endocrine imbalances relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic traits, observable in women with androgen excess or men with hypogonadism. Both biological and psychosocial factors are responsible for sex and gender differences in diabetes risk and outcome. Overall, psychosocial stress appears to have greater impact on women rather than on men. In addition, women have greater increases of cardiovascular risk, myocardial infarction, and stroke mortality than men, compared with nondiabetic subjects. However, when dialysis therapy is initiated, mortality is comparable in both males and females. Diabetes appears to attenuate the protective effect of the female sex in the development of cardiac diseases and nephropathy. Endocrine and behavioral factors are involved in gender inequalities and affect the outcome. More research regarding sex-dimorphic pathophysiological mechanisms of T2DM and its complications could contribute to more personalized diabetes care in the future and would thus promote more awareness in terms of sex- and gender-specific risk factors. PMID:27159875

  18. Sex and Gender Differences in Risk, Pathophysiology and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; Pacini, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The steep rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated complications go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. T2DM is more frequently diagnosed at lower age and body mass index in men; however, the most prominent risk factor, which is obesity, is more common in women. Generally, large sex-ratio differences across countries are observed. Diversities in biology, culture, lifestyle, environment, and socioeconomic status impact differences between males and females in predisposition, development, and clinical presentation. Genetic effects and epigenetic mechanisms, nutritional factors and sedentary lifestyle affect risk and complications differently in both sexes. Furthermore, sex hormones have a great impact on energy metabolism, body composition, vascular function, and inflammatory responses. Thus, endocrine imbalances relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic traits, observable in women with androgen excess or men with hypogonadism. Both biological and psychosocial factors are responsible for sex and gender differences in diabetes risk and outcome. Overall, psychosocial stress appears to have greater impact on women rather than on men. In addition, women have greater increases of cardiovascular risk, myocardial infarction, and stroke mortality than men, compared with nondiabetic subjects. However, when dialysis therapy is initiated, mortality is comparable in both males and females. Diabetes appears to attenuate the protective effect of the female sex in the development of cardiac diseases and nephropathy. Endocrine and behavioral factors are involved in gender inequalities and affect the outcome. More research regarding sex-dimorphic pathophysiological mechanisms of T2DM and its complications could contribute to more personalized diabetes care in the future and would thus promote more awareness in terms of sex- and gender-specific risk factors. PMID:27159875

  19. Sex/Gender Differences and Autism: Setting the Scene for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between sex/gender differences and autism has attracted a variety of research ranging from clinical and neurobiological to etiological, stimulated by the male bias in autism prevalence. Findings are complex and do not always relate to each other in a straightforward manner. Distinct but interlinked questions on the relationship between sex/gender differences and autism remain underaddressed. To better understand the implications from existing research and to help design future studies, we propose a 4-level conceptual framework to clarify the embedded themes. Method We searched PubMed for publications before September 2014 using search terms “‘sex OR gender OR females’ AND autism.” A total of 1,906 articles were screened for relevance, along with publications identified via additional literature reviews, resulting in 329 articles that were reviewed. Results Level 1, “Nosological and diagnostic challenges,” concerns the question, “How should autism be defined and diagnosed in males and females?” Level 2, “Sex/gender-independent and sex/gender-dependent characteristics,” addresses the question, “What are the similarities and differences between males and females with autism?” Level 3, “General models of etiology: liability and threshold,” asks the question, “How is the liability for developing autism linked to sex/gender?” Level 4, “Specific etiological–developmental mechanisms,” focuses on the question, “What etiological–developmental mechanisms of autism are implicated by sex/gender and/or sexual/gender differentiation?” Conclusions Using this conceptual framework, findings can be more clearly summarized, and the implications of the links between findings from different levels can become clearer. Based on this 4-level framework, we suggest future research directions, methodology, and specific topics in sex/gender differences and autism. PMID:25524786

  20. Sex differences in mitochondrial (dys)function: Implications for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have revealed numerous differences in brain structure size, connectivity and metabolism between males and females. Sex differences in neurobehavioral and cognitive function after various forms of central nervous system (CNS) injury are observed in clinical practice and animal research studies. Sources of sex differences include early life exposure to gonadal hormones, chromosome compliment and adult hormonal modulation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that mitochondrial metabolism and cell death signaling are also sexually dimorphic. Mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction is a common feature of CNS injury. Evidence suggests males predominantly utilize proteins while females predominantly use lipids as a fuel source within mitochondria and that these differences may significantly affect cellular survival following injury. These fundamental biochemical differences have a profound impact on energy production and many cellular processes in health and disease. This review will focus on the accumulated evidence revealing sex differences in mitochondrial function and cellular signaling pathways in the context of CNS injury mechanisms and the potential implications for neuroprotective therapy development. PMID:25293493

  1. Pay Differences among the Highly Trained: Cohort Differences in the Sex Gap in Lawyers' Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Mary C.; Corcoran, Mary E.; Courant, Paul N.

    2005-01-01

    Using unique data from a survey of University of Michigan Law School graduates, we test various models of how sex differences in pay, labor supply and job settings should have evolved as women entered the elite male field of law. We compare the sex gap in earnings 15 years after graduation for two cohorts of lawyers and find that it has remained…

  2. Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, J. Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how educators…

  3. Sex-different hepaticglycogen content and glucose output in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genes involved in hepatic metabolism have a sex-different expression in rodents. To test whether male and female rat livers differ regarding lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, whole-genome transcript profiles were generated and these were complemented by measurements of hepatic lipid and glycogen content, fatty acid (FA) oxidation rates and hepatic glucose output (HGO). The latter was determined in perfusates from in situ perfusion of male and female rat livers. These perfusates were also analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to identify putative sex-differences in other liver-derived metabolites. Effects of insulin were monitored by analysis of Akt-phosphorylation, gene expression and HGO after s.c. insulin injections. Results Out of approximately 3 500 gene products being detected in liver, 11% were significantly higher in females, and 11% were higher in males. Many transcripts for the production of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol and VLDL particles were female-predominant, whereas genes for FA oxidation, gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis were male-predominant. Sex-differences in mRNA levels related to metabolism were more pronounced during mild starvation (12 h fasting), as compared to the postabsorptive state (4 h fasting). No sex-differences were observed regarding hepatic TG content, FA oxidation rates or blood levels of ketone bodies or glucose. However, males had higher hepatic glycogen content and higher HGO, as well as higher ratios of insulin to glucagon levels. Based on NMR spectroscopy, liver-derived lactate was also higher in males. HGO was inhibited by insulin in parallel with increased phosphorylation of Akt, without any sex-differences in insulin sensitivity. However, the degree of Thr172-phosphorylated AMP kinase (AMPK) was higher in females, indicating a higher degree of AMPK-dependent actions. Conclusions Taken together, males had higher ratios of insulin to glucagon levels, higher levels of glycogen, lower

  4. Sex- and age-related differences in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Ruth; Fischer, Natalie

    2005-08-01

    This study examined sex differences and age-related changes in mathematics based on Eccles's 1985 expectancy-value model of "achievement-related choices" and Dweck's 1986 motivation-process model. We have assessed motivational variables and performance in mathematics for youth in Grades 5, 7, and 9 in a German comprehensive secondary school. Significant sex differences in Grades 7 and 9 were observed even when school marks were controlled for. Furthermore, the results indicated differences between Grade 7 and Grade 9 on most of the motivational variables. Older students show a less favorable motivational pattern. Our results give evidence of the importance of motivational encouragement in mathematics classes, especially for girls and low achieving learners. PMID:16279324

  5. Sex differences in the neural bases of social appraisals.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Jolles, Jelle; Croiset, Gerda; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral research has demonstrated an advantage for females compared with males in social information processing. However, little is known about sex-related differences in brain activation during understanding of self and others. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, this was assessed in late adolescents (aged 18-19) and young adults (aged 23-25) when making appraisals of self and other as well as reflected self-appraisals. Across all groups and for all appraisal conditions, activation was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex, medial posterior parietal cortex, left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left posterior parietal cortex. Males activated the medial posterior parietal cortex and bilateral temporoparietal junction more than females. The precuneus showed stronger activation in males compared with females specifically during appraisals of others. No differences between late adolescents and young adults were found. These results indicate that sex differences exist in the neural bases of social understanding. PMID:23386740

  6. Sex differences in the behavior of wild Alouatta caraya infants.

    PubMed

    Pavé, Romina; Kowalewski, Martín M; Zunino, Gabriel E; Leigh, Steven R

    2016-10-01

    Several primates show sex-based differences in activity patterns and social interactions during infancy. These differences have been associated with adult social and reproductive functions of males and females and are related to male-male competition. Our goal was to describe behavioral patterns of wild Alouatta caraya male and female infants, a species with sexual dimorphism in body size and behavioral strategies during adulthood. We also examined the relationship between life history variables, infant sex and age, activity patterns, and social interactions in order to determine whether males and females follow different trajectories during early growth. Over a 27-month study, we observed 21 male infants and 14 female infants across two similar sites in northern Argentina. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) tests. We found no differences in suckling time or weaning age between males and females (9.7 vs. 9.4 months), but male infants spent more time feeding on solid food and resting than female infants. Males also invested more time in contact with their mothers than did female infants, and mothers rejected and broke contact with males more frequently than with females. Other behavioral categories did not differ between the sexes. Our results suggest that higher nutritional demands of males compared with females may affect some behaviors. However, mothers of sons did not experience immediate trade-offs between current and future reproduction. Other behaviors, similarly expressed by the two sexes, suggest a similar developmental trajectory between male and female A. caraya infants, meaning that most differences emerge following the infant period.

  7. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age.

  8. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753

  9. Sex Differences in School Science Performance from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the sexes differ in science performance before they make important course and career selections. We collected teacher-report data from a sample of children from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) assessed at ages 9, 10 and 12 years (N greater than 2500 pairs). In addition we developed a test of scientific enquiry and…

  10. Sex differences moderate the relationship between adolescent language and mentalization.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Helena J V; Wareham, Justin D; Vrouva, Ioanna; Mayes, Linda C; Fonagy, Peter; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-10-01

    Mentalization refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others, and this capacity facilitates social interactions. Advances in mentalization theory have proposed that there are both explicit and implicit mentalizing capacities and language may be identified as being an important factor in differentiating these two components of mentalization. Moreover, given apparent sex differences in language and mentalization, we hypothesized that sex may moderate the relationship between language and mentalization. In this study, measures assessing implicit and explicit mentalization as well as language were examined in 49 adolescents (25 girls and 24 boys) aged 14 to 18 years. Participants were administered the Mentalizing Stories for Adolescents to assess explicit mentalization, and the Reading Mind in the Eyes Task to assess implicit mentalization. Language was assessed using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Sex was found to moderate the relationship between language and explicit mentalization; while language and explicit mentalization were related in boys, these domains were unrelated in girls. There was no moderation of language and implicit mentalization by sex, and these two domains were also uncorrelated. These findings suggest an important role for language development in the capacity for explicit mentalization in boys, and we interpret this as a benefit in girls who may be more socially motivated and less limited by language in their efforts to mentalize.

  11. Sex differences in chronic stress effects on memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Luine, Victoria

    2002-09-01

    Recent studies in rodent models and in humans have shown that the status of both the gonadal and adrenal axes (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, HPG and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, HPA, respectively) can influence learning and memory function. In this article, the effects of activating the HPA axis (stress) on performance of memory tasks in rats are reviewed. More importantly, results are presented which show that chronic stress has a different impact on performance of these tasks depending upon the sex of the rat. These observations are novel and potentially important since few studies, animal or human, have utilized females as subjects in studies of the stress response. Sex differences in the effects of chronic stress on memory were investigated in rats using an object recognition task and two spatial memory tasks, radial arm maze and object location. Given the same chronic stress--21 days of restraint for 6 h each day--males were impaired in all of the memory tests while females showed enhanced performance of the spatial memory tasks and no changes in object recognition performance. Levels of neurotransmitters and metabolites were measured in brain areas important for cognition in the subjects in order to determine neural systems that may respond to stress and mediate the cognitive responses. These results show that responses of monoamine and amino acid containing neural systems may contribute to or underlie sex differences in stress effects on cognition. Stress decreased dopaminergic activity in the frontal cortex and amygdala of males but not females; whereas, in CA3 of the hippocampus, stress increased levels of 5-HT and norepinephrine in females, but not males, and increased GABA in males, but not females. Finally, a possible role for estradiol in mediating sexually differentiated responses to stress was examined. Behavioral and neurochemical evaluations in ovariectomized, stressed females, with or without estrogen replacement, suggest that sex differences

  12. Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Smith, Alex; Parker, Drew; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Elliott, Mark A; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-14

    Sex differences in human behavior show adaptive complementarity: Males have better motor and spatial abilities, whereas females have superior memory and social cognition skills. Studies also show sex differences in human brains but do not explain this complementarity. In this work, we modeled the structural connectome using diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of 949 youths (aged 8-22 y, 428 males and 521 females) and discovered unique sex differences in brain connectivity during the course of development. Connection-wise statistical analysis, as well as analysis of regional and global network measures, presented a comprehensive description of network characteristics. In all supratentorial regions, males had greater within-hemispheric connectivity, as well as enhanced modularity and transitivity, whereas between-hemispheric connectivity and cross-module participation predominated in females. However, this effect was reversed in the cerebellar connections. Analysis of these changes developmentally demonstrated differences in trajectory between males and females mainly in adolescence and in adulthood. Overall, the results suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes.

  13. Sex Differences in Proximal Control of the Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Ford, Kevin R.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Following the onset of maturation, female athletes have a significantly higher risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared with male athletes. While multiple sex differences in lower-extremity neuromuscular control and biomechanics have been identified as potential risk factors for ACL injury in females, the majority of these studies have focused specifically on the knee joint. However, increasing evidence in the literature indicates that lumbopelvic (core) control may have a large effect on knee-joint control and injury risk. This review examines the published evidence on the contributions of the trunk and hip to knee-joint control. Specifically, the sex differences in potential proximal controllers of the knee as risk factors for ACL injury are identified and discussed. Sex differences in trunk and hip biomechanics have been identified in all planes of motion (sagittal, coronal and transverse). Essentially, female athletes show greater lateral trunk displacement, altered trunk and hip flexion angles, greater ranges of trunk motion, and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during sport manoeuvres, compared with their male counterparts. These differences may increase the risk of ACL injury among female athletes. Prevention programmes targeted towards trunk and hip neuromuscular control may decrease the risk for ACL injuries. PMID:21688868

  14. Sex differences in self-regulation: an evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini-Kamkar, Niki; Morton, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bjorklund and Kipp (1996) provide an evolutionary framework predicting that there is a female advantage in inhibition and self-regulation due to differing selection pressures placed on males and females. The majority of the present review will summarize sex differences in self-regulation at the behavioral level. The neural and hormonal underpinnings of this potential sexual dimorphism will also be investigated and the results of the experiments summarized will be related to the hypothesis advanced by Bjorklund and Kipp (1996). Paradoxically, sex differences in self-regulation are more consistently reported in children prior to the onset of puberty. In adult cohorts, the results of studies examining sex differences in self-regulation are mixed. A few recent experiments suggesting that females are less impulsive than males only during fertile stages of the menstrual cycle will be reviewed. A brief discussion of an evolutionary framework proposing that it is adaptive for females to employ a self-regulatory behavioral strategy when fertile will follow. PMID:25140126

  15. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  16. Sex differences in self-regulation: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Kamkar, Niki; Morton, J Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bjorklund and Kipp (1996) provide an evolutionary framework predicting that there is a female advantage in inhibition and self-regulation due to differing selection pressures placed on males and females. The majority of the present review will summarize sex differences in self-regulation at the behavioral level. The neural and hormonal underpinnings of this potential sexual dimorphism will also be investigated and the results of the experiments summarized will be related to the hypothesis advanced by Bjorklund and Kipp (1996). Paradoxically, sex differences in self-regulation are more consistently reported in children prior to the onset of puberty. In adult cohorts, the results of studies examining sex differences in self-regulation are mixed. A few recent experiments suggesting that females are less impulsive than males only during fertile stages of the menstrual cycle will be reviewed. A brief discussion of an evolutionary framework proposing that it is adaptive for females to employ a self-regulatory behavioral strategy when fertile will follow. PMID:25140126

  17. Sex difference in irritable bowel syndrome: do gonadal hormones play a role?

    PubMed

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2010-01-01

    Sex and gender effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported in epidemiological, physiological, and clinical treatment studies. The potential role of gonadal hormones is discussed based on the female predominance in IBS and the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status. Several different models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function, including changes in GI symptoms during the menstrual cycle and differences in symptom expression in pre- and post-menopausal women as well as changes during pregnancy, hormonal treatment, or after ovariectomy. Gonadal hormones, in particular estrogens, can significantly modulate various clinical manifestations of IBS, including alterations in GI motility and visceral hypersensitivity. Additionally, sex differences in the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system are considered to be contributing factors in the pathogenesis of functional bowel disorders. The modulatory effects of estrogens on visceral pain may result from interactions with numerous neurotransmitters at different levels of the brain-gut axis, with a pivotal role of estrogens' interactions with the serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling systems. Estrogens can also modulate neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress via the brain-gut axis. Sex differences in the biological actions, pharmacokinetics, and treatment efficacy of serotonergic medications clearly suggest sex differences in pain pathways that have to be taken into consideration in therapeutic interventions.

  18. Sex differences in accuracy and precision when judging time to arrival: data from two Internet studies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff; Sinclair, Kamila

    2011-12-01

    We report two Internet studies that investigated sex differences in the accuracy and precision of judging time to arrival. We used accuracy to mean the ability to match the actual time to arrival and precision to mean the consistency with which each participant made their judgments. Our task was presented as a computer game in which a toy UFO moved obliquely towards the participant through a virtual three-dimensional space on route to a docking station. The UFO disappeared before docking and participants pressed their space bar at the precise moment they thought the UFO would have docked. Study 1 showed it was possible to conduct quantitative studies of spatiotemporal judgments in virtual reality via the Internet and confirmed reports that men are more accurate because women underestimate, but found no difference in precision measured as intra-participant variation. Study 2 repeated Study 1 with five additional presentations of one condition to provide a better measure of precision. Again, men were more accurate than women but there were no sex differences in precision. However, within the coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) literature, of those studies that report sex differences, a majority found that males are both more accurate and more precise than females. Noting that many CAT studies report no sex differences, we discuss appropriate interpretations of such null findings. While acknowledging that CAT performance may be influenced by experience we suggest that the sex difference may have originated among our ancestors with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting and women for gathering.

  19. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  20. Sex difference in Double Iron ultra-triathlon performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study examined the sex difference in swimming (7.8 km), cycling (360 km), running (84 km), and overall race times for Double Iron ultra-triathletes. Methods Sex differences in split times and overall race times of 1,591 men and 155 women finishing a Double Iron ultra-triathlon between 1985 and 2012 were analyzed. Results The annual number of finishes increased linearly for women and exponentially for men. Men achieved race times of 1,716 ± 243 min compared to 1,834 ± 261 min for women and were 118 ± 18 min (6.9%) faster (p < 0.01). Men finished swimming within 156 ± 63 min compared to women with 163 ± 31 min and were 8 ± 32 min (5.1 ± 5.0%) faster (p < 0.01). For cycling, men (852 ± 196 min) were 71 ± 70 min (8.3 ± 3.5%) faster than women (923 ± 126 min) (p < 0.01). Men completed the run split within 710 ± 145 min compared to 739 ± 150 min for women and were 30 ± 5 min (4.2 ± 3.4%) faster (p = 0.03). The annual three fastest men improved race time from 1,650 ± 114 min in 1985 to 1,339 ± 33 min in 2012 (p < 0.01). Overall race time for women remained unchanged at 1,593 ± 173 min with an unchanged sex difference of 27.1 ± 8.6%. In swimming, the split times for the annual three fastest women (148 ± 14 min) and men (127 ± 20 min) remained unchanged with an unchanged sex difference of 26.8 ± 13.5%. In cycling, the annual three fastest men improved the split time from 826 ± 60 min to 666 ± 18 min (p = 0.02). For women, the split time in cycling remained unchanged at 844 ± 54 min with an unchanged sex difference of 25.2 ± 7.3%. In running, the annual fastest three men improved split times from 649 ± 77 min to 532 ± 16 min (p < 0.01). For women, however, the split times remained unchanged at 657 ± 70 min with a stable sex difference of 32.4 ± 12.5%. Conclusions To summarize, the present findings showed that men were faster than women in Double Iron ultra-triathlon, men improved overall race times, cycling and running

  1. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  2. Sex differences in unfamiliar face identification: evidence from matching tasks.

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus; Havard, Catriona

    2011-05-01

    Research on sex differences in face recognition has reported mixed results, on balance suggesting an advantage for female observers. However, it is not clear whether this advantage is specific to face processing or reflects a more general superiority effect in episodic memory. The current study therefore examined sex differences with a face-matching task that eliminates memory demands. Across two experiments, female but not male observers showed an own-sex advantage on match trials, in which two pictures have to be identified as the same person. This advantage was present for whole faces and when only the internal or external facial features were shown. Female observers were also more accurate in these three conditions on mismatch encounters, in which two photographs have to be identified as different people, but this reflects a more general effect that is present for male and female faces. These findings converge with claims of a female advantage in face recognition and demonstrate that this effect persists when memory demands are eliminated.

  3. Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. Method This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. Results The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. Conclusions It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal. PMID:23617306

  4. Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Hamann, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Substantial sex differences in emotional responses and perception have been reported in previous psychological and psychophysiological studies. For example, women have been found to respond more strongly to negative emotional stimuli, a sex difference that has been linked to an increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The extent to which such sex differences are reflected in corresponding differences in regional brain activation remains a largely unresolved issue, however, in part because relatively few neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue. Here, by conducting a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies, we were able to substantially increase statistical power to detect sex differences relative to prior studies, by combining emotion studies which explicitly examined sex differences with the much larger number of studies that examined only women or men. We used an activation likelihood estimation approach to characterize sex differences in the likelihood of regional brain activation elicited by emotional stimuli relative to non-emotional stimuli. We examined sex differences separately for negative and positive emotions, in addition to examining all emotions combined. Sex differences varied markedly between negative and positive emotion studies. The majority of sex differences favoring women were observed for negative emotion, whereas the majority of the sex differences favoring men were observed for positive emotion. This valence-specificity was particularly evident for the amygdala. For negative emotion, women exhibited greater activation than men in the left amygdala, as well as in other regions including the left thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, left caudate, and medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, for positive emotion, men exhibited greater activation than women in the left amygdala, as well as greater activation in other regions including the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus. These meta

  5. Sex differences in voice onset time: A developmental study of phonetic context effects in British English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, Sandra P.; Henry, Luisa; Dobbin, Rachel

    2004-08-01

    Voice onset time (VOT) data for the plosives /p b t d k g/ in two vowel contexts (eye opena) for 5 groups of 46 boys and girls aged 5; 8 (5 years, 8 months) to 13;2 years were investigated to examine patterns of sex differences. Results indicated that there was some evidence of females displaying longer VOT values than the males. In addition, these were found to be most marked for the data of the 13;2-year olds. Furthermore, the sex differences in the VOT values displayed phonetic context effects. For example, the greatest sex differences were observed for the voiceless plosives, and within the context of the vowel /i/.

