Science.gov

Sample records for additionally significant correlations

  1. Replication of Significant Correlations in Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers conducting studies involving individuals with exceptionalities are often prevented from involving large numbers of participants in their study samples. When this is the case, some say significant correlations are likely to replicate because the relation between two variables must be robust enough to be detected even with low…

  2. Significance of Input Correlations in Striatal Function

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Man Yi; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is the main input station of the basal ganglia and is strongly associated with motor and cognitive functions. Anatomical evidence suggests that individual striatal neurons are unlikely to share their inputs from the cortex. Using a biologically realistic large-scale network model of striatum and cortico-striatal projections, we provide a functional interpretation of the special anatomical structure of these projections. Specifically, we show that weak pairwise correlation within the pool of inputs to individual striatal neurons enhances the saliency of signal representation in the striatum. By contrast, correlations among the input pools of different striatal neurons render the signal representation less distinct from background activity. We suggest that for the network architecture of the striatum, there is a preferred cortico-striatal input configuration for optimal signal representation. It is further enhanced by the low-rate asynchronous background activity in striatum, supported by the balance between feedforward and feedback inhibitions in the striatal network. Thus, an appropriate combination of rates and correlations in the striatal input sets the stage for action selection presumably implemented in the basal ganglia. PMID:22125480

  3. Addition of Cryoprotectant Significantly Alters the Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sung-Jae; Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Although cryopreservation has been developed and optimized over the past decades, it causes various stresses, including cold shock, osmotic stress, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing fertility. During cryopreservation, addition of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is crucial for protecting spermatozoa from freezing damage. However, the intrinsic toxicity and osmotic stress induced by CPA cause damage to spermatozoa. To identify the effects of CPA addition during cryopreservation, we assessed the motility (%), motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of epididymal spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Moreover, the effects of CPA addition were also demonstrated at the proteome level using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CPA addition significantly reduced sperm motility (%), curvilinear velocity, viability (%), and non-capacitated spermatozoa, whereas straightness and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa increased significantly (p < 0.05). Ten proteins were differentially expressed (two decreased and eight increased) (>3 fold, p < 0.05) after CPA, whereas NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2, f-actin-capping protein subunit beta, superoxide dismutase 2, and outer dense fiber protein 2 were associated with several important signaling pathways (p < 0.05). The present study provides a mechanistic basis for specific cryostresses and potential markers of CPA-induced stress. Therefore, these might provide information about the development of safe biomaterials for cryopreservation and basic ground for sperm cryopreservation. PMID:27031703

  4. Testing the Difference of Correlated Agreement Coefficients for Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwet, Kilem L.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of testing the difference between two correlated agreement coefficients for statistical significance. A number of authors have proposed methods for testing the difference between two correlated kappa coefficients, which require either the use of resampling methods or the use of advanced statistical modeling…

  5. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  6. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  7. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  8. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  9. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  10. Absence of significant cross-correlation between WMAP and SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Sylos Labini, F.; Betancort-Rijo, J.

    2010-04-01

    Aims: Several authors have claimed to detect a significant cross-correlation between microwave WMAP anisotropies and the SDSS galaxy distribution. We repeat these analyses to determine the different cross-correlation uncertainties caused by re-sampling errors and field-to-field fluctuations. The first type of error concerns overlapping sky regions, while the second type concerns non-overlapping sky regions. Methods: To measure the re-sampling errors, we use bootstrap and jack-knife techniques. For the field-to-field fluctuations, we use three methods: 1) evaluation of the dispersion in the cross-correlation when correlating separated regions of WMAP with the original region of SDSS; 2) use of mock Monte Carlo WMAP maps; 3) a new method (developed in this article), which measures the error as a function of the integral of the product of the self-correlations for each map. Results: The average cross-correlation for b > 30 deg is significantly stronger than the re-sampling errors - both the jack-knife and bootstrap techniques provide similar results - but it is of the order of the field-to-field fluctuations. This is confirmed by the cross-correlation between anisotropies and galaxies in more than the half of the sample being null within re-sampling errors. Conclusions: Re-sampling methods underestimate the errors. Field-to-field fluctuations dominate the detected signals. The ratio of signal to re-sampling errors is larger than unity in a way that strongly depends on the selected sky region. We therefore conclude that there is no evidence yet of a significant detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. Hence, the value of Ω_Λ ≈ 0.8 obtained by the authors who assumed they were observing the ISW effect would appear to have originated from noise analysis.

  11. Significance of trends in long-term correlated records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamazian, Araik; Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin

    2015-03-01

    We study the distribution P (x ;α ,L ) of the relative trend x in long-term correlated records of length L that are characterized by a Hurst exponent α between 0.5 and 1.5. The relative trend x is the ratio between the strength of the trend Δ in the record measured by linear regression and the standard deviation σ around the regression line. We consider L between 400 and 2200, which is the typical length scale of monthly local and annual reconstructed global climate records. Extending previous work by Lennartz and Bunde [S. Lennartz and A. Bunde, Phys. Rev. E 84, 021129 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.021129] we show explicitly that x follows the Student's t distribution P ∝[1+(x/a) 2/l ] -(l +1 )/2 , where the scaling parameter a depends on both L and α , while the effective length l depends, for α below 1.15, only on the record length L . From P we can derive an analytical expression for the trend significance S (x ;α ,L ) =∫-xxP (x';α ,L ) d x' and the border lines of the 95 % significance interval. We show that the results are nearly independent of the distribution of the data in the record, holding for Gaussian data as well as for highly skewed non-Gaussian data. For an application, we use our methodology to estimate the significance of central west Antarctic warming.

  12. Finding Significant Correlates of Conscious Activity in Rhythmic EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durka, Piotr J.

    2005-12-01

    One of the important issues in designing an EEG-based brain-computer interface is an exact delineation of the rhythms, related to the intended or performed action. Traditionally, related bands were found by trial and error procedures seeking maximum reactivity. Even then, large values of ERD/ERS did not imply the statistical significance of the results. This paper presents complete methodology, allowing for a high-resolution presentation of the whole time-frequency picture of event-related changes in the energy density of signals, revealing the microstructure of rhythms, and determination of the time-frequency regions of energy changes, which are related to the intentions in a statistically significant way.

  13. A correlative imaging based methodology for accurate quantitative assessment of bone formation in additive manufactured implants.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hua; Todd, Naomi M; Devlin-Mullin, Aine; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; Kim, Taek Bo; Madi, Kamel; Cartmell, Sarah; Mitchell, Christopher A; Jones, Julian R; Lee, Peter D

    2016-06-01

    A correlative imaging methodology was developed to accurately quantify bone formation in the complex lattice structure of additive manufactured implants. Micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry were combined, integrating the best features from both, while demonstrating the limitations of each imaging modality. This semi-automatic methodology registered each modality using a coarse graining technique to speed the registration of 2D histology sections to high resolution 3D μCT datasets. Once registered, histomorphometric qualitative and quantitative bone descriptors were directly correlated to 3D quantitative bone descriptors, such as bone ingrowth and bone contact. The correlative imaging allowed the significant volumetric shrinkage of histology sections to be quantified for the first time (~15 %). This technique demonstrated the importance of location of the histological section, demonstrating that up to a 30 % offset can be introduced. The results were used to quantitatively demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D printed titanium lattice implants. PMID:27153828

  14. Metabolomics reveals significant variations in metabolites and correlations regarding the maturation of walnuts (Juglans regia L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Guodong; Sui, Jinkai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The content of walnut metabolites is related to its nutritive value and physiological characteristics, however, comprehensive information concerning the metabolome of walnut kernels is limited. In this study we analyzed the metabolites of walnut kernels at five developmental stages from filling to ripening using GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics; of a total 252 peaks identified, 85 metabolites were positively identified. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 85 metabolites covered different types of metabolism pathways. PCA scores revealed that the metabolic compositions of the embryo are different at each stage, while the metabolic composition of the endotesta could not be significantly separated into distinct groups. Additionally, 7225 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected in walnut kernel by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach; during screening of the calculated correlations, 463 and 1047 were determined to be significant with r2≥0.49 and had a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05 in endotesta and embryo, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic study of walnut kernels and reveals that most of the carbohydrate and protein-derived carbon was transferred into other compounds, such as fatty acids, during the maturation of walnuts, which may potentially provide the basis for further studies on walnut kernel metabolism. PMID:27215321

  15. Metabolomics reveals significant variations in metabolites and correlations regarding the maturation of walnuts (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Rao, Guodong; Sui, Jinkai; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The content of walnut metabolites is related to its nutritive value and physiological characteristics, however, comprehensive information concerning the metabolome of walnut kernels is limited. In this study we analyzed the metabolites of walnut kernels at five developmental stages from filling to ripening using GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics; of a total 252 peaks identified, 85 metabolites were positively identified. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 85 metabolites covered different types of metabolism pathways. PCA scores revealed that the metabolic compositions of the embryo are different at each stage, while the metabolic composition of the endotesta could not be significantly separated into distinct groups. Additionally, 7225 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected in walnut kernel by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach; during screening of the calculated correlations, 463 and 1047 were determined to be significant with r(2)≥0.49 and had a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05 in endotesta and embryo, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic study of walnut kernels and reveals that most of the carbohydrate and protein-derived carbon was transferred into other compounds, such as fatty acids, during the maturation of walnuts, which may potentially provide the basis for further studies on walnut kernel metabolism. PMID:27215321

  16. Statistically significant deviations from additivity: What do they mean in assessing toxicity of mixtures?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Vijver, Martina G; Qiu, Hao; Baas, Jan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing attention from scientists and policy makers to the joint effects of multiple metals on organisms when present in a mixture. Using root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a toxicity endpoint, the combined effects of binary mixtures of Cu, Cd, and Ni were studied. The statistical MixTox model was used to search deviations from the reference models i.e. concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA). The deviations were subsequently interpreted as 'interactions'. A comprehensive experiment was designed to test the reproducibility of the 'interactions'. The results showed that the toxicity of binary metal mixtures was equally well predicted by both reference models. We found statistically significant 'interactions' in four of the five total datasets. However, the patterns of 'interactions' were found to be inconsistent or even contradictory across the different independent experiments. It is recommended that a statistically significant 'interaction', must be treated with care and is not necessarily biologically relevant. Searching a statistically significant interaction can be the starting point for further measurements and modeling to advance the understanding of underlying mechanisms and non-additive interactions occurring inside the organisms. PMID:26188643

  17. Clinical Significance of Additional Ablation of Atrial Premature Beats after Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Soo; Yang, Pil-Sung; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Junbeum; Park, Jin-Kyu; Uhm, Jae Sun; Joung, Boyoung; Lee, Moon Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The clinical significance of post-procedural atrial premature beats immediately after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been clearly determined. We hypothesized that the provocation of immediate recurrence of atrial premature beats (IRAPB) and additional ablation improves the clinical outcome of AF ablation. Materials and Methods We enrolled 200 patients with AF (76.5% males; 57.4±11.1 years old; 64.3% paroxysmal AF) who underwent catheter ablation. Post-procedure IRAPB was defined as frequent atrial premature beats (≥6/min) under isoproterenol infusion (5 µg/min), monitored for 10 min after internal cardioversion, and we ablated mappable IRAPBs. Post-procedural IRAPB provocations were conducted in 100 patients. We compared the patients who showed IRAPB with those who did not. We also compared the IRAPB provocation group with 100 age-, sex-, and AF-type-matched patients who completed ablation without provocation (No-Test group). Results 1) Among the post-procedural IRAPB provocation group, 33% showed IRAPB and required additional ablation with a longer procedure time (p=0.001) than those without IRAPB, without increasing the complication rate. 2) During 18.0±6.6 months of follow-up, the patients who showed IRAPB had a worse clinical recurrence rate than those who did not (27.3% vs. 9.0%; p=0.016), in spite of additional IRAPB ablation. 3) However, the clinical recurrence rate was significantly lower in the IRAPB provocation group (15.0%) than in the No-Test group (28.0%; p=0.025) without lengthening of the procedure time or raising complication rate. Conclusion The presence of post-procedural IRAPB was associated with a higher recurrence rate after AF ablation. However, IRAPB provocation and additional ablation might facilitate a better clinical outcome. A further prospective randomized study is warranted. PMID:26632385

  18. Prognostic significance of survivin expression in renal cell cancer and its correlation with radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Geng, Zhang; Guo-Jun, Wu; He, Wang; Jian-Lin, Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Survivin, an important inhibitor of apoptosis, has been found to play an important role in the initiation, progression, and chemoradioresistance of human malignancies. Previously, we have reported that upregulation of survivin in oral squamous cell carcinoma correlates with poor prognosis and chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to assess prognostic significance of survivin protein expression in RCC and analyze its correlation with radiosensitivity of RCC cells. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were performed to detect survivin mRNA and protein expression in normal human kidney epithelial cell line (HKEC) or RCC cell lines. The expression of survivin mRNA in RCC and corresponding nontumor kidney tissues was also detected by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine survivin protein expression in 75 cases of RCC tissue samples. Moreover, the association of survivin protein expression with clinicopathogical factors and prognosis of RCC patients was statistically analyzed. Small interfering RNA was used to knockdown the endogenous survivin expression in RCC cell line (ACHN) and evaluate the effects of survivin knockdown on proliferation, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity of RCC cell line. RCC cells showed sufficient expression of survivin mRNA and protein, but the expression of survivin gene was not detected in normal HKEC. Moreover, the expression level of survivin mRNA in RCC tissues was significantly higher than that in corresponding nontumor kidney tissues. The immunostaining of survivin protein was mainly located in cytoplasm of RCC tumor cells. Tumor pathological stage (P = 0.028), grade (P = 0.004), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.017) of RCC patients were significantly correlated with survivin protein expression. In addition, patients with high survivin levels had a significantly shorter overall survival than those with low levels (P < 0.001), and the expression of survivin protein was an independent prognostic factor for RCC patients (P = 0

  19. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rashin, Alexander A.; Domagalski, Marcin J.; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L.

    2014-02-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  20. Significantly improved cyclability of lithium manganese oxide under elevated temperature by an easily oxidized electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunmin; Rong, Haibo; Mai, Shaowei; Luo, Xueyi; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2015-12-01

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is a promising cathode for lithium ion battery in large-scale applications, because it possesses many advantages compared with currently used layered lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and olivine phosphate (LiFePO4), including naturally abundant resource, environmental friendliness and high and long work potential plateau. Its poor cyclability under high temperature, however, limits its application. In this work, we report a significant cyclability improvement of LiMn2O4 under elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphonite (DMPP) as an electrolyte additive. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the application of 0.5 wt.% DMPP yields a capacity retention improvement from 16% to 82% for LiMn2O4 after 200 cycles under 55 °C at 1 C (1C = 148 mAh g-1) between 3 and 4.5 V. Electrochemical and physical characterizations indicate that DMPP is electrochemically oxidized at the potential lower than that for lithium extraction, forming a protective cathode interphase on LiMn2O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and prevents LiMn2O4 from crystal destruction.

  1. Expression of molecular factors correlated with metastasis in small cell lung cancer and their significance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Xia; Li, Rui-Jian; Zhao, Lu-Jun; Liu, Ning-Bo; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Distant metastasis continues to be a fatal threat to quality of life in patients with small cell lung caner (SCLC). The purpose of this work is to analyze the expressions of chemokine receptor four (CXCR4), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-β1), N-cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in small cell lung caner (SCLC), and to explore their correlations with the prognosis and metastasis. Sixty-five consecutive patients with stage I-III SCLC who received operation in our hospital from Jan 2003 to Oct 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. The expression of CXCR4 was found significantly correlated with bone metastasis (P = 0.004), and were marginally correlated with brain metastasis (P = 0.068) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.085). The expression of MMP-9 was significantly associated with pathological staging (P = 0.048). Univariate analysis suggested surgical approach, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with OS and PFS (P < 0.05), high expression of CXCR4 was significantly correlated with worse OS (P = 0.004) and PFS (P = 0.005). Multivariate analysis suggested surgical approach, TGF-β1, CXCR4 and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factor for PFS. In conclusion, High expression of CXCR4, MMP-9, TGF-β1 and VEGF were found in SCLC. High expression of MMP-9 was significantly associated with pathological staging, and high expression of CXCR4 was correlated with bone metastasis and also might correlate with brain metastasis. CXCR4 were independent prognostic factor for survival in SCLC and expanded samples should be further explored in the future. PMID:26823791

  2. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  3. Investigation of smart inspection of critical layer reticles using additional designer data to determine defect significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, William W.; Hess, Carl; Ruch, Wayne; Yu, Zongchang; Ma, Weimin; Fisher, Lisa; Vickery, Carl; Ma, Z. Mark

    2003-12-01

    With expected implementation of low k1 lithography on 193nm scanners for 65nm node wafer production, high resolution defect inspection will be needed to insure reticle quality and reticle manufacture process monitoring. Reticle cost and reticle defectivity are both increasing with each shrink to the next node. Simultaneously, system on chip (SoC) designs are increasing in which a large area of the exposure field typically contains dummy patterns and other features which are not electrically active. Knowing which defects will electrically impact device yield and performance can improve reticle manufacturing yield and cycle time -- resulting in lower reticle costs. This investigation examines the feasibility of using additional design data layers for die-to-database reticle inspection to determine in real time the relevance of a reticle defect by its location in the device (Smart InspectionTM). The impact to data preparation and inspection throughput is evaluated. The current prototype algorithm is built on the XPA and XPE die-to-database algorithms for chrome-on-glass and EPSM reticles, respectively. The algorithms implement variable sensitivity based on the additional design data regions. During defect review the defects are intelligently binned into the different predetermined design regions. Tests show the new Smart Inspection algorithm provides the capability of using higher than normal sensitivity in critical regions while reducing sensitivity in less critical regions to filter total defect counts and allow for the review of just defects that matter. Performance characterization of a variable sensitivity Smart Inspection algorithm is discussed in addition to the filtering of the total defect count during review to show the defects that matter to device performance. Using seven critical layer production reticles from a system on chip device we examine the applications of Smart Inspection by layer including active, poly, contact, metal and via layers. Data volume

  4. Are secular correlations between sunspots, geomagnetic activity, and global temperature significant?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.; Mursula, K.; Tsai, V.C.; Perkins, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have led to speculation that solar-terrestrial interaction, measured by sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, has played an important role in global temperature change over the past century or so. We treat this possibility as an hypothesis for testing. We examine the statistical significance of cross-correlations between sunspot number, geomagnetic activity, and global surface temperature for the years 1868-2008, solar cycles 11-23. The data contain substantial autocorrelation and nonstationarity, properties that are incompatible with standard measures of cross-correlational significance, but which can be largely removed by averaging over solar cycles and first-difference detrending. Treated data show an expected statistically- significant correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, Pearson p < 10-4, but correlations between global temperature and sunspot number (geomagnetic activity) are not significant, p = 0.9954, (p = 0.8171). In other words, straightforward analysis does not support widely-cited suggestions that these data record a prominent role for solar-terrestrial interaction in global climate change. With respect to the sunspot-number, geomagnetic-activity, and global-temperature data, three alternative hypotheses remain difficult to reject: (1) the role of solar-terrestrial interaction in recent climate change is contained wholly in long-term trends and not in any shorter-term secular variation, or, (2) an anthropogenic signal is hiding correlation between solar-terrestrial variables and global temperature, or, (3) the null hypothesis, recent climate change has not been influenced by solar-terrestrial interaction. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A in endometrial carcinomas: clinicopathologic correlations and prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Toki, Naoyuki; Kagami, Seiji; Kurita, Tomoko; Kawagoe, Toshinori; Matsuura, Yusuke; Hachisuga, Toru; Matsuyama, Atsuji; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Izumi, Hiroto; Kohno, Kimitoshi

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) is necessary for both transcription and maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. This study was conducted to elucidate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of mtTFA in patients with endometrial carcinoma. This study investigated the relationship between the immunohistochemical expression of mtTFA and various clinicopathological variables in 276 endometrial carcinomas, including 245 endometrioid adenocarcinomas and 31 nonendometrioid carcinomas (21 serous carcinomas and 10 clear cell adenocarcinomas). Both uni- and multivariate regression analyses were performed. The mtTFA labeling index of endometrioid adenocarcinomas ranged from 0% to 98%, with a median value of 32%, which was selected as the cut-off point for mtTFA expression. The mtTFA expression in endometrioid adenocarcinomas was significantly associated with the surgical stage, myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space invasion, cervical invasion, and lymph node metastasis. In contrast, no correlation between clinicopathologic variables and mtTFA expression was found in nonendometrioid carcinomas. Correlation analysis between mtTFA and p53 expression by using the Pearson test showed significant correlation in endometrioid adenocarcinomas (P = 0.007), but no significant correlation in nonendometrioid carcinomas (P = 0.947). A univariate survival analysis showed that the 10-year overall survival rate of the patients with mtTFA-positive endometrioid adenocarcinoma was significantly worse than that of patients with mtTFA-negative endometrioid adenocarcinoma (80.8% vs. 93.8%, P = 0.012). However, the multivariate analysis revealed that mtTFA expression in endometrioid adenocarcinomas was no independent prognostic factor. The positive mtTFA expression is a useful maker for progression of the tumors and the poor prognosis of the patients in endometrioid adenocarcinomas. PMID:20232213

  6. Spatial correlations, additivity, and fluctuations in conserved-mass transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arghya; Chatterjee, Sayani; Pradhan, Punyabrata

    2016-06-01

    We exactly calculate two-point spatial correlation functions in steady state in a broad class of conserved-mass transport processes, which are governed by chipping, diffusion, and coalescence of masses. We find that the spatial correlations are in general short-ranged and, consequently, on a large scale, these transport processes possess a remarkable thermodynamic structure in the steady state. That is, the processes have an equilibrium-like additivity property and, consequently, a fluctuation-response relation, which help us to obtain subsystem mass distributions in the limit of subsystem size large.

  7. Significant Differences Characterise the Correlation Coefficients between Biocide and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Oggioni, Marco R; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel R; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose-Luis; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Coque, Teresa M; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern by regulatory authorities for the selection of antibiotic resistance caused by the use of biocidal products. We aimed to complete the detailed information on large surveys by investigating the relationship between biocide and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of a large number of Staphylococcus aureus isolates using four biocides and antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most clinically-relevant antibiotics was determined according to the standardized methodology for over 1600 clinical S. aureus isolates and compared to susceptibility profiles of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. The relationship between antibiotic and biocide susceptibility profiles was evaluated using non-linear correlations. The main outcome evidenced was an absence of any strong or moderate statistically significant correlation when susceptibilities of either triclosan or sodium hypochlorite were compared for any of the tested antibiotics. On the other hand, correlation coefficients for MICs of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were calculated above 0.4 for susceptibility to quinolones, beta-lactams, and also macrolides. Our data do not support any selective pressure for association between biocides and antibiotics resistance and furthermore do not allow for a defined risk evaluation for some of the compounds. Importantly, our data clearly indicate that there does not involve any risk of selection for antibiotic resistance for the compounds triclosan and sodium hypochlorite. These data hence infer that biocide selection for antibiotic resistance has had so far a less significant impact than feared. PMID:25760337

  8. Significant Differences Characterise the Correlation Coefficients between Biocide and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Oggioni, Marco R; Rosado Coelho, Joana; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel R; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose-Luis; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Coque, Teresa M; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern by regulatory authorities for the selection of antibiotic resistance caused by the use of biocidal products. We aimed to complete the detailed information on large surveys by investigating the relationship between biocide and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of a large number of Staphylococcus aureus isolates using four biocides and antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most clinically-relevant antibiotics was determined according to the standardized methodology for over 1600 clinical S. aureus isolates and compared to susceptibility profiles of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. The relationship between antibiotic and biocide susceptibility profiles was evaluated using non-linear correlations. The main outcome evidenced was an absence of any strong or moderate statistically significant correlation when susceptibilities of either triclosan or sodium hypochlorite were compared for any of the tested antibiotics. On the other hand, correlation coefficients for MICs of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were calculated above 0.4 for susceptibility to quinolones, beta-lactams, and also macrolides. Our data do not support any selective pressure for association between biocides and antibiotics resistance and furthermore do not allow for a defined risk evaluation for some of the compounds. Importantly, our data clearly indicate that there does not involve any risk of selection for antibiotic resistance for the compounds triclosan and sodium hypochlorite. These data hence infer that biocide selection for antibiotic resistance has had so far a less significant impact than feared. PMID:25760337

  9. Significant correlation between refractive index and activity of mitochondria: single mitochondrion study

    PubMed Central

    Haseda, Keisuke; Kanematsu, Keita; Noguchi, Keiichi; Saito, Hiromu; Umeda, Norihiro; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of refractive indices (RIs) of intracellular components can provide useful information on the structure and function of cells. The present study reports, for the first time, determination of the RI of an isolated mitochondrion in isotonic solution using retardation-modulated differential interference contrast microscopy. The value was 1.41 ± 0.01, indicating that mitochondria are densely packed with molecules having high RIs. Further, the RIs of each mitochondrion were significantly correlated with the mitochondrial membrane potential, an index of mitochondrial activity. These results will provide useful information on the structures and functions of cells based on the intracellular distribution of RIs. PMID:25798310

  10. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Rashin, Alexander A; Domagalski, Marcin J; Zimmermann, Michael T; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L

    2014-02-01

    Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific `unusual' ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty thresholds. The binding of unusual ligands by myoglobin, leading to crystal-induced distortions, suggests that some of the conformational differences between the apo and holo structures might not be `functionally important' but rather artifacts caused by the binding of `unusual' substrate analogs. The causes of P6 symmetry in myoglobin crystals and the relationship between crystal and

  11. Significant correlation of the SCN1A mutations and severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Iori; Ouchida, Mamoru; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Oka, Eiji; Shimizu, Kenji

    2002-07-01

    To investigate the possible correlation between genotype and phenotype of epilepsy, we analyzed the voltage-gated sodium channel alpha1-subunit (SCN1A) gene, beta1-subunit (SCN1B) gene, and gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor gamma2-subunit (GABRG2) gene in DNAs from peripheral blood cells of 29 patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SME) and 11 patients with other types of epilepsy. Mutations of the SCN1A gene were detected in 24 of the 29 patients (82.7%) with SME, although none with other types of epilepsy. The mutations included deletion, insertion, missense, and nonsense mutations. We could not find any mutations of the SCN1B and GABRG2 genes in all patients. Our data suggested that the SCN1A mutations were significantly correlated with SME (p<.0001). As we could not find SCN1A mutations in their parents, one of critical causes of SME may be de novo mutation of the SCN1A gene occurred in the course of meiosis in the parents. PMID:12083760

  12. High Blood Pressure Prevalence and Significant Correlates: A Quantitative Analysis from Coastal Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Chythra R.; Kamath, Veena G.; Shetty, Avinash; Kamath, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is a premier risk factor for cardiovascular disease which can be recognized if sought and treated effectively. Effective management of high blood pressure is possible when the magnitude of the problem is identified. So, a cross-sectional community based survey among 1,239 respondents aged ≥30 years was designed to estimate the prevalence and the sociodemographic correlates of hypertension among adults aged ≥30 years. Data was collected by personal interviews, followed by anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. The prevalence of hypertension was 43.3%, with the prevalence being more among males (51.6%) as compared to females (38.9%). Of the total prevalence 23.1% (287) were known cases, and 20.2% (250) were newly detected cases. Based on the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC VII) on high blood pressure, prehypertension was noted among 38.7%. Advancing age, male gender, current diabetic status, central obesity, overweight and obesity as defined by body mass index, and family history of hypertension were identified as significant correlates for hypertension by multivariate logistic regression. PMID:24967139

  13. Significant correlation of species longevity with DNA double strand break recognition but not with telomere length.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Antonello; Johnson, F Brad; Oliver, Anthony; Tresini, Maria; Smith, Jasmine S; Hdeib, Mona; Sell, Christian; Cristofalo, Vincent J; Stamato, Thomas D

    2009-01-01

    The identification of the cellular mechanisms responsible for the wide differences in species lifespan remains one of the major unsolved problems of the biology of aging. We measured the capacity of nuclear protein to recognize DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and telomere length of skin fibroblasts derived from mammalian species that exhibit wide differences in longevity. Our results indicate DNA DSB recognition increases exponentially with longevity. Further, an analysis of the level of Ku80 protein in human, cow, and mouse suggests that Ku levels vary dramatically between species and these levels are strongly correlated with longevity. In contrast mean telomere length appears to decrease with increasing longevity of the species, although not significantly. These findings suggest that an enhanced ability to bind to DNA ends may be important for longevity. A number of possible roles for increased levels of Ku and DNA-PKcs are discussed. PMID:19896964

  14. Molecular correlates and prognostic significance of SATB1 expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a global gene regulator that has been reported to confer malignant behavior and associate with poor prognosis in several cancer forms. SATB1 expression has been demonstrated to correlate with unfavourable tumour characteristics in rectal cancer, but its association with clinical outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In this study, we examined the prognostic impact of SATB1 expression in CRC, and its association with important molecular characteristics; i.e. beta-catenin overexpression, microsatellite instability (MSI) screening status, and SATB2 expression. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of SATB1 and beta-catenin was assessed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 529 incident CRC cases in the prospective population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, previously analysed for SATB2 expression and MSI screening status. Spearmans Rho and Chi-Square tests were used to explore correlations between SATB1 expression, clinicopathological and investigative parameters. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to explore the impact of SATB1 expression on cancer specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). Results SATB1 was expressed in 222 (42%) CRC cases and negative, or sparsely expressed, in adjacent colorectal mucosa (n = 16). SATB1 expression was significantly associated with microsatellite stable tumours (p < 0.001), beta-catenin overexpression (p < 0.001) and SATB2 expression (p < 0.001). While not prognostic in the full cohort, SATB1 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in SATB2 negative tumours (HR = 2.63; 95% CI 1.46-4.71; pinteraction = 0.011 for CSS and HR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.32-4.04; pinteraction = 0.015 for OS), remaining significant in multivariable analysis. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that SATB1 expression in CRC is significantly associated with beta

  15. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. PMID:24942044

  16. Correlating MDCT Liver Injury Grade and Clinical Outcome in Patients Without Significant Extra-hepatic Injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Atin; Baliyan, Vinit; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Misra, M C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to correlate multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) grading with clinical severity and outcome in liver trauma patients without significant extrahepatic injury. Over a period of 2 years (2011-2013), all patients showing evidence of liver injury on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) abdomen and without significant extrahepatic trauma were prospectively included in the study. Correlation between the CT injury grade and outcome in terms of mortality, duration of ICU/hospital stay, fluid and blood requirements, need for intervention and complications were assessed. The significance of the difference in mortality, duration of ICU/hospital stay, fluid requirement and blood requirements among the patients with various injury grades was assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance of the difference in need for intervention and complications among the patients with various injury grades was assessed by Fisher's exact test. A total of 198 patients were found to have evidence of hepatic injury on CECT. Out of 198 patients, 117 had insignificant extrahepatic trauma. The overall mean age for these 117 patients was 25.74 ± 15.53 (age range 2-84 years). Death rates according to AAST grades were 0 % in grades II and III, 6.89 % in grade IV and 9.09 % in grade V (p = 0.053). The mean ICU and total hospital stay for grade II was 1.32 and 5.91 days, for grade III was 1.76 and 8.48, for grade IV was 2.86 and 10.31 days and for grade V was 6.54 and 12 days, respectively (p = 0.0001 for ICU, p = 0.0003 for total stay). Mean input and fluid deficit according to various grades were 8634/2607 ml for grade II, 9535/2555 ml for grade III, 15,549/6242 ml for grade IV and 19,958/8280 ml for grade V (p value input-0.0016, output-input (fluid deficit)-0.0001). Average unit of RBC and sum of the blood products transfused were 1.73 and 2.26 for grade II, 2.18 and 2.72 for grade III, 3.03 and 6.27 for grade IV, 6.85 and 38.12 for grade V

  17. Diffusion behaviour of additives in polypropylene in correlation with polymer properties.

    PubMed

    Begley, T H; Brandsch, J; Limm, W; Siebert, H; Piringer, O

    2008-11-01

    The migration behaviour of polymer additives in 17 polypropylene (PP) samples is described. These samples cover the major types of PP used in food packaging. The diffusion coefficients of additives with relatively small molecular masses, M(r) = 136 (limonene), as well as the migration of typical antioxidants used in PP up to M(r) = 1178 (IRGANOX 1010), were measured at different temperatures. In addition, the diffusion data and percentages of xylene-soluble fractions were correlated. This enables a prediction of the migration behaviour of a PP sample by testing its 'isotactic index' with xylene. The results clearly indicate that PP can be subdivided, from the migration point of view, into the monophasic homopolymer (h-PP), the monophasic random copolymer (r-PP), and the heterophasic copolymer (heco-PP). The diffusion coefficients for r-PP are at least one order of magnitude higher than those of h-PP and comparable with the values for heco-PP. Upper limits for the diffusion values can be calculated based on the safety margin required by consumer protection laws. PMID:19680849

  18. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of a Polyimide Film Significantly Enhanced by the Addition of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes have been shown to possess a combination of outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The use of carbon nanotubes as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and/or enhance their thermal and electrical conductivity has been a topic of intense interest. Nanotube-modified polymeric materials could find a variety of applications in NASA missions including large-area antennas, solar arrays, and solar sails; radiation shielding materials for vehicles, habitats, and extravehicular activity suits; and multifunctional materials for vehicle structures and habitats. Use of these revolutionary materials could reduce vehicle weight significantly and improve vehicle performance and capabilities.

  19. Assessing the Significance of Global and Local Correlations under Spatial Autocorrelation; a Nonparametric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Rahul; McInturff, Alex; McCauley, Douglas J.; Hastie, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Summary We propose a method to test the correlation of two random fields when they are both spatially auto-correlated. In this scenario, the assumption of independence for the pair of observations in the standard test does not hold, and as a result we reject in many cases where there is no effect (the precision of the null distribution is overestimated). Our method recovers the null distribution taking into account the autocorrelation. It uses Monte-Carlo methods, and focuses on permuting, and then smoothing and scaling one of the variables to destroy the correlation with the other, while maintaining at the same time the initial autocorrelation. With this simulation model, any test based on the independence of two (or more) random fields can be constructed. This research was motivated by a project in biodiversity and conservation in the Biology Department at Stanford University. PMID:24571609

  20. Significant reserve additions from oligocene Hackberry Sands utilizing 3-D seismic, upper Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboras, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Oligocene Hackberry sands of the Hackberry Embayment represent a complex and elusive exploration target. 3-D seismic evaluation along the headward erosional limits of the embayment provides a reconstructive framework of tectonic and sedimentation patterns which facilitate hydrocarbon exploration. The 3-D seismic along the Orange County, Texas portion of the Oligocene Hackberry trend indicates: (1) similarities of Hackberry structural and depositional setting to that of the underlying Eocene Yegua Formation; (2) four distinct cyclical sedimentation episodes associated with basin floor slump faulting: (3) the usefulness of seismic attributes as direct hydrocarbon indicators, and (4) the potential for significant oil and gas reserves additions in a mature trend. The Hackberry embayment represents a microcosm of the basin structural and depositional processes. Utilizing 3-D seismic to lower risk and finding cost will renew interest in trends such as the Hackberry of the Upper Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast.

  1. Assessing the significance of global and local correlations under spatial autocorrelation: a nonparametric approach.

    PubMed

    Viladomat, Júlia; Mazumder, Rahul; McInturff, Alex; McCauley, Douglas J; Hastie, Trevor

    2014-06-01

    We propose a method to test the correlation of two random fields when they are both spatially autocorrelated. In this scenario, the assumption of independence for the pair of observations in the standard test does not hold, and as a result we reject in many cases where there is no effect (the precision of the null distribution is overestimated). Our method recovers the null distribution taking into account the autocorrelation. It uses Monte-Carlo methods, and focuses on permuting, and then smoothing and scaling one of the variables to destroy the correlation with the other, while maintaining at the same time the initial autocorrelation. With this simulation model, any test based on the independence of two (or more) random fields can be constructed. This research was motivated by a project in biodiversity and conservation in the Biology Department at Stanford University. PMID:24571609

  2. Superacid-promoted additions involving vinyl-substituted pyrimidines, quinoxalines, and quinazolines: mechanisms correlated to charge distributions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiliang; Sheets, Matthew R.; Raja, Erum K.; Boblak, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The superacid-promoted reactions of vinyl-substituted N-heterocycles have been studied. Diprotonated pyrimidines, quinoxalines, and quinazolines exhibit an unusual regioelectronic effect that controls the type of addition reaction observed. Depending on the ring position of the vinyl-substituent, either conjugate addition or Markovnikov addition occurs. The mode of addition has been shown to correlate well to NBO calculated charges. PMID:21548654

  3. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d−1 compared to 0.118 d−1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  4. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d-1 compared to 0.118 d-1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment.