  6. Sex Differences in Patients Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Molina, Angeles; Enea, Iolanda; Gadelha, Telma; Tufano, Antonella; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Bounameaux, Henri; González, José; Villalta, Jaume; Monreal, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), the outcome during the course of anticoagulant therapy may differ according to the patient’s sex. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) database to compare the rate of VTE recurrences, major bleeding, and mortality due to these events according to sex. As of August 2013, 47,499 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 24,280 (51%) were women. Women were older, more likely presented with pulmonary embolism (PE), and were more likely to have recent immobilization but less likely to have cancer than men. During the course of anticoagulation (mean duration: 253 d), 659 patients developed recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 576 recurrent PE, 1368 bled, and 4506 died. Compared with men, women had a lower rate of DVT recurrences (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.91), a similar rate of PE recurrences (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.83–1.15), a higher rate of major bleeding (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09–1.35), and higher mortality due to PE (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.04–1.47). On multivariable analysis, any influence of sex on the risk for recurrent DVT (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.75–1.03), major bleeding (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.98–1.24), or fatal PE (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.84–1.22) was no longer statistically significant. In conclusion, women had fewer DVT recurrences and more bleeds than men during the course of anticoagulation. These differences were not due to sex, but very likely to other patient characteristics more common in female patients and differences in treatment choice. PMID:25398066

  7. Age difference asymmetry and a two-sex perspective.

    PubMed

    Ni Bhrolchain, M

    1992-01-01

    Age differences in marriage are examined using data from the Marriage and Divorce Statistics, Series FM2, 1966-87, in England and Wales. Specifically, there is a description of differentials in the spousal age gap by sex and marital status of the partner, trends in the age differences between spouses, the components of change in age differences, i.e., changing age at marriage, and changes in partner's marital status. Data were unavailable to answer whether or not changes in opportunity or constraint (shifts in age/sex distribution) or changing preferences in relation to age differences or both affected the shifts, but plausible interpretations are provided. The difference in ages is evident in the pattern of mean age difference in 1987 for single brides (3.0 years) and the mean gap for bachelors (1.6 years). These figures are still different from the 2.1-year gap in the marriages of 2 single partners or the 2.6-year gap for all marriages. The mean age of 1st marriages is 2.2 for both sexes, 1.6 for men and 3.0 for women. for 2nd and later marriages the pattern is reversed, where divorced women remarry to men averaging 1.7 years older while divorced men remarry a woman 5.3 years younger. The gaps among the widowed are 1.9 years for women and 6.7 years for men. The reasons for the differentials are that not all single men marry single women and the reverse, and that age differences depend on sex, marriage order for both sexes, and marital status of the partner. The longitudinal pattern of age differences being larger in remarriages than in 1st marriages is exhibited for male remarriages only; for women in remarriages the age difference is shortened from 3.0 years to 1.7 years. In comparing time trends, 1) the mean age gap is consistently larger in women's than in men's 1st marriages with a larger gap appearing closer to the present; 2) the age differences have fluctuated over time; 3) the gap in men's and women's marriages were similar up to 1970 and, between 1970

  8. Sex differences in tool use acquisition in bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Boose, Klaree J; White, Frances J; Meinelt, Audra

    2013-09-01

    All the great ape species are known tool users in both the wild and captivity, although there is great variation in ability and behavioral repertoire. Differences in tool use acquisition between chimpanzees and gorillas have been attributed to differing levels of social tolerance as a result of differences in social structure. Chimpanzees also show sex differences in acquisition and both chimpanzees and bonobos demonstrate a female bias in tool use behaviors. Studies of acquisition are limited in the wild and between species comparisons are complicated in captivity by contexts that often do not reflect natural conditions. Here we investigated tool use acquisition in a captive group of naïve bonobos by simulating naturalistic conditions. We constructed an artificial termite mound fashioned after those that occur in the wild and tested individuals within a social group context. We found sex differences in latencies to attempt and to succeed where females attempted to fish, were successful more quickly, and fished more frequently than males. We compared our results to those reported for chimpanzees and gorillas. Males across all three species did not differ in latency to attempt or to succeed. In contrast, bonobo and chimpanzee females succeeded more quickly than did female gorillas. Female bonobos and female chimpanzees did not differ in either latency to attempt or to succeed. We tested the social tolerance hypothesis by investigating the relationship between tool behaviors and number of neighbors present. We also compared these results to those reported for chimpanzees and gorillas and found that bonobos had the fewest numbers of neighbors present. The results of this study do not support the association between number of neighbors and tool behavior reported for chimpanzees. However, bonobos demonstrated a similar sex difference in tool use acquisition, supporting the hypothesis of a female bias in tool use in Pan.

  9. Sex Differences in Performance on Piagetian Spatial Tasks: Differences in Competence or Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liben, Lynn S.; Golbeck, Susan L.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate that the performance factors examined do, in part, account for subjects' difficulties on standard Piagetian horizontality and verticality tasks but that they cannot fully account for the overall sex differences. (RH)

  10. Sex Differences in Muscle Pain: Self-care Behaviors and Effects on Daily Activities

    PubMed Central

    Dannecker, Erin A.; Knoll, Victoria; Robinson, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Women have a higher prevalence of fibromyalgia and myofascial pain than men, but sex differences in muscle pain are inconsistently detected. We examined sex differences in ratings and effects of recalled and experimentally-induced muscle pain. In Study 1 (N = 188), participants completed a questionnaire about recalled muscle pain. In Study 2 (N = 55), participants’ described muscle pain from an exercise stimulus across three days by telephone. Muscle pain ratings, self-care behaviors for muscle pain, and effects of muscle pain on activities were measured. No significant sex differences were found except that women tended to view exercise as more effective for decreasing muscle pain than men (F1, 187 = 5.43, p = .02, η2 = .03), fewer women performed exercise for induced muscle pain than men, and women’s activity interference was significantly higher than men’s at the third day post-exercise (F2, 42 = 6.54, p= .01, η2 = .14). These findings support the absence of meaningful sex differences in muscle pain ratings. However, additional investigations are needed that consider the daily activities completed by people and the prevalence and incidence of performing a wide range of self-care behaviors for pain. Perspective: These studies support that sex differences are not present in recalled and experimentally-induced muscle pain ratings. Therefore, we must be cautious about generalizing the musculoskeletal pain literature to muscle pain. Additional research is needed to interpret potential sex differences in self-care behaviors for muscle pain and activity interference from muscle pain. PMID:18088556

  11. Sex differences in cardiovascular and subjective stress reactions: prospective evidence in a realistic military setting.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Larson, Gerald E; Hiller Lauby, Melissa D; Padilla, Genieleah A; Wilson, Ingrid E; Schmied, Emily A; Highfill-McRoy, Robyn M; Morgan, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Evidence points to heightened physiological arousal in response to acute stress exposure as both a prospective indicator and a core characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because females may be at higher risk for PTSD development, it is important to evaluate sex differences in acute stress reactions. This study characterized sex differences in cardiovascular and subjective stress reactions among military survival trainees. One hundred and eighty-five military members (78% males) were studied before, during, and 24 h after stressful mock captivity. Cardiovascular (heart rate [HR], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) and dissociative states were measured at all three time points. Psychological impact of mock captivity was assessed during recovery. General linear modeling with repeated measures evaluated sex differences for each cardiovascular endpoint, and causal steps modeling was used to explore interrelationships among sex, cardiovascular reactions and psychological impact of mock captivity. Although females had lower SBP than males at all three time points, the difference was most pronounced at baseline and during stress. Accordingly, females showed greater residual elevation in SBP during recovery. Females had lower DBP at all three time points. In addition, females reported greater psychological impact of mock captivity than males. Exploratory causal steps modeling suggested that stress-induced HR may partially mediate the effect of sex on psychological impact of mock captivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated sex-specific cardiovascular stress reactions in military personnel, along with greater psychological impact of stress exposure in females. This research may elucidate sex differences in PTSD development. PMID:24320603

  12. Sex Differences in Time Perception during Self-paced Running

    PubMed Central

    HANSON, NICHOLAS J.; BUCKWORTH, JANET

    2016-01-01

    Time perception during exercise may be affected by chosen intensity, and may also affect enjoyment of exercise and subsequent long-term adherence. However, little is known about how individuals perceive the passage of time during exercise, or if factors such as sex are influential. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are sex related differences in perception of time during a bout of exercise in experienced runners. Twenty-two recreational runners (11 men, 11 women) participated in a bout of treadmill running where they were allowed to select their intensity. Sixty second prospective time estimations were taken before, during (at 33%, 66% and 90% of the completed distance), and after the run. Heart rate (HR) was also recorded throughout. The women (M = 91.9, SD = 3.3) ran at a significantly higher percentage of their maximum HR than the men (M = 86.5, SD = 6.4; p = 0.022), choosing to run at a higher relative intensity than the men when given the opportunity to self-pace. The women had relatively lower time estimations overall, showing that they perceived time to be passing by more slowly compared to the men. These results may help to explain sex related differences in exercise adherence. PMID:27766135

  13. Sex differences of COPD phenotypes in nonsmoking patients

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yoonki; Ji, Wonjun; An, Soojeong; Han, Seon-Sook; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence about sex-related phenotypes of COPD. However, the sex differences in COPD mainly result from smokers. This study evaluated the sex differences in nonsmoking patients with COPD, focusing on structural changes in the lungs in airway diseases and emphysema. Methods Ninety-seven nonsmoking patients, defined as having <1 pack-year of lifetime cigarette smoking, diagnosed with COPD were selected from a Korean COPD cohort. Emphysema extent and mean wall area percentage (WA%) on computed tomography were compared between the male and female groups. Results The 97 patients with COPD included 62 females and 35 males. Emphysema index was significantly lower (3.5±4.2 vs 6.2±5.7, P<0.01) and mean WA% on computed tomography was significantly higher (71.8%±5% vs 69.4%±5%, P<0.01) in females than in males, after adjusting for age, body mass index, history of biomass exposure, and postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (% of predicted). Conclusion WA% was higher and emphysema extent was lower in nonsmoking females with COPD than in nonsmoking males with COPD. These findings suggest that males may be predisposed to an emphysema phenotype and females may be predisposed to an airway phenotype of COPD. PMID:27524891

  14. Sex differences in the association between physical exercise and IQ.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J

    2012-10-01

    Previous research suggests that physical exercise may have beneficial effects on cognitive performance in children and the elderly, but little research has yet examined these associations in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that self-reported frequency and duration of physical exercise would correlate positively with measured intelligence on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence in healthy young to middle aged adults (25 men, 28 women). Although there was a modest positive association between physical exercise and intelligence (IQ) for the group as a whole, when examined separately by sex, greater physical activity was associated with higher intelligence scores for women, whereas exercise level was essentially unrelated to intelligence among men. These associations remained consistent even after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. The association between exercise and IQ appears to be moderated by sex in healthy adults, possibly through its effects on glucoregulation, insulin sensitivity, or other factors that differ between men and women.

  15. Sex differences in a rat model of risky decision making.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Willis, Markie L; Gilbert, Ryan J; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2016-02-01

    Many debilitating psychiatric conditions, including drug addiction, are characterized by poor decision making and maladaptive risk-taking. Recent research has begun to probe this relationship to determine how brain mechanisms mediating risk-taking become compromised after chronic drug use. Currently, however, the majority of work in this field has used male subjects. Given the well-established sex differences in drug addiction, it is conceivable that such differences are also evident in risk-based decision making. To test this possibility, male and female adult rats were trained in a risky decision making task (RDT), in which they chose between a small, "safe" food reward and a large, "risky" food reward accompanied by an increasing probability of mild footshock punishment. Consistent with findings in human subjects, females were more risk averse, choosing the large, risky reward significantly less than males. This effect was not due to differences in shock reactivity or body weight, and risk-taking in females was not modulated by estrous phase. Systemic amphetamine administration decreased risk-taking in both males and females; however, females exhibited greater sensitivity to amphetamine, suggesting that dopaminergic signaling may partially account for sex differences in risk-taking. Finally, although males displayed greater instrumental responding for food reward, reward choice in the RDT was not affected by satiation, indicating that differences in motivation to obtain food reward cannot fully account for sex differences in risk-taking. These results should prove useful for developing targeted treatments for psychiatric conditions in which risk-taking is altered and that are known to differentially affect males and females. PMID:26653713

  16. Sex differences in episodic memory among children with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mary Lou; Elliott, Irene; Naguiat, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with epilepsy exhibit sex differences in episodic memory. Fifty-one children and adolescents (26 boys and 25 girls) with intractable epilepsy were administered two verbal-auditory tasks (learning and recall of a word list and story recall) and two visual tasks (design recall and face recognition). Girls exhibited an advantage on the delayed recall of stories and on the learning phase of the word list task. No significant differences were observed on the delayed recall of words or the visual tasks. These results identify a particular risk for cognitive impairment in boys that could have an important impact on their academic performance.

  17. Sex Education Knowledge Differences between Freshmen and Senior College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ruth M.; Dotger, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Abstinence sexuality education (sex ed) is the only federally funded sex ed in the United States. The strict curriculum of this education does not educate American adolescents about safer sex practices and leaves a knowledge gap in these adolescents that follows them into college. The Problem: This project aimed to identify sex knowledge…

  18. Sex differences in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Keith R; Irvine, Karen; Gale, Tim M

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in neurocognitive abilities have been extensively explored both in the healthy population and in many disorders. Until recently, however, little work has examined such differences in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This is despite clear evidence that AD is more prevalent in women, and converging lines of evidence from brain imaging, post-mortem analyses, hormone therapy and genetics suggesting that AD affects men and women differently. We provide an overview of evidence attesting to the poorer cognitive profiles in women than in men at the same stage of AD. Indeed, men significantly outperform women in several cognitive domains, including: Language and semantic abilities, visuospatial abilities and episodic memory. These differences do not appear to be attributable to any differences in age, education, or dementia severity. Reasons posited for this female disadvantage include a reduction of estrogen in postmenopausal women, greater cognitive reserve in men, and the influence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. Assessment of cognitive abilities contributes to the diagnosis of the condition and thus, it is crucial to identify the role of sex differences if potentially more accurate diagnoses and treatments are to emerge. PMID:27014598

  19. Sex differences in a shoaling-boldness behavioral syndrome, but no link with aggression.

    PubMed

    Way, Gregory P; Kiesel, Alexis L; Ruhl, Nathan; Snekser, Jennifer L; McRobert, Scott P

    2015-04-01

    A behavioral syndrome is observed in a population when specific behaviors overlap at the individual level in different contexts. Here, we explore boldness and aggression personality spectra, the repeatability of shoaling, and possible associated correlations between the behaviors in a population of lab-reared zebrafish (Danio rerio). Our findings describe a sex-specific boldness-shoaling behavioral syndrome, as a link between boldness and shoaling behaviors is detected. The results indicate that bold males are likely to have a stronger shoaling propensity than shy males for unfamiliar conspecifics. Conversely, bold females are more likely to shoal than shy females, but only when presented with heterospecific individuals. Additionally, aggression does not correlate with boldness or shoaling propensity for either sex. A positive relationship between boldness and shoaling that differs by sex is contrary to most of the present literature, but could help to explain population dynamics and may also have evolutionary implications.

  20. Sex differences in coping strategies in military survival school.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Emily A; Padilla, Genieleah A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Lauby, Melissa D Hiller; Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of research has examined psychological responses to trauma among male military service members, but few studies have examined sex differences in response to trauma, such as coping strategies. This study assessed coping strategies used by male and female U.S. service members completing an intensely stressful mock-captivity exercise, compared strategies by sex, and assessed the relationship between coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Two hundred service members (78% male) completed self-report surveys before and after mock captivity. Surveys assessed demographics, service characteristics, PTSS, and coping strategies used during mock captivity. Participants used seven coping strategies: denial, self-blame, religion, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, positive reframing, and planning. Women used denial (p≤.05), self-blame (p≤.05), and positive reinterpretation (p≤.05) strategies more frequently than men, and they had higher PTSS levels following the exercise. Structural equation modeling showed that the relationship between sex and PTSS was fully mediated by coping strategies. The results of this study suggest that reducing the use of maladaptive coping strategies may mitigate PTSS among females. Future efforts should target improving coping during highly stressful and traumatic experiences. PMID:25465883

  1. Sex differences in pain: a tale of two immune cells.

    PubMed

    Mapplebeck, Josiane C S; Beggs, Simon; Salter, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Substantial evidence has implicated microglia in neuropathic pain. After peripheral nerve injury, microglia in the spinal cord proliferate and increase cell-surface expression of the purinergic receptor P2X4. Activation of P2X4 receptors results in release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which acts on neurons to produce disinhibition of dorsal horn neurons which transmit nociceptive information to the brain. Disinhibition of these neurons produces pain hypersensitivity, a hallmark symptom of neuropathic pain. However, elucidating this microglia-neuronal signalling pathway was based on studies using only male rodents. Recent evidence has shown that the role of microglia in pain is sexually dimorphic. Despite similar microglia proliferation in the dorsal horn in both sexes, females do not upregulate P2X4Rs and use a microglia-independent pathway to mediate pain hypersensitivity. Instead, adaptive immune cells, possibly T cells, may mediate pain hypersensitivity in female mice. This profound sex difference highlights the importance of including subjects of both sexes in preclinical pain research.

  2. Sleep Loss Activates Cellular Markers of Inflammation: Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammation and related disorders including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. Given sex differences in the prevalence of inflammatory disorders with stronger associations in females, this study was undertaken to test the effects of sleep loss on cellular mechanisms that contribute to proinflammatory cytokine activity. In 26 healthy adults (11 females; 15 males), monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed at 08:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, and 23:00 h during a baseline period and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 PM to 3 AM). In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor- α differentially changed between the two sexes. Whereas both females and males showed a marked increase in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the morning immediately after PSD, production of these cytokines during the early- and late evening was increased in the females as compared to decreases in the males. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of monocyte proinflammatory cytokine responses with females showing greater cellular immune activation as compared to changes in males. These results have implications for understanding the role of sleep disturbance in the differential risk profile for inflammatory disorders between the sexes. PMID:19520155

  3. Sex-specific differences in winter distribution patterns of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Haramis, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Winter band recovery distributions of North American Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) suggested that males and females exhibit comparable degrees of fidelity to general wintering areas. Of birds banded during the winter, the proportion of males was found to be higher in northern than in southern areas. Winter band recovery distributions of birds banded in particular areas during the summer were found to differ significantly between sexes, with females being recovered farther south. Factors that may have affected the evolution of sex-specific wintering distributions include: (1) possible reproductive benefits derived by males who winter in the north and thus reach northerly breeding areas early; (2) sexual dimorphism in body size, which may render the smaller females especially susceptible to periods of inclement weather and food shortages; and (3) interactions between sexes in which males may control food supply when food is scarce. Two lines of evidence from field data on Canvasbacks in the Chesapeake Bay suggest the existence of competition between males and females. First, Canvasbacks trapped during winter in smaller bodies of water tended to have higher proportions of females and weigh less than birds trapped in large open bodies of water. Second, analysis of aerial photographs of wintering rafts of Canvasbacks showed patterns of intersexual segregation, with females being found more frequently on peripheral areas of rafts.

  4. Autonomic receptors in urinary tract: Sex and age differences

    SciTech Connect

    Latifpour, J.; Kondo, S.; O'Hollaren, B.; Morita, T.; Weiss, R.M. )

    1990-05-01

    As age and sex affect the function of the lower urinary tract, we studied the characteristics of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in various parts of lower urinary tract smooth muscle of young (6 months) and old (4 1/2-5 years) male and female rabbits. Saturation experiments performed with (3H)prazosin, (3H)yohimbine, (3H)dihydroalprenolol and (3H)quinuclidinyl benzylate in rabbit bladder base, bladder dome and urethra indicate the presence of regional, sex- and age-related differences in the density of alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor density is considerably higher in the female than in the male urethra of both age groups, whereas the higher density of beta adrenergic receptors in the female than in the male bladder base is observed only in the younger animals. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in bladder dome than in bladder base or urethra in young rabbits of both sexes. In the old animals, the density of muscarinic receptors in bladder base increases to the level observed in bladder dome. Inhibition experiments with selective adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicate that the pharmacological profiles of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the urethra and beta adrenergic receptors in the bladder dome and bladder base are similar in both sexes and at both ages. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are shown to be predominant in bladder base and bladder dome of rabbits. Parallel studies in rabbit urethra, adult rat cortex and neonatal rat lung show that the urethral alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are of the alpha-2A subtype.

  5. Sex Differences in Outcome after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian; Mookerjee, Sohug; He, Hua; McDermott, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to estimate the independent association of sex with outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We performed an analysis of a subset of an established cohort involving 1425 mTBI patients presenting to an academic emergency department (ED). The associations between sex and three outcomes determined 3 months after the initial ED visit were examined: post-concussive symptom (PCS) score (0, 1–5, 6–16, and >16), the number of days to return of normal activities (0, 1–7, and >7), and the number of days of work missed (0, 1–7,and >7). Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between sex and each outcome after controlling for 12 relevant subject-level variables. Of the 1425 subjects, 643 (45.1%) were female and 782 (54.9%) were male. Three months after mTBI, males had significantly lower odds of being in a higher PCS score category (odds ratio [OR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50, 0.78); this association appeared to be more prominent during child-bearing years for females. Males and females did not significantly differ with respect to the odds of poorer outcome as defined by the number of days to return of normal activities or the number of days of work missed. Female sex is associated with significantly higher odds of poor outcome after mTBI, as measured by PCS score, after control for appropriate confounders. The observed pattern of peak disability for females during the child-bearing years suggests disruption of endogenous estrogen or progesterone production. Attempts to better understand how mTBI affects production of these hormones acutely after injury and during the recovery period may shed light on the mechanism behind poorer outcome among females and putative therapeutic interventions. PMID:19938945

  6. A heads up on concussions: are there sex-related differences?

    PubMed

    Brook, Emily M; Luo, Xuan; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries are a major concern for physicians in athletes of all ages. Specifically, sports-related concussions are becoming an all-too-common injury among female athletes. The incidence of concussions among female athletes has likely increased over the past few decades because of an increase in sports participation afforded by Title IX. It would be useful for physicians to have general knowledge of concussions and their potential sex-related differences. This review article summarizes the current body of research concerning sex-related differences in concussion epidemiology and outcomes. A literature search was performed using PubMed and included all articles published from 1993 to present, with a predominant focus on research conducted over the past fifteen years. Additional articles were found using the bibliography from articles found through the PubMed search. Several articles have compared incidence, severity of neurological deficit, constellation of symptoms, and length of recovery post-concussion in males and females. However, the literature does not unanimously support a significant sex-related difference in concussions. Lack of consensus in the literature can be attributed to differences between patient populations, different tools used to study concussions, including subjective or objective measures, and differences in mechanisms of injury. We conclude that concussions are a serious injury in both male and female athletes, and physicians should have a very high index of suspicion regardless of sex, because there currently is not sufficient consensus in the literature to institute sex-related changes to concussion management. Current research may suggest a sex-related difference pertaining to sports-related concussions, but further evaluation is needed on this topic.