  5. The 5q deletion size in myeloid malignancies is correlated to additional chromosomal aberrations and to TP53 mutations.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Anna; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Meggendorfer, Manja; Haferlach, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Deletions in the long arm of chromosome 5 (del(5q)) are recurrent abnormalities in myeloid malignancies. We analyzed del(5q) and accompanying molecular mutations in MDS, MPN and MDS/MPN cases. A high del(5q) frequency was revealed in MDS (1869/11398 cases; 16%), followed by MDS/MPN (37/1107; 3%) and MPN (97/6373; 2%). To investigate potential associations of the del(5q) size with the respective phenotypes, we applied array CGH analyses in selected cohorts of 61 MDS, 22 MDS/MPN and 23 MPN cases. The size varied between 16 and 119 Mb with no differences between the entities. However, MPN and MDS/MPN cases with del(5q) sole showed a significantly smaller del(5q) than cases with additional aberrations. Sequence analysis of 27 genes revealed ≥1 mutation in 91% of patients. The highest mutation frequencies in the total cohort were observed for TP53 (31%), JAK2 (23%) and DNMT3A (18%). The molecular mutation patterns in the del(5q) cohorts were different between the entities but resembled known patterns of cohorts not selected for del(5q). Further, TP53 mutations were significantly more frequent in cases with a larger deletion size (P = 0.003). The results suggest a correlation of large del(5q) with TP53 mutations and with additional chromosomal aberrations possibly contributing to more severe courses of these cases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27218649

  6. Limitations of Significance Testing in Clinical Research: A Review of Multiple Comparison Corrections and Effect Size Calculations with Correlated Measures.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Morey, Timothy E; Dhatariya, Ketan; Rice, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    Modern clinical research commonly uses complex designs with multiple related outcomes, including repeated-measures designs. While multiple comparison corrections and effect size calculations are needed to more accurately assess an intervention's significance and impact, understanding the limitations of these methods in the case of dependency and correlation is important. In this review, we outline methods for multiple comparison corrections and effect size calculations and considerations in cases of correlation and summarize relevant simulation studies to illustrate these concepts. PMID:26891394

  7. ARVCF expression is significantly correlated with the malignant phenotype of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Tang, Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, En-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF) is a member of the p120 catenin (p120ctn) family; it contains nine central Armadillo repeats and binds to the juxtamembrane domain of E-cadherin. We used immunohistochemistry to measure ARVCF expression in 121 patients with NSCLC and western blotting to examine differences in ARVCF expression between lung cancer and adjacent normal lung tissues. We interfered with ARVCF expression in two lung cancer cell lines and measured its effects on invasion and proliferation. ARVCF expression correlated with the malignant phenotype and poor prognosis. We also observed ARVCF-dependent changes in small GTPase (mainly RhoA) activity in lung cancer cells. We confirmed that ARVCF plays an important role in the malignant phenotype. PMID:25683624

  8. An exploration of comorbid symptoms and clinical correlates of clinically significant hoarding symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brian J.; Tolin, David F.; Frost, Randy O.; Steketee, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background Hoarding Disorder is currently being considered for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, yet remains poorly understood. Consensus is building that hoarding may constitute a separate disorder, although comorbidity remains high and complicates the diagnostic picture. The purpose of this investigation was to explore patterns of comorbidity among people who engage in hoarding behavior in order to better understand its clinical presentation and phenomenology. Methods Data were collected from a large internet sample (N = 363) of people who self-identified as having hoarding problems, met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, and completed all measures for this study. Participants self-reported their symptoms of disorders commonly co-occurring with hoarding (obsessive compulsive disorder [OCD], depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]), along with other clinical problems. Results: Latent class analysis results indicated that the participants were grouped into three classes: “non-comorbid” hoarding (42%), hoarding with depression (42%), and hoarding with depression and inattention (16%). Conclusions Depression symptoms were the most commonly co-occurring symptom in this sample. Contrary to previous theory relating to hoarding etiology, OCD symptoms were not significantly co-occurring and a large percentage of the study participants were free from comorbid symptoms of OCD, depression, and ADHD. This suggests that hoarding disorder is not primarily the consequence of other psychiatric conditions. Implications for DSM-5, clinical treatment, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23213052

  9. The significance of gender boundaries in preadolescence: contemporary correlates and antecedents of boundary violation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L A; Bennett, C; Englund, M; Urban, J; Shulman, S

    1993-04-01

    Previous research has established the importance of gender boundaries as a normative aspect of development in middle childhood. Here, the nature and importance of gender boundaries as an individual differences construct was explored. Ratings of gender boundary violation and gender boundary maintenance were made of 47 10-11-year-old children participating in a series of summer day camps. These ratings were supported by videotape-based behavior codings of gender boundary violating behaviors and by live observations of sheer number of associations with members of the opposite gender. In addition, considerable external validation of these individual differences was obtained. Children low on gender boundary violation and (especially) children high on boundary maintenance were independently judged by camp counselors to be socially competent. They also were found to be higher on a friendship variable, based on observation. Those who violated boundaries were especially unpopular with peers, based on a child interview. Finally, boundary violation and maintenance were related to attachment history and to early measures of parent-child generational boundary distortions. PMID:8477628

  10. A high-significance measurement of correlation between unresolved IRAS sources and optically-selected galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Hincks, Adam D.; Hajian, Amir; Addison, Graeme E. E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca

    2013-05-01

    We cross-correlate the 100 μm Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey (IRIS) map and galaxy clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3 in the maxBCG catalogue taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, measuring an angular cross-power spectrum over multipole moments 150 < l < 3000 at a total significance of over 40σ. The cross-spectrum, which arises from the spatial correlation between unresolved dusty galaxies that make up the cosmic infrared background (CIB) in the IRIS map and the galaxy clusters, is well-fit by a single power law with an index of −1.28±0.12, similar to the clustering of unresolved galaxies from cross-correlating far-infrared and submillimetre maps at longer wavelengths. Using a recent, phenomenological model for the spectral and clustering properties of the IRIS galaxies, we constrain the large-scale bias of the maxBCG clusters to be 2.6±1.4, consistent with existing analyses of the real-space cluster correlation function. The success of our method suggests that future CIB-optical cross-correlations using Planck and Herschel data will significantly improve our understanding of the clustering and redshift distribution of the faint CIB sources.

  11. Glucose-regulated protein 78 and heparanase expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma: correlations and prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78) and heparanase (HPA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their relationship with clinicopathological parameters and potential implications for survival. Methods A total of 46 patients with OSCC and 10 normal individuals were recruited for the study. GRP78 and HPA expression were determined in the lesion tissues using immunohistochemical analysis. The correlation between GRP78 and HPA was assessed using the Spearman correlation analysis. The associations of GRP78 and HPA with clinicopathological characteristics and survival were examined using the x2-test, Kaplan–Meier, or Cox regression. Results Patients with OSCC showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of GRP78 and HPA expression than normal oral tissues. GRP78 and HPA expression was positively correlated with size, TNM stage, histological grade, lymphatic metastasis, and distant metastasis in OSCC patients. GRP78 expression was also positively correlated with HPA expression. Positive GRP78 and HPA expression was inversely correlated with survival in OSCC patients. Conclusions HPA expression was found to be positively correlated with GRP78 expression. GRP78 and HPA are biomarkers that may have the potential to guide the treatment of oral cancer patients. PMID:24766948

  12. A method for predicting DCT-based denoising efficiency for grayscale images corrupted by AWGN and additive spatially correlated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Aleksey S.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Egiazarian, Karen O.

    2015-03-01

    Results of denoising based on discrete cosine transform for a wide class of images corrupted by additive noise are obtained. Three types of noise are analyzed: additive white Gaussian noise and additive spatially correlated Gaussian noise with middle and high correlation levels. TID2013 image database and some additional images are taken as test images. Conventional DCT filter and BM3D are used as denoising techniques. Denoising efficiency is described by PSNR and PSNR-HVS-M metrics. Within hard-thresholding denoising mechanism, DCT-spectrum coefficient statistics are used to characterize images and, subsequently, denoising efficiency for them. Results of denoising efficiency are fitted for such statistics and efficient approximations are obtained. It is shown that the obtained approximations provide high accuracy of prediction of denoising efficiency.

  13. Multiparametric PET/CT-perfusion does not add significant additional information for initial staging in lung cancer compared with standard PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of CT-perfusion (CTP), 18F-FDG-PET/CT and histological parameters, and the possible added value of CTP to FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging of lung cancer. Methods Fifty-four consecutive patients (median age 65 years, 15 females, 39 males) with suspected lung cancer were evaluated prospectively by CT-perfusion scan and 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan. Overall, 46 tumors were identified. CTP parameters blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and mean transit time (MTT) of the tumor tissue were calculated. Intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) was assessed quantitatively. Differences in CTP parameters concerning tumor type, location, PET positivity of lymph nodes, TNM status, and UICC stage were analyzed. Spearman correlation analyses between CTP and 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, PETvol, and TLG), MVD, tumor size, and tumor stage were performed. Results The mean BF (mL/100 mL min-1), BV (mL/100 mL), and MTT (s) was 35.5, 8.4, and 14.2, respectively. The BF and BV were lower in tumors with PET-positive lymph nodes (p = 0.02). However, the CTP values were not significantly different among the N stages. The CTP values were not different, depending on tumor size and location. No significant correlation was found between CTP parameters and MVD. Conclusions Overall, the CTP information showed only little additional information for the initial staging compared with standard FDG-PET/CT. Low perfusion in lung tumors might possibly be associated with metabolically active regional lymph nodes. Apart from that, both CTP and 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameter sets may reflect different pathophysiological mechanisms in lung cancer. PMID:24450990

  14. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  15. Clinical Significance of Serum IL-12 Level in Patients with Early Breast Carcinoma and Its Correlation with Other Tumor Markers

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Samar Samir; Mohammad, Manal Moussa; Ezz-El-Arab, Lobna R.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic significance of Interleukin 12 (IL-12) in breast cancer (BC) and its correlation with other tumor markers including cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and MMP9/TIMP1 ratio. METHODS: Serum levels of IL-12, tumor markers, and hormone receptors were measured in 92 BC and 56 benign lesion patients versus 40 healthy subjects. Clinical stage, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, grade, and histological type were recorded. RESULTS: BC patients have lower IL-12, but higher CA 15.3 and CEA than control group. High levels of serum IL-12 were associated with lymph node positivity and progesterone receptor negativity. IL-12 was significant lower in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared to non IDC histological type. IL-12 was higher in patients with higher stage and grade but the difference was not statistically significant. IL-12 correlates negatively with MMP9/TIMP1 ratio. CONCLUSION: IL-12 is less specific than CEA for screening early BC, but its correlation with tumor aggressiveness and progression markers may have a prognostic value.

  16. Significant Correlation between Retinal Venous Tortuosity and Aqueous Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Concentration in Eyes with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Shunsuke; Kachi, Shu; Kondo, Mineo; Ueno, Shinji; Kaneko, Hiroki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the degree of venous tortuosity is significantly correlated with the aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in eyes with a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Methods We reviewed the medical records of 32 eyes of 32 patients who had macular edema due to a CRVO. All of the patients were examined at the Nagoya University Hospital and were scheduled to receive an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) or ranibizumab (IVR) within 12 weeks of the onset of the CRVO to treat the macular edema. Aqueous humor was collected just before the IVB or IVR, and the VEGF concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The venous tortuosity index was calculated by dividing the length of the retinal veins by the chord length of the same segment. The correlation between the mean tortuosity index of the inferotemporal and supratemporal branches of the retinal vein and the aqueous VEGF concentration was determined. Results The mean aqueous VEGF concentration was 384 ± 312 pg/ml with a range of 90 to 1077 pg/ml. The degree of venous tortuosity was significantly correlated with the VEGF concentration in the aqueous. (r = 0.49, P = 0.004), with the foveal thickness (r = 0.40, P = 0.02), and with the best-corrected visual acuity (r = 0.38, P = 0.03). Conclusions The significant correlation between the aqueous VEGF concentration and the venous tortuosity indicates that the degree of retinal venous tortuosity can be used to identify eyes that are at a high risk of developing neovascularization. PMID:26214803

  17. Trigonal pyramidal carbon geometry as model for electrophilic addition-substitution and elimination reactions and its significance in enzymatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Henk M.

    Various examples are given in which compounds are characterized as products or intermediates in a (distorted) trigonal pyramidal (TP) geometry. These observations have taken place mainly in the field of carbocation chemistry. Special attention is given to carbenium ions formed by halogen addition to 1,1-diarylsubstituted ethylenes focused on the electronic effects of the C-halogen bond as axial bond in a TP geometry with regard to the ?-distribution in the rest of the molecular system. The experimental verification is accompanied by quantum chemical calculations. We also used the TP structure as a reactive model for specific enzymatic reactions. The relevance of this geometry is shown for the dehalogenation reaction of the nucleophilic displacement in dichloroethane catalyzed by haloalkane dehalogenase and for the decarboxylation of L-ornithine with ornithine decarboxylase under loss of carbon dioxide.

  18. Peripheral disc margin shape and internal disc derangement: imaging correlation in significantly painful discs identified at provocation lumbar discography.

    PubMed

    Bartynski, W S; Rothfus, W E

    2012-06-01

    Annular margin shape is used to characterize lumbar disc abnormality on CT/MR imaging studies. Abnormal discs also have internal derangement including annular degeneration and radial defects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential correlation between disc-margin shape and annular internal derangement on post-discogram CT in significantly painful discs encountered at provocation lumbar discography (PLD). Significantly painful discs were encountered at 126 levels in 86 patients (47 male, 39 female) studied by PLD where no prior surgery had been performed and response to intradiscal lidocaine after provocation resulted in either substantial/total relief or no improvement after lidocaine administration. Post-discogram CT and discogram imaging was evaluated for disc-margin characteristics (bulge/protrusion), features of disc internal derangement (radial annular defect [RD: radial tear/fissure/annular gap], annular degeneration) and presence/absence of discographic contrast leakage. In discs with focal protrusion, 50 of 63 (79%) demonstrated Grade 3 RD with 13 (21%) demonstrating severe degenerative change only. In discs with generalized-bulge-only, 48 of 63 (76%) demonstrated degenerative change only (primarily Dallas Grade 3) with 15 of 63 (24%) demonstrating a RD (Dallas Grade 3). Differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Pain elimination with intra-discal lidocaine correlated with discographic contrast leakage (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape correlates with features of internal derangement in significantly painful discs encountered at PLD. Discs with focal protrusion typically demonstrate RD while generalized bulging discs typically demonstrated degenerative changes only (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape may provide an important imaging clue to the cause of chronic discogenic low back pain. PMID:22681741

  19. Peripheral Disc Margin Shape and Internal Disc Derangement: Imaging Correlation in Significantly Painful Discs Identified at Provocation Lumbar Discography

    PubMed Central

    Bartynski, W.S.; Rothfus, W.E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Annular margin shape is used to characterize lumbar disc abnormality on CT/MR imaging studies. Abnormal discs also have internal derangement including annular degeneration and radial defects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential correlation between disc-margin shape and annular internal derangement on post-discogram CT in significantly painful discs encountered at provocation lumbar discography (PLD). Significantly painful discs were encountered at 126 levels in 86 patients (47 male, 39 female) studied by PLD where no prior surgery had been performed and response to intradiscal lidocaine after provocation resulted in either substantial/total relief or no improvement after lidocaine administration. Post-discogram CT and discogram imaging was evaluated for disc-margin characteristics (bulge/protrusion), features of disc internal derangement (radial annular defect [RD: radial tear/fissure/annular gap], annular degeneration) and presence/absence of discographic contrast leakage. In discs with focal protrusion, 50 of 63 (79%) demonstrated Grade 3 RD with 13 (21%) demonstrating severe degenerative change only. In discs with generalized-bulge-only, 48 of 63 (76%) demonstrated degenerative change only (primarily Dallas Grade 3) with 15 of 63 (24%) demonstrating a RD (Dallas Grade 3). Differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Pain elimination with intra-discal lidocaine correlated with discographic contrast leakage (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape correlates with features of internal derangement in significantly painful discs encountered at PLD. Discs with focal protrusion typically demonstrate RD while generalized bulging discs typically demonstrated degenerative changes only (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape may provide an important imaging clue to the cause of chronic discogenic low back pain. PMID:22681741

  20. Testing the significance of a correlation with nonnormal data: comparison of Pearson, Spearman, transformation, and resampling approaches.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Anthony J; Hittner, James B

    2012-09-01

    It is well known that when data are nonnormally distributed, a test of the significance of Pearson's r may inflate Type I error rates and reduce power. Statistics textbooks and the simulation literature provide several alternatives to Pearson's correlation. However, the relative performance of these alternatives has been unclear. Two simulation studies were conducted to compare 12 methods, including Pearson, Spearman's rank-order, transformation, and resampling approaches. With most sample sizes (n ≥ 20), Type I and Type II error rates were minimized by transforming the data to a normal shape prior to assessing the Pearson correlation. Among transformation approaches, a general purpose rank-based inverse normal transformation (i.e., transformation to rankit scores) was most beneficial. However, when samples were both small (n ≤ 10) and extremely nonnormal, the permutation test often outperformed other alternatives, including various bootstrap tests. PMID:22563845

  1. The clinical significance and management of patients with incomplete coronary angiography and the value of additional computed tomography coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Pregowski, Jerzy; Kepka, Cezary; Kruk, Mariusz; Mintz, Gary S; Kalinczuk, Lukasz; Ciszewski, Michal; Kochanowski, Lukasz; Wolny, Rafal; Chmielak, Zbigniew; Jastrzębski, Jan; Klopotowski, Mariusz; Zalewska, Joanna; Demkow, Marcin; Karcz, Maciej; Witkowski, Adam

    2014-04-01

    To assess the anatomical background and significance of incomplete invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and to evaluate the value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in this scenario. The current study is an analysis of high volume center experience with prospective registry of coronary CTA and ICA. The target population was identified through a review of the electronic database. We included consecutive patients referred for coronary CTA after ICA, which did not visualize at least one native coronary artery or by-pass graft. Between January 2009 and April 2013, 13,603 diagnostic ICA were performed. There were 45 (0.3 %) patients referred for coronary CTA after incomplete ICA. Patients were divided into 3 groups: angina symptoms without previous coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG) (n = 11,212), angina symptoms with previous CABG (n = 986), and patients prior to valvular surgery (n = 925). ICA did not identify by-pass grafts in 21 (2.2 %) patients and in 24 (0.2 %) cases of native arteries. The explanations for an incomplete ICA included: 11 ostium anomalies, 2 left main spasms, 5 access site problems, 5 ascending aorta aneurysms, and 2 tortuous take-off of a subclavian artery. However, in 20 (44 %) patients no specific reason for the incomplete ICA was identified. After coronary CTA revascularization was performed in 11 (24 %) patients: 6 successful repeat ICA and percutaneous intervention and 5 CABG. Incomplete ICA constitutes rare, but a significant clinical problem. Coronary CTA provides adequate clinical information in these patients. PMID:24623270

  2. Parents' dietary patterns are significantly correlated: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; Campbell, Karen J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify dietary patterns independently in first-time mothers and fathers, and to examine whether these patterns were correlated within families. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program using a validated FFQ in 454 pairs of first-time mothers and fathers. Education level was reported in associated questionnaires. Principal components analyses included frequencies of fifty-five food groups and were performed independently in mothers and fathers. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between dietary pattern scores. A total of four dietary patterns were identified in mothers and fathers. Of these, three dietary patterns had similar characteristics between these two populations, namely 'Fruits and vegetables', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in mothers; and 'Fruits', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in fathers. The following two additional patterns were identified: 'Cereals and sweet foods' in mothers and 'Potatoes and vegetables' in fathers. Patterns incorporating healthier food items were found to be positively associated with parent education. An inverse association with education was found for the 'High-fat foods' and 'High-energy snack and processed foods' dietary patterns. Qualitatively similar patterns between corresponding mothers and fathers were the most strongly correlated (ρ = 0·34-0·45, P < 0·001). There were some differences in dietary patterns between mothers and fathers, suggesting that it is worth deriving patterns separately when considering couples, and more generally between men and women. Exploring how these various patterns correlate within households provides important insights to guide the development and implementation of family-based interventions. PMID:22040598

  3. Mesothelin Expression in Triple Negative Breast Carcinomas Correlates Significantly with Basal-Like Phenotype, Distant Metastases and Decreased Survival

    PubMed Central

    Tozbikian, Gary; Brogi, Edi; Kadota, Kyuichi; Catalano, Jeffrey; Akram, Muzaffar; Patil, Sujata; Ho, Alice Y.; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Weigelt, Britta; Norton, Larry; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Wen, Hannah Yong

    2014-01-01

    Mesothelin is a cell surface associated antigen expressed on mesothelial cells and in some malignant neoplasms. Mesothelin-targeted therapies are in phase I/II clinical trials. The clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of mesothelin expression in triple negative breast carcinomas (TNBC) has not been fully assessed. We evaluated the expression of mesothelin and of basal markers in tissue microarrays of 226 TNBC and 88 non-TNBC and assessed the clinicopathologic features of mesothelin-expressing breast carcinomas. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of mesothelin expression on the disease-free and overall survival of patients with TNBC. We found that mesothelin expression is significantly more frequent in TNBC than in non-TNBC (36% vs 16%, respectively; p = 0.0006), and is significantly correlated with immunoreactivity for basal keratins, but not for EGFR. Mesothelin-positive and mesothelin-negative TNBC were not significantly different by patients’ race, tumor size, histologic grade, tumor subtype, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases. Patients with mesothelin-positive TNBC were older than patients with mesothelin-negative TNBC, developed more distant metastases with a shorter interval, and had significantly lower overall and disease-free survival. Based on our results, patients with mesothelin-positive TNBC could benefit from mesothelin-targeted therapies. PMID:25506917

  4. Selection for increased desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: Additive genetic control and correlated responses for other stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, A.A.; Parsons, P.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Previously we found that Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased desiccation resistance have lowered metabolic rate and behavioral activity levels, and show correlated responses for resistance to starvation and a toxic ethanol level. These results were consistent with a prediction that increased resistance to many environmental stresses may be genetically correlated because of a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure. Here we present experiments on the genetic basis of the selection response and extend the study of correlated responses to other stresses. The response to selection was not sex-specific and involved X-linked and autosomal genes acting additively. Activity differences contributed little to differences in desiccation resistance between selected and control lines. Selected lines had lower metabolic rates than controls in darkness when activity was inhibited. Adults from selected lines showed increased resistance to a heat shock, {sup 60}Co-gamma-radiation, and acute ethanol and acetic acid stress. The desiccation, ethanol and starvation resistance of isofemale lines set up from the F2s of a cross between one of the selected and one of the control lines were correlated. Selected and control lines did not differ in ether-extractable lipid content or in resistance to acetone, ether or a cold shock.

  5. The expression of osteopontin and vascular endothelial growth factor in correlation with angiogenesis in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Babarović, Emina; Valković, Toni; Budisavljević, Ivana; Balen, Ivan; Štifter, Sanja; Duletić-Načinović, Antica; Lučin, Ksenija; Jonjić, Nives

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have shown a gradual increase in the extent of bone marrow angiogenesis in various stages of proliferative plasma cell disorders, from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to active multiple myeloma (MM). The main aim of this study was to evaluate tumor angiogenesis parameters in detail and to correlate them with the expression of osteopontin (OPN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the bone marrow of patients with MGUS and MM. In addition, we wanted to determine their prognostic significance in active MM. Ninety-five patients were enrolled in the study: 14 diagnosed with MGUS, 13 with asymptomatic myeloma (AMM) and 68 with active MM. Computer assisted image analysis was used to determine the angiogenesis parameters, the quantity of microvessels per 1mm(2) (MVD), the area occupied by microvessels per 1mm(2) and the percentage of microvessel area in total section area (TVA). Double immunohistochemical methods CD138+VEGF and CD138+OPN were used to evaluate expression of these proteins in plasma cells, and OPN was also analyzed for its interstitial expression (iOPN). A significant positive correlation was determined between VEGF and iOPN with angiogenic parameters in the MGUS stage of the disease. In advanced stages of the disease, a significant negative correlation was recorded between OPN and iOPN with parameters of angiogenesis. Overall survival was significantly shorter for patients with negative iOPN (p=0.002) and higher angiogenic parameters, MVD (p=0.009), TVA (p=0.008) and area of microvessels per 1mm(2) (p=0.02). Positive VEGF expression in our model predicted a better three-year survival of patients with active MM (OR: 5.25, p=0.03; HR: 0.44, p=0.04). The results of our study suggested a possible key role of VEGF and OPN in the induction of angiogenesis in early-stage disease. PMID:26997492

  6. Ranking of stimuli that evoked memories in significant others after exposure to circumcerebral magnetic fields: correlations with ambient geomagnetic activity.

    PubMed

    Booth, J N; Charette, J C; Persinger, M A

    2002-10-01

    To identify means to enhance the laboratory production of alleged paranormal phenomena, 15 pairs of men and women involved emotionally were tested by male and female experimenters who were not familiar with the hypothesis that ambient (geomagnetic) activity could modulate this production. While the female of the pair was exposed to six different patterns of complex magnetic fields designed to affect states of consciousness, the male wrote his reminiscences about shared experiences evoked by a postcard randomly selected from a collection of five. Increased global geomagnetic activity (k values between 0 and 5) at the time of the experiments was significantly and moderately correlated with the more accurate ranking of the stimulus cards. These results were similar to those of a previous study. We suggest that alleged paranormal phenomena involve processes that might be produced by experimentally altering the electroencephalographic correlates of consciousness with circumcerebral applications of counterclockwise weak magnetic fields. However, these processes may be enhanced if global geomagnetic activity is increasing during the periods of exposure. PMID:12434850

  7. Significant Correlation of Species Longevity with DNA Double Strand Break-Recognition but not with Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzini, Antonello; Johnson, F. Brad; Oliver, Anthony; Tresini, Maria; Smith, Jasmine S.; Hdeib, Mona; Sell, Christian; Cristofalo, Vincent J.; Stamato, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The identification of the cellular mechanisms responsible for the wide differences in species lifespan remains one of the major unsolved problems of the biology of aging. We measured the capacity of nuclear protein to recognize DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and telomere length of skin fibroblasts derived from mammalian species that exhibit wide differences in longevity. Our results indicate DNA DSB recognition increases exponentially with longevity. Further, an analysis of the level of Ku80 protein in human, cow, and mouse suggests that Ku levels vary dramatically between species and these levels are strongly correlated with longevity. In contrast mean telomere length appears to decrease with increasing longevity of the species, although not significantly. These findings suggest that an enhanced ability to bind to DNA-ends may be important for longevity. A number of possible roles for increased levels of Ku and DNA-PKcs are discussed. PMID:19896964

  8. Correlation between blend morphology and recombination dynamics in additive-added P3HT:PCBM solar cells.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Ankur; Wu, Bo; Salim, Teddy; Lam, Yeng Ming; Sum, Tze Chien

    2015-10-21

    The addition of a small amount of high boiling point solvent in organic donor/acceptor blends to control their morphology is a viable approach to enhance the power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. Herein, through transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) correlated with physical characterizations and device studies, we investigate the effects of a family of thiol-based additives (i.e., 1,5-pentanedithiol (PDT), 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT) and 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT)) in P3HT:PCBM blend films in a bid to establish a morphology-function-charge dynamics relationship with their photovoltaic performances. The performance of solar cell devices (ηHDT = 2.8%, ηODT = 2.8%, ηPDT = 1.7%) is related to the additive-induced phase separation and the degree of ordering of P3HT. TAS uncovers a more efficient initial exciton and polaron generation in the additive-treated blend samples compared to the non-additive treated control sample. HDT and ODT-added blends exhibit decay dynamics and performances similar to those of the thermally annealed samples. However, the PDT-added blend exhibits a strong trap-assisted recombination in the subsequent nanosecond-microsecond timescales. We attribute this to the loss of charge carriers in the larger isolated P3HT domains due to the lack of percolation paths to the electrode. Our findings illustrate that understanding the complex interplay of the crystalline order, intermixed phases and percolation pathways is key to optimizing the performance of thermal-annealing free, additive-treated organic solar cells. PMID:26377255

  9. Significant Enhancement of the Chiral Correlation Length in Nematic Liquid Crystals by Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces Featuring Axially Chiral Binaphthyl Ligands.

    PubMed

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-26

    surface is diminished as the size of the particle is reduced. However, in comparison to the free ligands, per chiral molecule all tested gold nanoparticles induce helical distortions in a 10- to 50-fold larger number of liquid crystal host molecules surrounding each particle, indicating a significantly enhanced chiral correlation length. We propose that both the helicity and the chirality transfer efficiency of axially chiral binaphthyl derivatives can be controlled at metal nanoparticle surfaces by adjusting the particle size and curvature as well as the number and density of the chiral ligands to ultimately measure and tune the chiral correlation length. PMID:26735843

  10. The Episodicity of Verbal Reports of Personally Significant Autobiographical Memories: Vividness Correlates with Narrative Text Quality More than with Detailedness or Memory Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2013-01-01

    How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories. PMID:23966918

  11. The episodicity of verbal reports of personally significant autobiographical memories: vividness correlates with narrative text quality more than with detailedness or memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2013-01-01

    How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories. PMID:23966918

  12. Identification of isolated and early prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens with correlation to biopsy cores: clinical and pathogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Mai, Kien T; Landry, Denise C; Yazdi, Hossein M; Stinson, William A; Perkins, D Garth; Morash, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is a multifocal disease. In this study, we identified isolated and small foci of PAC (ISPAC) in radical prostatectomy specimens, described the histopathologic features, investigated their zonal distribution in the prostate and their relationship with large tumor nodules, and correlated the findings with those of preceding biopsy cores. One hundred and thirty radical prostatectomy specimens performed for PAC or for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with incidental PAC were reviewed for identification of ISPAC. Prostates were serially sectioned in the horizontal plane and submitted in toto for microscopic examination. ISPAC were defined as foci of PAC measuring less than 3 mm in maximum diameter. There were 461 ISPAC identified in 114 cases. They were distributed in the transitional zone (TZ) (18 foci), the apex (73 foci), the anterior horn of the non-TZ (NTZ) (118 foci), the base (8 foci), and the remaining NTZ (244 foci). ISPAC usually consisted of groups of small acini with a GS ranging from 2 to 7 (3 + 4). GSs of ISPAC consisted of single grade or two consecutive grades equal to or lower than those of the main PAC. ISPAC were more often located in close proximity to large tumor nodules. The number of ISPAC increased with the tumor volume up to 3 cm3, then decreased as the PAC became more extensive (p value = 0.02, statistically significant). Prostates with NTZ PAC <1.5 cm3 and TZ PAC or prostates containing 4 or more than 4 ISPAC tended to be frequently associated with small foci of PAC in biopsy cores In this study, we identified ISPAC that likely represent foci of PAC in early development and account for the multicentricity and heterogeneity of PAC. ISPAC in the NTZ were common and may account for small foci of PAC or atypia in biopsy cores. Although these small foci of PAC or atypia in biopsy cores without accompanying higher GS PAC were often associated with significant PAC, they may also occasionally represent

  13. Hierarchical random additive process and logarithmic scaling of generalized high order, two-point correlations in turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. I. A.; Marusic, I.; Meneveau, C.

    2016-06-01

    Townsend [Townsend, The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1976)] hypothesized that the logarithmic region in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows consists of space-filling, self-similar attached eddies. Invoking this hypothesis, we express streamwise velocity fluctuations in the inertial layer in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows as a hierarchical random additive process (HRAP): uz+=∑i=1Nzai . Here u is the streamwise velocity fluctuation, + indicates normalization in wall units, z is the wall normal distance, and ai's are independently, identically distributed random additives, each of which is associated with an attached eddy in the wall-attached hierarchy. The number of random additives is Nz˜ln(δ /z ) where δ is the boundary layer thickness and ln is natural log. Due to its simplified structure, such a process leads to predictions of the scaling behaviors for various turbulence statistics in the logarithmic layer. Besides reproducing known logarithmic scaling of moments, structure functions, and correlation function [" close="]3/2 uz(x ) uz(x +r ) >, new logarithmic laws in two-point statistics such as uz4(x ) > 1 /2, 1/3, etc. can be derived using the HRAP formalism. Supporting empirical evidence for the logarithmic scaling in such statistics is found from the Melbourne High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel measurements. We also show that, at high Reynolds numbers, the above mentioned new logarithmic laws can be derived by assuming the arrival of an attached eddy at a generic point in the flow field to be a Poisson process [Woodcock and Marusic, Phys. Fluids 27, 015104 (2015), 10.1063/1.4905301]. Taken together, the results provide new evidence supporting the essential ingredients of the attached eddy hypothesis to describe streamwise velocity fluctuations of large, momentum transporting eddies in wall-bounded turbulence, while

  14. Tribological characteristics of bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) as an antiwear additive in polyalkylene glycol and polyurea grease for significantly improved lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; Wu, Xinhu; Zhao, Gaiqing; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    A new antiwear additive of Bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BAFDP) was synthesized and characterized. The tribological behaviors of the additive for polyalkylene glycol (PAG) and polyurea grease (PG) application in steel/steel contacts were evaluated on an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at elevated temperature. The results revealed that BAFDP could drastically reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in both PAG and also in PG at 100 °C. The tribological properties of BAFDP are superior to the normally used zinc dialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (ZDDP) in PAG and PG. Moreover, BAFDP as additive for PAG and PG displays relatively significant tribological properties in temperature-ramp tests by performing well at 50-300 °C, indicating the excellent high temperature friction reduction and anti-wear capacity of BAFDP. XPS results showed that boundary lubrication films composed of Fe(OH)O, Fe3O4, FePO4, FeF2, FeF3, compounds containing the Psbnd O bonds, nitrogen oxide, and so forth, were formed on the worn surface, which contributed to excellent friction reduction and antiwear performance.

  15. "Bunched Black Swans" in Complex Geosystems: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches to the Additive and Multiplicative Modelling of Correlated Extreme Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, N. W.; Rypdal, M.; Lovsletten, O.