  7. A heads up on concussions: are there sex-related differences?

    PubMed

    Brook, Emily M; Luo, Xuan; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries are a major concern for physicians in athletes of all ages. Specifically, sports-related concussions are becoming an all-too-common injury among female athletes. The incidence of concussions among female athletes has likely increased over the past few decades because of an increase in sports participation afforded by Title IX. It would be useful for physicians to have general knowledge of concussions and their potential sex-related differences. This review article summarizes the current body of research concerning sex-related differences in concussion epidemiology and outcomes. A literature search was performed using PubMed and included all articles published from 1993 to present, with a predominant focus on research conducted over the past fifteen years. Additional articles were found using the bibliography from articles found through the PubMed search. Several articles have compared incidence, severity of neurological deficit, constellation of symptoms, and length of recovery post-concussion in males and females. However, the literature does not unanimously support a significant sex-related difference in concussions. Lack of consensus in the literature can be attributed to differences between patient populations, different tools used to study concussions, including subjective or objective measures, and differences in mechanisms of injury. We conclude that concussions are a serious injury in both male and female athletes, and physicians should have a very high index of suspicion regardless of sex, because there currently is not sufficient consensus in the literature to institute sex-related changes to concussion management. Current research may suggest a sex-related difference pertaining to sports-related concussions, but further evaluation is needed on this topic. PMID:26781686

  8. Sex Differences in the Rapid Detection of Emotional Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that females and males differ in the processing of emotional facial expressions including the recognition of emotion, and that emotional facial expressions are detected more rapidly than are neutral expressions. However, whether the sexes differ in the rapid detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured reaction times (RTs) during a visual search task in which 44 females and 46 males detected normal facial expressions of anger and happiness or their anti-expressions within crowds of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions expressed neutral emotions with visual changes quantitatively comparable to normal expressions. We also obtained subjective emotional ratings in response to the facial expression stimuli. RT results showed that both females and males detected normal expressions more rapidly than anti-expressions and normal-angry expressions more rapidly than normal-happy expressions. However, females and males showed different patterns in their subjective ratings in response to the facial expressions. Furthermore, sex differences were found in the relationships between subjective ratings and RTs. High arousal was more strongly associated with rapid detection of facial expressions in females, whereas negatively valenced feelings were more clearly associated with the rapid detection of facial expressions in males. Conclusion Our data suggest that females and males differ in their subjective emotional reactions to facial expressions and in the emotional processes that modulate the detection of facial expressions. PMID:24728084

  9. Sex-specific strategy use and global-local processing: a perspective toward integrating sex differences in cognition.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on sex-specific strategy use in cognitive tasks with the aim to carve out a link between sex differences in different cognitive tasks. I conclude that male strategies are commonly holistic and oriented toward global stimulus aspects, while female strategies are commonly decomposed and oriented toward local stimulus aspects. Thus, the strategies observed in different tasks, may depend on sex differences in attentional focus and hence sex differences in global-local processing. I hypothesize that strategy use may be sex hormone dependent and hence subject to change over the menstrual cycle as evidenced by findings in global-local processing and emotional memory. Furthermore, I propose sex hormonal modulation of hemispheric asymmetries as one possible neural substrate for this theory, thereby building on older theories, emphasizing the importance of sex differences in brain lateralization. The ideas described in the current article represent a perspective toward a unifying approach to the study of sex differences in cognition and their neural correlates.

  10. Sex differences in quality of life after ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Mathew J.; Zhao, Xin; Pan, Wenqin; Prvu-Bettger, Janet; Zimmer, Louise; Olson, DaiWai; Peterson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to compare quality of life (QOL) in women and men after ischemic stroke or TIA, and to determine the incremental impact of demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and stroke-specific effects on longitudinal QOL. Methods: We assessed QOL in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA at 3 and 12 months postdischarge in the Adherence eValuation After Ischemic stroke–Longitudinal Registry using the European Quality of Life–5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument. We generated multivariable linear regression models to evaluate the association between sex and EQ-5D while sequentially adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and stroke-related variables. We also used a proportional odds model to assess sex differences in the change in EQ-5D scores from 3 to 12 months. Results: A total of 1,370 patients were included, 53.7% male, median age 65 years (interquartile range 56–77 years). Women had significantly lower QOL at 3 months (unadjusted EQ-5D 0.81 in women vs 0.84 in men; p < 0.001) and 12 months (0.83 vs men 0.84; p < 0.001) poststroke. After multivariable adjustment for sociodemographic, clinical, and stroke-related factors, women continued to have lower QOL at 3 months (mean difference −0.036; p = 0.003) and at 12 months (mean difference −0.022; p = 0.046). Women fared worse in the dimensions of mobility, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression at 3 and 12 months. There were no sex differences in change in EQ-5D score from 3 to 12 months. Conclusion: Women have worse QOL than men up to 12 months after stroke, even after adjusting for important sociodemographic variables, stroke severity, and disability. PMID:24510493

  11. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  12. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  13. Sex differences in postsynaptic sweating and cutaneous vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Daniel; Crandall, Craig G; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-02-01

    The current study aimed to determine whether a peripheral modulation of sweating contributes to the lower sudomotor thermosensitivity previously observed in females during exercise. We examined dose-response relationships in 12 males and 12 females to incremental doses of acetylcholine (ACh) and methylcholine (MCh) for sweating (ventilated capsule), as well as to ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for cutaneous vasodilation (laser-Doppler). All drugs were infused using intradermal microdialysis. On a separate day, potential sex differences in the onset threshold and/or thermosensitivity of heat loss responses were assessed during progressive increases in mean body temperature elicited by passive heating. Increases in sweating as a function of increasing concentration of ACh (P = 0.008) and MCh (P = 0.046) significantly differed between males and females. Although the concentration eliciting 50% of the maximal sweating response did not differ between sexes for either agonist (P > 0.1), maximum values were lower in females in response to ACh (0.34 ± 0.12 vs. 0.59 ± 0.19 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), P = 0.04) and MCh (0.48 ± 0.12 vs. 0.78 ± 0.26 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), P = 0.05). This observation was paralleled by a lower thermosensitivity of sudomotor activity in females during passive heating (1.29 ± 0.34 vs. 1.83 ± 0.33 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2)·°C(-1), P = 0.03), with no significant differences in the change in mean body temperature at which onset of sweating occurred (0.85 ± 0.19 vs. 0.67 ± 0.13°C, P = 0.10). No sex differences in cutaneous vasodilation were observed in response to ACh and SNP, as well as during passive heating (all P > 0.1). These findings provide direct evidence for a peripheral modulation of sudomotor activity in females. In contrast, sex does not modulate cutaneous vasodilation.

  14. Sex differences in postsynaptic sweating and cutaneous vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Daniel; Crandall, Craig G.

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine whether a peripheral modulation of sweating contributes to the lower sudomotor thermosensitivity previously observed in females during exercise. We examined dose-response relationships in 12 males and 12 females to incremental doses of acetylcholine (ACh) and methylcholine (MCh) for sweating (ventilated capsule), as well as to ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for cutaneous vasodilation (laser-Doppler). All drugs were infused using intradermal microdialysis. On a separate day, potential sex differences in the onset threshold and/or thermosensitivity of heat loss responses were assessed during progressive increases in mean body temperature elicited by passive heating. Increases in sweating as a function of increasing concentration of ACh (P = 0.008) and MCh (P = 0.046) significantly differed between males and females. Although the concentration eliciting 50% of the maximal sweating response did not differ between sexes for either agonist (P > 0.1), maximum values were lower in females in response to ACh (0.34 ± 0.12 vs. 0.59 ± 0.19 mg·min−1·cm−2, P = 0.04) and MCh (0.48 ± 0.12 vs. 0.78 ± 0.26 mg·min−1·cm−2, P = 0.05). This observation was paralleled by a lower thermosensitivity of sudomotor activity in females during passive heating (1.29 ± 0.34 vs. 1.83 ± 0.33 mg·min−1·cm−2·°C−1, P = 0.03), with no significant differences in the change in mean body temperature at which onset of sweating occurred (0.85 ± 0.19 vs. 0.67 ± 0.13°C, P = 0.10). No sex differences in cutaneous vasodilation were observed in response to ACh and SNP, as well as during passive heating (all P > 0.1). These findings provide direct evidence for a peripheral modulation of sudomotor activity in females. In contrast, sex does not modulate cutaneous vasodilation. PMID:23154992

  15. [Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of psychotropic medications: Differences between sexes].

    PubMed

    Bergiannaki, J D; Kostaras, P

    2016-01-01

    The gender based or gender sensitive pharmacology is a new research area. Differences among sexes are observed in several parameters of their pharmacokinetic which may relate to alteration of their pharmacodynamic as well. Most psychotropics are given per os, and the greater part of their absorption takes place in the small intestine. Premenopausal women have slower gastric emptying times and lower gastrointestinal blood flow which probably reduces the extent of drug absorption. The distribution of drugs is influenced by the relative lower body mass index, the lower blood volume and flow and the greater percentage of body fat of women. Further, the elimination and renal clearance is reduced in women and the hepatic metabolism differ between sexes. Besides, women differ from men in physiological conditions which may have an impact on the psychotropic medication and dosage required for efficacy and response. Women are exposed to monthly hormonal fluctuations (menstruation), pregnancy, puerperium, menopause and use of contraceptives or synthetic hormonal replacement therapies. Throughout of these conditions changes may occur in total body water, in renal clearance, cardiovascular and autoimmune system, which may cause fluctuations in the activity of the psychotropics, changes in the central neurotransmitters, in the number and sensitivity of the receptors, and the general metabolism as well. Despite the fact that women are the primer consumers of psychotropic medication, taking more psychotropics as well as more multiple medications than men, little attention has been paid to sex differences in psychopharmacology. Till recently women were under-represented or excluded from most of the pharmacological clinical trials. The treatment guidelines for psychotropic medication are based on studies verified and investigated almost exclusively in men. Results from such studies were generalized and recommended for use in the clinical practice without any critique and

  16. Sex and Gender Differences in Central Nervous System-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zagni, Emanuela; Simoni, Lucia; Colombo, Delia

    2016-01-01

    There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies. We here review the clinical literature on sex differences in pain and neurological and psychiatric diseases, with the aim to further stimulate interest in sexual dimorphisms in the brain and brain diseases, possibly encouraging more research in the field of the implications of sex differences for treating these conditions. PMID:27314003

  17. Collegiate Swimmers: Sex Differences in Self Reported and Physiological Stress Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gackenbach, Jayne

    Research has suggested that sex role identity is a major factor in sports anxiety across the sexes. Sex and sex role differences in sports anxiety as expressed by collegiate swimmers prior to competition were investigated on both self-report and physiological levels. An hour before practice and competition the blood pressures of 13 female and 14…

  18. Different patterns of puberty effect in neural oscillation to negative stimuli: sex differences.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiajin; Ju, Enxia; Yang, Jiemin; Chen, Xuhai; Li, Hong

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated the impact of puberty on sex differences in neural sensitivity to negative stimuli. Event-related oscillation technique was used. Because girls are more vulnerable to affective disturbances than boys during adolescence, it was hypothesized that puberty exerts different influences on neural sensitivity to negative stimuli in boys and girls. EEGs were recorded for highly negative (HN), mildly negative (MN) and neutral pictures, when boys and girls distinct in pubertal status performed a non-emotional distracting task. No emotion effect and its interaction with sex and puberty were observed in response latencies. However, puberty influenced the gamma-band oscillation effect for negative stimuli differently for boys and girls: Pre-pubertal boys showed a significant emotion effect for HN stimuli, whose size was decreased in pubertal boys. By contrast, there was a significant emotion effect for HN stimuli in pubertal girls but not in pre-pubertal girls. On the other hand, the size of the emotion effect for HN stimuli was similar for pre-pubertal boys and girls; while this effect was significantly more pronounced in pubertal girls compared to pubertal boys. Additionally, the size of the emotion effect in gamma oscillations decreased as a function of pubertal development during both HN and MN stimulation in boys. For girls, the emotion effect in gamma oscillations increased with pubertal development during HN stimulation. Thus, puberty is associated with reduced neural sensitivity in boys but increased sensitivity in girls, in reaction to negative stimuli. The implications of these results for the psychopathology during adolescence were discussed.

  19. Sex differences in discriminating between cues predicting threat and safety.

    PubMed

    Day, Harriet L L; Reed, Molly M; Stevenson, Carl W

    2016-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent in women than men. PTSD is characterized by overgeneralization of fear to innocuous stimuli and involves impaired inhibition of learned fear by cues that predict safety. While evidence indicates that learned fear inhibition through extinction differs in males and females, less is known about sex differences in fear discrimination and safety learning. Here we examined auditory fear discrimination in male and female rats. In Experiment 1A, rats underwent 1-3days of discrimination training consisting of one tone predicting threat (CS+; presented with footshock) and another tone predicting safety (CS-; presented alone). Females, but not males, discriminated between the CS+ and CS- after one day of training. After 2-3days of training, however, males discriminated whereas females generalized between the CS+ and CS-. In Experiment 1B, females showed enhanced anxiety-like behaviour and locomotor activity in the open field, although these results were unlikely to explain the sex differences in fear discrimination. In Experiment 2, we found no differences in shock sensitivity between males and females. In Experiment 3, males and females again discriminated and generalized, respectively, after three days of training. Moreover, fear generalization in females resulted from impaired safety learning, as shown by a retardation test. Whereas subsequent fear conditioning to the previous CS- retarded learning in males, females showed no such retardation. These results suggest that, while females show fear discrimination with limited training, they show fear generalization with extended training due to impaired safety learning. PMID:27423522

  20. Sex-related differences in explosive actions during late childhood.

    PubMed

    Meylan, César M P; Cronin, John B; Oliver, Jon L; Rumpf, Michael C

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex-related differences in explosive actions during late childhood, while accounting for body size and maturity, and determine the predictive model responsible for performance. Sixty-eight boys (11.0 ± 1.1 years) and 45 girls (11.3 ± 0.9 years) performed a vertical and horizontal jump, 30-m sprint, and change of direction (COD) time trial. After allometric analysis, a common sex scaling factor of body mass was used for vertical (b = 1.02) and horizontal (b = 0.97) power. No significant sex difference in relative leg power was found before and after controlling for maturity status. Gender differences in 10 m, the Zigzag section, and flying 10 m of the COD task were found significant once adjusted for maturity (p ≤ 0.05). However, boys performed better than girls in 20- and 30-m sprint and the COD time trial regardless of maturity status (p ≤ 0.05). Reduced endomorphy in boys was the best predictor of explosive actions (R = 7-22%), whereas female performance was best explained by mass and maturity status (R = 15-19%). Jump power-specific allometric scaling factors need to be determined to account for body size. A training emphasis on sprinting and COD at a younger age in girls compared with boys is recommended because of their earlier onset of puberty and reduced natural ability in these tasks. Somatotype, age, maturity, and body mass should be monitored during the development of youth athletes to better understand explosive performance.

  1. Sex-related differences in explosive actions during late childhood.

    PubMed

    Meylan, César M P; Cronin, John B; Oliver, Jon L; Rumpf, Michael C

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex-related differences in explosive actions during late childhood, while accounting for body size and maturity, and determine the predictive model responsible for performance. Sixty-eight boys (11.0 ± 1.1 years) and 45 girls (11.3 ± 0.9 years) performed a vertical and horizontal jump, 30-m sprint, and change of direction (COD) time trial. After allometric analysis, a common sex scaling factor of body mass was used for vertical (b = 1.02) and horizontal (b = 0.97) power. No significant sex difference in relative leg power was found before and after controlling for maturity status. Gender differences in 10 m, the Zigzag section, and flying 10 m of the COD task were found significant once adjusted for maturity (p ≤ 0.05). However, boys performed better than girls in 20- and 30-m sprint and the COD time trial regardless of maturity status (p ≤ 0.05). Reduced endomorphy in boys was the best predictor of explosive actions (R = 7-22%), whereas female performance was best explained by mass and maturity status (R = 15-19%). Jump power-specific allometric scaling factors need to be determined to account for body size. A training emphasis on sprinting and COD at a younger age in girls compared with boys is recommended because of their earlier onset of puberty and reduced natural ability in these tasks. Somatotype, age, maturity, and body mass should be monitored during the development of youth athletes to better understand explosive performance. PMID:25054572

  2. Acute Exercise Increases Sex Differences in Amateur Athletes' Risk Taking.

    PubMed

    Pighin, S; Savadori, L; Bonini, N; Andreozzi, L; Savoldelli, A; Schena, F

    2015-10-01

    The research presented here investigates the interaction between acute exercise, biological sex and risk-taking behavior. The study involved 20 amateur athletes (19-33 years old), 10 males and 10 females, who were asked to undergo subsequent experimental sessions designed to compare their risky behaviors on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) 34 at rest and while exercising at moderate intensity (60% of their maximal aerobic power). Results showed that physical exercise affected male and female participants differently: Whereas males became more risk seeking, females became more risk averse during exercise. PMID:26090877

  3. Sex differences in experimental pain among healthy children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Birnie, Kathryn A; Caes, Line; Schinkel, Meghan; Chambers, Christine T

    2014-05-01

    Sex differences in response to experimental pain are commonly reported in systematic reviews in the adult literature. The objective of the present research was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of sex differences in healthy children's responses to experimental pain (e.g., cold pressor, heat pain, pressure pain) and, where possible, to conduct analyses separately for children and adolescents. A search was conducted of electronic databases for published papers in English of empirical research using experimental pain tasks to examine pain-related outcomes in healthy boys and girls between 0 and 18 years of age. Eighty articles were eligible for inclusion and were coded to extract information relevant to sex differences. The systematic review indicated that, across different experimental pain tasks, the majority of studies reported no significant differences between boys and girls on pain-related outcomes. However, the meta-analysis of available combined data found that girls reported significantly higher cold pressor pain intensity compared to boys in studies where the mean age of participants was greater than 12 years. Additionally, a meta-analysis of heat pain found that boys had significantly higher tolerance than girls overall, and boys had significantly higher heat pain threshold than girls in studies where the mean age of participants was 12 years or younger. These findings suggest that developmental stage may be relevant for understanding sex differences in pain.

  4. Understanding sex differences in the cost of terrestrial locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Lees, John J.; Nudds, Robert L.; Folkow, Lars P.; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known regarding the physiological consequences of the behavioural and morphological differences that result from sexual selection in birds. Male and female Svalbard rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta hyperborea) exhibit distinctive behavioural differences during the breeding season. In particular, males continuously compete for and defend territories in order to breed successfully, placing large demands on their locomotor system. Here, we demonstrate that male birds have improved locomotor performance compared with females, showing both a lower cost of locomotion (CoL) and a higher top speed. We propose that the observed sex differences in locomotor capability may be due to sexual selection for improved male performance. While the mechanisms underlying these energetic differences are unclear, future studies should be wary when pooling male and female data. PMID:21849317

  5. Same-Sex Patterns and Sex Differences in the Trust-Value Basis of Children's Friendship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.

    1986-01-01

    A sample of grade four students reported the secret-sharing and promise-making behavior of classroom peers and judged those classmates on trust and friendship. Findings suggest that the same-sex friendship patterns are maintained by same-sex trust patterns through infrequent secret-sharing with opposite-sex peers and the perception that…

  6. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  7. The LH surge in humans: its mechanism and sex difference.

    PubMed

    Goh, H H; Ratnam, S S

    1988-06-01

    There is a sex difference in the response to an estrogen challenge test in humans, but, unlike with rats, this sex difference is not permanently imprinted in the central nervous system. Estrogen is not only the important ovarian signal to trigger off the LH surge, but it also probably plays an important role in activating the positive estrogen feedback mechanism in humans. For an LH surge to occur, amplification of the hypothalamic signal (enhanced secretion of GnRH) as well as sensitization of the pituitary responsiveness to GnRH are required. It is unlikely that androgens per se are responsible for suppressing the positive estrogen feedback in humans and the possible role of another gonadal factor other than androgens remains speculative. The LH surge is a neuroendocrine phenomenon involved primarily in the process of ovulation and it is not correlated to sexual identity and orientation. Furthermore, how the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) responds to the estrogen challenge can be accounted for purely by its exposure to a different steroid milieu without reference to gender identity or sexual orientation of the subject.

  8. Responses of sex steroid hormones to different intensities of exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Kanao, Yoji; Saito, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute exercise elevates sex steroid hormone concentrations in rodents and that sprint exercise increases circulating testosterone in healthy young men. However, the effect of different exercise intensities on sex steroid hormone responses at different levels of physical fitness is still unclear. In this study, we compared circulating sex steroid hormone responses at different exercise intensities in athletes and non-athletes. Eight male endurance athletes and 11 non-athletes performed two 15 min sessions of submaximal exercise at 40 and 70% peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)), respectively, and exercised at 90% V̇(O2peak) until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected during the last minute of each submaximal exercise session and immediately after exhaustion. Acute exercise at 40, 70 and 90% V̇(O2peak) induced significant increases in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and free testosterone concentrations in non-athletes. On the contrary, only 90% V̇O2 peak exercise led to an increase in serum DHEA and free testosterone concentrations in athletes. Serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased with 90% V̇(O2peak) exercise in both athletes and non-athletes. Additionally, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly increased at moderate and high exercise intensities in both athletes and non-athletes. These results indicate that in endurance athletes, serum sex steroid hormone concentrations, especially serum DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations, increased only with high-intensity exercise, suggesting that different responses of sex steroid hormone secretion are induced by different exercise intensities in individuals with low and high levels of physical fitness. In athletes, therefore, high-intensity exercise may be required to increase circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations.

  9. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Sex Moderate the Pathway from Clinical Symptoms to Adaptive Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73 ± 4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p = 0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders. PMID:25988942

  10. Utilization of same- vs. mixed-sex dyads impacts the observation of sex differences in juvenile social play behavior

    PubMed Central

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    The study of juvenile social play behavior has gained popularity due to the disruption of social behaviors in several psychiatric illnesses. In contrast to many tests currently utilized in animal models of psychiatric illness, juvenile social play behavior is part of the normal behavioral repertoire in the laboratory rat and can be observed in a controlled setting but without evocation by the experimenter. Understanding sources of naturally occurring differences in the juvenile social play behavior of the rat is a fundamental first step to guide future research on identifying factors that disrupt this behavior. One of the most commonly found variations is a sex difference, with male rats displaying higher levels of rough-and-tumble play behavior relative to females. This sex difference is also observed in human play. In our recent paper published in Biology of Sex Differences, we investigated how the sex and familiarity of the play partner can impact different components of rough-and-tumble play behavior (pouncing, pinning, boxing, and chasing) and the observation of sex differences within each of these components. Our findings suggest that juvenile male rough-and-tumble play behavior is impacted by the sex of their play partner, while females are more sensitive to the familiarity of their play partner. In this review, we discuss our recent findings and provide a comprehensive comparison of methodology and the reporting of sex differences in the literature on this topic. PMID:26924913

  11. Sex differences in autism spectrum disorders: does sex moderate the pathway from clinical symptoms to adaptive behavior?

    PubMed

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73 ± 4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p = 0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders.

  12. Sex differences in pacing during ‘Ultraman Hawaii’

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ held between 1983 and 2015. Methods Within each sex, participants were grouped in quartiles (i.e., Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) with Q1 being the fastest (i.e., lowest overall time) and Q4 the slowest (i.e., highest overall time). To compare performance among events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running), race time in each event was converted in z score and this value was used for further analysis. Results A between-within subjects ANOVA showed a large sex × event (p = 0.015, η2 = 0.014) and a medium performance group × event interaction (p = 0.001, η2 = 0.012). No main effect of event on performance was observed (p = 0.174, η2 = 0.007). With regard to the sex × event interaction, three female performance groups (i.e., Q2, Q3 and Q4) increased race time from swimming to cycling 1, whereas only one male performance group (Q4) revealed a similar trend. From cycling 1 to cycling 2, the two slower female groups (Q3 and Q4) and the slowest male group (Q4) increased raced time. In women, the fastest group decreased (i.e., improved) race time from swimming to cycling 1 and thereafter, maintained performance, whereas in men, the fastest group decreased race time till cycling 2 and increased it in the running. Conclusion In summary, women pace differently than men during ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ where the fastest women decreased performance on day 1 and could then maintain on day 2 and 3, whereas the fastest men worsened performance on day 1 and 2 but improved on day 3. PMID:27703854

  13. Sex differences, sexual selection, and ageing: an experimental evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-10-01

    Life-history (LH) theory predicts that selection will optimize the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Reproductive ageing and finite life span are direct consequences of such optimization. Sexual selection and conflict profoundly affect the reproductive strategies of the sexes and thus can play an important role in the evolution of life span and ageing. In theory, sexual selection can favor the evolution of either faster or slower ageing, but the evidence is equivocal. We used a novel selection experiment to investigate the potential of sexual selection to influence the adaptive evolution of age-specific LH traits. We selected replicate populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus for age at reproduction ("Young" and "Old") either with or without sexual selection. We found that LH selection resulted in the evolution of age-specific reproduction and mortality but these changes were largely unaffected by sexual selection. Sexual selection depressed net reproductive performance and failed to promote adaptation. Nonetheless, the evolution of several traits differed between males and females. These data challenge the importance of current sexual selection in promoting rapid adaptation to environmental change but support the hypothesis that sex differences in LH-a historical signature of sexual selection-are key in shaping trait responses to novel selection.

  14. Human sex differences in solving a virtual navigation problem.

    PubMed

    Astur, Robert S; Purton, Andrea J; Zaniewski, Melanie J; Cimadevilla, Jose; Markus, Etan J

    2016-07-15

    The current study examined sex differences in initial and subsequent strategies in solving a navigational problem within a virtual reality environment. We tested 163 undergraduates on a virtual T-maze task that included probe trials designed to assess whether participants were responding using either a place or response strategy. Participants were also tested on a mental rotation task and memory of the details of the virtual room. There were no differences between the sexes in copying or recalling a map of the room or on first trial performance of the T-maze. However, at trial two, males show a significant advantage in solving the task, and approximately 80% of the males adopt a place strategy to solve the T-maze whereas females at that point showed no strategy preference. Across all testing, both males and females preferentially used a place strategy. We discuss how factors such as spatial priming affect strategy preferences and how such factors may differentially affect males and females. PMID:27108050

  15. Sex Differences in the Association Between Testosterone and Violent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the association between testosterone and violent behavior has provided conflicting findings. The majority of studies on the association between testosterone and antisocial-violent behaviors has used a clinical sample of severely violent individuals. These studies have mostly assessed males. Objectives: To study sex differences in the association between testosterone and violent behaviors in a community sample of young adults in the United States. Patients and Methods: A longitudinal study of an inner city population on subjects aged from adolescence to adulthood was undertaken. Testosterone and violent behaviors were measured among 257 young adults with an average age of 22 years (range 21 to 23 years). We used regression analysis to test the association between testosterone and violent behaviors in male and female samples. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between testosterone levels and violent behaviors among females, but not males. The association between testosterone levels and violent behaviors among females was significant, as it was above and beyond the effects of socio-economic status, age, education, and race. Conclusions: Our findings provide more information about the biological mechanisms for violent behaviors among young female adults. The study also helps us better understand sex differences in factors associated with violent behaviors in the community. PMID:25337519

  16. Sex differences in social modulation of learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mikosz, Marta; Nowak, Aleksandra; Werka, Tomasz; Knapska, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    In its simplest form, empathy can be characterized as the capacity to share the emotional experiences among individuals, a phenomenon known as emotional contagion. Recent research shows that emotional contagion and its adaptive role can be studied in rodents. However, it is not known whether sex differences observed in human empathy extend to its more primitive forms. In the present study, we used a rat model of emotional contagion to compare the behavioral consequences of social transfer of information about threat, and the subsequent neural activation patterns in male and female rats. We found that: (1) males and females display a similar behavioral pattern during the interaction with either a fear-conditioned or a control rat; (2) interaction with a fear-conditioned conspecific positively modulates two-way avoidance learning in male and diestral female rats but not in estral females; and (3) such interaction results in increased c-Fos expression in the central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex in males, whereas in females no such changes were observed. Collectively, our results point to the occurrence of sex and estrus cycle phase differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and underlying neuronal activation in rodents. PMID:26655917

  17. Sex-Role Orientation: Differences among Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Arthur G.

    1988-01-01

    Administered Bem Sex Role Inventory to 408 secondary school students and 393 teachers randomly selected from seven Caribbean States. Analyses indicated marked differentiation of males (both teachers and students) and females (both teachers and students) in sex-role orientation. Students were more rigidly sex-typed than were teachers. (Author/NB)

  18. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  3. Sex Differences in the Relationship between Harsh Discipline and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysenko, Laura J.; Barker, Edward D.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Research on sex differences in antisocial behaviour may shed light on the causes of childhood antisocial behaviour. Using a longitudinal design, we tested whether there were sex differences in the amount of harsh discipline children received or in the effect of harsh discipline and whether this accounted for sex differences in later conduct…

  4. Sex Differences in Technical Communication: A Perspective from Social Role Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    This article interprets technical communication research about sex differences according to social role theory, which argues that sex differences are enculturated through experiences associated with social positions in the family and the workplace. It reevaluates technical communication research about sex differences in communicative and…

  5. Sex difference in the principal cytochrome P-450 for tributyltin metabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ohhira, Shuji . E-mail: s-ohhira@dokkyomed.ac.jp; Enomoto, Mitsunori; Matsui, Hisao

    2006-01-15

    Tributyltin is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) system enzymes, and its metabolic fate may contribute to the toxicity of the chemical. In the present study, it is examined whether sex differences in the metabolism of tributyltin exist in rats. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of tributyltin was investigated using rat hepatic CYP systems to confirm the principal CYP involved. A significant sex difference in metabolism occurred both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that one of the CYPs responsible for tributyltin metabolism in rats is male specific or predominant at least. Eight cDNA-expressed rat CYPs, including typical phenobarbital (PB)-inducible forms and members of the CYP2C subfamily, were tested to determine their capability for tributyltin metabolism. Among the enzymes studied, a statistically significant dealkylation of tributyltin was mediated by CYP2C6 and 2C11. Furthermore, the sex difference in metabolism disappeared in vitro after anti-rat CYP2C11 antibody pretreatment because CYP2C11 is a major male-specific form in rats. These results indicate that CYP2C6 is the principal CYP for tributyltin metabolism in female rats, whereas CYP2C11 as well as 2C6 is involved in tributyltin metabolism in male rats, and it is suggested that CYP2C11 is responsible for the significant sex difference in the metabolism of tributyltin observed in rats.

  6. Sex differences in associations between cannabis craving and neural responses to cannabis cues: Implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical research indicates that there are sex differences in how men and women initiate, progress, respond to, and withdraw from cannabis use; however, neurophysiological differences, such as neural responses to cannabis cues, are not well understood. Using functional MRI and an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent backward-masking task, we compared neural responses to backward-masked cannabis cues to neutral cues in treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent adults (N = 44; 27 males) and examined whether sex differences exist. In addition, functional MRI findings were correlated with cannabis craving. Backward-masked cannabis cues elicited greater neural responses than neutral cues in reward-related brain regions, including the striatum, hippocampus/amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, p < .01, k > 121 voxels. Although no significant sex differences in neural responses to cannabis cues emerged, women showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the bilateral insula and cannabis craving and an inverse correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and cannabis craving. Men, however, showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the striatum and cannabis craving. Given that cues and craving are important triggers and the focus on many behavioral treatment approaches, these findings suggest that treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent men and women may benefit from sex-specific and tailored cannabis use disorder treatments.

  7. The role of sex differences in autophagy in the heart during coxsackievirus B3 induced myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Andreas; Sateriale, Adam; Budd, Ralph C.; Huber, Sally A.; Buskiewicz, Iwona A.

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, autophagy maintains cardiomyocyte health and integrity through turnover of organelles. During stress, oxygen and nutrient deprivation or microbial infection, autophagy prolongs cardiomyocyte survival. Sex differences in induction of cell death may to some extent explain the disparity between the sexes in many human diseases. However, sex differences in gene expression, which regulate cell death and autophagy were so far not taken in consideration to explain the sex bias of viral myocarditis. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) induced myocarditis is a sex-biased disease, with females being substantially less susceptible than males and sex hormones largely determine this bias. CVB3 was shown to induce and subvert the autophagosome for its optimal viral RNA replication. Gene expression analysis on mouse and human, healthy and CVB3 infected, cardiac samples of both sexes, suggests sex differences in autophagy related gene expression. This review discusses the aspects of sex bias in autophagy induction in cardiomyocytes. PMID:24323874

  8. Sex differences in Hadza dental wear patterns : a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Berbesque, J Colette; Marlowe, Frank W; Pawn, Ian; Thompson, Peter; Johnson, Guy; Mabulla, Audax

    2012-09-01

    Among hunter-gatherers, the sharing of male and female foods is often assumed to result in virtually the same diet for males and females. Although food sharing is widespread among the hunting and gathering Hadza of Tanzania, women were observed eating significantly more tubers than men. This study investigates the relationship between patterns of dental wear, diet, and extramasticatory use of teeth among the Hadza. Casts of the upper dentitions were made from molds taken from 126 adults and scored according to the Murphy dental attrition scoring system. Females had significantly greater anterior occlusal wear than males when we controlled for age. Males exhibited greater asymmetry in wear, with greater wear on the left side in canines, first premolars, and first molars. We suggest that these sex differences in wear patterns reflect the differences seen in the diet, as well as in the use of teeth as tools.

  9. Sex differences in lifting strategies during a repetitive palletizing task.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, A; Larivière, C; Denis, D; St-Vincent, M; Delisle, A

    2014-11-01

    Forty-five manual material handlers (15 females, 15 expert males and 15 novice males) performed series of box transfers under conditions similar to those of large distribution centers. The objective of the study was to verify whether sex differences in joint motions and in back loading variables (L5/S1 moments) exist during multiple box transfers. The task consisted in transferring 24 15-kg boxes from one pallet to another (4 layers of boxes; 6 boxes/layer: 3 in the front row, 3 in the back) at a self-determined pace and then at an imposed pace of 9 lifts/min. Full-body 3D kinematic data were collected as well as external foot forces. A dynamic 3D linked segment model was used to estimate the net moments at L5/S1. The results show that the peak L5/S1 moment during lifting for females was significantly lower than for males, but once normalized to body size the difference disappeared. In general, the female workers were very close to the posture adopted by the novice males at the instant of the peak resultant moment. However, females were closer to the box than the male workers. One major sex difference was seen when lifting from the ground, with the use of interjoint coordination analyses. Female workers showed a sequential motion initiated by the knees, followed by the hip and the back, while expert males showed a more synchronized motion. The lifting strategy of females likely stretches lumbar spine passive tissues, which in turn put them at greater risk of back injuries. As observed in our previous studies, these differences between expert males, novice males and females are especially notable when the box is lifted from the ground. PMID:24931477

  10. Sex differences in lifting strategies during a repetitive palletizing task.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, A; Larivière, C; Denis, D; St-Vincent, M; Delisle, A

    2014-11-01

    Forty-five manual material handlers (15 females, 15 expert males and 15 novice males) performed series of box transfers under conditions similar to those of large distribution centers. The objective of the study was to verify whether sex differences in joint motions and in back loading variables (L5/S1 moments) exist during multiple box transfers. The task consisted in transferring 24 15-kg boxes from one pallet to another (4 layers of boxes; 6 boxes/layer: 3 in the front row, 3 in the back) at a self-determined pace and then at an imposed pace of 9 lifts/min. Full-body 3D kinematic data were collected as well as external foot forces. A dynamic 3D linked segment model was used to estimate the net moments at L5/S1. The results show that the peak L5/S1 moment during lifting for females was significantly lower than for males, but once normalized to body size the difference disappeared. In general, the female workers were very close to the posture adopted by the novice males at the instant of the peak resultant moment. However, females were closer to the box than the male workers. One major sex difference was seen when lifting from the ground, with the use of interjoint coordination analyses. Female workers showed a sequential motion initiated by the knees, followed by the hip and the back, while expert males showed a more synchronized motion. The lifting strategy of females likely stretches lumbar spine passive tissues, which in turn put them at greater risk of back injuries. As observed in our previous studies, these differences between expert males, novice males and females are especially notable when the box is lifted from the ground.

  11. Schizotypy, autobiographical memory, and theory of mind: sex differences.

    PubMed

    Deptula, Andrew E; Bedwell, Jeffrey S

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit a range of cognitive impairments, including tasks assessing theory of mind (ToM) and autobiographical memory (AM). This study appears to be the first to examine how ToM and AM abilities interact in relation to schizotypy. Forty-seven undergraduate students reporting a wide continuous range of scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) completed a measure of ToM and a measure assessing various phenomenological qualities of AM. Female participants exhibited a negative correlation between the ToM score and the SPQ total score and a positive correlation between enhanced phenomenological qualities of AM and the SPQ disorganized factor score. No statistically significant relationships were found for male participants. ToM was negatively correlated with AM across the entire sample, which was not moderated by sex or schizotypy. It is possible that distinct underlying mechanisms account for the observed sex differences on ToM and AM performance in schizophrenia-related conditions.

  12. Sex differences in accuracy and precision when judging time to arrival: data from two Internet studies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff; Sinclair, Kamila

    2011-12-01

    We report two Internet studies that investigated sex differences in the accuracy and precision of judging time to arrival. We used accuracy to mean the ability to match the actual time to arrival and precision to mean the consistency with which each participant made their judgments. Our task was presented as a computer game in which a toy UFO moved obliquely towards the participant through a virtual three-dimensional space on route to a docking station. The UFO disappeared before docking and participants pressed their space bar at the precise moment they thought the UFO would have docked. Study 1 showed it was possible to conduct quantitative studies of spatiotemporal judgments in virtual reality via the Internet and confirmed reports that men are more accurate because women underestimate, but found no difference in precision measured as intra-participant variation. Study 2 repeated Study 1 with five additional presentations of one condition to provide a better measure of precision. Again, men were more accurate than women but there were no sex differences in precision. However, within the coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) literature, of those studies that report sex differences, a majority found that males are both more accurate and more precise than females. Noting that many CAT studies report no sex differences, we discuss appropriate interpretations of such null findings. While acknowledging that CAT performance may be influenced by experience we suggest that the sex difference may have originated among our ancestors with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting and women for gathering. PMID:21125324

  13. Sex differences in the behavioral response to methylphenidate in three adolescent rat strains (WKY, SHR, SD).

    PubMed

    Chelaru, Mircea I; Yang, Pamela B; Dafny, Nachum

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is the most widely used drug in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD has a high incidence in children and can persist in adolescence and adulthood. The relation between sex and the effects of acute and chronic MPD treatment was examined using adolescent male and female rats from three genetically different strains: spontaneously hyperactive rat (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD). Rats from each strain and sex were randomly divided into a control group that received saline injections and three MPD groups that received either 0.6 or 2.5 or 10mg/kg MPD injections. All rats received saline on experimental day 1 (ED1). On ED2 to ED7 and ED11, the rats were injected either with saline or MPD and received no treatment on ED8-ED10. The open field assay was used to assess the dose-response of acute and chronic MPD administration. Significant sex differences were found. Female SHR and SD rats were significantly more active after MPD injections than their male counterparts, while the female WKY rats were less active than the male WKY rats. Dose dependent behavioral sensitization or tolerance to MPD treatment was not observed for SHR or SD rats, but tolerance to MPD was found in WKY rats for the 10mg/kg MPD dose. The use of dose-response protocol and evaluating different locomotor indices provides the means to identify differences between the sexes and the genetic strain in adolescent rats. In addition these differences suggest that the differences to MPD treatment between the sexes are not due to the reproductive hormones.

  14. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper’s knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball. PMID:25565908

  15. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10-19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood-Schlatter disease in the 10-19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20-29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.

  16. Sex differences and ovarian hormones in animal models of drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Anker, Justin J

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of sex differences in many aspects of drug abuse. Most studies reveal that females exceed males during the initiation, escalation, extinction, and reinstatement (relapse) of drug-seeking behavior, but males are more sensitive than females to the aversive effects of drugs such as drug withdrawal. Findings from human and animal research indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones account for these sex differences. Estrogen (E) facilitates drug-seeking behavior, while progesterone (P) and its metabolite, allopregnanalone (ALLO), counteract the effects of E and reduce drug seeking. Estrogen and P influence other behaviors that are affiliated with drug abuse such as drug-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. The enhanced vulnerability to drug seeking in females vs. males is also additive with the other risk factors for drug abuse (e.g., adolescence, sweet preference, novelty reactivity, and impulsivity). Finally, treatment studies using behavioral or pharmacological interventions, including P and ALLO, also indicate that females show greater treatment effectiveness during several phases of the addiction process. The neurobiological basis of sex differences in drug abuse appears to be genetic and involves the influence of ovarian hormones and their metabolites, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, dopamine (DA), and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GABA). Overall, sex and hormonal status along with other biological risk factors account for a continuum of addiction-prone and -resistant animal models that are valuable for studying drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies.

  17. Early postnatal testosterone predicts sex-related differences in early expressive vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Kung, Karson T F; Browne, Wendy V; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Noorderhaven, Rebecca M; Hines, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    During the first few years of life, girls typically have a larger expressive vocabulary than boys. This sex difference is important since a small vocabulary may predict subsequent language difficulties, which are more prevalent in boys than girls. The masculinizing effects of early androgen exposure on neurobehavioral development are well-documented in nonhuman mammals. The present study conducted the first test of whether early postnatal testosterone concentrations influence sex differences in expressive vocabulary in toddlers. It was found that testosterone measured in saliva samples collected at 1-3 months of age, i.e., during the period called mini-puberty, negatively predicted parent-report expressive vocabulary size at 18-30 months of age in boys and in girls. Testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty also accounted for additional variance in expressive vocabulary after other predictors such as sex, child's age at vocabulary assessment, and paternal education, were taken into account. Furthermore, testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty mediated the sex difference in expressive vocabulary. These results suggest that testosterone during the early postnatal period contributes to early language development and neurobehavioral sexual differentiation in humans.

  18. Early postnatal testosterone predicts sex-related differences in early expressive vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Kung, Karson T F; Browne, Wendy V; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Noorderhaven, Rebecca M; Hines, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    During the first few years of life, girls typically have a larger expressive vocabulary than boys. This sex difference is important since a small vocabulary may predict subsequent language difficulties, which are more prevalent in boys than girls. The masculinizing effects of early androgen exposure on neurobehavioral development are well-documented in nonhuman mammals. The present study conducted the first test of whether early postnatal testosterone concentrations influence sex differences in expressive vocabulary in toddlers. It was found that testosterone measured in saliva samples collected at 1-3 months of age, i.e., during the period called mini-puberty, negatively predicted parent-report expressive vocabulary size at 18-30 months of age in boys and in girls. Testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty also accounted for additional variance in expressive vocabulary after other predictors such as sex, child's age at vocabulary assessment, and paternal education, were taken into account. Furthermore, testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty mediated the sex difference in expressive vocabulary. These results suggest that testosterone during the early postnatal period contributes to early language development and neurobehavioral sexual differentiation in humans. PMID:26970201

  19. Putative sex differences in verbal abilities and language cortex: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Mikkel

    2009-03-01

    This review brings together evidence from a diverse field of methods for investigating sex differences in language processing. Differences are found in certain language-related deficits, such as stuttering, dyslexia, autism and schizophrenia. Common to these is that language problems may follow from, rather than cause the deficit. Large studies have been conducted on sex differences in verbal abilities within the normal population, and a careful reading of the results suggests that differences in language proficiency do not exist. Early differences in language acquisition show a slight advantage for girls, but this gradually disappears. A difference in language lateralization of brain structure and function in adults has also been suggested, perhaps following size differences in the corpus callosum. Neither of these claims is substantiated by evidence. In addition, overall results from studies on regional grey matter distribution using voxel-based morphometry, indicate no consistent differences between males and females in language-related cortical regions. Language function in Wada tests, aphasia, and in normal ageing also fails to show sex differentiation.

  20. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  1. Transcriptome Differences between Alternative Sex Determining Genotypes in the House Fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Richard P; Scott, Jeffrey G; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination evolves rapidly, often because of turnover of the genes at the top of the pathway. The house fly, Musca domestica, has a multifactorial sex determination system, allowing us to identify the selective forces responsible for the evolutionary turnover of sex determination in action. There is a male determining factor, M, on the Y chromosome (Y(M)), which is probably the ancestral state. An M factor on the third chromosome (III(M)) has reached high frequencies in multiple populations across the world, but the evolutionary forces responsible for the invasion of III(M) are not resolved. To test whether the III(M) chromosome invaded because of sex-specific selection pressures, we used mRNA sequencing to determine whether isogenic males that differ only in the presence of the Y(M) or III(M) chromosome have different gene expression profiles. We find that more genes are differentially expressed between Y(M) and III(M) males in testis than head, and that genes with male-biased expression are most likely to be differentially expressed between Y(M) and III(M) males. We additionally find that III(M) males have a "masculinized" gene expression profile, suggesting that the III(M) chromosome has accumulated an excess of male-beneficial alleles because of its male-limited transmission. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sex-specific selection acts on alleles linked to the male-determining locus driving evolutionary turnover in the sex determination pathway.

  2. Review of Research--Sex Differences in Intellectual Functioning: Myth or Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickman, Judith R.

    Sex difference research has been plagued with a myriad of problems,. Specifically, intelligence testing, if dependent on measurement of spatial or verbal proficiency, may not be an accurate indicator of native ability. Similarly, infrequent replication of studies, studies that only include subjects of one sex yet imply sex differences, and poor…

  3. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the ‘tri-component theory of humor,’ which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal–mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for ‘theory of mind’ processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different

  4. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the 'tri-component theory of humor,' which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal-mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for 'theory of mind' processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different joke types

  5. Stroke Experiences in Weblogs: A Feasibility Study of Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Sukjin; Gordon, Andrew S; Wienberg, Christopher; Sood, Sara O; Morley, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on cerebral stroke symptoms using hospital records has reported that women experience more nontraditional symptoms of stroke (eg, mental status change, pain) than men do. This is an important issue because nontraditional symptoms may delay the decision to get medical assistance and increase the difficulty of correct diagnosis. In the present study, we investigate sex differences in the stroke experience as described in stories on weblogs. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the Internet as a source of data for basic research on stroke experiences. Methods Stroke experiences described in blogs were identified by using StoryUpgrade, a program that searches blog posts using a fictional prototype story. In this study, the prototype story was a description of a stroke experience. Retrieved stories coded by the researchers as relevant were used to update the search query and retrieve more stories using relevance feedback. Stories were coded for first- or third-person narrator, traditional and nontraditional patient symptoms, type of stroke, patient sex and age, delay before seeking medical assistance, and delay at hospital and in treatment. Results There were 191 relevant stroke stories of which 174 stories reported symptoms (52.3% female and 47.7% male patients). There were no sex differences for each traditional or nontraditional stroke symptom by chi-square analysis (all Ps>.05). Type of narrator, however, affected report of traditional and nontraditional symptoms. Female first-person narrators (ie, the patient) were more likely to report mental status change (56.3%, 27/48) than male first-person narrators (36.4%, 16/44), a marginally significant effect by logistic regression (P=.056), whereas reports of third-person narrators did not differ for women (27.9%, 12/43) and men (28.2%, 11/39) patients. There were more reports of at least 1 nontraditional symptom in the 92 first-person reports (44.6%, 41/92) than

  6. Correlates of sex-related differences in logical reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehindero, O. J.