    2012-12-01

    For all natural hazards, the question of when the next "extreme event" (c.f. Taleb's "black swans") is expected is of obvious importance. In the environmental sciences users often frame such questions in terms of average "return periods", e.g. "is an X meter rise in the Thames water level a 1-in-Y year event ?". Frequently, however, we also care about the emergence of correlation, and whether the probability of several big events occurring in close succession is truly independent, i.e. are the black swans "bunched". A "big event", or a "burst", defined by its integrated signal above a threshold, might be a single, very large, event, or, instead, could in fact be a correlated series of "smaller" (i.e. less wildly fluctuating) events. Several available stochastic approaches provide quantitative information about such bursts, including Extreme Value Theory (EVT); the theory of records; level sets; sojourn times; and models of space-time "avalanches" of activity in non-equilibrium systems. Some focus more on the probability of single large events. Others are more concerned with extended dwell times above a given spatiotemporal threshold: However, the state of the art is not yet fully integrated, and the above-mentioned approaches differ in fundamental aspects. EVT is perhaps the best known in the geosciences. It is concerned with the distribution obeyed by the extremes of datasets, e.g. the 100 values obtained by considering the largest daily temperature recorded in each of the years of a century. However, the pioneering work from the 1920s on which EVT originally built was based on independent identically distributed samples, and took no account of memory and correlation that characterise many natural hazard time series. Ignoring this would fundamentally limit our ability to forecast; so much subsequent activity has been devoted to extending EVT to encompass dependence. A second group of approaches, by contrast, has notions of time and thus possible non

  16. Diagnostic Significance of Ultrasonographic Measurements and Median-Ulnar Ratio in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Correlation with Nerve Conduction Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mesci, Nilgün; Çetinkaya, Yilmaz; Geler Külcü, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We determined the reliability of ultrasonography (US) measurements for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and their correlation with symptom duration and electrophysiology findings. We determined whether the ratio of the median-to-ulnar cross-sectional areas (CSAs) can support CTS diagnoses. Methods The pisiform CSA (CSApisiform), swelling ratio (SR), palmar bowing, and CSApisiform/ulnar CSA (CSAulnar) measurements made in two subgroups of CTS patients (having sensory affection alone or having both sensory and motor affection) were compared with controls. CSAulnar was measured in Guyon's canal at the level of most-protuberant portion of the pisiform bone. Results The values of all of the measured US parameters were higher in patients with CTS (n=50) than in controls (n=62). CSApisiform could be used to diagnose CTS of mild severity. All of the parameters were positively correlated with the distal latency of the compound muscle action potential, and all of them except for SR were negatively correlated with the sensory nerve conduction velocity. A CSApisiform/CSAulnar ratio of ≥1.79 had a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 76% for diagnosing CTS. Conclusions Only CSApisiform measurements were reliable for diagnosing early stages of CTS, and CSApisiform/CSAulnar had a lower diagnostic value for diagnosing CTS. PMID:27095524

  17. CD28 family of receptors on T cells in chronic HBV infection: Expression characteristics, clinical significance and correlations with PD-1 blockade

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zong-Sheng; Hao, You-Hua; Zhang, E-Juan; Xu, Chun-Li; Zhou, Yun; Zheng, Xin; Yang, Dong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the overall clinical expression characteristics of the cluster of differentiation (CD)28 family receptors [CD28, inducible T-cell co-stimulator, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator] on T cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), analyze the correlations among these receptors and the clinical parameters, and to investigate the effects of PD-1 blockade on the receptor expression profiles, T-cell function and other biological effects. The expression characteristics of the CD28 family of receptors, the effects of PD-1 blockade on the receptor expression profiles and the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ were investigated in the T cells of patients with CHB. In addition, the transcription factor, T-box 21 (T-bet) and GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3) mRNA expression levels were investigated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with CHB. The expression levels of the CD28 family receptors in the T cells of patients with CHB demonstrated distinct characteristics, for example levels of PD-1 and CTLA-4 on CD4 T cells and ICOS, PD-1, and BTLA on CD8 T cells were increased in cells from patients with CHB compared with those from the healthy individuals. A significant positive correlation was demonstrated among the serum HBV DNA titers and the levels of PD-1 on CD8+ T cells with the highest expression of PD-1 corresponding to viral levels >106 IU/ml. A significant positive correlation was observed between the serum HBV DNA titers and the expression levels of BTLA on CD8+ T cells with the highest expression of BTLA corresponding to viral levels >106 IU/ml. PD-1 blockade altered the expression profiles of CD28 family receptors in the T cells of patients with CHB, partly enhanced T cell function and increased the ratio of T-bet/GATA-3 mRNA in PBMCs. Thus, CD28 family receptors are potential clinical indicators for the rapid

  18. Significance of Additional Non-Mass Enhancement in Patients with Breast Cancer on Preoperative 3T Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yun Hee; Cho, Kyu Ran; Park, Eun Kyung; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Cho, Sung Bum; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2016-01-01

    Background In preoperative assessment of breast cancer, MRI has been shown to identify more additional breast lesions than are detectable using conventional imaging techniques. The characterization of additional lesions is more important than detection for optimal surgical treatment. Additional breast lesions can be included in focus, mass, and non-mass enhancement (NME) on MRI. According to the fifth edition of the breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS®), which includes several changes in the NME descriptors, few studies to date have evaluated NME in preoperative assessment of breast cancer. Objectives We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of BI-RADS descriptors in predicting malignancy for additional NME lesions detected on preoperative 3T dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Patients and Methods Between January 2008 and December 2012, 88 patients were enrolled in our study, all with NME lesions other than the index cancer on preoperative 3T DCE-MRI and all with accompanying histopathologic examination. The MRI findings were analyzed according to the BI-RADS MRI lexicon. We evaluated the size, distribution, internal enhancement pattern, and location of NME lesions relative to the index cancer (i.e., same quadrant, different quadrant, or contralateral breast). Results On histopathologic analysis of the 88 NME lesions, 73 (83%) were malignant and 15 (17%) were benign. Lesion size did not differ significantly between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.410). Malignancy was more frequent in linear (P = 0.005) and segmental (P = 0.011) distributions, and benignancy was more frequent in focal (P = 0.004) and regional (P < 0.001) NME lesions. The highest positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy occurred in segmental (96.8%), linear (95.1%), clustered ring (100%), and clumped (92.0%) enhancement. Asymmetry demonstrated a high positive predictive value of 85.9%. The frequency of malignancy was higher

  19. A Study to Determine if Addition of Palatal Petechiae to Centor Criteria Adds More Significance to Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2016-01-01

    Objective. A study to determine if addition of palatal petechiae to Centor criteria adds more value for clinical diagnosis of acute strep pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis. In children, Centor Criteria does not cover all the symptoms and signs of acute strep pharyngitis. We hypothesize that addition of palatal petechiae to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Methods. One hundred patients with a complaint of sore throat were enrolled in the study. All the patients were examined clinically using the Centor Criteria. They were also examined for other signs and symptoms like petechial lesions over the palate, abdominal pain, and skin rash. All the patients were given rapid strep tests, and throat cultures were sent. No antibiotics were given until culture results were obtained. Results. The sample size was 100 patients. All 100 had fever, sore throat, and erythema of tonsils. Twenty of the 100 patients had tonsillar exudates, 85/100 had tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, and 86/100 had no cough. In total, 9 out of the 100 patients had positive throat cultures. We observed that petechiae over the palate, a very significant sign, is not included in the Centor Criteria. Palatal petechiae were present in 8 out of the 100 patients. Six out of these 8 with palatal petechiae had positive throat culture for strep (75%). Only 7 out of 20 with exudates had positive strep culture. Sixteen out of the 100 patients had rapid strep test positive. Those 84/100 who had negative rapid strep also had negative throat culture. Statistics. We used Fisher's exact test, comparing throat culture positive and negative versus presence of exudates and palatal hemorrhages with positive and negative throat cultures and the resultant P value <.0001. Conclusion. Our study concludes that addition of petechiae over the palate to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of diagnosing acute group A streptococcal

  20. A Study to Determine if Addition of Palatal Petechiae to Centor Criteria Adds More Significance to Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. A study to determine if addition of palatal petechiae to Centor criteria adds more value for clinical diagnosis of acute strep pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis. In children, Centor Criteria does not cover all the symptoms and signs of acute strep pharyngitis. We hypothesize that addition of palatal petechiae to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Methods. One hundred patients with a complaint of sore throat were enrolled in the study. All the patients were examined clinically using the Centor Criteria. They were also examined for other signs and symptoms like petechial lesions over the palate, abdominal pain, and skin rash. All the patients were given rapid strep tests, and throat cultures were sent. No antibiotics were given until culture results were obtained. Results. The sample size was 100 patients. All 100 had fever, sore throat, and erythema of tonsils. Twenty of the 100 patients had tonsillar exudates, 85/100 had tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, and 86/100 had no cough. In total, 9 out of the 100 patients had positive throat cultures. We observed that petechiae over the palate, a very significant sign, is not included in the Centor Criteria. Palatal petechiae were present in 8 out of the 100 patients. Six out of these 8 with palatal petechiae had positive throat culture for strep (75%). Only 7 out of 20 with exudates had positive strep culture. Sixteen out of the 100 patients had rapid strep test positive. Those 84/100 who had negative rapid strep also had negative throat culture. Statistics. We used Fisher’s exact test, comparing throat culture positive and negative versus presence of exudates and palatal hemorrhages with positive and negative throat cultures and the resultant P value <.0001. Conclusion. Our study concludes that addition of petechiae over the palate to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of diagnosing acute group A streptococcal

  1. STAT4 Associates with SLE Through Two Independent Effects that Correlate with Gene Expression and Act Additively with IRF5 to Increase Risk

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Anna-Karin; Delgado-Vega, Angélica M.; Kozyrev, Sergey V.; Sánchez, Elena; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Eriksson, Niclas; Wojcik, Jerome; Reddy, Prasad Linga; Lima, Guadalupe; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Migliaresi, Sergio; Baca, Vicente; Orozco, Lorena; Witte, Torsten; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Abderrahim, Hadi; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Suárez, Ana; González-Escribano, Maria Francisca; Martin, Javier; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus, investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5. Methods 30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in 5 new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analyzed by 5’-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR. Results In the fine-mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. We also detected transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis. Conclusions These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. Our results also indicate that both genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase risk for SLE. PMID:19019891

  2. Significant correlation of angiotensin converting enzyme and glycoprotein IIIa genes polymorphisms with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss in north of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fazelnia, Shokoufeh; Farazmandfar,, Touraj; Hashemi-Soteh, Seyed Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous abortion is considered as the most complex problem during pregnancy. Thrombophilia is resumed as a cause of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) gene is involved in thrombosis and abortion. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and is involved in thrombosis. The most common polymorphism in this gene is the insertion/deletion (I/D). Objective: In this study, we analyzed the association between ACE I/D and GPIIIa c.98C >T polymorphisms in women with unexplained RPL from the north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Sample population consisted of 100 women with unexplained RPL and 100 controls. The ACE I/D and GPIIIa c.98C>T polymorphisms were genotyped by TETRA-ARMS PCR. The association between genotypes frequency and RPL were analyzed using χ2 and exact fisher tests. Associated risk with double genotype combinations was also investigated by binary logistic regression. Results: There was significant association between ACE DD genotype and RPL (OR=2.04; 95% CI=0.94-4.44; p=0.036). ACE D Allele was also significantly associated with the RPL (OR=1.59; 95% CI=1.05-2.41; p=0.013). No significant association was observed between GPIIIa c.98C>T polymorphism and RPL. Conclusion: ACE I/D polymorphism may probably be a prognostic factor in female family members of women with the history of recurrent abortion. PMID:27326417

  3. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A.; Chen, Allen M.

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  4. Thal Amyloid Stages Do Not Significantly Impact the Correlation Between Neuropathological Change and Cognition in the Alzheimer Disease Continuum.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Qian, Jing; Muzikansky, Alona; Monsell, Sarah E; Montine, Thomas J; Frosch, Matthew P; Betensky, Rebecca A; Hyman, Bradley T

    2016-06-01

    The 2012 neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) summarize the extent of AD neuropathological change with an ABC score, which is a composite of the Thal stage of amyloid deposition (A), the Braak stage of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) (B), and the CERAD neuritic plaque score (C). NFTs and neuritic plaques are well-established contributors to cognitive impairment, but whether the Thal amyloid stage independently predicts antemortem cognition remains unknown. We used the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center autopsy data set to build adjacent-categories logit regression models with CDR-SOB and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores as cognitive outcome variables. Increasing CERAD scores were independently associated with higher CDR-SOB scores, whereas increasing Braak NFT stages predicted both higher CDR-SOB and lower MMSE scores. Increasing Thal amyloid stages were not significantly independently associated with either outcome measure. Increasing ABC scores predicted higher CDR-SOB and lower MMSE scores. These results raise the possibility that Thal amyloid stages do not substantially contribute to predicting antemortem cognition compared to CERAD neuritic plaque scores and Braak NFT stages, and suggest that the diffuse amyloid deposits participating in the assignment of Thal amyloid stages are neutral with respect to clinically detectable cognitive and functional changes. PMID:27105663

  5. Rheological behavior of FM-9 solutions and correlation with flammability test results and interpretations. [fuel thickening additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The rheological behavior of progressively shear thickening FM-9 solutions, a time-dependent shear thickening material with characteristics of threshold behavior, is investigated as part of a study of the rheological properties of antimisting jet fuel. Flammability test results and test configurations from various sources are evaluated. A correlation is obtained between the rheological behavior and the flammability tests such that, for a given system, such as a fixed solvent system and the FM-9 polymer system, the flammability criterion can be applied to a wide range of concentrations and temperatures.

  6. An additional fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) moiety in di-Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine induces pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation with significant advantages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Duraipandy, Natarajan; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, several fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-functionalized amino acids and peptides have been used to construct hydrogels, which find a wide range of applications. Although several hydrogels have been prepared from mono Fmoc-functionalized amino acids, herein, we demonstrate the importance of an additional Fmoc-moiety in the hydrogelation of double Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine [Fmoc(Nα)-L-lysine(NεFmoc)-OH, (Fmoc-K(Fmoc))] as a low molecular weight gelator (LMWG). Unlike other Fmoc-functionalized amino acid gelators, Fmoc-K(Fmoc) exhibits pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation (hydrogelation at different pH values as well as organogelation), which is significant among the gelators. Distinct fibrous morphologies were observed for Fmoc-K(Fmoc) hydrogels formed at different pH values, which are different from organogels in which Fmoc-K(Fmoc) showed bundles of long fibers. In both hydrogels and organogels, the self-assembly of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) was driven by aromatic π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, as evidenced from spectroscopic analyses. Characterization of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) gels using several biophysical methods indicates that Fmoc-K(Fmoc) has several advantages and significant importance as a LMWG. The advantages of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) include pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation, pH stimulus response, high thermal stability (∼100 °C) even at low minimum hydrogelation concentration (0.1 wt%), thixotropic property, high kinetic and mechanical stability, dye removal properties, cell viability to the selected cell type, and as a drug carrier. While single Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine amino acids failed to exhibit gelation under similar experimental conditions, the pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) demonstrates the benefit of a second Fmoc moiety in inducing gelation in a LMWG. We thus strongly believe that the current findings provide a lead to construct or design various new synthetic Fmoc-based LMW organic gelators for several

  7. [Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guerin for superficial bladder carcinoma: study on significance of additional maintenance instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin].

    PubMed

    Yabusaki, N; Komatsu, H; Tago, K; Yamada, Y; Ueno, A

    1991-02-01

    The efficacy of maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillations for superficial bladder tumors was studied by prospective randomized trial. From June 1985 to October 1988, 42 newly diagnosed patients with superficial bladder carcinoma (pTa or pT1) were treated by transurethral tumor resection and subsequent five daily instillations of mitomycin C. Then they were divided into non-maintenance group (22 patients) and maintenance group (20 patients) by randomization. The patients received six weekly instillations of 80 mg of BCG. Tokyo strain (Japan BCG manufacturing Co., Tokyo, Japan), suspended in 40 ml of physiological saline, and the patients in the maintenance group received four additional instillations of BCG every three months. We could not complete the six-week course of BCG instillations in three patients due to adverse effects (two in non-maintenance group and one in maintenance group) and we lost six patients from follow-up within one year (one in non-maintenance group and five in maintenance group). The mean follow-up period of the remaining 33 patients was 28.1 months. Of these 33 patients, six patients had been found to have recurrent tumors, and the over-all three-year non-recurrence rate was 82%. Before employing BCG, when we used only mitomycin C after TUR-Bt, the three year non-recurrence rate was 58%. This indicates prophylactic effect of BCG instillations. The stage of the initial tumor of the six recurrent cases were all pT1b. The non-recurrence rate of the patients with pT1b tumor was significantly lower than that of the patients with pTa and pT1a tumor. However, multiplicity and grade of tumors did not affect the non-recurrence rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1904120

  8. [Significance of correlation between weather factors and hemodynamic parameters in patients with arterial hypertension and coronary heart desease receiving traditional treatment and combined therapy with melatonin].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The study included 2 groups of patients with arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease treated by traditional therapy or its combination with melatonin. All 31 patients aged 41-70 years underwent measurement of AP and pulse rate in morning and evening hours. Correlation analysis between hemodynamic parameters and weather factors (curtsey of Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowaves) was performed. The study revealed 64 significant correlations in patients given traditional treatment. Atmospheric pressure, air and dew point temperature proved to have the most pronounced effect on hemodynamic parameters. Morning pulse rate was especially sensitive to meteorological factors. Treatment with melaxene reduced the number of correlations to 35. Specifically, the influence of temperature on hemodynamics decreased whereas effects of dew point temperature, wind speed and direction on the cardiovascular system were totally absent. PMID:22242268

  9. Pulse-Wave Analysis of Optic Nerve Head Circulation Is Significantly Correlated with Kidney Function in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Mao

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine whether there is a significant correlation between the optic nerve head (ONH) circulation determined by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) and kidney function. Materials. Seventy-one subjects were investigated. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum creatinine, cystatin C, and urinary albumin excretion were measured. The ONH circulation was determined by an analysis of the pulse wave of LSFG, and this parameter was named blowout time (BOT). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined to be present when the estimated GFR was <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the BOT and the kidney function. We also examined whether there were significant differences in all parameters in patients with and without CKD. Results. BOT was significantly correlated with the level of creatinine (r = −0.24, P = 0.04), the estimated GFR (r = 0.42, P = 0.0003), cystatin C (r = −0.29, P = 0.01), and urinary albumin excretion (r = −0.29, P = 0.01). The BOT level in subjects with CKD was significantly lower than that in subjects without CKD (P = 0.002). Conclusion. BOT in ONH by LSFG can detect the organ damage such as kidney dysfunction, CKD. PMID:24678413

  10. Pulse-Wave Analysis of Optic Nerve Head Circulation Is Significantly Correlated with Kidney Function in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Mao; Maeno, Takatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine whether there is a significant correlation between the optic nerve head (ONH) circulation determined by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) and kidney function. Materials. Seventy-one subjects were investigated. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum creatinine, cystatin C, and urinary albumin excretion were measured. The ONH circulation was determined by an analysis of the pulse wave of LSFG, and this parameter was named blowout time (BOT). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined to be present when the estimated GFR was <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the BOT and the kidney function. We also examined whether there were significant differences in all parameters in patients with and without CKD. Results. BOT was significantly correlated with the level of creatinine (r = -0.24, P = 0.04), the estimated GFR (r = 0.42, P = 0.0003), cystatin C (r = -0.29, P = 0.01), and urinary albumin excretion (r = -0.29, P = 0.01). The BOT level in subjects with CKD was significantly lower than that in subjects without CKD (P = 0.002). Conclusion. BOT in ONH by LSFG can detect the organ damage such as kidney dysfunction, CKD. PMID:24678413