    The study utilized a post-test-only, no-control experimental design to investigate the influence of sex-related contextual nature of tasks and perceived difficulty of these tasks on logical reasoning among 70 randomly selected high schools pupils (35 boys and 35 girls) in Nigeria. Three categories of tasks were used-those whose context were male related, those whose context were female related, and those that were relatively content-free. Results of the study show that males scored higher than females on male-related tasks and females scored higher on female-related tasks. No significant difference, however, was observed on the relatively content-free tasks. The need to design problems and tasks that are relatively nonsex-related is discussed.Received: 19 March 1982;

  7. Sex dimorphism and depot differences in adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    White, Ursula A; Tchoukalova, Yourka D

    2014-03-01

    Obesity, characterized by excessive adiposity, is a risk factor for many metabolic pathologies, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous studies have shown that adipose tissue distribution may be a greater predictor of metabolic health. Upper-body fat (visceral and subcutaneous abdominal) is commonly associated with the unfavorable complications of obesity, while lower-body fat (gluteal-femoral) may be protective. Current research investigations are focused on analyzing the metabolic properties of adipose tissue, in order to better understand the mechanisms that regulate fat distribution in both men and women. This review will highlight the adipose tissue depot- and sex-dependent differences in white adipose tissue function, including adipogenesis, adipose tissue developmental patterning, the storage and release of fatty acids, and secretory function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  8. Oestradiol synthesized by female neurons generates sex differences in neuritogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Palmero, Isabel; Ortiz-Rodriguez, Ana; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Rune, Gabriele M; Arevalo, Maria-Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone produced by the foetal testis is converted by male neurons to oestradiol, which masculinizes neuronal morphology. Female neurons are known to synthesize oestradiol in absence of exogenous testosterone. However, the role of neuronal oestradiol on the differentiation of foetal female neurons is unknown. Here we show that, due to endogenous neuronal oestradiol synthesis, female hippocampal neurons have higher expression of the neuritogenic protein Neurogenin 3 and enhanced neuritogenesis than males. Exogenous application of testosterone or its metabolite dihydrotestosterone increases Neurogenin 3 expression and promotes neuritogenesis in males, but reduces these parameters in females. Together our data indicate that gonadal-independent oestradiol synthesis by female neurons participates in the generation of sex differences in hippocampal neuronal development. PMID:27553191

  9. Oestradiol synthesized by female neurons generates sex differences in neuritogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Palmero, Isabel; Ortiz-Rodriguez, Ana; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Rune, Gabriele M.; Arevalo, Maria-Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone produced by the foetal testis is converted by male neurons to oestradiol, which masculinizes neuronal morphology. Female neurons are known to synthesize oestradiol in absence of exogenous testosterone. However, the role of neuronal oestradiol on the differentiation of foetal female neurons is unknown. Here we show that, due to endogenous neuronal oestradiol synthesis, female hippocampal neurons have higher expression of the neuritogenic protein Neurogenin 3 and enhanced neuritogenesis than males. Exogenous application of testosterone or its metabolite dihydrotestosterone increases Neurogenin 3 expression and promotes neuritogenesis in males, but reduces these parameters in females. Together our data indicate that gonadal-independent oestradiol synthesis by female neurons participates in the generation of sex differences in hippocampal neuronal development. PMID:27553191

  10. Sex differences in masticatory muscle pain after chewing.

    PubMed

    Karibe, H; Goddard, G; Gear, R W

    2003-02-01

    Neither the etiology of muscle-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD) nor the reason for the disproportionate number of women suffering from these disorders is well-established. We tested the hypothesis that physiologically relevant exercise (i.e., chewing bubble gum for 6 min) increases masticatory muscle pain in patients, but not in asymptomatic control subjects, and that female patients experience a significantly greater increase than males. Chewing increased pain in both female and male patients and, unexpectedly, also in female control subjects. One hour after chewing, the pain remained above pre-test levels for female patients but not for the other groups. Thus, sex differences in chewing-induced pain were found in control subjects but not as hypothesized in patients. Because chewing-induced masticatory muscle pain was significantly greater in female control subjects than in males, and persisted longer in female patients than in males, these results suggest greater susceptibility in women. PMID:12562883

  11. Lateralization in appreciation of humor: sex differences vs stimulus effects.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, J

    1997-10-01

    The finding that women rate funnier humorous items with left-ear input, while men give higher ratings with right-ear input has been cited as evidence for a biological basis for sex differences in appreciation of humor. However, in 1991 Gallivan did not find this effect and suggested that the earlier finding could have been due to the use of 'male-oriented' stimuli. In this study, 72 subjects rated the funniness of 32 'female oriented' comedy excerpts, presented monaurally. Women gave higher ratings with right-ear input but men's ratings were not affected by ear of presentation. These findings represent another failure to replicate the earlier-reported hemispheric effect and support the conclusion that it may have been due to the stimuli used. PMID:9347538

  12. Sex differences in beliefs about cues to deception.

    PubMed

    Sato, Taku; Nihei, Yoshiaki

    2009-06-01

    Sex differences in beliefs among Japanese students about cues to deception were explored. 171 participants (91 women, 80 men) read a scenario in which a protagonist caused a fatal traffic accident and told a lie to avoid responsibility. Then participants rated how the protagonist's behaviors would change when lying. Women participants believed significantly more than men that a liar shows body cues (e.g., body touching, biting lips) associated with anxiety, and that a liar has unsuccessful impression management (e.g., fewer smiles, fewer facial expressions). Furthermore, the women's scores also indicated that a liar would increase the amount of information (e.g., longer response length, gestures) and show more nonfluent speech (e.g., speech disturbances, inconsistency of speech contents). PMID:19708402

  13. Sex differences in the expression of lung inflammatory mediators in response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Noe; Mishra, Vikas; Sinha, Utkarshna; DiAngelo, Susan L; Chroneos, Zissis C; Ekpa, Ndifreke A; Cooper, Timothy K; Caruso, Carla R; Silveyra, Patricia

    2015-11-15

    Sex differences in the incidence of respiratory diseases have been reported. Women are more susceptible to inflammatory lung disease induced by air pollution and show worse adverse pulmonary health outcomes than men. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences remain unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that sex differences in the expression of lung inflammatory mediators affect sex-specific immune responses to environmental toxicants. We focused on the effects of ground-level ozone, a major air pollutant, in the expression and regulation of lung immunity genes. We exposed adult male and female mice to 2 ppm of ozone or filtered air (control) for 3 h. We compared mRNA levels of 84 inflammatory genes in lungs harvested 4 h postexposure using a PCR array. We also evaluated changes in lung histology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and protein content at 24 and 72 h postexposure. Our results revealed sex differences in lung inflammation triggered by ozone exposure and in the expression of genes involved in acute phase and inflammatory responses. Major sex differences were found in the expression of neutrophil-attracting chemokines (Ccl20, Cxcl5, and Cxcl2), the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, and oxidative stress-related enzymes (Ptgs2, Nos2). In addition, the phosphorylation of STAT3, known to mediate IL-6-related immune responses, was significantly higher in ozone-exposed mice. Together, our observations suggest that a differential regulation of the lung immune response could be implicated in the observed increased susceptibility to adverse health effects from ozone observed in women vs. men.

  14. Differences between the sexes in technical mastery of rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine possible differences between the sexes in specific rhythmic gymnastics techniques, and to examine the influence of various aspects of technique on rhythmic composition performance. Seventy-five students aged 21 ± 2 years (45 males, 30 female) undertook four test sessions to determine: coefficients of asymmetry, stability, versatility, and the two rhythmic compositions (without apparatus and with rope). An independent-sample t-test revealed sex-based differences in technique acquisition: stability for ball (P < 0.05; effect size = 0.65) and club (P < 0.05; effect size = 0.79) performance and rhythmic composition without apparatus (P < 0.05; effect size = 0.66). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the variables for assessing stability (beta = 0.44; P < 0.05) and versatility (beta = 0.61; P < 0.05) explained 61% of the variance in the rhythmic composition performance of females, and the variables for assessing asymmetry (beta = -0.38; P < 0.05), versatility (beta = 0.32; P < 0.05), and stability (beta = 0.29; P < 0.05) explained 52% of the variance in the rhythmic composition performance of males. The results suggest that female students dominate in body skill technique, while male students have the advantage with apparatus. There was a lack of an expressive aesthetic component in performance for males. The need for ambidexterity should be considered in the planning of training programmes. PMID:21259154

  15. "Differently normal" and "normally different": negotiations of female embodiment in women's accounts of 'atypical' sex development.

    PubMed

    Guntram, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. PMID:24331903

  16. Neural Control of the Circulation: How Sex and Age Differences Interact in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J.; Barnes, Jill N.; Hart, Emma C.; Wallin, B. Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of cardiovascular system. In this review we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to how the autonomic nervous system regulates blood pressure, and the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked inter-individual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2 mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast post-menopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These central findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  17. A reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy.

    PubMed

    Sagarin, Brad J; Becker, D Vaughn; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Wilkinson, Wayne W; Nicastle, Lionel D

    2012-01-01

    Although heterosexual women and men consistently demonstrate sex differences in jealousy, these differences disappear among lesbians and gay men as well as among heterosexual women and men contemplating same-sex infidelities (infidelities in which the partner and rival are the same sex). Synthesizing these past findings, the present paper offers a reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy that predicts that the sexes will differ only when the jealous perceivers' reproductive outcomes are differentially at risk. This model is supported by data from a web-based study in which lesbians, gay men, bisexual women and men, and heterosexual women and men responded to a hypothetical infidelity scenario with the sex of the rival randomly determined. After reading the scenario, participants indicated which type of infidelity (sexual versus emotional) would cause greater distress. Consistent with predictions, heterosexual women and men showed a sex difference when contemplating opposite-sex infidelities but not when contemplating same-sex infidelities, whereas lesbians and gay men showed no sex difference regardless of whether the infidelity was opposite-sex or same-sex.

  18. Sex differences in a Murine Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tajerian, Maral; Sahbaie, Peyman; Sun, Yuan; Leu, David; Yang, Hsun Yu; Li, Wenwu; Huang, Ting Ting; Kingery, Wade; David Clark, J

    2015-09-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a major cause of chronic pain after surgery or trauma to the limbs. Despite evidence showing that the prevalence and severity of many forms of chronic pain, including CRPS, differ between males and females, laboratory studies on sex-related differences in animal models of CRPS are not available, and the impact of sex on the transition from acute to chronic CRPS pain and disability are unexplored. Here we make use of a tibia fracture/cast mouse model that recapitulates the nociceptive, functional, vascular, trophic, inflammatory and immune aspects of CRPS. Our aim is to describe the chronic time course of nociceptive, motor and memory changes associated with fracture/cast in male and female mice, in addition to exploring their underlying spinal mechanisms. Our behavioral data shows that, compared to males, female mice display lower nociceptive thresholds following fracture in the absence of any differences in ongoing or spontaneous pain. Furthermore, female mice show exaggerated signs of motor dysfunction, deficits in fear memory, and latent sensitization that manifests long after the normalization of nociceptive thresholds. Our biochemical data show differences in the spinal cord levels of the glutamate receptor NR2b, suggesting sex differences in mechanisms of central sensitization that could account for differences in duration and severity of CRPS symptoms between the two groups.

  19. Sex Differences in a Murine Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tajerian, Maral; Sahbaie, Peyman; Sun, Yuan; Leu, David; Yang, Hsun Yu; Li, Wenwu; Huang, Ting Ting; Kingery, Wade; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a major cause of chronic pain after surgery or trauma to the limbs. Despite evidence showing that the prevalence and severity of many forms of chronic pain, including CRPS, differ between males and females, laboratory studies on sex-related differences in animal models of CRPS are not available, and the impact of sex on the transition from acute to chronic CRPS pain and disability are unexplored. Here we make use of a tibia fracture/cast mouse model that recapitulates the nociceptive, functional, vascular, trophic, inflammatory and immune aspects of CRPS. Our aim is to describe the chronic time course of nociceptive, motor and memory changes associated with fracture/cast in male and female mice, in addition to exploring their underlying spinal mechanisms. Our behavioral data shows that, compared to males, female mice display lower nociceptive thresholds following fracture in the absence of any differences in ongoing or spontaneous pain. Furthermore, female mice show exaggerated signs of motor dysfunction, deficits in fear memory, and latent sensitization that manifests long after the normalization of nociceptive thresholds. Our biochemical data show differences in the spinal cord levels of the glutamate receptor NR2b, suggesting sex differences in mechanisms of central sensitization that could account for differences in duration and severity of CRPS symptoms between the two groups. PMID:26070658

  20. Sex differences in mercury contamination of birds: testing multiple hypotheses with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stacey A; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Forbes, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    The sex of a bird can, in principle, affect exposure and accumulation of mercury. One conventional explanation for sex differences in mercury burden suggests female birds should have lower concentrations than conspecific males, because breeding females can depurate methylmercury to their eggs. However, sex differences in body burden of mercury among birds are not consistent. We used meta-analysis to synthesize 123 male-female comparisons of mercury burden from 50 studies. For breeding birds, males had higher concentrations of mercury than did females, supporting egg depuration as a mechanism. However, the percentage of female body mass represented by a clutch did not significantly predict the magnitude of the sex difference in mercury contamination, as predicted. Furthermore, whether species were semialtrical or altrical versus semiprecocial or precocial also did not explain sex differences in mercury burden. Foraging guild of a species did explain near significant variation in sex differences in mercury burden where piscivores and invertivores showed significant sex differences, but sex differences were not detected for carnivores, herbivores, insectivores, and omnivores. The magnitude and direction of sexual size dimorphism did not explain variation in sex differences in mercury burden among breeding birds. We reveal targeted research directions on mechanisms for sex differences in mercury and confirm that sex is important to consider for environmental risk assessments based on breeding birds.

  1. Sex Differences in School Science Performance from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Claire M.A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the sexes differ in science performance before they make important course and career selections. We collected teacher-report data from a sample of children from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) assessed at ages 9, 10 and 12 years (N>2500 pairs). In addition we developed a test of scientific enquiry and administered it to a sub-sample of TEDS (n=1135; age=14 years). We found no evidence for mean sex differences in science performance assessed by teachers, or by a test of scientific enquiry, although boys were somewhat more variable. At a time when adolescents are making important course choices, girls are performing just as well as boys. PMID:21499451

  2. Fear conditioned responses and PTSD symptoms in children: Sex differences in fear-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gamwell, Kaitlyn; Nylocks, Maria; Cross, Dorthie; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Fear conditioning studies in adults have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with heightened fear responses and impaired discrimination. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between PTSD symptoms and fear conditioned responses in children from a highly traumatized urban population. Children between 8 and 13 years old participated in a fear conditioning study in addition to providing information about their trauma history and PTSD symptoms. Results showed that females showed less discrimination between danger and safety signals during conditioning compared to age-matched males. In boys, intrusive symptoms were predictive of fear responses, even after controlling for trauma exposure. However, in girls, conditioned fear to the danger cue was predictive of self-blame and fear of repeated trauma. This study suggests there are early sex differences in the patterns of fear conditioning and that these sex differences may translate to differential risk for trauma-related psychopathology.

  3. Sex Differences in School Science Performance from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the sexes differ in science performance before they make important course and career selections. We collected teacher-report data from a sample of children from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) assessed at ages 9, 10 and 12 years (N>2500 pairs). In addition we developed a test of scientific enquiry and administered it to a sub-sample of TEDS (n=1135; age=14 years). We found no evidence for mean sex differences in science performance assessed by teachers, or by a test of scientific enquiry, although boys were somewhat more variable. At a time when adolescents are making important course choices, girls are performing just as well as boys.

  4. Sex differences in endocrine response to hyperthermia in sauna.

    PubMed

    Jezová, D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

    1994-03-01

    Neuroendocrine response was investigated during and after a single 20 min bath in sauna (80 degrees C) in a group of 8 healthy men and 8 healthy women. In an additional group of 8 young men, the dynamics of plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were studied during a 30 min sauna exposure (90 degrees C). This dynamic study showed a biphasic response of plasma cortisol which decreased during the initial phase of sauna bath (15 min) and increased thereafter, reaching its maximum 15 min after the end of bathing. Maximal increase in plasma ACTH levels occurred 15 min earlier. In the first sauna exposed group the increase in body temperature was the same (about 2 degrees C) in both sexes. Nevertheless, the elevation in plasma ACTH concentration was significantly more pronounced in women than in men. In the plasma collected at the end of sauna bath inside the sauna room, a significant rise in both adrenaline and noradrenaline levels was found. Though the catecholamine responses were similar in both groups, the increase in heart rate during sauna bath was significantly higher in women. Sauna-induced prolactin release was also more pronounced in women compared with men. Thus hyperthermia induced by sauna exposure resulted in a more pronounced neuroendocrine activation in women compared with men. Moreover, it is evident that repeated blood sampling is necessary to reveal the sauna-induced activation of some hormonal systems.

  5. Sex differences in endocrine response to hyperthermia in sauna.

    PubMed

    Jezová, D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

    1994-03-01

    Neuroendocrine response was investigated during and after a single 20 min bath in sauna (80 degrees C) in a group of 8 healthy men and 8 healthy women. In an additional group of 8 young men, the dynamics of plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were studied during a 30 min sauna exposure (90 degrees C). This dynamic study showed a biphasic response of plasma cortisol which decreased during the initial phase of sauna bath (15 min) and increased thereafter, reaching its maximum 15 min after the end of bathing. Maximal increase in plasma ACTH levels occurred 15 min earlier. In the first sauna exposed group the increase in body temperature was the same (about 2 degrees C) in both sexes. Nevertheless, the elevation in plasma ACTH concentration was significantly more pronounced in women than in men. In the plasma collected at the end of sauna bath inside the sauna room, a significant rise in both adrenaline and noradrenaline levels was found. Though the catecholamine responses were similar in both groups, the increase in heart rate during sauna bath was significantly higher in women. Sauna-induced prolactin release was also more pronounced in women compared with men. Thus hyperthermia induced by sauna exposure resulted in a more pronounced neuroendocrine activation in women compared with men. Moreover, it is evident that repeated blood sampling is necessary to reveal the sauna-induced activation of some hormonal systems. PMID:8010136

  6. Sex differences in recovery from PTSD in male and female interpersonal assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Galovski, Tara E; Blain, Leah M; Chappuis, Courtney; Fletcher, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Men and women differ in exposure to trauma and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, research regarding sex differences in recovery from PTSD has been sparse. This study evaluated the treatment response trajectory for 69 male and female interpersonal assault survivors, using a modified Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) protocol that allowed survivors to receive up to18 sessions of CPT, with treatment end determined by therapy progress. Few sex differences were observed in trauma history, baseline PTSD and depressive severity, Axis I comorbidity, anger, guilt and dissociation. Women did report more sexual assault in adulthood and elevated baseline guilt cognitions, whereas men reported more baseline anger directed inward. Attrition and total number of sessions did not differ by sex. Over the course of treatment and follow-up, men and women demonstrated similar rates of change in PTSD and depressive symptoms. However, medium effect sizes on both of these primary outcomes at the 3-month follow-up assessment favored women. Several differences in the slope of change emerged on secondary outcomes such that women evidenced more rapid gains on global guilt, guilt cognitions, anger/irritability, and dissociation. Results suggest that male survivors may warrant additional attention to address these important clinical correlates. PMID:23510841

  7. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies.

    PubMed

    Miles, Scott A; Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  8. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Scott A.; Miranda, Robbin A.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  9. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies.

    PubMed

    Miles, Scott A; Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  10. Relationship between Sex Role Conflict and Work-Related Variables: Gender and Hierarchical Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koberg, Christine S.; Chusmir, Leonard H.

    1989-01-01

    Tested 200 managerial and nonmanagerial women and men for degree of sex role conflict and work-related attitudes. Results showed that sex role conflict was related to low job involvement for managerial women. Overall, women scored higher in sex role conflict but not significantly different in other job-related variables being tested. (GG)

  11. Sex differences in the incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, Gradimir M.; Tiu, Ramon V.; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Jackson, Robert C.; Hlatky, Lynn R.; Gale, Robert Peter; Sachs, Rainer K.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), which is caused by BCR/ABL chimeric oncogene formation in a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), increases with age and exposure to ionizing radiation. CML is a comparatively well-characterized neoplasm, important for its own sake and useful for insights into other neoplasms. Here, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) CML data are analyzed after considering possible misclassification of chronic myelo-monocytic leukemia as CML. For people older than 25 years, plots of male and female CML log incidences versus age at diagnosis are approximately parallel straight lines with males either above or to the left of females. This is consistent with males having a higher risk of developing CML or a shorter latency from initiation to diagnosis of CML. These distinct mechanisms cannot be distinguished using SEER data alone. Therefore, CML risks among male and female Japanese A-bomb survivors are also analyzed. The present analyses suggest that sex differences in CML incidence more likely result from differences in risk than in latency. The simplest but not the sole interpretation of this is that males have more target cells at risk to develop CML. Comprehensive mathematical models of CML could lead to a better understanding of the role of HSCs in CML and other preleukemias that can progress to acute leukemia. PMID:24337217

  12. Sex-differences and temporal consistency in stickleback fish boldness.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; Fürtbauer, Ines; Mamuneas, Diamanto; James, Charlotte; Manica, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural traits that co-vary across contexts or situations often reflect fundamental trade-offs which individuals experience in different contexts (e.g. fitness trade-offs between exploration and predation risk). Since males tend to experience greater variance in reproductive success than females, there may be considerable fitness benefits associated with "bolder" behavioural types, but only recently have researchers begun to consider sex-specific and life-history strategies associated with these. Here we test the hypothesis that male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) show high risk but potentially high return behaviours compared to females. According to this hypothesis we predicted that male fish would show greater exploration of their environment in a foraging context, and be caught sooner by an experimenter than females. We found that the time fish spent out of cover exploring their environment was correlated over two days, and males spent significantly more time out of cover than females. Also, the order in which fish were net-caught from their holding aquarium by an experimenter prior to experiments was negatively correlated with the time spent out of cover during tests, and males tended to be caught sooner than females. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the catch number prior to our experiments and nine months after, pointing towards consistent, long-term individual differences in behaviour.

  13. Sex Attracts: Investigating Individual Differences in Attentional Bias to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

  14. Performance and sex differences in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon'.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    The performance and sex differences of long-distance triathletes competing in 'Ironman Hawaii' are well investigated. However, less information is available with regards to triathlon races of the Ironman distance held under extreme environmental conditions (e.g. extreme cold) such as the 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' which started in 2003. In 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon', athletes swim at a water temperature of ~13-15°C, cycle at temperatures of ~5-20°C and run at temperatures of ~12-28°C in the valley and of ~2-12°C at Mt. Gaustatoppen. This study analysed the performance trends and sex differences in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' held from 2003 to 2015 using mixed-effects regression analyses. During this period, a total of 175 women (10.6%) and 1,852 men (89.4%) successfully finished the race. The number of female (r² = 0.53, P = 0.0049) and male (r² = 0.37, P = 0.0271) finishers increased and the men-to-women ratio decreased (r² = 0.86, P < 0.0001). Men were faster than women in cycling (25.41 ± 2.84 km/h versus 24.25 ± 2.17 km/h) (P < 0.001), but not in swimming (3.06 ± 0.62 km/h vs. 2.94 ± 0.57 km/h), running (7.43 ± 1.13 km/h vs. 7.31 ± 0.93 km/h) and overall race time (874.57 ± 100.62 min vs. 899.95 ± 90.90 min) (P > 0.05). Across years, women improved in swimming and both women and men improved in cycling and in overall race time (P < 0.001). In running, however, neither women nor men improved (P > 0.05). In summary, in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' from 2003 to 2015, the number of successful women increased across years, women achieved a similar performance to men in swimming, cycling and overall race time, and women improved across, years in swimming, cycling and overall race time.

  15. Exploring mechanisms underlying sex-specific differences in mortality of Lake Michigan bloaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Madenjian, C.P.; Rogers, M.W.; Holuszko, J.D.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex-specific differences in mortality rates have been observed among freshwater and marine fish taxa, and underlying mechanisms can include sex-specific differences in (1) age at maturity, (2) growth rate, or (3) activity or behavior during the spawning period. We used a long-term (1973–2009) Lake Michigan data set to evaluate whether there were sex-specific differences in catch per unit effort, mortality, age at maturity, and length at age in bloaters Coregonus hoyi. Because bloater population biomass varied 200-fold during the years analyzed, we divided the data into three periods: (1) 1973–1982 (low biomass), (2) 1983–1997 (high biomass), and (3) 1998–2009 (low biomass). Mortality was higher for males than for females in periods 2 and 3; the average instantaneous total mortality rate (Z) over these two periods was 0.71 for males and 0.57 for females. Length at age was slightly greater (2–6%) for females than for males in different age-classes (3–6 years) during each period. Age at maturity was earlier for males than for females in periods 1 and 2, but the mean difference was only 0.2–0.4 years. To test the hypothesis that somatic lipids declined more in males than in females during spawning (perhaps due to increased activity or reduced feeding), we estimated sex-specific percent somatic lipids for fish sampled in 2005–2006 and 2007–2008. During 2005–2006, somatic lipids declined from prespawning to postspawning for males but were unchanged for females. During 2007–2008, however, somatic lipids were unchanged for males, whereas they increased for females. We found that sex-specific differences in Z occurred in the Lake Michigan bloater population, but our hypotheses that sex-specific differences in maturity and growth could explain this pattern were generally unsupported. Our hypothesis that somatic lipids in males declined during spawning at a faster rate than in females will require additional research to clarify its importance.

  16. Sex differences in fetal growth responses to maternal height and weight

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in fetal growth have been reported, but how this happens remains to be described. It is unknown if fetal growth rates, a reflection of genetic and environmental factors, express sexually dimorphic sensitivity to the mother herself. This analysis investigated homogeneity of male and female growth responses to maternal height and weight. The study sample included 3495 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies followed longitudinally. Analytic models regressed fetal and neonatal weight on tertiles of maternal height and weight, and modification by sex was investigated (n=1814 males, n=1681 females) with birth gestational age, maternal parity and smoking as covariates. Sex modified the effects of maternal height and weight on fetal growth rates and birth weight. Among boys, tallest maternal height influenced fetal weight growth prior to 18 gestational weeks of age (p=0.006), pre-pregnancy maternal weight and BMI subsequently had influence (p<0.001); this was not found among girls. Additionally, interaction terms between sex, maternal height, and maternal weight identified that males were more sensitive to maternal weight among shorter mothers (p=0.003), and more responsive to maternal height among lighter mothers (p<=0.03), compared to females. Likewise, neonatal birth weight dimorphism varied by maternal phenotype. A male advantage of 60 grams occurred among neonates of the shortest and lightest mothers (p=0.08), compared to 150 and 191 grams among short and heavy mothers, and tall and light weight mothers, respectively (p=0.01). Sex differences in response to maternal size are underappreciated sources of variation in fetal growth studies and may reflect differential growth strategies. PMID:19950190

  17. Sex differences in DNA methylation and expression in zebrafish brain: a test of an extended 'male sex drive' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Rodger, Euan J; Zhen, Li; Stockwell, Peter A; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Horsfield, Julia A; Jeyakani, Justin; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ozaki, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-09-30

    The sex drive hypothesis predicts that stronger selection on male traits has resulted in masculinization of the genome. Here we test whether such masculinizing effects can be detected at the level of the transcriptome and methylome in the adult zebrafish brain. Although methylation is globally similar, we identified 914 specific differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) between males and females (435 were hypermethylated and 479 were hypomethylated in males compared to females). These DMCs were prevalent in gene body, intergenic regions and CpG island shores. We also discovered 15 distinct CpG clusters with striking sex-specific DNA methylation differences. In contrast, at transcriptome level, more female-biased genes than male-biased genes were expressed, giving little support for the male sex drive hypothesis. Our study provides genome-wide methylome and transcriptome assessment and sheds light on sex-specific epigenetic patterns and in zebrafish for the first time. PMID:27259666

  18. Marked effects of intracranial volume correction methods on sex differences in neuroanatomical structures: a HUNT MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Pintzka, Carl W. S.; Hansen, Tor I.; Evensmoen, Hallvard R.; Håberg, Asta K.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus whether sexual dimorphism in the size of neuroanatomical structures exists, or if such differences are caused by choice of intracranial volume (ICV) correction method. When investigating volume differences in neuroanatomical structures, corrections for variation in ICV are used. Commonly applied methods are the ICV-proportions, ICV-residuals and ICV as a covariate of no interest, ANCOVA. However, these different methods give contradictory results with regard to presence of sex differences. Our aims were to investigate presence of sexual dimorphism in 18 neuroanatomical volumes unrelated to ICV-differences by using a large ICV-matched subsample of 304 men and women from the HUNT-MRI general population study, and further to demonstrate in the entire sample of 966 healthy subjects, which of the ICV-correction methods gave results similar to the ICV-matched subsample. In addition, sex-specific subsamples were created to investigate whether differences were an effect of head size or sex. Most sex differences were related to volume scaling with ICV, independent of sex. Sex differences were detected in a few structures; amygdala, cerebellar cortex, and 3rd ventricle were larger in men, but the effect sizes were small. The residuals and ANCOVA methods were most effective at removing the effects of ICV. The proportions method suffered from systematic errors due to lack of proportionality between ICV and neuroanatomical volumes, leading to systematic mis-assignment of structures as either larger or smaller than their actual size. Adding additional sexual dimorphic covariates to the ANCOVA gave opposite results of those obtained in the ICV-matched subsample or with the residuals method. The findings in the current study explain some of the considerable variation in the literature on sexual dimorphisms in neuroanatomical volumes. In conclusion, sex plays a minor role for neuroanatomical volume differences; most differences are related to ICV

  19. Evaluating Three Different Methods of Determining Addition in Presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Negareh; Khorasani, Abbas Azimi; Moghadam, Hanieh Mirhajian; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Shandiz, Javad Heravian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare three different methods for determining addition in presbyopes. Methods: The study included 81 subjects with presbyopia who aged 40-70 years. Reading addition values were measured using 3 approaches including the amplitude of accommodation (AA), dynamic retinoscopy (DR), and increasing plus lens (IPL). Results: IPL overestimated reading addition relative to other methods. Mean near addition obtained by AA, DR and IPL were 1.31, 1.68 and 1.77, respectively. Our results showed that IPL method could provide 20/20 vision at near in the majority of presbyopic subjects (63.4%). Conclusion: The results were approximately the same for 3 methods and provided comparable final addition; however, mean near additions were higher with increasing plus lens compared with the other two methods. In presbyopic individuals, increasing plus lens is recommended as the least time-consuming method with the range of ±0.50 diopter at the 40 cm working distance. PMID:27621785

  20. Sex differences in energy expenditure in non-human primates.

    PubMed Central

    Key, C; Ross, C

    1999-01-01

    Female mammals bear the energetic costs of gestation and lactation. Therefore, it is often assumed that the overall energetic costs are greater for females than they are for males. However, the energetic costs to males of intrasex competition may also be considerable, particularly if males maintain a much larger body size than females. Using data from 19 non-human primates, this paper examines the relationship between male and female energetic costs both in the short term (daily energy expenditure) and the long term (the energetic cost of producing a single offspring). It is shown that the major determinant of sex differences in energetic costs is body size dimorphism. In the long term, the energetic costs are often greater for females, but, when male body size exceeds female body size by 60% or more, male energetic costs are greater than those for females. That is, in highly sexually dimorphic species the energetic costs of gestation and lactation for the females are matched by the energetic costs to the males of maintaining a large body size. PMID:10693818

  1. Sex and hemispheric differences in facial invariants extraction.

    PubMed

    Godard, Ornella; Fiori, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    This present study investigates sex differences in hemispheric cooperation during a facial identity matching task. The method used was a divided visual field paradigm in which the probe face was neutral or expressive and the target face was always neutral. Probe and target faces were presented both unilaterally and sequentially. A total of 28 right-handed women and 32 right-handed men participated in this study. The results confirm the women's advantage in face recognition and reveal symmetrical interhemispheric cooperation in women only. In men, processing time was faster when the probe face appeared in the left visual field-and encoded by the right hemisphere-and the target in the right visual field-projected to the left hemisphere-compared to the reverse direction. Interestingly, the data also show that women were not influenced by the expression of the probe face when matching identity, whereas men were always faster when the probe face was neutral, like the target, than when it was expressive. These results are discussed in light of Bruce and Young's (1986) model, and in terms of view-dependent and view-independent processes.

  2. Global Patterns and Determinants of Sex Differences in Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide spread of tobacco use in recent decades raises questions about the relative prevalence of smoking among men and women. Does the degree of gender equality in nations promote equality in cigarette use? Does rising use of cigarettes by women stem from the stage of cigarette diffusion and earlier increases among men? Or have changes in economic factors and smoking policy affected the sexes differently? This study uses aggregate data for 106 nations, measures of smoking prevalence circa 2000, and lagged measures of gender equality, cigarette diffusion, and tobacco access to address these questions and evaluate the underlying theories. With the logged ratio of female to male prevalence as the dependent variable, regression results reveal that gender equality has inconsistent effects on women’s smoking relative to men, cigarette diffusion has more consistent and moderately strong effects, and economic factors have weak effects. Global patterns of adoption of cigarettes by women appear most closely associated with the early adoption by men and then movement through a regular pattern of cigarette diffusion. PMID:21874066

  3. Sex differences in parental reaction to pediatric illness.

    PubMed

    Tifferet, Sigal; Manor, Orly; Constantini, Shlomi; Friedman, Orna; Elizur, Yoel

    2011-06-01

    The 'Tend-and Befriend' hypothesis claims that whereas the response of males to stress is Fight-or-Flight, females respond with Tend-and-Befriend. We tested this hypothesis with a sample of 110 couples whose children had undergone neurosurgery. Both mothers and fathers answered questionnaires measuring levels of tending, befriending, stress, anxiety, and depression. As hypothesized, mothers scored higher than fathers did on all measures. However, according to the Tend-and Befriend hypothesis, the sex difference in tending and befriending should be more pronounced in couples suffering from high-stress in comparison to couples suffering from low-stress. This hypothesis was not supported by the data. We suggest that the heightened tending and befriending of women is not a reaction to stress, instead it is a persistent maternal characteristic. Moreover, we suggest that maternal anxiety and depression result from a heightened maternal sensitivity, selected for caregiving. The study results imply that support interventions should be aimed mostly at mothers, since they experience more distress, in comparison to fathers.

  4. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K.; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Martin, William J.; Kosgei, Rose J.; Carter, E. Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M.; George, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided. PMID:25945507

  5. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Kent E; Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S; Martin, William J; Kosgei, Rose J; Carter, E Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M; George, Maureen

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided.

  6. Sex differences in the brain's dopamine signature of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Wang, Shuo; Kim, Su-Jin; McGovern, Erin; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Gao, Hong; Labaree, David; Tagare, Hemant D; Sullivan, Jenna M; Morris, Evan D

    2014-12-10

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health danger. Women and men smoke for different reasons and cessation treatments, such as the nicotine patch, are preferentially beneficial to men. The biological substrates of these sex differences are unknown. Earlier PET studies reported conflicting findings but were each hampered by experimental and/or analytical limitations. Our new image analysis technique, lp-ntPET (Normandin et al., 2012; Morris et al., 2013; Kim et al., 2014), has been optimized for capturing brief (lasting only minutes) and highly localized dopaminergic events in dynamic PET data. We coupled our analysis technique with high-resolution brain scanning and high-frequency motion correction to create the optimal experiment for capturing and characterizing the effects of smoking on the mesolimbic dopamine system in humans. Our main finding is that male smokers smoking in the PET scanner activate dopamine in the right ventral striatum during smoking but female smokers do not. This finding-men activating more ventrally than women-is consistent with the established notion that men smoke for the reinforcing drug effect of cigarettes whereas women smoke for other reasons, such as mood regulation and cue reactivity. lp-ntPET analysis produces a novel multidimensional endpoint: voxel-level temporal patterns of neurotransmitter release ("DA movies") in individual subjects. By examining these endpoints quantitatively, we demonstrate that the timing of dopaminergic responses to cigarette smoking differs between men and women. Men respond consistently and rapidly in the ventral striatum whereas women respond faster in a discrete subregion of the dorsal putamen.

  7. Warm and homely or cold and beautiful? Sex differences in trading off traits in mate selection.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Garth J O; Tither, Jacqueline M; O'Loughlin, Claire; Friesen, Myron; Overall, Nickola

    2004-06-01

    Prior research and theory suggest that people use three main sets of criteria in mate selection: warmth/trustworthiness, attractiveness/vitality, and status/resources. In two studies, men and women made mating choices between pairs of hypothetical potential partners and were forced to make trade-offs among these three criteria (e.g., warm and homely vs. cold and attractive). As predicted, women (relative to men) placed greater importance on warmth/trustworthiness and status/resources in a potential mate but less importance on attractiveness/vitality. In addition, as expected (a) ratings of ideal standards partly mediated the link between sex and mate choices, (b) ideal standards declined in importance from long-term to short-term relationships, with the exception of attractiveness/vitality, and unexpectedly, (c) sex differences were higher for long-term (compared to short-term) mate choice. Explanations and implications are discussed.

  8. Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2015-07-22

    Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime remains elusive. Here, we show using a 35 year study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), that (i) males show higher body mass senescence rates than females and (ii) this sex difference is largely attributable to sex-specific downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual competition experienced during early adulthood. Our findings provide rare support for the view that somatic maintenance costs arising from intra-sexual competition can cause both individual variation and sex differences in senescence.

  9. Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime remains elusive. Here, we show using a 35 year study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), that (i) males show higher body mass senescence rates than females and (ii) this sex difference is largely attributable to sex-specific downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual competition experienced during early adulthood. Our findings provide rare support for the view that somatic maintenance costs arising from intra-sexual competition can cause both individual variation and sex differences in senescence. PMID:26156771

  10. Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2015-07-22

    Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime remains elusive. Here, we show using a 35 year study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), that (i) males show higher body mass senescence rates than females and (ii) this sex difference is largely attributable to sex-specific downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual competition experienced during early adulthood. Our findings provide rare support for the view that somatic maintenance costs arising from intra-sexual competition can cause both individual variation and sex differences in senescence. PMID:26156771

  11. PET imaging reveals sex differences in kappa opioid receptor availability in humans, in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Aishwarya; Wang, Shuo; Worhunsky, Patrick; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Ropchan, Jim; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Huang, Yiyun; Morris, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    Opioid receptors may play critical roles in alcoholism and other addictions, addiction withdrawal, and depression and are considered pharmacological targets for treatment of these conditions. Sex differences have been demonstrated in mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors in humans, in vivo. In addition, sex differences have been observed in efficacy of treatment targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Our goal in the present study was to compare the availability of KOR (1) between healthy control (HC) men and women. Twenty-seven subjects-18 males (M) and 9 females (F)-underwent PET scans with [(11)C] LY2795050, a selective kappa antagonist tracer. Partial volume correction was applied to all PET data. Volume of distribution (V T) of the tracer was estimated regionally as well as at the voxel level. V T values of males versus females were compared for 19 defined ROIs. Results at the regional and voxel levels were consistent. Males had significantly higher V T and thus a higher KOR availability than women in multiple brain regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sex differences in the KOR system in humans, in vivo. These findings could have implications for the treatment of pain with kappa opioid analgesics. The results may also have an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of addictive and other disorders. PMID:27648372

  12. PET imaging reveals sex differences in kappa opioid receptor availability in humans, in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Aishwarya; Wang, Shuo; Worhunsky, Patrick; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Ropchan, Jim; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Huang, Yiyun; Morris, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    Opioid receptors may play critical roles in alcoholism and other addictions, addiction withdrawal, and depression and are considered pharmacological targets for treatment of these conditions. Sex differences have been demonstrated in mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors in humans, in vivo. In addition, sex differences have been observed in efficacy of treatment targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Our goal in the present study was to compare the availability of KOR (1) between healthy control (HC) men and women. Twenty-seven subjects-18 males (M) and 9 females (F)-underwent PET scans with [11C] LY2795050, a selective kappa antagonist tracer. Partial volume correction was applied to all PET data. Volume of distribution (V T) of the tracer was estimated regionally as well as at the voxel level. V T values of males versus females were compared for 19 defined ROIs. Results at the regional and voxel levels were consistent. Males had significantly higher V T and thus a higher KOR availability than women in multiple brain regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sex differences in the KOR system in humans, in vivo. These findings could have implications for the treatment of pain with kappa opioid analgesics. The results may also have an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of addictive and other disorders. PMID:27648372

  13. PET imaging reveals sex differences in kappa opioid receptor availability in humans, in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Aishwarya; Wang, Shuo; Worhunsky, Patrick; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Ropchan, Jim; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Huang, Yiyun; Morris, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    Opioid receptors may play critical roles in alcoholism and other addictions, addiction withdrawal, and depression and are considered pharmacological targets for treatment of these conditions. Sex differences have been demonstrated in mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors in humans, in vivo. In addition, sex differences have been observed in efficacy of treatment targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Our goal in the present study was to compare the availability of KOR (1) between healthy control (HC) men and women. Twenty-seven subjects-18 males (M) and 9 females (F)-underwent PET scans with [11C] LY2795050, a selective kappa antagonist tracer. Partial volume correction was applied to all PET data. Volume of distribution (V T) of the tracer was estimated regionally as well as at the voxel level. V T values of males versus females were compared for 19 defined ROIs. Results at the regional and voxel levels were consistent. Males had significantly higher V T and thus a higher KOR availability than women in multiple brain regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sex differences in the KOR system in humans, in vivo. These findings could have implications for the treatment of pain with kappa opioid analgesics. The results may also have an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of addictive and other disorders.

  14. Diminutive Digits Discern Delicate Details: Fingertip Size and the Sex Difference in Tactile Spatial Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ryan M.; Hackeman, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We have observed that passive tactile spatial acuity, the ability to resolve the spatial structure of surfaces pressed upon the skin, differs subtly but consistently between the sexes, with women able to perceive finer surface detail than men. Eschewing complex central explanations, we hypothesized that this sex difference in somatosensory perception might result from simple physical differences between the fingers of women and men. To investigate, we tested 50 women and 50 men on a tactile grating orientation task and measured the surface area of the participants' index fingertips. In subsets of participants, we additionally measured finger skin compliance and optically imaged the fingerprint microstructure to count sweat pores. We show here that tactile perception improves with decreasing finger size, and that this correlation fully explains the better perception of women, who on average have smaller fingers than men. Indeed, when sex and finger size are both considered in statistical analyses, only finger size predicts tactile acuity. Thus, a man and a woman with fingers of equal size will, on average, enjoy equal tactile acuity. We further show that sweat pores, and presumably the Merkel receptors beneath them, are packed more densely in smaller fingers. PMID:20016091

  15. Loss of T cells influences sex differences in behavior and brain structure.

    PubMed

    Rilett, Kelly C; Friedel, Miriam; Ellegood, Jacob; MacKenzie, Robyn N; Lerch, Jason P; Foster, Jane A

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and animal studies demonstrate that immune-brain communication influences behavior and brain function. Mice lacking T cell receptor β and δ chains were tested in the elevated plus maze, open field, and light-dark test and showed reduced anxiety-like behavior compared to wild type. Interestingly sex differences were observed in the behavioural phenotype of TCRβ-/-δ- mice. Specifically, female TCRβ-/-δ- mice spent more time in the light chamber compared to wild type females, whereas male TCRβ-/-δ- spent more time in the center of the open field compared to wild type males. In addition, TCRβ-/-δ- mice did not show sex differences in activity-related behaviors observed in WT mice. Ex vivo brain imaging (7 Tesla MRI) revealed volume changes in hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe and other brain regions between wild type and T cell receptor knockout mice. There was also a loss of sexual dimorphism in brain volume in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, normally the most sexually dimorphic region in the brain, in immune compromised mice. These data demonstrate the presence of T cells is important in the development of sex differences in CNS circuitry and behavior.

  16. Sex difference in the 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the premotor/supplementary motor area of behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, Kenkichi; Mitsushima, Dai; Funabashi, Toshiya; Kimura, Fukuko

    2007-06-18

    The sex differences in various motor functions suggest a sex-specific neural basis in the nonprimary or primary motor area. To examine the sex difference in the 24-h profile of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rostral frontal cortex area 2 (rFr2), which is equivalent to the premotor/supplementary motor area in primates, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in both sexes of rats fed pelleted or powdered diet. The dialysate was automatically collected from the rFr2 for 24 h under freely moving conditions. Moreover, the number of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) was examined. Further, to confirm the relation between ACh release in the rFr2 and motor function, the spontaneous locomotor activity was monitored for 24 h. Both sexes showed a distinct 24-h rhythm of ACh release, which was high during the dark phase and low during the light phase. Female rats, however, showed a greater ACh release and more cholinergic neurons in the NBM than male rats. Similarly, spontaneous locomotor activity also showed a 24-h rhythm, which paralleled the changes in ACh release in both sexes, and these changes were again greater in female rats than in male rats. In addition, feeding with powdered diet significantly increased the ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity. The present study is the first to report the sex difference in the 24-h profile of ACh release in the rFr2 in rats. The sex specific ACh release in the rFr2 may partly contribute to the sex difference in motor function in rats.