  11. Significant correlations between optic nerve head microcirculation and visual field defects and nerve fiber layer loss in glaucoma patients with myopic glaucomatous disk

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yu; Aizawa, Naoko; Chiba, Naoki; Omodaka, Kazuko; Nakamura, Masahiko; Otomo, Takaaki; Yokokura, Shunji; Fuse, Nobuo; Nakazawa, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Background Eyes with glaucoma are characterized by optic neuropathy with visual field defects in the areas corresponding to the optic disk damage. The exact cause for the glaucomatous optic neuropathy has not been determined. Myopia has been shown to be a risk factor for glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a significant correlation existed between the microcirculation of the optic disk and the visual field defects and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in glaucoma patients with myopic optic disks. Methods Sixty eyes of 60 patients with myopic disks were studied; 36 eyes with glaucoma (men:women = 19:17) and 24 eyes with no ocular diseases (men:women = 14:10). The mean deviation (MD) determined by the Humphrey field analyzer, and the peripapillary RNFLT determined by the Stratus-OCT were compared between the two groups. The ocular circulation was determined by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), and the mean blur rate (MBR) was compared between the two groups. The correlations between the RNFLT and MBR of the corresponding areas of the optic disk and between MD and MBR of the optic disk in the glaucoma group were determined by simple regression analyses. Results The average MBR for the entire optic disk was significantly lower in the glaucoma group than that in the control group. The differences of the MBR for the tissue in the superior, inferior, and temporal quadrants of the optic disk between the two groups were significant. The MBR for the entire optic disk was significantly correlated with the MD (r = 0.58, P = 0.0002) and the average RNFLT (r = 0.53, P = 0.0008). The tissue MBR of the optic disk was significantly correlated with the RNFLT in the superior, inferior, and temporal quadrants. Conclusions Our study suggests that there is a causal relationship between the thinner RNFLT that led to the MD and reduction in the microcirculation in the optic nerve head. PMID:22205831

  12. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  13. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (13-35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4-8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  14. Clinical, Functional and Health-Related Quality of Life Correlates of Clinically Significant Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Christelle; Ranque, Brigitte; Baubet, Thierry; Bérezné, Alice; Mestre-Stanislas, Caroline; Rannou, François; Papelard, Agathe; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Revel, Michel; Moro, Marie-Rose; Guillevin, Loïc; Poiraudeau, Serge; Mouthon, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36). Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD) (defined cut-off≥8). Results 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc), and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. Conclusion High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ manifestations. PMID

  15. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  16. CorSig: A General Framework for Estimating Statistical Significance of Correlation and Its Application to Gene Co-Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Qiang; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid increase of omics data, correlation analysis has become an indispensable tool for inferring meaningful associations from a large number of observations. Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and its variants are widely used for such purposes. However, it remains challenging to test whether an observed association is reliable both statistically and biologically. We present here a new method, CorSig, for statistical inference of correlation significance. CorSig is based on a biology-informed null hypothesis, i.e., testing whether the true PCC (ρ) between two variables is statistically larger than a user-specified PCC cutoff (τ), as opposed to the simple null hypothesis of ρ = 0 in existing methods, i.e., testing whether an association can be declared without a threshold. CorSig incorporates Fisher's Z transformation of the observed PCC (r), which facilitates use of standard techniques for p-value computation and multiple testing corrections. We compared CorSig against two methods: one uses a minimum PCC cutoff while the other (Zhu's procedure) controls correlation strength and statistical significance in two discrete steps. CorSig consistently outperformed these methods in various simulation data scenarios by balancing between false positives and false negatives. When tested on real-world Populus microarray data, CorSig effectively identified co-expressed genes in the flavonoid pathway, and discriminated between closely related gene family members for their differential association with flavonoid and lignin pathways. The p-values obtained by CorSig can be used as a stand-alone parameter for stratification of co-expressed genes according to their correlation strength in lieu of an arbitrary cutoff. CorSig requires one single tunable parameter, and can be readily extended to other correlation measures. Thus, CorSig should be useful for a wide range of applications, particularly for network analysis of high-dimensional genomic data. Software

  17. Phase stabilization of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with B2O3 addition: A significant enhancement on the phase transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topal, Uğur; Aksan, Mehmet Ali

    2016-05-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are extensively investigated for biomedical applications, particularly as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and as drug delivery agent and heat mediators for cancer therapy. Tuning the magnetic properties of the magnetite nanoparticles with doping of foreign atoms has a crucial importance for determining the application areas of these materials and so attracts much interests. On the other hand the doping with foreign atoms requires high temperature annealing, and it causes a phase transition to the hematite phase above 400 °C. In this work the phase transition temperature from the magnetite to the hematite phase has been increased by 200 °C, which is the highest enhancement reported in literature. It was achieved by addition of the appropriate amounts of B2O3. Our experiments indicates that the 5.0 wt% of B2O3 addition stabilizes and keeps the existence of single phase magnetite up to 600 °C.

  18. Clinical Correlates and Prognostic Significance of Change in Standardized Left Ventricular Mass in a Community‐Based Cohort of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ervin R.; Musani, Solomon K.; Samdarshi, Tandaw E.; Taylor, Jared K.; Beard, Walter L.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Xanthakis, Vanessa; McClendon, Eric E.; Liebson, Philip R.; Skelton, Thomas N.; Butler, Kenneth R.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Taylor, Herman; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Though left ventricular mass (LVM) predicts cardiovascular events (CVD) and mortality in African Americans, limited data exists on factors contributing to change in LVM and its prognostic significance. We hypothesized that baseline blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) and change in these variables over time are associated with longitudinal increases in LVM and that such increase is associated with greater incidence of CVD. Methods and Results We investigated the clinical correlates of change in standardized logarithmically transformed‐LVM indexed to height2.7 (log‐LVMI) and its association with incident CVD in 606 African Americans (mean age 58±6 years, 66% women) who attended serial examinations 8 years apart. Log‐LVMI and clinical covariates were standardized within sex to obtain z scores for both visits. Standardized log‐LVMI was modeled using linear regression (correlates of change in standardized log‐LVMI) and Cox proportional hazards regression (incidence of CVD [defined as coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and intermittent claudication]). Baseline clinical correlates (standardized log‐LVM, BMI, systolic BP) and change in systolic BP over time were significantly associated with 8‐year change in standardized log‐LVMI. In prospective analysis, change in standardized LVM was significantly (P=0.0011) associated with incident CVD (hazards ratio per unit standard deviation change log‐LVMI 1.51, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.93). Conclusions In our community‐based sample of African Americans, baseline BMI and BP, and change in BP on follow‐up were key determinants of increase in standardized log‐LVMI, which in turn carried an adverse prognosis, underscoring the need for greater control of BP and weight in this group. PMID:25655570

  19. Cross-correlating Cosmic IR and X-ray Background Fluctuations: Evidence of Significant Black Hole Populations Among the CIB Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelluti, N.; Kashlinsky, A.; Arendt, R. G.; Comastri, A.; Fazio, G. G.; Finoguenov, A.; Hasinger, G.; Mather, J. C.; Miyaji, T; Moseley, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the nature of the sources producing the recently uncovered cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations, we study cross-correlations between the fluctuations in the source-subtracted CIB from Spitzer/IRAC data and the unresolved cosmic X-ray background from deep Chandra observations. Our study uses data from the EGS/AEGIS field, where both data sets cover an approx = 8' x 45' region of the sky. Our measurement is the cross-power spectrum between the IR and X-ray data. The cross-power signal between the IRAC maps at 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron and the Chandra [0.5-2] keV data has been detected, at angular scales approx >20'', with an overall significance of approx = 3.8 sigma and approx. = 5.6 sigma, respectively. At the same time we find no evidence of significant cross-correlations at the harder Chandra bands. The cross-correlation signal is produced by individual IR sources with 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron magnitudes m(sub AB) approx. > 25-26 and [0.5-2] keV X-ray fluxes << 7 × 10(exp -177 erg sq. cm/ s. We determine that at least 15%-25% of the large scale power of the CIB fluctuations is correlated with the spatial power spectrum of the X-ray fluctuations. If this correlation is attributed to emission from accretion processes at both IR and X-ray wavelengths, this implies a much higher fraction of accreting black holes than among the known populations. We discuss the various possible origins for the cross-power signal and show that neither local foregrounds nor the known remaining normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei can reproduce the measurements. These observational results are an important new constraint on theoretical modeling of the near-IR CIB fluctuations. local foregrounds, nor the known remaining normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) can reproduce the measurements. These observational results are an important new constraint on theoretical modeling of the near-IR CIB fluctuations

  20. Significant Promotion Effect of Mo Additive on a Novel Ce-Zr Mixed Oxide Catalyst for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO(x) with NH3.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shipeng; Liu, Fudong; Shi, Xiaoyan; Liu, Kuo; Lian, Zhihua; Xie, Lijuan; He, Hong

    2015-05-13

    A novel Mo-promoted Ce-Zr mixed oxide catalyst prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method was used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x) with NH3. The optimal catalyst showed high NH3-SCR activity, SO2/H2O durability, and thermal stability under test conditions. The addition of Mo inhibited growth of the CeO2 particle size, improved the redox ability, and increased the amount of surface acidity, especially the Lewis acidity, all of which were favorable for the excellent NH3-SCR performance. It is believed that the catalyst is promising for the removal of NO(x) from diesel engine exhaust. PMID:25894854

  1. 2D Raman correlation analysis of formation mechanism of passivating film on overcharged LiCoO2 electrode with additive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonju; Shin, Su Hyun; Lee, Sung Man; Kim, Sung Phil; Choi, Hyun Chul; Jung, Young Mee

    2014-07-01

    The effect of vinylene carbonate (VC) as solid electrolyte interface (SEI)-forming additive on the electrochemical performance of the LiCoO2 cathode was investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge testing as well as Raman and 2D correlation spectroscopy. It was found that VC-containing electrolyte has a positive effect on capacity fading. An analysis of the 2D Raman correlation spectra suggested that even though the same SEI components (i.e., Co3O4 and Li2O) are produced on the cathode surface, the electrochemical reaction kinetics in the cathode/electrolyte interface differ according to the non-use or use of VC: in the latter case, formation of the SEI components is delayed.

  2. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas with micropapillary component significantly correlate with recurrence, but can be well controlled with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the early stages.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Shinji; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Sonobe, Makoto; Kobayashi, Masashi; Fujimoto, Masakazu; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Date, Hiroshi; Haga, Hironori

    2013-07-01

    Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with a micropapillary component (PA-MPC) is known to exhibit biologically aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of early-stage PA-MPC and to investigate the correlation between PA-MPC and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or KRAS mutation status. We reviewed 440 PA patients who underwent resection. We defined PA-MPC as adenocarcinoma with MPC occupying at least 5% of the entire tumor. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected using established methods. Of the 440 cases, 256 cases were classified as stage IA, of which 53 cases (20.7%) had MPC. The 5-year disease-free survival rates in the MPC-negative and MPC-positive groups of patients with stage IA tumors were 92.1% and 77.6%, respectively. The difference in these rates was statistically significant (p = 0.003), whereas the difference in overall survival between the groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.973). The mean percentage of MPC was 20.4% in the recurrent group and 18.3% in the non-recurrent group, with no significant correlation (p = 0.996). Of the 10 recurrent cases, 6 cases exhibited EGFR mutations; the 5 cases treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) achieved long survival (median, 64.6 months). No KRAS mutations were detected in any of the 10 cases. PA-MPCs were strongly associated with recurrence, but were not influenced by the MPC percentage even in early-stage lesions. Moreover, PA-MPCs with recurrence were associated with relatively better survival. These findings indicate that PA-MPCs were biologically aggressive but could be controlled with EGFR-TKIs. PMID:23632273

  3. Adult neuron addition to the zebra finch song motor pathway correlates with the rate and extent of recovery from botox-induced paralysis of the vocal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Pytte, Carolyn; Yu, Yi-Lo; Wildstein, Sara; George, Shanu; Kirn, John

    2011-01-01

    In adult songbirds, neurons are continually incorporated into the telencephalic nucleus HVC, a pre-motor region necessary for the production of learned vocalizations. Previous studies have demonstrated that neuron addition to HVC is highest when song is most variable: in juveniles during song learning, in seasonally singing adults during peaks in plasticity that precede the production of new song components, or during seasonal re-establishment of a previously learned song. These findings suggest that neuron addition provides motor flexibility for the transition from a variable song to a target song. Here we test the association between the quality of song structure and HVC neuron addition by experimentally manipulating syringeal muscle control with botox, which produces a transient partial paralysis. We show that the quality of song structure co-varies with new neuron addition to HVC. Both the magnitude of song distortion and the rate of song recovery following syringeal botox injections were correlated with the number of new neurons incorporated into HVC. We suggest that the quality of song structure is either a cause or consequence of the number of new neurons added to HVC. Birds with naturally high rates of neuron addition may have had the greatest success in recovering song. Alternatively, or in addition, new neuron survival in the song motor pathway may be regulated by the quality of song-generated feedback as song regains its original stereotyped structure. Present results are the first to show a relationship between peripheral muscle control and adult neuron addition to cortical pre-motor circuits. PMID:22114266

  4. Structure-to-property relationships in addition cured polymers. 4: Correlations between thermo-oxidative weight losses of norbornenyl cured polyimide resins and their composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships are identified between the thermo-oxidative stability (TOS) at 316 C of a wide variety of PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) addition cured polyimide resins and their corresponding graphite fiber composites. Weight loss results at 316 C confirmed the expected relationship of increasing aliphatic endcap content with decreasing TOS. Moreover, the resin TOS study also showed an unexpected linear correlation of decreasing weight loss to increasing ratio of benzylic diamine to aliphatic endcap in the range of the stoichiometries studied. Only after long term 316 C aging does the dianhydride used with the benzylic diamines become an additional factor in influencing the amount of PMR resin and composite weight losses. Also, the benzylic systems consistently showed much lower resin and composite weight losses at 316 C than the corresponding nonbenzylic norbornenyl resins and composites, except when the nonbenzylic diamine monomer does not contain a connecting group. Instead, this diamine resulted in a 316 C resin and composite weight loss that was only competitive with benzylic type diamines. Results show excellent correlation between TOS of all graphite fiber PMR composites and resins.

  5. Significance of metabolism in the disposition and action of the antidysrhythmic drug, dofetilide. In vitro studies and correlation with in vivo data.

    PubMed

    Walker, D K; Alabaster, C T; Congrave, G S; Hargreaves, M B; Hyland, R; Jones, B C; Reed, L J; Smith, D A

    1996-04-01

    Dofetilide, a class III antidysrhythmic agent, undergoes both renal and metabolic clearance. Characterization of the metabolism in vitro allows explanation of species differences, whereas identification of the human enzymes involved permits assessment of potential drug interaction. In liver microsomes, the rate of oxidative metabolism of dofetilide is in the order: male rat > female rat > dog > humans, which correlates with the metabolic clearance seen in vivo. In vitro products of oxidative metabolism, formed by N-dealkylation, are the same as those formed in vivo, with the N-desmethyl being the major product. This route of dofetilide metabolism is mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP). In humans, N-demethylation has a high KM of 657 +/- 116 microM, indicating low affinity for the enzyme's active site. In a number of human liver microsomal preparations, this rate correlated (r = 0.903) with the activity of CYP3A4. There was no correlation with the activities of other isozymes. Specific isozyme inhibitors also indicated the involvement of CYP3A4, with partial inhibition being observed with ketoconazole and troleandeomycin, whereas the activator, alpha-naphthaflavone, caused increased turnover. No inhibition was observed with specific inhibitors or competing substrates for other isozymes. Dofetilide did not significantly inhibit CYP2C9, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4 at concentrations up to 100 microM in vitro. In contrast, amiodarone (IC50, 25 microM) and flecainide (49 microM) inhibited CYP2C9 and quinidine (0.26 microM), and flecainide (0.44 microM) inhibited CYP2D6. Many antidysrhythmic drugs have active, circulating metabolites, complicating the relationship of dose and clinical response. In vitro pharmacology studies allow assessment of the potential contribution to the pharmacological profile by metabolites. Potency of dofetilide and metabolites has been compared for class III (K+ channel blockade) and class I (Na+ channel blockade) antidysrhythmic activities. Three of the

  6. [Cardiac SPECT/CT: correlation between atherosclerosis, significant coronary artery stenoses and myocardial perfusion parameters in patients with known coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Ubleis, C; Rist, C; Griesshammer, I; Becker, A; Becker, C; Hacker, M

    2010-04-01

    Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and CT angiography (CTA) both enable significant coronary artery stenoses to be detected, but they are not suitable for assessing their hemodynamic relevance. This can be accomplished using myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) which, however, has limited specificity and spatial resolution. Regarding patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) it is furthermore important to stratify patient's individual risk for severe cardiac events to guide therapy management.The results of our investigations in 158 patients with CAD indicate that global and regional calcium scores (CAC) do not correlate with the presence of myocardial perfusion defects and significant coronary artery stenoses, respectively. However, published literature has reported CAC as being an independent predictor of long-time survival.For clinical purposes it seems that non-invasive diagnostics with CTA, MPS and CAC screening can be useful even in patients with known CAD. CAC and global scar burden enable long-term risk-stratification, whereas fusion of CTA and MPS is useful to detect the culprit lesion of relevant perfusion defects and to select options for revascularization. PMID:20333503

  7. Putative floral brood-site mimicry, loss of autonomous selfing, and reduced vegetative growth are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum (Aristolochiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sinn, Brandon T; Kelly, Lawrence M; Freudenstein, John V