  17. Different stage, different performance: the protective strategy of role play on emotional health in sex work.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gillian M

    2011-04-01

    This paper uses Arlie Hochschild's (1983) concept of emotion management and "surface" and "deep acting" to explore how sex workers separate and distance themselves from their public role. Experiences of stigmatisation prevail among sex workers and how stigma is resisted or managed has an impact on their health. In-depth interviews were carried out between August 2006 and April 2007 with 58 sex workers in five cities in New Zealand following decriminalisation of the sex industry. Most participants drew on ideas of professionalism in sustaining a psychological distance between their private and public lives. They utilised "deep acting", transmuting private experiences for use in the work environment, to accredit themselves as professional in their business practices. They also constructed different meanings for sex between public and private relationships with the condom providing an important symbol in separating the two. A few (mostly female street-based) participants were less adept at "deep acting" and relied on drugs to maintain a separation of roles. This paper argues that in an occupation which is highly stigmatised and in which depersonalisation as an aspect of burn-out has been reported as a common occurrence, the ability to draw on strategies which require "deep acting" provides a healthy estrangement between self and role and can be seen as protective. The separation of self from work identity is not damaging as many radical feminists would claim, but an effective strategy to manage emotions. Hochschild, A. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press. PMID:21392874

  18. Modality and sex differences in pain sensitivity during human endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Karshikoff, B; Lekander, M; Soop, A; Lindstedt, F; Ingvar, M; Kosek, E; Olgart Höglund, C; Axelsson, J

    2015-05-01

    Systemic inflammation can induce pain hypersensitivity in animal and human experimental models, and has been proposed to be central in clinical pain conditions. Women are overrepresented in many chronic pain conditions, but experimental studies on sex differences in pain regulation during systemic inflammation are still scarce. In two randomized and double blind placebo controlled experiments, we used low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an experimental model of systemic inflammation. The first study employed 0.8ng/kg LPS in a within-subject design of 8 individuals (1 woman), and the second study 0.6ng/kg LPS in a between-subject design of 52 participants (29 women). We investigated the effect on (a) pressure, heat, and cold pain thresholds, (b) suprathreshold noxious heat and cold sensitivity, and (c) conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and differences between men and women. LPS induced significantly lower pressure pain thresholds as compared to placebo (mean change with the 0.8ng/kg dose being -64±30kPa P=.04; with the 0.6ng/kg dose -58±55kPa, P<.01, compared to before injection), whereas heat and cold pain thresholds remained unaffected (P's>.70). Suprathreshold noxious pain was not affected by LPS in men (P's⩾.15). However, LPS made women rated suprathreshold noxious heat stimuli as more painful (P=.01), and showed a tendency to rate noxious cold pain as more painful (P=.06) as compared to placebo. Furthermore, LPS impaired conditioned pain modulation, a measure of endogenous pain inhibition, but this effect was also restricted to women (P<.01, for men P=.27). Pain sensitivity correlated positively with plasma IL-6 and IL-8 levels. The results show that inflammation more strongly affects deep pain, rather than cutaneous pain, and suggest that women's pain perception and modulation is more sensitive to immune activation than men's. PMID:25486090

  19. Energy expenditure and sex differences of golf playing.

    PubMed

    Zunzer, Stefan C; von Duvillard, Serge P; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mangus, Brent; Hofmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the average physical intensity and energy expenditure during a single round of golf on hilly and flat courses in a heterogeneous group of healthy men and women of varying age and golf handicap. Forty-two males and 24 females completed an incremental cycle-ergometer exercise test to determine exercise performance markers. The heart rate (HR), duration, distance, walking speed, ascent and descent were measured via a global positioning system (GPS)/HR monitor during the game and energy expenditure was calculated. Playing 9 or 18-holes of golf, independent of the golf course design, the average HR was not significantly different between sexes or the subgroups. The intensities were light with respect to the percentage of maximal HR and metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Total energy expenditure of all participants was not significantly different for hilly (834 ± 344 kcal) vs. flat courses (833 ± 295 kcal) whereas male players expended significantly greater energy than female players (926 ± 292 vs. 556 ± 180 kcal), but did not have significantly greater relative energy expenditure (2.8 ± 0.8 vs. 2.2 ± 0.7 METs). As a high volume physical activity, playing golf is suggested to yield health benefits. Since the intensity was well below recommended limits, golf may have health related benefits unrelated to the intensity level of the activity.

  20. Sex Differences and the Incidence of Concussions Among Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Swanik, C Buz; Sachs, Michael L.

    2003-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare sex differences regarding the incidence of concussions among collegiate athletes during the 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000 seasons. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cohort study of collegiate athletes using the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System; certified athletic trainers recorded data during the 1997-2000 academic years. SUBJECTS: Collegiate athletes participating in men's and women's soccer, lacrosse, basketball, softball, baseball, and gymnastics. MEASUREMENTS: Certified athletic trainers from participating NCAA institutions recorded weekly injury and athlete-exposure data from the first day of preseason practice to the final postseason game. Injury rates and incidence density ratios were computed. Incidence density ratio is an estimate of the relative risk based on injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures. RESULTS: Of 14 591 reported injuries, 5.9% were classified as concussions. During the 3-year study, female athletes sustained 167 (3.6%) concussions during practices and 304 (9.5%) concussions during games, compared with male athletes, who sustained 148 (5.2%) concussions during practices and 254 (6.4%) concussions during games. Chi-square analysis revealed significant differences between male and female soccer players (chi(2)(1) = 12.99, P =.05) and basketball players (chi(2)(1) = 5.14, P =.05). CONCLUSIONS: Female athletes sustained a higher percentage of concussions during games than male athletes. Of all the sports, women's soccer and men's lacrosse were found to have the highest injury rate of concussions. Incidence density ratio was greatest for male and female soccer players.

  1. Sex differences in GABAergic gene expression occur in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Greg C; Bostrom, John A; Haroutunian, Vahram; Sodhi, Monsheel S

    2015-09-01

    GABAergic dysfunction has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of several GABAergic genes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of postmortem subjects with schizophrenia (n=21) and a comparison group of individuals without a history of psychiatric illness (n=18). Our analyses revealed a significant sex by diagnosis effect, along with significant differences in GABAergic gene expression based on medication status. Analyses revealed that in male groups, the expression of GABAergic genes was generally lower in schizophrenia cases compared to the controls, with significantly lower expression levels of GABA-Aα5, GABA-Aβ1, and GABA-Aε. In females, the expression of GABAergic genes was higher in the schizophrenia cases, with significantly higher expression of the GABA-Aβ1 and GAD67 genes. Analysis of the effect of medication in the schizophrenia subjects revealed significantly higher expression of GABA-Aα1-3, GABA-Aβ2, GABA-Aγ2, and GAD67 in the medicated group compared to the unmedicated group. These data show that sex differences in the expression of GABAergic genes occur in the ACC in schizophrenia. Therefore, our data support previous findings of GABAergic dysfunction in schizophrenia and emphasize the importance of considering sex in analyses of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Sex differences in the GABAergic regulation of ACC function may contribute to the differences observed in the symptoms of male and female patients with schizophrenia. In addition, our findings indicate that antipsychotic medications may alter GABAergic signaling in the ACC, supporting the potential of GABAergic targets for the development of novel antipsychotic medication.

  2. Sex differences and heritability of two indices of heart rate dynamics: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Snieder, Harold; van Doornen, Lorenz J P; Boomsma, Dorret I; Thayer, Julian F

    2007-04-01

    We investigated whether women show larger heart rate variability (HRV) than men after controlling for a large number of health-related covariates, using two indices of HRV, namely respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and approximate entropy (ApEn). In a twin design, the heritability of both indices was examined. The covariation between RSA and ApEn, a measure of heart rate dynamics derived from nonlinear dynamical systems theory, was decomposed into genetic and environmental components. Subjects were 196 male and 210 female middle-aged twins. Females showed larger HRV than men before (ApEn: p < .001; RSA: p = .052) and after adjustment for covariates (ApEn: p < .001; RSA: p = .015). This sex difference was confirmed by significant intrapair differences in the opposite-sex twin pairs for both ApEn (p < .001) and RSA (p = .03). In addition to sex, only heart period and age (both p < .001) were found to be independent predictors of ApEn, whereas RSA was also influenced by respiration rate and smoking (both p < .001). Age explained 16% and 6% of the variance in RSA and ApEn, respectively. Oral contraceptive use and menopausal status had no effect on HRV. Genetic model fitting yielded moderate heritability estimates for RSA (30%) and ApEn (40%) for both males and females. The correlation between RSA and ApEn (r = .60) could be attributed to genetic factors (48%), environmental factors (36%) and age (16%). The present study found support for a gender difference in HRV with women having greater HRV than men even after controlling for a large number of potential confounders. Indices of heart rate dynamics derived from nonlinear dynamical systems theory are moderately heritable and may be more sensitive than traditional indices of HRV to reveal subtle sex differences with important implications for health and disease.

  3. Sex differences in heart rate variability during sleep following prenatal nicotine exposure in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Boychuk, Carie R; Fuller, David D; Hayward, Linda F

    2011-05-16

    The influence of both prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE; 6 mg/kg/day) and sex on heart rate (HR) regulation during sleep versus wakefulness was evaluated in 13, 16 and 26 day old rat pups. Pups were chronically instrumented at least 24 h before testing. On postnatal day 13 (P13), PNE males spent significantly more time in NREM sleep and demonstrated a greater drop in HR when transitioning from quiet wake to sleep compared to age and sex matched controls (-14±5 bpm versus -1±3 bpm, respectively). Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis indicated that this state-dependent drop in HR was primarily associated with a greater reduction in sympathovagal balance (LF/HF ratio) in PNE males compared to controls. No parallel changes in indices of parasympathetic drive (HF power) were identified. In contrast, no significant effect of PNE on HR during sleep versus wakefulness was identified in P13 females. However, independent of state, a significant decrease in HF power was identified in P13 PNE females compared to controls. At P16, state-dependent differences in HR or HRV between PNE and sex-matched control pups were resolved. Additionally, at P26 no significant effect of PNE on state-dependent changes in HR or HRV was identified in either sex. Analysis of the hypothalamic peptide orexin identified that PNE induced approximately a 50% reduction in hypothalamic prepro-orexin mRNA and total mRNA was lowest in PNE males. These findings suggest that PNE induces sex dependent changes in sleep related autonomic regulation of HR during early postnatal development and these changes may be related to epigenetic alterations in the orexin system.

  4. Structural and molecular brain sexual differences: A tool to understand sex differences in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Panzica, GianCarlo; Melcangi, Roberto C

    2016-08-01

    Sex differences are present both in the genotype and in the phenotype of all vertebrates, and they have been evidenced also within the central and peripheral nervous system. Earlier studies on brain sex differences suggested a relatively simple view based on (1) the presence of sexually dimorphic circuits in the hypothalamus (or in regions related to reproductive behaviors), (2) the action of gonadal hormones to masculinize the brain, and (3) the gonadal steroids' action to modulate gene transcription through nuclear receptors. These assumptions are today contradicted by the findings accumulated in the last 20 years. We know now that mechanisms determining sexual dimorphisms may vary according to location and species, and may involve several factors, as genes, epigenetic factors, gonadal hormones and neurosteroids. Sex differences were also revealed by epidemiological studies in several neural pathologies. This suggests that the approach to understand the genesis of these pathologies, should involve specific attention to interactions among genes, gonadal and brain-born steroid hormones, epigenetic and environmental factors. PMID:27113294

  5. Other-Sex Relationship Stress and Sex Differences in the Contribution of Puberty to Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the pubertal transition, particularly when experienced earlier than age-matched peers, is associated with heightened depression in girls but less depression in boys. This study examined whether stress within other-sex relationships serves as one process through which puberty differentially contributes to depression for girls…

  6. Why women see differently from the way men see? A review of sex differences in cognition and sports

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rena

    2014-01-01

    The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire life span. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory – especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports. PMID:25520851

  7. Sex differences in stress-related receptors: ″micro″ differences with ″macro″ implications for mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Bangasser, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as unipolar depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), occur more frequently in women than in men. Emerging research suggests that sex differences in receptors for the stress hormones, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and glucocorticoids, contribute to this disparity. For example, sex differences in CRF receptor binding in the amygdala of rats may predispose females to greater anxiety following stressful events. Additionally, sex differences in CRF receptor signaling and trafficking in the locus coeruleus arousal center combine to make females more sensitive to low levels of CRF, and less adaptable to high levels. These receptor differences in females could lead to hyperarousal, a dysregulated state associated with symptoms of depression and PTSD. Similar to the sex differences observed in CRF receptors, sex differences in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function also appear to make females more susceptible to dysregulation after a stressful event. Following hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activation, GRs are critical to the negative feedback process that inhibits additional glucocorticoid release. Compared to males, female rats have fewer GRs and impaired GR translocation following chronic adolescent stress, effects linked to slower glucocorticoid negative feedback. Thus, under conditions of chronic stress, attenuated negative feedback in females would result in hypercortisolemia, an endocrine state thought to cause depression. Together, these studies suggest that sex differences in stress-related receptors shift females more easily into a dysregulated state of stress reactivity, linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The implications of these receptor sex differences for the development of novel pharmacotherapies are also discussed. PMID:23336736

  8. Sex Differences in Parenting Behaviors in Single-Mother and Single-Father Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Howell, Nyssa C.; Downey, Douglas B.; Ainsworth, James W.; Lapray, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    Research on family structure has led some to claim that sex-based parenting differences exist. But if such differences exist in single-parent families, the absence of a second parent rather than specific sex-typed parenting might explain them. We examine differences in mothering and fathering behavior in single-parent households, where number of…

  9. Rethinking Difference and Sex Education: From Cultural Inclusivity to Normative Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggis, Jane; Mulholland, Monique

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to problematise what is meant by 'difference' and consider what such a reinterpretation might mean for methodological interventions in sex education research. Our concern is the tendency for sex education research to treat difference as a set of categories to be "added-on", such as religious difference,…

  10. Sex-related differences in epidemiological and clinic-based headache studies.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, E Anne; Rosenberg, Jason D; Kurth, Tobias

    2011-06-01

    This manuscript discusses sex-related differences in headache prevalence, the symptoms and natural history of migraine, associated disability, and co-morbid disorders. The role of sex hormones is discussed with reference to the effects of hormonal events across the reproductive years and the specific effects of the menstrual cycle on migraine. Differences between the sexes were identified across all parameters reviewed. Future research should ensure that data are analyzed separately for men and women to ensure that differences between the sexes are identified.

  11. Sex Differences in the Pathways to Symptoms of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Study of Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Alexis C.; Gardner, Charles O.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to develop an empirical, broad-based developmental model for sex differences in risk for symptoms of alcohol use disorders, here called alcohol problems (AP). Methods We assessed 18 risk factors in five developmental tiers in both members of 1,377 opposite sex dizygotic twin pairs from the Virginia population-based twin registry. Analyses were conducted by structural modeling, examining within-pair differences. Results The best-fitting model explained 73% of the variance in men and 71% in women for last year AP. 49% of paths differed significantly across sexes. Ten variables had appreciably different predictive effects on AP in males versus females. Three were stronger in females: familial risk, early onset anxiety disorders, and nicotine dependence. Seven predictors had a stronger total effect in males: novelty seeking, conduct disorder, childhood sexual abuse, parental loss, neuroticism, low self-esteem, and low marital satisfaction. Conclusions In a co-twin control design, which matches sisters and brothers on genetic and familial-environmental background, we found numerous sex differences in predictors of last year AP. Factors that were more prominent in men and in women were diverse, reflecting both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. The model was slightly more successful at predicting AP in men than in women. PMID:25845269

  12. The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna G.; Allison, Carrie; Scott, Fiona J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST) (formally known as the Childhood Asperger Screening Test) identifies autism spectrum conditions by measuring social and communication skills. The present study explored the sex distribution of scores. The CAST was distributed to 11,635 children aged 4-9 years in Cambridgeshire primary schools (UK). 3,370…

  13. Race and Sex Differences in Medical Students' Experiences of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kressin, Nancy

    Previous research has shown that women and minority medical students experience stresses not observed in their white male peers. This study examined the combined effects of race and sex on the stress manifested in a diverse longitudinal sample of medical students from two medical schools. Students (N=259, an 82.7% response rate) in the first year…

  14. Determinant Factors of Attitude towards Quantitative Subjects: Differences between Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, almost all curricula in the social sciences contain at least one course in statistics, given the importance of this discipline as an analytical tool. This work identifies the latent factors relating to students' motivation and attitude towards statistics, tests their covariance structure for samples of both sexes, and identifies the…

  15. Phenotypic differences between the sexes in the sexually plastic mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus).

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mark J; Ferro, Jack M; Mattox, Tyler; Kopelic, Sydney; Marson, Kristine; Jones, Ryan; Svendsen, Jon C; Earley, Ryan L

    2016-04-01

    To maximize reproductive success, many animal species have evolved functional sex change. Theory predicts that transitions between sexes should occur when the fitness payoff of the current sex is exceeded by the fitness payoff of the opposite sex. We examined phenotypic differences between the sexes in a sex-changing vertebrate, the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), to elucidate potential factors that might drive the 'decision' to switch sex. Rivulus populations consist of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males. Hermaphrodites transition into males under certain environmental conditions, affording us the opportunity to generate 40 hermaphrodite-male pairs where, within a pair, individuals possessed identical genotypes despite being different sexes. We quantified steroid hormone levels, behavior (aggression and risk taking), metabolism and morphology (organ masses). We found that hermaphrodites were more aggressive and risk averse, and had higher maximum metabolic rates and larger gonadosomatic indices. Males had higher steroid hormone levels and showed correlations among hormones that hermaphrodites lacked. Males also had greater total mass and somatic body mass and possessed considerable fat stores. Our findings suggest that there are major differences between the sexes in energy allocation, with hermaphrodites exhibiting elevated maximum metabolic rates, and showing evidence of favoring investments in reproductive tissues over somatic growth. Our study serves as the foundation for future research investigating how environmental challenges affect both physiology and reproductive investment and, ultimately, how these changes dictate the transition between sexes.

  16. Phenotypic differences between the sexes in the sexually plastic mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus).

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mark J; Ferro, Jack M; Mattox, Tyler; Kopelic, Sydney; Marson, Kristine; Jones, Ryan; Svendsen, Jon C; Earley, Ryan L

    2016-04-01

    To maximize reproductive success, many animal species have evolved functional sex change. Theory predicts that transitions between sexes should occur when the fitness payoff of the current sex is exceeded by the fitness payoff of the opposite sex. We examined phenotypic differences between the sexes in a sex-changing vertebrate, the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), to elucidate potential factors that might drive the 'decision' to switch sex. Rivulus populations consist of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males. Hermaphrodites transition into males under certain environmental conditions, affording us the opportunity to generate 40 hermaphrodite-male pairs where, within a pair, individuals possessed identical genotypes despite being different sexes. We quantified steroid hormone levels, behavior (aggression and risk taking), metabolism and morphology (organ masses). We found that hermaphrodites were more aggressive and risk averse, and had higher maximum metabolic rates and larger gonadosomatic indices. Males had higher steroid hormone levels and showed correlations among hormones that hermaphrodites lacked. Males also had greater total mass and somatic body mass and possessed considerable fat stores. Our findings suggest that there are major differences between the sexes in energy allocation, with hermaphrodites exhibiting elevated maximum metabolic rates, and showing evidence of favoring investments in reproductive tissues over somatic growth. Our study serves as the foundation for future research investigating how environmental challenges affect both physiology and reproductive investment and, ultimately, how these changes dictate the transition between sexes. PMID:27030777

  17. Sex differences in socioemotional functioning, attentional bias, and gray matter volume in maltreated children: A multilevel investigation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Philip A; Viding, Essi; Puetz, Vanessa B; Palmer, Amy L; Mechelli, Andrea; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Samuel, Sophie; McCrory, Eamon J

    2015-11-01

    While maltreatment is known to impact social and emotional functioning, threat processing, and neural structure, the potentially dimorphic influence of sex on these outcomes remains relatively understudied. We investigated sex differences across these domains in a large community sample of children aged 10 to 14 years (n = 122) comprising 62 children with verified maltreatment experience and 60 well-matched nonmaltreated peers. The maltreated group relative to the nonmaltreated comparison group exhibited poorer social and emotional functioning (more peer problems and heightened emotional reactivity). Cognitively, they displayed a pattern of attentional avoidance of threat in a visual dot-probe task. Similar patterns were observed in males and females in these domains. Reduced gray matter volume was found to characterize the maltreated group in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobes, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus; sex differences were observed only in the supramarginal gyrus. In addition, a disordinal interaction between maltreatment exposure and sex was found in the postcentral gyrus. Finally, attentional avoidance to threat mediated the relationship between maltreatment and emotional reactivity, and medial orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume mediated the relationship between maltreatment and peer functioning. Similar mediation patterns were observed across sexes. This study highlights the utility of combining multiple levels of analysis when studying the "latent vulnerability" engendered by childhood maltreatment and yields tentative findings regarding a neural basis of sex differences in long-term outcomes for maltreated children. PMID:26535946

  18. The Relationship between Sex Differences and Reading Ability: A Study of Children's Performance in an Israeli Kibbutz System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Alice Dzen

    This study tested two long-standing assumptions in education: that reading ability in the elementary grades is differentiated by sex and that boys experience a higher incidence of reading disability than do girls. In addition, three biological explanations for this difference were tested: maturational lag, cerebral dominance, and vulnerability of…

  19. The Role of Harsh Discipline in Explaining Sex Differences in Conduct Disorder: A Study of Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Madeline H.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, two hypotheses about the role of harsh discipline (HD) in explaining the sex difference in the prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) were evaluated: that boys exhibit more CD than girls because (1) they are exposed to more HD and/or (2) there is a greater association between HD and CD in boys. These hypotheses were evaluated in…

  20. Maternal Influence in the Formation of Sex Identity and Gender Role Designation Among Differently Sexed Twins, Triplets and Quadruplets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goshen-Gottstein, Esther R.

    Sex-determined differences in socialization were investigated in seven families, two of which contained twins, two of which contained triplets and three of which contained quadruplets. Two psychologists observed the families in their homes from the infants fifth month of age until the children were 3 1/2 to 6 years of age. Children's dependency,…

  1. Different autosomes evolved into sex chromosomes in the sister genera of Salix and Populus.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Ye, Ning; Zhang, Defang; Chen, Yingnan; Fang, Lecheng; Dai, Xiaogang; Yin, Tongming

    2015-03-13

    Willows (Salix) and poplars (Populus) are dioecious plants in Salicaceae family. Sex chromosome in poplar genome was consistently reported to be associated with chromosome XIX. In contrast to poplar, this study revealed that chromosome XV was sex chromosome in willow. Previous studies revealed that both ZZ/ZW and XX/XY sex-determining systems could be present in some species of Populus. In this study, sex of S. suchowensis was found to be determined by the ZW system in which the female was the heterogametic gender. Gene syntenic and collinear comparisons revealed macrosynteny between sex chromosomes and the corresponding autosomes between these two lineages. By contrast, no syntenic segments were found to be shared between poplar's and willow's sex chromosomes. Syntenic analysis also revealed substantial chromosome rearrangements between willow's alternate sex chromatids. Since willow and poplar originate from a common ancestor, we proposed that evolution of autosomes into sex chromosomes in these two lineages occurred after their divergence. Results of this study indicate that sex chromosomes in Salicaceae are still at the early stage of evolutionary divergence. Additionally, this study provided valuable information for better understanding the genetics and evolution of sex chromosome in dioecious plants.