    2015-08-01

    The drivers of angiosperm diversity have long been sought and the flower-arthropod association has often been invoked as the most powerful driver of the angiosperm radiation. We now know that features that influence arthropod interactions cannot only affect the diversification of lineages, but also expedite or constrain their rate of extinction, which can equally influence the observed asymmetric richness of extant angiosperm lineages. The genus Asarum (Aristolochiaceae; ∼100 species) is widely distributed in north temperate forests, with substantial vegetative and floral divergence between its three major clades, Euasarum, Geotaenium, and Heterotropa. We used Binary-State Speciation and Extinction Model (BiSSE) Net Diversification tests of character state distributions on a Maximum Likelihood phylogram and a Coalescent Bayesian species tree, inferred from seven chloroplast markers and nuclear rDNA, to test for signal of asymmetric diversification, character state transition, and extinction rates of floral and vegetative characters. We found that reduction in vegetative growth, loss of autonomous self-pollination, and the presence of putative fungal-mimicking floral structures are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum. No significant difference in model likelihood was identified between symmetric and asymmetric rates of character state transitions or extinction. We conclude that the flowers of the Heterotropa clade may have converged on some aspects of basidiomycete sporocarp morphology and that brood-site mimicry, coupled with a reduction in vegetative growth and the loss of autonomous self-pollination, may have driven diversification within Asarum. PMID:25937558

  8. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  9. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  10. New identification and interpreted correlation, deposition, and significance of widespread Quaternary volcanic ash in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, K. L.; Gatti, E.; Wan, E.; Ponti, D. J.; Tinsley, J. C.; Starratt, S. W.; Hillhouse, J.; Pagenkopp, M.; Olson, H. A.; Burtt, D.; Rosa, C. M.; Holzer, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    We recently identified and correlated volcanic ash deposits buried in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, with widespread ash in the Pacific Northwest. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (herein, the Delta) contains stratigraphic records of climate change, sea level variability, and tectonic processes. It drains the interior of central and northern California, covers ~1400 km2, and is underlain by Quaternary deposits that are difficult to correlate and date. Tephrochronology provides maximal depositional ages and regional sequence stratigraphic correlations. Using Electron Microprobe analysis, we identified the Loleta (0.390 Ma), the Rockland (~0.575 Ma), and an unnamed volcanic ash (>0.78-<1.45 Ma) in ten samples from eight boreholes in the Delta drilled by the California Department of Water Resources. These tephra correlate chemostratigraphically with widespread volcanic ash found in California, Nevada, and the Pacific Northwest. Major and minor element compositions of glass shards from each tephra sample also indicate that these deposits derive from Cascade Range volcanic sources. The Rockland ash erupted from the southern Cascades near Lassen Peak, California. The Loleta ash is the distal equivalent of the Bend pumice tuff that probably originated from the Three Sisters volcanoes, Oregon. The unnamed, but chemically distinctive, ash bed also resembles Cascade -type tephra. The ash layers are identified in 27 boreholes in the northern to central Delta that we correlate using facies. Grain-size distributions and sedimentary structures are inconsistent within the tephra units and indicate variations in concentrations, deposition rates, and depositional environments. Much of the Delta tephra was transported and deposited in fluvial settings. The tephra deposits occur as three facies: 1) volcanic ash, in thick deposits containing silt- to sand-size glass shards; 2) pumice, in thick deposits of bedded and variably current-structured coarse-sand to pebble

  11. Significant improvement of the recombinant Borrelia-specific immunoglobulin G immunoblot test by addition of VlsE and a DbpA homologue derived from Borrelia garinii for diagnosis of early neuroborreliosis.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Spechtel, Ulrike; Lehnert, Gisela; Liegl, Gaby; Fingerle, Volker; Heimerl, Christiane; Johnson, Barbara J B; Wilske, Bettina

    2003-03-01

    We investigated whether the recombinant Borrelia Western blot test previously described (B. Wilske, C. Habermann, V. Fingerle, B. Hillenbrand, S. Jauris-Heipke, G. Lehnert, I. Pradel, D. Rössler, and U. Schulte-Spechtel, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 188:139-144, 1999) can be improved by the addition of VlsE and additional DbpA and OspC homologues. By using a panel of sera from 36 neuroborreliosis patients and 67 control patients, the diagnostic sensitivity of the recombinant immunoblot test was significantly increased (86.1% versus 52.7%) without loss of specificity and was higher (86.1% versus 63.8%) than that of the conventional whole-cell lysate immunoblot test (U. Hauser, G. Lehnert, R. Lobentanzer, and B. Wilske, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1433-1444, 1997). Improvement was mainly due to the presence of VlsE and DbpA. PMID:12624072

  12. Permo-Triassic hypabyssal mafic intrusions and associated tholeiitic basalts of the Kolyuchinskaya Guba, Chukotka (NE Russia): Significance for interregional correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledneva, G. V.; Pease, V. L.; Sokolov, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    In order to test tectonic hypotheses regarding the evolution of the Arctic Alaska-Chukotka microplate prior to the opening of the Amerasian basin, we investigated rocks exposed near Kolyuchinskaya Guba, eastern Chukotka. Hypabyssal mafic rocks and associated basaltic flows enclose terrigenous sediments, minor cherts and limestones in pillow interstices. The hypabyssal mafic rock yields a U-Pb zircon age of 252+/-4 Ma and indicates intrusion of basic magma at the Permo-Triassic boundary, contemporaneous with voluminous magmatism of the Siberian large igneous province (LIP). The lava flows and hypabyssal mafic rocks of the Kolyuchinskaya Guba region have major and trace element compositions identical the tholeiitic flood basalts of the main plateau stage of the Siberian LIP. They are strongly differentiated, the result of high-pressure equilibrium crystallization of a low-Ti/Y tholeiitic melt, and contaminated. The compositional variations in these rocks, however, neither proves nor disproves a correlation between the Permo-Triassic tholeiitic flood basalts of eastern Chukotka and the Siberian LIP. Thus, two alternative geodynamic interpretations are possible: 1) The hypabyssal mafic rocks and associated tholeiitic flows crystallized from a plume-derived melt; 2) The rocks are not related to plume activity, consequently eastern Chukotka was probably part of a passive rifted or extensional continental margin in the Permo-Triassic. Nonetheless, we prefer the first of these two possibilities. Funding for this work is gratefully acknowledged from the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat ("Beringia-2005"), the Swedish Research Council, the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No 08-05-00547), Leading Scientific School (NSH-3172.2008.5) and ONZ RAS. Thanks are also extended to M.J. Whitehouse and the Nordsim facility - the Nordsim facility is funded by the research councils of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, the Geological Survey of Finland, and the Swedish Museum of

  13. Nonvolatile modulation of electronic structure and correlative magnetism of L10-FePt films using significant strain induced by shape memory substrates

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chun; Zhao, Jiancheng; Yang, Feng; Gong, Kui; Hao, Shijie; Cao, Yi; Hu, Chen; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Zhongqiang; Chen, Lei; Li, Sirui; Sun, Li; Cui, Lishan; Yu, Guanghua

    2016-01-01

    Tuning the lattice strain (εL) is a novel approach to manipulate the magnetic, electronic, and transport properties of spintronic materials. Achievable εL in thin film samples induced by traditional ferroelectric or flexible substrates is usually volatile and well below 1%. Such limits in the tuning capability cannot meet the requirements for nonvolatile applications of spintronic materials. This study answers to the challenge of introducing significant amount of elastic strain in deposited thin films so that noticeable tuning of the spintronic characteristics can be realized. Based on subtle elastic strain engineering of depositing L10-FePt films on pre-stretched NiTi(Nb) shape memory alloy substrates, steerable and nonvolatile lattice strain up to 2.18% has been achieved in the L10-FePt films by thermally controlling the shape memory effect of the substrates. Introduced strains at this level significantly modify the electronic density of state, orbital overlap, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength in the FePt film, leading to nonvolatile modulation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal characteristics. This finding not only opens an efficient avenue for the nonvolatile tuning of SOC based magnetism and spintronic effects, but also helps to clarify the physical nature of pure strain effect. PMID:26830325

  14. Nonvolatile modulation of electronic structure and correlative magnetism of L10-FePt films using significant strain induced by shape memory substrates.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chun; Zhao, Jiancheng; Yang, Feng; Gong, Kui; Hao, Shijie; Cao, Yi; Hu, Chen; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Zhongqiang; Chen, Lei; Li, Sirui; Sun, Li; Cui, Lishan; Yu, Guanghua

    2016-01-01

    Tuning the lattice strain (εL) is a novel approach to manipulate the magnetic, electronic, and transport properties of spintronic materials. Achievable εL in thin film samples induced by traditional ferroelectric or flexible substrates is usually volatile and well below 1%. Such limits in the tuning capability cannot meet the requirements for nonvolatile applications of spintronic materials. This study answers to the challenge of introducing significant amount of elastic strain in deposited thin films so that noticeable tuning of the spintronic characteristics can be realized. Based on subtle elastic strain engineering of depositing L10-FePt films on pre-stretched NiTi(Nb) shape memory alloy substrates, steerable and nonvolatile lattice strain up to 2.18% has been achieved in the L10-FePt films by thermally controlling the shape memory effect of the substrates. Introduced strains at this level significantly modify the electronic density of state, orbital overlap, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength in the FePt film, leading to nonvolatile modulation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal characteristics. This finding not only opens an efficient avenue for the nonvolatile tuning of SOC based magnetism and spintronic effects, but also helps to clarify the physical nature of pure strain effect. PMID:26830325

  15. Nonvolatile modulation of electronic structure and correlative magnetism of L10-FePt films using significant strain induced by shape memory substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chun; Zhao, Jiancheng; Yang, Feng; Gong, Kui; Hao, Shijie; Cao, Yi; Hu, Chen; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Zhongqiang; Chen, Lei; Li, Sirui; Sun, Li; Cui, Lishan; Yu, Guanghua

    2016-02-01

    Tuning the lattice strain (εL) is a novel approach to manipulate the magnetic, electronic, and transport properties of spintronic materials. Achievable εL in thin film samples induced by traditional ferroelectric or flexible substrates is usually volatile and well below 1%. Such limits in the tuning capability cannot meet the requirements for nonvolatile applications of spintronic materials. This study answers to the challenge of introducing significant amount of elastic strain in deposited thin films so that noticeable tuning of the spintronic characteristics can be realized. Based on subtle elastic strain engineering of depositing L10-FePt films on pre-stretched NiTi(Nb) shape memory alloy substrates, steerable and nonvolatile lattice strain up to 2.18% has been achieved in the L10-FePt films by thermally controlling the shape memory effect of the substrates. Introduced strains at this level significantly modify the electronic density of state, orbital overlap, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength in the FePt film, leading to nonvolatile modulation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal characteristics. This finding not only opens an efficient avenue for the nonvolatile tuning of SOC based magnetism and spintronic effects, but also helps to clarify the physical nature of pure strain effect.

  16. Association Analysis of Bitter Receptor Genes in Five Isolated Populations Identifies a Significant Correlation between TAS2R43 Variants and Coffee Liking

    PubMed Central

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Traglia, Michela; Robino, Antonietta; Willems, Sara M.; Pistis, Giorgio; d’Adamo, Pio; Amin, Najaf; d’Eustacchio, Angela; Navarini, Luciano; Sala, Cinzia; Karssen, Lennart C.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Coffee, one of the most popular beverages in the world, contains many different physiologically active compounds with a potential impact on people’s health. Despite the recent attention given to the genetic basis of its consumption, very little has been done in understanding genes influencing coffee preference among different individuals. Given its markedly bitter taste, we decided to verify if bitter receptor genes (TAS2Rs) variants affect coffee liking. In this light, 4066 people from different parts of Europe and Central Asia filled in a field questionnaire on coffee liking. They have been consequently recruited and included in the study. Eighty-eight SNPs covering the 25 TAS2R genes were selected from the available imputed ones and used to run association analysis for coffee liking. A significant association was detected with three SNP: one synonymous and two functional variants (W35S and H212R) on the TAS2R43 gene. Both variants have been shown to greatly reduce in vitro protein activity. Surprisingly the wild type allele, which corresponds to the functional form of the protein, is associated to higher liking of coffee. Since the hTAS2R43 receptor is sensible to caffeine, we verified if the detected variants produced differences in caffeine bitter perception on a subsample of people coming from the FVG cohort. We found a significant association between differences in caffeine perception and the H212R variant but not with the W35S, which suggests that the effect of the TAS2R43 gene on coffee liking is mediated by caffeine and in particular by the H212R variant. No other significant association was found with other TAS2R genes. In conclusion, the present study opens new perspectives in the understanding of coffee liking. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of the TAS2R43 gene in coffee hedonics and to identify which other genes and pathways are involved in its genetics. PMID:24647340

  17. The Significance of miR-34a Expression in Endometrial Carcinogenesis: Correlation With Expression of p16 and Ki-67 Proteins in Endometrial Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Sung; Lee, Kyung Eun

    2015-01-01

    Background: A microRNA, miR-34a, plays a key role in inhibiting cellular transformation and carcinogenesis by controlling cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation in various human tumors. However, miR-34a has rarely been reported in endometrial cancer research in Korea. This study was undertaken to analyze miR-34a expression in simple endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, and to evaluate the relationship between expression of miR-34a and p16 and Ki-67 proteins in endometrial cancers. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 66 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues with simple endometrial hyperplasia (31 cases) and endometrial cancer (35 cases) patients. These were analyzed for miR-34a expression by quantitative real-time PCR, and the expression of p16 and Ki-67 proteins in endometrial cancers was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: The miR-34a expression level was lower in endometrial cancer tissues (−0.71 ± 3.90) than in simple endometrial hyperplasia tissues (2.68 ± 8.62). The endometrial hyperplasia tissues showed underexpression of miR-34a in 13 of the 31 cases (41.9%) while the endometrial cancer tissues showed underexpression of miR-34a in 24 of 35 cases (68.6%). Thus, miR-34a was significantly underexpressed in endometrial cancer tissues when compared endometrial hyperplasia tissues (P = 0.046). Overexpression of p16 was detected in 25 (71.4%) and Ki-67 immunoreactivity was detected in 27 (77.1%) of the 35 endometrial cancers. Although not statistically significant, the frequency of p16 and Ki-67 overexpression tended to be lower in the cases with miR-34a underexpression than in cases with miR-34a overexpression. Conclusions: These findings suggest that underexpression of miR-34a might be involved in endometrial carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to define the relationship between miR-34a expression and tissue specific protein expression. PMID:26734589

  18. Correlation of secondary-side IGA/SCC degradation of recirculating steam generator tubing with the on-line addition of boric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, M.J.; Zemitis, W.S.; Gorman, J.A. )

    1992-08-01

    A survey of field data indicates that the on-line addition of boric acid can reduce the rate of intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) within the hot leg tube support crevices for some PWR steam generators. However, the beneficial effect was not seen at all surveyed plants. 68 refs., 12 tabs., 12 refs.

  19. DSPI strain measurement on an externally reinforced bending beam: A comparison of step-by-step addition and pixel shift correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Erwin; Schumacher, Ann

    2007-05-01

    A small-scale concrete beam reinforced with an adhesively bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate was subjected to four-point bending. Finite element analyses (FEA) of the bending deformations were carried out to predict strain gradients near the end of the CFRP plate. In order to measure these strains, phase-stepping 3D-digital speckle pattern interferometry was employed. To avoid speckle decorrelation due to the inevitable rigid body motion of the specimen, the load was increased in small increments. Two evaluation schemes for the electronic speckle pattern interferometry phase maps are compared: summing up the measured displacement components load step-by-load step versus regain of the correlation by shifting the final image by an integer number of pixels. Measured strain values are evaluated using a polynomial fit to the measured in-plane displacements and are compared to the FE predicitions. It can be concluded that pixel shift correlation is preferable to summing up load steps for cases of large rigid body motion.

  20. LINE-1 Methylation Status Correlates Significantly to Post-Therapeutic Recurrence in Stage III Colon Cancer Patients Receiving FOLFOX-4 Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yun-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, I-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Huang, Ching-Wen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    .57, p=0.041) Conclusion There was a significantly greater risk of early postoperative recurrence and a shorter period of disease-free survival in Stage III colon cancer patients exhibiting LINE-1 hypomethylation status after being treated with radical resection and FOLFOX chemotherapy. PMID:25919688

  1. Halogen-free ionic liquid as an additive in zinc(II)-selective electrode: surface analyses as correlated to the membrane activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Asousi, Maryam F; Shoukry, Adel F; Bu-Olayan, Abdul Hadi

    2012-05-30

    Two conventional Zn(II) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes have been prepared and characterized. They were based on dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DBC) as a neutral carrier, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer, and potassium tetrakis (p-chlorophenyl) borate, KTpClPB or the halogen-free ionic liquid, tetraoctylammonium dodecylbenzene sulfonate [TOA][DBS] as an additive. The use of ionic liquid has been found to enhance the selectivity of the sensor. For each electrode, the surfaces of two membranes were investigated using X-ray photoelectron, ion-scattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. One of the two membranes was conditioned by soaking it for 24 h in a 1.0×10(-3) M Zn(NO(3))(2) solution and the second was soaked in bi-distilled water for the same interval (24 h). Comparing the two surfaces indicated the following: (a) the high selectivity in case of using [TOA][DBS] as an additive is due to the extra mediation caused by the ionic liquid and (b) the working mechanism of the electrode is based on phase equilibrium at the surface of the membrane associated with ion transport through the bulk of the membrane. PMID:22608433

  2. Significant Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

  3. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. High-resolution correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. J.

    2007-09-01

    In the basic correlation process a sequence of time-lag-indexed correlation coefficients are computed as the inner or dot product of segments of two signals. The time-lag(s) for which the magnitude of the correlation coefficient sequence is maximized is the estimated relative time delay of the two signals. For discrete sampled signals, the delay estimated in this manner is quantized with the same relative accuracy as the clock used in sampling the signals. In addition, the correlation coefficients are real if the input signals are real. There have been many methods proposed to estimate signal delay to more accuracy than the sample interval of the digitizer clock, with some success. These methods include interpolation of the correlation coefficients, estimation of the signal delay from the group delay function, and beam forming techniques, such as the MUSIC algorithm. For spectral estimation, techniques based on phase differentiation have been popular, but these techniques have apparently not been applied to the correlation problem . We propose a phase based delay estimation method (PBDEM) based on the phase of the correlation function that provides a significant improvement of the accuracy of time delay estimation. In the process, the standard correlation function is first calculated. A time lag error function is then calculated from the correlation phase and is used to interpolate the correlation function. The signal delay is shown to be accurately estimated as the zero crossing of the correlation phase near the index of the peak correlation magnitude. This process is nearly as fast as the conventional correlation function on which it is based. For real valued signals, a simple modification is provided, which results in the same correlation accuracy as is obtained for complex valued signals.