  2. Different autosomes evolved into sex chromosomes in the sister genera of Salix and Populus

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Ye, Ning; Zhang, Defang; Chen, Yingnan; Fang, Lecheng; Dai, Xiaogang; Yin, Tongming

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix) and poplars (Populus) are dioecious plants in Salicaceae family. Sex chromosome in poplar genome was consistently reported to be associated with chromosome XIX. In contrast to poplar, this study revealed that chromosome XV was sex chromosome in willow. Previous studies revealed that both ZZ/ZW and XX/XY sex-determining systems could be present in some species of Populus. In this study, sex of S. suchowensis was found to be determined by the ZW system in which the female was the heterogametic gender. Gene syntenic and collinear comparisons revealed macrosynteny between sex chromosomes and the corresponding autosomes between these two lineages. By contrast, no syntenic segments were found to be shared between poplar's and willow's sex chromosomes. Syntenic analysis also revealed substantial chromosome rearrangements between willow's alternate sex chromatids. Since willow and poplar originate from a common ancestor, we proposed that evolution of autosomes into sex chromosomes in these two lineages occurred after their divergence. Results of this study indicate that sex chromosomes in Salicaceae are still at the early stage of evolutionary divergence. Additionally, this study provided valuable information for better understanding the genetics and evolution of sex chromosome in dioecious plants. PMID:25766834

  3. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-09-22

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination.

  4. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-09-22

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination. PMID:17148197

  5. The X-files in immunity: sex-based differences predispose immune responses.

    PubMed

    Fish, Eleanor N

    2008-09-01

    Despite accumulating evidence in support of sex-based differences in innate and adaptive immune responses, in the susceptibility to infectious diseases and in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases, health research and clinical practice do not address these distinctions, and most research studies of immune responses do not stratify by sex. X-linked genes, hormones and societal context are among the many factors that contribute to disparate immune responses in males and females. It is crucial to address sex-based differences in disease pathogenesis and in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic medications to provide optimal disease management for both sexes.

  6. Sex Differences in the Forms of Aggression among Adolescent Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedahe, Francis K.; Owusu-Banahene, Nana Opoku

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated sex differences in the forms of aggression exhibited by adolescent students, particularly in the Western world. No such study has been done among sub-Saharan Africa students. The aim was to examine the sex differences in forms of aggression among adolescent students in Ghana. A total of 800 adolescent students…

  7. Sex Differences in Social Behavior: Are the Social Role and Evolutionary Explanations Compatible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1996-01-01

    Examines competing claims of two explanations of sex differences in social behavior, social role theory, and evolutionary psychology. Findings associated with social role theory are weighed against evolutionary explanations. It is suggested that evolutionary theory better accounts for the overall pattern of sex differences and for their origins.…

  8. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in a College Population: General Trends and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Janis; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer; Purington, Amanda; Eckenrode, John; Barreira, Paul; Abrams, Gina Baral; Marchell, Tim; Kress, Victoria; Girard, Kristine; Chin, Calvin; Knox, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe basic nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) characteristics and to explore sex differences. Methods: A random sample from 8 universities were invited to participate in a Web-based survey in 2006-2007; 38.9% (n = 14,372) participated. Analysis assessed sex differences in NSSI prevalence, practices, severity, perceived dependency,…

  9. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  10. Six Degrees of Separation: What Teachers Need to Know about the Emerging Science of Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several research reports demonstrating the existence of sex differences in cognitive function and language skills. Although dozens of studies published in the past five years have demonstrated dramatic sex differences in autonomic function, the educational literature has not emphasized those studies and their…

  11. Mental Rotation Does Not Account for Sex Differences in Left-Right Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Hirnstein, Marco; Ohmann, Hanno Andreas; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that women believe they are more prone to left-right confusion (LRC) than men. However, while some studies report that there is also a sex difference in LRC tasks favouring men, others report that men and women perform equally well. Recently, it was suggested that sex differences only emerge in LRC tasks when they…

  12. Sex Differences in the Play Configurations of Pre-Adolescents: A Replication and Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Allison Hadley

    Erikson found sex differences in the play configurations of pre-adolescents who were given a variety of toys and blocks. Wamback, Cramer and Hogan's replications of Erikson's work revealed that sex differences of this type lack sensitivity to inter-school variation among subjects, time or locality. Two possible alternatives to Erikson's hypothesis…

  13. Sex Differences in the Response of Children with ADHD to Once-Daily Formulations of Methylphenidate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, J. S.; Coghill, David; Markowitz, John S.; Swanson, James M.; Vandenberghe, Mieke; Hatch, Simon J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Studies of sex differences in methylphenidate response by children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have lacked methodological rigor and statistical power. This paper reports an examination of sex differences based on further analysis of data from a comparison of two once-daily methylphenidate formulations (the COMACS…

  14. Summary of Effects of Biological Factors on Sex-Related Differences in Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Julia

    Critically reviewed evidence relevant to hypotheses of biological sources of sex-related cognitive differences as they relate to mathematics achievement include the following: explanations based on the assumption of greater variability in male cognitive performance; sex-related differences in serum urate; effects of estrogens compared to androgens…

  15. Sex differences in self-estimates of lay dimensions of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A

    1999-08-01

    260 participants rated themselves on 12 items that made up the three types of intelligence as noted by Sternberg, et al. in 1981. There were sex differences on two of the three standardized scores with men rating themselves higher than women on practical and verbal intelligence. This confirms previous studies of sex differences in the ratings of over-all (g) and multiple intelligences.

  16. Sex Differences in Environmental Concern and Knowledge: The Case of Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a telephone survey of 516 adults which focused on sex differences in concern and knowledge about one environmental issue, acid rain. The findings contradict predictions that women are more concerned about environmental issues: if there is a sex difference, men are found to be more concerned and knowledgeable about acid rain.…

  17. Sex Differences in Facial Scanning: Similarities and Dissimilarities between Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Cummings, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    When face processing studies find sex differences, male infants appear better at face recognition than female infants, whereas female adults appear better at face recognition than male adults. Both female infants and adults, however, discriminate emotional expressions better than males. To investigate if sex and age differences in facial scanning…

  18. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a Large Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandy, William; Chilvers, Rebecca; Chowdhury, Uttom; Salter, Gemma; Seigal, Anna; Skuse, David

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences have been found amongst toddlers and young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated the presence and stability of these ASD sex differences throughout childhood and adolescence. Participants (N = 325, 52 females; aged 3-18 years) consecutively received an ASD diagnosis at a clinic for assessing high-functioning…

  19. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Cortical Activation Patterns: Can Training Change Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments the neuronal mechanisms of sex differences in mental rotation were investigated. In Experiment 1 cortical activation was studied in women and men with similar levels of mental rotation ability (high, and average to low), who were equalized with respect to general intelligence. Sex difference in neuroelectric patterns of brain…

  20. Sex Differences in the Relation between Math Performance, Spatial Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…

  1. Surprising Lack of Sex Differences in Normal Cognitive Aging in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the etiology of normal cognitive functioning in aging remain largely unexplored. We conducted an investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to sex differences in level of cognitive performance and rate of decline in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) (Finkel & Pedersen, 2004) data set. Behavioral…

  2. High School Seniors' Occupational Plans and Values: Trends in Sex Differences 1976 through 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, A. Regula

    1982-01-01

    Examines occupational plans and values of high school seniors for evidence of declining sex differences between 1976-1980. Questionnaire data collected from 3000 students indicated marked sex differences in the kinds of work boys and girls planned to do at age 30 and the work settings and characteristics they desired. (Author/AM)

  3. Sex Differences in Infants' Mapping of Complex Occlusion Sequences: Further Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Recently, infant researchers have reported sex differences in infants' capacity to map their representation of an occlusion sequence onto a subsequent no-occlusion display. The research reported here sought to identify the extent to which these sex differences are observed in event-mapping tasks and to identify the underlying basis for these…

  4. Understanding the Sex Difference in Vulnerability to Adolescent Depression: An Examination of Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Shih, Josephine H.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in risk factors associated with adolescent depression in a large sample of boys and girls. Moderation and mediation explanatory models of the sex difference in likelihood of depression were examined. Findings indicate that the factors associated with depression in adolescent boys and girls are quite similar. All…

  5. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Relations among Family Risk Factors and Childhood Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children's externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children's externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal…

  6. The Origins of Sex Differences in Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions versus Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    Explores whether evolved disposition that differs by sex or social structure explains sex differences in human behavior. Illustrates the explanatory power of each theory, and reviews a study (D. Buss, 1989) that supports the social structural theory with respect to mate preference. (SLD)

  7. Sex Differences in the Relation between Statistics Anxiety and Cognitive/Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodarte-Luna, Bertha; Sherry, Alissa

    2008-01-01

    Three hundred twenty three students were recruited in order to investigate sex differences on measures of statistics anxiety and learning strategies. Data was analyzed using descriptive discriminant analysis and canonical correlation analysis. Findings indicated that sex differences on these measures were statistically significant, but with small…

  8. Coming of Age in the Kisspeptin Era: Sex differences, Development, and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    The status of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis differs dramatically between early development, puberty, and various stages of adulthood, and also differs in several critical ways between the sexes, including its earlier pubertal activation in females than males and the presence of neural circuitry that generates preovulatory hormone surges in females but not males. The reproductive axis is controlled by various hormonal and neural pathways that converge upon forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, and many of the critical age and sex differences in the reproductive axis likely reflect differences in the “upstream” circuits and factors that regulate the GnRH system. Recently, the neural kisspeptin system has been implicated as an important regulator of GnRH neurons. Here I discuss the evidence supporting a critical role of kisspeptin signaling at different stages of life, including early postnatal and pubertal development, as well as in adulthood, focusing primarily on information gleaned from mammalian studies. I also evaluate key aspects of sexual differentiation and development of the brain as it relates to the Kiss1 system, with special emphasis on rodents. In addition to discussing recent advances in the field of kisspeptin biology, this paper will highlight a number of unanswered questions and future challenges for kisspeptin investigators, and will stress the importance of studying the kisspeptin system in both males and females, as well as in multiple species. PMID:20083160

  9. Cross-cultural sex differences in situational triggers of aggressive responses.

    PubMed

    Zajenkowska, Anna; Mylonas, Kostas; Lawrence, Claire; Konopka, Karolina; Rajchert, Joanna

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines male and female individual differences in situational triggers of aggressive responses (STAR) in three countries as well as cross-cultural sex differences in trait aggression (aggression questionnaire, AQ). Convenience sampling was employed (university students) for the descriptive correlational study (Poland N = 300, 63% female, mean age 21.86, SD = 2.12; UK N = 196, 60% female, mean age 20.48, SD = 3.79; Greece N = 299, 57% female, mean age 20.71, SD = 4.42). The results showed that the STAR scale is an equivalent construct across all three countries. Overall, females were more sensitive to both provocation (SP) and frustration (SF) than males. When controlling for trait aggression, Polish and Greek females scored similarly in SP and higher than UK females. No sex differences in SP or SF were found in the UK sample. Additionally, Polish participants scored the highest in SP. Furthermore, when trait aggression was removed, the Greek participants were most sensitive to frustration, whereas Polish and English participants' SF did not differ. We discuss the results with regard to intercultural differences between investigated countries. PMID:25178957

  10. Estimation of adjusted rate differences using additive negative binomial regression.

    PubMed

    Donoghoe, Mark W; Marschner, Ian C

    2016-08-15

    Rate differences are an important effect measure in biostatistics and provide an alternative perspective to rate ratios. When the data are event counts observed during an exposure period, adjusted rate differences may be estimated using an identity-link Poisson generalised linear model, also known as additive Poisson regression. A problem with this approach is that the assumption of equality of mean and variance rarely holds in real data, which often show overdispersion. An additive negative binomial model is the natural alternative to account for this; however, standard model-fitting methods are often unable to cope with the constrained parameter space arising from the non-negativity restrictions of the additive model. In this paper, we propose a novel solution to this problem using a variant of the expectation-conditional maximisation-either algorithm. Our method provides a reliable way to fit an additive negative binomial regression model and also permits flexible generalisations using semi-parametric regression functions. We illustrate the method using a placebo-controlled clinical trial of fenofibrate treatment in patients with type II diabetes, where the outcome is the number of laser therapy courses administered to treat diabetic retinopathy. An R package is available that implements the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27073156

  11. A garter snake transcriptome: pyrosequencing, de novo assembly, and sex-specific differences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The reptiles, characterized by both diversity and unique evolutionary adaptations, provide a comprehensive system for comparative studies of metabolism, physiology, and development. However, molecular resources for ectothermic reptiles are severely limited, hampering our ability to study the genetic basis for many evolutionarily important traits such as metabolic plasticity, extreme longevity, limblessness, venom, and freeze tolerance. Here we use massively parallel sequencing (454 GS-FLX Titanium) to generate a transcriptome of the western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) with two goals in mind. First, we develop a molecular resource for an ectothermic reptile; and second, we use these sex-specific transcriptomes to identify differences in the presence of expressed transcripts and potential genes of evolutionary interest. Results Using sex-specific pools of RNA (one pool for females, one pool for males) representing 7 tissue types and 35 diverse individuals, we produced 1.24 million sequence reads, which averaged 366 bp in length after cleaning. Assembly of the cleaned reads from both sexes with NEWBLER and MIRA resulted in 96,379 contigs containing 87% of the cleaned reads. Over 34% of these contigs and 13% of the singletons were annotated based on homology to previously identified proteins. From these homology assignments, additional clustering, and ORF predictions, we estimate that this transcriptome contains ~13,000 unique genes that were previously identified in other species and over 66,000 transcripts from unidentified protein-coding genes. Furthermore, we use a graph-clustering method to identify contigs linked by NEWBLER-split reads that represent divergent alleles, gene duplications, and alternatively spliced transcripts. Beyond gene identification, we identified 95,295 SNPs and 31,651 INDELs. From these sex-specific transcriptomes, we identified 190 genes that were only present in the mRNA sequenced from one of the sexes (84

  12. Sex-dependent differences in estrogen regulation of choline acetyltransferase are altered by neonatal treatments.

    PubMed

    Luine, V N; Renner, K J; McEwen, B S

    1986-08-01

    We investigated whether estrogenic actions of testosterone during development which mediate the suppression of feminine reproductive behavior and cyclic gonadotropin secretion also contribute to reported sex differences in the induction of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) after estrogen priming in the diagonal band region of the preoptic area. Newborn female rats received estradiol (E2 females); newborn males received 1,4,6-androstatrien-3,17-dione (ATD), an inhibitor of aromatase (ATD males); and some of both sexes received vehicle treatment (control). In adulthood, feminine sexual behavior (lordosis) was tested after E2 plus progesterone priming. The neonatal treatments reversed the sex-specific response pattern; E2 females were defeminized and displayed minimal lordosis, as did control males, while ATD males showed maximal lordosis, as did control females. E2 was then administered, and ChAT activity was measured in the horizontal and vertical nuclei of the diagonal bands (hDB and vDB, respectively). Controls exhibited the normal sex-specific response to E2. Females showed increased ChAT activity in the hDB and unaltered activity in the vDB: males had unaltered ChAT activity in the hDB and decreased activity in the vDB. In neonatally treated males and females, ChAT activity after E2 administration was not altered from the normal sex-specific pattern in the hDB, i.e. all females showed increased hDB ChAT after E2, and no male responded. In the vDB, groups defeminized in terms of lordosis (E2 females and control males) showed higher ChAT activity in the absence of E2 priming, and E2 treatment decreased vDB ChAT in these groups. In addition, ATD males showed a unique response to E2 in the vDB, namely increased ChAT activity. Although neonatal E2 and ATD treatments did not completely reverse the sex-specific pattern of E2 priming on ChAT activity, the results obtained suggest that a net increase in diagonal band cholinergic function, as indexed by increased Ch

  13. Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) Reveal Modest Sex Differences and Nonlinear Signals of Sexual Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Johnston, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1) calling rates, 2) composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena) and 3) acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual arousal and

  14. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law.

  15. Risks and benefits of sex-mismatched hematopoietic cell transplantation differ according to conditioning strategy.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, Hideki; Remberger, Mats; Tian, Lu; Brodin, Petter; Sahaf, Bita; Wu, Fang; Mattsson, Jonas; Lowsky, Robert; Negrin, Robert; Miklos, David B; Meyer, Everett

    2015-11-01

    Sex-mismatched hematopoietic cell transplantation is linked to increased graft-versus-host disease and mortality in myeloablative conditioning. Here we evaluated outcomes of 1,041 adult transplant recipients at two centers between 2006 and 2013 and investigated how the effect of sex-mismatching differed in myeloablative, reduced-intensity, and non-myeloablative total lymphoid irradiation with anti-thymocyte globulin conditioning. Among patients who underwent myeloablative conditioning, male recipients with female donors had increased chronic graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio 1.83, P<0.01), increased non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 1.84, P=0.022) and inferior overall survival (hazard ratio 1.59, P=0.018). In contrast, among patients who received reduced-intensity conditioning, male recipients with female donors had increased acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio 1.96, P<0.01) but no difference in non-relapse mortality or overall survival. Among the patients who underwent total lymphoid irradiation with anti-thymocyte globulin, male recipients with female donors showed no increase in graft-versus-host disease or non-relapse mortality. Notably, only in the cohort receiving total lymphoid irradiation with anti-thymocyte globulin were male recipients with female donors significantly associated with reduced relapse (hazard ratio 0.64, P<0.01), and allo-antibody responses against H-Y antigens were predictive of reduced relapse. In the cohort given total lymphoid irradiation with anti-thymocyte globulin, the graft-versus-leukemia effect resulted in superior overall survival in recipients of sex-mismatched grafts (HR 0.69, P=0.037). In addition, only in the cohort treated with total lymphoid irradiation with anti-thymocyte globulin were female recipients with male donors associated with reduced relapse (hazard ratio 0.59, P<0.01) and superior survival (hazard ratio 0.61, P=0.014) compared with sex-matched pairs. We conclude that the risks and benefits of

  16. The different role of sex hormones on female cardiovascular physiology and function: not only oestrogens.

    PubMed

    Salerni, Sara; Di Francescomarino, Samanta; Cadeddu, Christian; Acquistapace, Flavio; Maffei, Silvia; Gallina, Sabina

    2015-06-01

    Human response to different physiologic stimuli and cardiovascular (CV) adaptation to various pathologies seem to be gender specific. Sex-steroid hormones have been postulated as the major contributors towards these sex-related differences. This review will discuss current evidence on gender differences in CV function and remodelling, and will present the different role of the principal sex-steroid hormones on female heart. Starting from a review of sex hormones synthesis, receptors and CV signalling, we will summarize the current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones on the regulation of our daily activities throughout the life, via the modulation of autonomic nervous system, excitation-contraction coupling pathway and ion channels activity. Many unresolved questions remain even if oestrogen effects on myocardial remodelling and function have been extensively studied. So this work will focus attention also on the controversial and complex relationship existing between androgens, progesterone and female heart.

  17. A meta-analysis of sex differences in physical ability: revised estimates and strategies for reducing differences in selection contexts.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Stephen H; McCormick, Brian W; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Reeves, Cody J; Mount, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    Despite the wide use of physical ability tests for selection and placement decisions in physically demanding occupations, research has suggested that there are substantial male-female differences on the scores of such tests, contributing to adverse impact. In this study, we present updated, revised meta-analytic estimates of sex differences in physical abilities and test 3 moderators of these differences-selection system design, specificity of measurement, and training-in order to provide insight into possible methods of reducing sex differences on physical ability test scores. Findings revealed that males score substantially better on muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance tests but that there are no meaningful sex differences on movement quality tests. These estimates differ in several ways from past estimates. Results showed that sex differences are similar across selection systems that emphasize basic ability tests versus job simulations. Results also showed that sex differences are smaller for narrow dimensions of muscular strength and that there is substantial variance in the sex differences in muscular strength across different body regions. Finally, we found that training led to greater increases in performance for women than for men on both muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance tests. However, training reduced the male-female differences on muscular strengths tests only modestly and actually increased male-female differences on cardiovascular endurance. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on physical ability testing and adverse impact, as well as the practical implications of the results. PMID:23731029

  18. Sex differences in health care provider communication during genital herpes care and patients' health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ports, Katie A; Reddy, Diane M; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L

    2013-01-01

    Research in primary care medicine demonstrates that health care providers' communication varies depending on their sex, and that these sex differences in communication can influence patients' health outcomes. The present study aimed to examine the extent to which sex differences in primary care providers' communication extend to the sensitive context of gynecological care for genital herpes and whether these potential sex differences in communication influence patients' herpes transmission prevention behaviors and herpes-related quality of life. Women (N = 123) from the United States recently diagnosed with genital herpes anonymously completed established measures in which they rated (a) their health care providers' communication, (b) their herpes transmission prevention behaviors, and (c) their herpes-related quality of life. The authors found significant sex differences in health care providers' communication; this finding supports that sex differences in primary care providers' communication extend to gynecological care for herpes. Specifically, patients with female health care providers indicated that their providers engaged in more patient-centered communication and were more satisfied with their providers' communication. However, health care providers' sex did not predict women's quality of life, a finding that suggests that health care providers' sex alone is of little importance in patients' health outcomes. Patient-centered communication was significantly associated with greater quality-of-life scores and may provide a promising avenue for intervention.

  19. Sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis--results from a community study over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Angst, Jules

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in schizophrenia have long been reported. They are found within almost all aspects of the disease, from incidence and prevalence, age of onset, symptomatology, and course to its psycho-social outcome. Many sex-related hypotheses have been developed about the biology, psychology, or sociology of that disease. A further approach to study sex differences would be to examine such differences in sub-clinical psychotic states as well. If factors related to full-blown psychosis were equally meaningful over the entire psychosis continuum, we should expect that "true" sex differences could also be identified in sub-clinical psychosis. Here, we studied sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis within a community cohort in Zurich, Switzerland. This population was followed for over 30 years and included males and females between the ages of 20/21 and 49/50. We applied two different measures of sub-clinical psychosis representing schizotypal signs and schizophrenia nuclear symptoms. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we found no significant sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis over time with respect to age of onset, symptomatology, course, or psycho-social outcome. Thus it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) rather than within the sub-threshold range. Possibly males and females have separate thresholds for certain symptoms because they are differently vulnerable or exposed to various risk factors. PMID:22632902

  20. Sex Differences in Time Perception During Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making, which reflects a preference for smaller, immediate rewards and often prompts a relapse to smoking. The mechanism by which nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making is not well known. An essential dimension of decision-making is time perception. Impulsive decisions reflect intolerance of temporal delays and the perception that time is passing more slowly. Sex may be an important factor in impulsive decision-making and time perception, but no studies have investigated whether sex moderates the effects of nicotine withdrawal on impulsive decision-making and time perception. Methods: Thirty-three (12 female) adult smokers completed 2 laboratory sessions: following 24-hr abstinence and once smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced, abstinence biochemically verified). Participants completed 2 time perception tasks, a decision-making task, and self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, and mood. Results: During time reproduction, males overestimated time during abstinence compared to smoking, whereas there was no session effect for females. On the time discrimination task, smokers were less accurate during abstinence, and this effect tended to be stronger among females. In general, males had higher discounting rates compared with females, but there was no effect of abstinence. Conclusions: The current data suggest that the effect of abstinence on time perception may be stronger in males and that males generally exhibit steeper delay discounting rates. Time perception may be an important mechanism in smoking abstinence. Our future work will investigate the role of time perception in smoking relapse and whether this is moderated by sex. PMID:25762755