  6. Superadditive correlation.

    PubMed

    Giraud, B G; Heumann, J M; Lapedes, A S

    1999-05-01

    The fact that correlation does not imply causation is well known. Correlation between variables at two sites does not imply that the two sites directly interact, because, e.g., correlation between distant sites may be induced by chaining of correlation between a set of intervening, directly interacting sites. Such "noncausal correlation" is well understood in statistical physics: an example is long-range order in spin systems, where spins which have only short-range direct interactions, e.g., the Ising model, display correlation at a distance. It is less well recognized that such long-range "noncausal" correlations can in fact be stronger than the magnitude of any causal correlation induced by direct interactions. We call this phenomenon superadditive correlation (SAC). We demonstrate this counterintuitive phenomenon by explicit examples in (i) a model spin system and (ii) a model continuous variable system, where both models are such that two variables have multiple intervening pathways of indirect interaction. We apply the technique known as decimation to explain SAC as an additive, constructive interference phenomenon between the multiple pathways of indirect interaction. We also explain the effect using a definition of the collective mode describing the intervening spin variables. Finally, we show that the SAC effect is mirrored in information theory, and is true for mutual information measures in addition to correlation measures. Generic complex systems typically exhibit multiple pathways of indirect interaction, making SAC a potentially widespread phenomenon. This affects, e.g., attempts to deduce interactions by examination of correlations, as well as, e.g., hierarchical approximation methods for multivariate probability distributions, which introduce parameters based on successive orders of correlation. PMID:11969452

  7. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  8. Long term (2004-2013) correlation analysis among SSTAs (Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies) and Earthquakes (M>4) occurrence over Greece: examples of application within a multi-parametric system for continuous seismic hazard monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, Valerio; Coviello, Irina; Eleftheriou, Alexander; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Makris, John P.; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Satriano, Valeria; vallianatos, filippos

    2015-04-01

    Real-time integration of multi-parametric observations is expected to significantly contribute to the development of operational systems for time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH) and earthquake short term (from days to weeks) forecast. However a very preliminary step in this direction is the identification of those parameters (chemical, physical, biological, etc.) whose anomalous variations can be, to some extent, associated to the complex process of preparation of major earthquakes. In this paper one of these parameter (the Earth's emitted radiation in the Thermal Infra-Red spectral region) is considered for its possible correlation with M≥4 earthquakes occurred in Greece in between 2004 and 2013. The RST (Robust Satellite Technique) data analysis approach and RETIRA (Robust Estimator of TIR Anomalies) index were used to preliminarily define, and then to identify, Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) in 10 years (2004-2013) of daily TIR images acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. Taking into account physical models proposed for justifying the existence of a correlation among TIR anomalies and earthquakes occurrence, specific validation rules (in line with the ones used by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability - CSEP - Project) have been defined to drive the correlation analysis process. The analysis shows that more than 93% of all identified SSTAs occur in the pre-fixed space-time window around (M≥4) earthquakes time and location of occurrence with a false positive rate smaller than 7%. Achieved results, and particularly the very low rate of false positives registered on a so long testing period, seems already sufficient (at least) to qualify TIR anomalies (identified by RST approach and RETIRA index) among the parameters to be considered in the framework of a multi-parametric approach to time-Dependent Assessment of

  9. Estimation of ion competition via correlated responsivity offset in linear ion trap mass spectrometry analysis: theory and practical use in the analysis of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR in extracts of food additives.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jan; Hrouzek, Pavel; Stys, Dalibor; Martens, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Responsivity is a conversion qualification of a measurement device given by the functional dependence between the input and output quantities. A concentration-response-dependent calibration curve represents the most simple experiment for the measurement of responsivity in mass spectrometry. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR content in complex biological matrices of food additives was chosen as a model example of a typical problem. The calibration curves for pure microcystin and its mixtures with extracts of green alga and fish meat were reconstructed from the series of measurement. A novel approach for the quantitative estimation of ion competition in ESI is proposed in this paper. We define the correlated responsivity offset in the intensity values using the approximation of minimal correlation given by the matrix to the target mass values of the analyte. The estimation of the matrix influence enables the approximation of the position of a priori unknown responsivity and was easily evaluated using a simple algorithm. The method itself is directly derived from the basic attributes of the theory of measurements. There is sufficient agreement between the theoretical and experimental values. However, some theoretical issues are discussed to avoid misinterpretations and excessive expectations. PMID:23586036

  10. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  11. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  12. Cytogenetic abnormalities additional to t(11;14) correlate with clinical features in leukaemic presentation of mantle cell lymphoma, and may influence prognosis: a study of 60 cases by FISH.

    PubMed

    Parry-Jones, N; Matutes, E; Morilla, R; Brito-Babapulle, V; Wotherspoon, A; Swansbury, G J; Catovsky, D

    2007-04-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), characterised by t(11;14)(q13;q32), has a poor prognosis. Many cases have additional cytogenetic abnormalities, and often have a complex karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was used to study 60 cases with leukaemic presentation of MCL, to determine the frequency, clinical correlations and prognostic impact of a panel of molecular cytogenetic abnormalities: 17p13 (TP53 locus), 13q14, 12 p11.1-q11 (centromere), 6q21 and 11q23. CD38 expression, of prognostic value in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), was also studied, and correlations with clinical and cytogenetic abnormalities sought. Eighty per cent of cases had at least one abnormality in addition to t(11;14). Deletions at 17p13 (TP53) and 13q14 were most frequent and involved the majority of the leukaemic clone. Cases with TP53 deletion were more likely to have splenomegaly and marked leucocytosis (>30 x 10(9)/l), and less likely to have lymphadenopathy than those without deletion. Deletions at 11q23 and 6q21 were associated with extranodal disease. 13q14 and 11q23 deletions showed a trend towards worse prognosis by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, deletions at 13q14 and 6q21 were independent predictors of poor outcome. Deletion at 17p13 did not show prognostic impact in this series. CD38, positive in two-thirds of cases, was associated with male gender and nodal disease but not with any cytogenetic abnormality, or with survival. PMID:17391491

  13. Clinical Significance of Cerebrovascular Biomarkers and White Matter Tract Integrity in Alzheimer Disease: Clinical correlations With Neurobehavioral Data in Cross-Sectional and After 18 Months Follow-ups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Kung; Lu, Yan-Ting; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Sz-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-07-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors and white matter (WM) damage lead to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer dementia (AD). This study investigated WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild to moderate AD and investigated specific fiber tract involvement with respect to predefined cerebrovascular risk factors and neurobehavioral data prediction cross-sectionally and after 18 months. To identify the primary pathoanatomic relationships of risk biomarkers to fiber tract integrity, we predefined 11 major association tracts and calculated tract specific fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Eighty-five patients with AD underwent neurobehavioral assessments including the minimental state examination (MMSE) and 12-item neuropsychiatric inventory twice with a 1.5-year interval to represent major outcome factors. In the cross-sectional data, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels correlated variably with WM FA values. After entering the biomarkers and WM FA into a regression model to predict neurobehavioral outcomes, only fiber tract FA or homocysteine level predicted the MMSE score, and fiber tract FA or age predicted the neuropsychiatric inventory total scores and subdomains of apathy, disinhibition, and aberrant motor behavior. In the follow-up neurobehavioral data, the mean global FA value predicted the MMSE and aberrant motor behavior subdomain, while age predicted the anxiety and elation subdomains. Cerebrovascular risk biomarkers may modify WM microstructural organization, while the association with fiber integrity showed greater clinical significance to the prediction of neurobehavioral outcomes both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. PMID:26181568

  14. "Old" tail lobes provide significant additional substorm power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, V.; Mishin, V. V.; Karavaev, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In each polar cap (PC) we mark out "old PC" observed during quiet time before the event under consideration, and "new PC" that emerges during rounding the old one and expanding the PC total area. Old and new PCs correspond in the magnetosphere to the old and new tail lobes, respectively. The new lobe variable magnetic flux Ψ1 is usually assumed to be active, i.e. it provides transport of the electromagnetic energy flux (Poynting flux) ɛ' from solar wind into the magnetosphere. The old lobe magnetic flux Ψ2 is usually supposed to be passive, i.e. it remains constant during the disturbance and does not participate in the transporting process which would mean the old PC electric field absolute screening from the convection electric field created by the magnetopause reconnection. In fact, screening is observed, but it is far from absolute. We suggest a model of screening and determine its quantitative characteristics in the selected superstorm. The coefficient of a screening is the β = Ψ2/Ψ02, where Ψ02 = const is open magnetic flux through the old PC measured prior to the substorm, and Ψ2 is variable magnetic flux during the substorm. We consider three various regimes of disturbance. In each, the coefficient β decreased during the loading phase and increased at the unloading phase, but the rates and amplitudes of variations exhibited a strong dependence on the regime. We interpreted decrease in β as a result of involving the old PC magnetic flux Ψ2, which was considered to be constant earlier, to the ' transport process of the Poynting flux from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. A weakening of the transport process at the subsequent unloading phase creates increase in β. Estimates showed that coefficient β during each regime and the computed Poynting flux varied manifolds. In general, unlike the existing substorm conception, the new scenario describes an unknown earlier tail lobe activation process during a substorm growth phase that effectively increases the accumulated tail energy for the expansion and recovery phases.

  15. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  16. Improving the RST Approach for Earthquake Prone Areas Monitoring: Results of Correlation Analysis among Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies and Earthquakes (M>4) occurred in Italy during 2004-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2015-12-01

    Looking toward the assessment of a multi-parametric system for dynamically updating seismic hazard estimates and earthquake short term (from days to weeks) forecast, a preliminary step is to identify those parameters (chemical, physical, biological, etc.) whose anomalous variations can be, to some extent, associated to the complex process of preparation of a big earthquake. Among the different parameters, the fluctuations of Earth's thermally emitted radiation, as measured by sensors on board of satellite system operating in the Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) spectral range, have been proposed since long time as potential earthquake precursors. Since 2001, a general approach called Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) has been used to discriminate anomalous thermal signals, possibly associated to seismic activity from normal fluctuations of Earth's thermal emission related to other causes (e.g. meteorological) independent on the earthquake occurrence. Thanks to its full exportability on different satellite packages, RST has been implemented on TIR images acquired by polar (e.g. NOAA-AVHRR, EOS-MODIS) and geostationary (e.g. MSG-SEVIRI, NOAA-GOES/W, GMS-5/VISSR) satellite sensors, in order to verify the presence (or absence) of TIR anomalies in presence (absence) of earthquakes (with M>4) in different seismogenic areas around the world (e.g. Italy, Turkey, Greece, California, Taiwan, etc.).In this paper, a refined RST (Robust Satellite Techniques) data analysis approach and RETIRA (Robust Estimator of TIR Anomalies) index were used to identify Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) during eleven years (from May 2004 to December 2014) of TIR satellite records, collected over Italy by the geostationary satellite sensor MSG-SEVIRI. On the basis of specific validation rules (mainly based on physical models and results obtained by applying RST approach to several earthquakes all around the world) the level of space-time correlation among SSTAs and earthquakes (with M≥4

  17. Correlation spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Flemming, Jeb H.; Jones, Gary D.; Tigges, Chris P.

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  18. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  19. Application of δ13c Values Recorded in Neoproterozoic Marine Dolomite As a Marker for Global Correlations: Significance of Major δ13c Variations for the Carbon Cycle Based on Studies of Modern Dolomite Precipitating Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Bahniuk, A.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2014-12-01

    Since the early Paleozoic, the average bulk δ13C value of marine carbonates has remained relatively positive varying between 0 and +4‰ with distinctive positive excursions that are associated with global changes in the carbon cycle. Unlike the Phanerozoic δ13C data for marine limestones, a major δ13C excursion has been recorded in a globally deposited Neoproterozoic marine dolomite formation, known as the cap dolostone. This excursion with δ13C values ranging systematically between -3 and -5‰ represents a global chronstratigraphic marker used to correlate the end of the major Marinoan glaciation at 636 Ma1. Does this excursion signify a primary seawater value and how might it be interpreted as a primary carbon cycle signal, considering the widespread distribution of the cap dolostone? Studies of modern dolomite precipitating environments, such as supratidal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. and Qatar and coastal hypersaline lagoons of Rio de Janiero State, Brazil, indicate that microbial activity or the biological products, thereof, influence or mediate mineral formation. The precipitating solutions are sourced from normal seawater, which has experienced variable stages of concentration through evaporative processes. Comparison of δ13C values of sabkha dolomite with that formed in the hypersaline lagoons reveals that the former are always rather positive (approx. +2 to +7 ‰), whereas the latter are always negative (approx. -5‰ to -11‰). During very early diagenesis, the original δ13C value of the initial precipitate is not necessarily retained, indicating that synsedimentary processes can alter the carbon signal prior to burial and later diagenesis. However, the potential for very early lithification of microbial dolomite promotes the preservation of original δ13C values, which, thus, can be useful for evaluation of the ancient carbon cycle. 1Halverson, G.P. et al., 2005. Toward a Neoproterozoic composite carbon-isotope record, GSA Bulletin, v. 117, p

  20. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  1. Immunohistochemical Analysis of IL-6, IL-8/CXCR2 Axis,  Tyrp-STAT-3, and SOCS-3 in Lymph Nodes from Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Correlation between Microvascular Characteristics and Prognostic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Pangalis, Gerassimos A.; Kalpadakis, Christina; Yiakoumis, Xanthi; Moschogiannis, Maria; Sepsa, Athanasia; Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Milionis, Vassilis; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P.; Tsirkinidis, Pantelis; Kontopidou, Flora; Kokoris, Styliani; Siakantaris, Marina; Angelopoulou, Maria; Papadaki, Helen; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Patsouris, Efstratios; Korkolopoulou, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have looked into the pathophysiological role of angiogenesis in CLL, but the results have often been inconsistent. We aimed to gain direct insight into the angiogenic process in lymph nodes involved by CLL, focusing on proangiogenic cytokines and microvessel morphometry. The tissue levels of VEGF, Th-2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, IL-8 receptor CXCR2, and tyrosine p-STAT-3/SOCS-3 axis modulating cytokine expression were evaluated immunohistochemically in 62 CLL/SLL cases. Microvascular characteristics were evaluated by image analysis. Results were analyzed with regard to clinicopathological characteristics. Proliferation centers (PCs) were less well vascularised compared to non-PC areas. IL-8 and CXCR2 expression was distinctly uncommon as opposed to IL-6, VEGF and SOCS-3, which were detected in the vast majority of cases. The latter two molecule expressions were more pronounced in the PCs in ∼40% of the cases. p-STAT-3 immunoreactivity was recorded in 66.67% of the cases with a predilection for PCs. Microvessel morphometry was unrelated to proangiogenic cytokines, p-STAT-3, SOCS-3, or survival. Microvascular caliber and VEGF expression were higher in Binet stage A, whereasIL-6 expression was higher in stage C. VEGF and p-STAT-3 exerted a favorable effect on progression, which remained significant in multivariate analysis, thereby constituting potential outcome predictors in CLL patients. PMID:24883303

  2. A risk haplotype of STAT4 for systemic lupus erythematosus is over-expressed, correlates with anti-dsDNA and shows additive effects with two risk alleles of IRF5

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Nordmark, Gunnel; Garnier, Sophie; Grundberg, Elin; Kwan, Tony; Nilsson, Olof; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Gunnarsson, Iva; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Bengtsson, Anders A.; Jönsen, Andreas; Truedsson, Lennart; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Eriksson, Catharina; Alm, Gunnar; Göring, Harald H.H.; Pastinen, Tomi; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Rönnblom, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype autoimmune disease where genes regulated by type I interferon (IFN) are over-expressed and contribute to the disease pathogenesis. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) plays a key role in the type I IFN receptor signaling, we performed a candidate gene study of a comprehensive set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in STAT4 in Swedish patients with SLE. We found that 10 out of 53 analyzed SNPs in STAT4 were associated with SLE, with the strongest signal of association (P = 7.1 × 10−8) for two perfectly linked SNPs rs10181656 and rs7582694. The risk alleles of these 10 SNPs form a common risk haplotype for SLE (P = 1.7 × 10−5). According to conditional logistic regression analysis the SNP rs10181656 or rs7582694 accounts for all of the observed association signal. By quantitative analysis of the allelic expression of STAT4 we found that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed in primary human cells of mesenchymal origin, but not in B-cells, and that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed (P = 8.4 × 10−5) in cells carrying the risk haplotype for SLE compared with cells with a non-risk haplotype. The risk allele of the SNP rs7582694 in STAT4 correlated to production of anti-dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) antibodies and displayed a multiplicatively increased, 1.82-fold risk of SLE with two independent risk alleles of the IRF5 (interferon regulatory factor 5) gene. PMID:18579578

  3. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia): A Preliminary Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Hypothesis Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27154182

  4. Washington Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David M.; Boboltz, David

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Washington Correlator for 2012. The Washington Correlator provides up to 80 hours of attended processing per week plus up to 40 hours of unattended operation, primarily supporting Earth Orientation and astrometric observations. In 2012, the major programs supported include the IVS-R4, IVS-INT, APSG, and CRF observing sessions.

  5. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  6. Strongly-correlated heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Electronic phase behavior in correlated-electron systems is a fundamental problem of condensed matter physics. The change in the phase behavior near surfaces and interfaces, i.e., {\\em electronic reconstruction}, is therefore the fundamental issue of the correlated-electron surface or interface science. In addition to basic science, understanding of such a phase behavior is of crucial importance for potential devices exploiting the novel properties of the correlated systems. In this article, we present a general overview of the field, and then discuss the recent theoretical progress mainly focusing on the correlation effects. We illustrate the general concept of {\\em electronic reconstruction} by studying model heterostructures consisting of strongly-correlated systems. Future directions for research are also discussed.

  7. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  8. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  9. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…

  10. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  12. Correlations and clustering in the trading of members of the London Stock Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zovko, Ilija I.; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes correlations in patterns of trading of different members of the London Stock Exchange. The collection of strategies associated with a member institution is defined by the sequence of signs of net volume traded by that institution in hour intervals. Using several methods we show that there are significant and persistent correlations between institutions. In addition, the correlations are structured into correlated and anti-correlated groups. Clustering techniques using the correlations as a distance metric reveal a meaningful clustering structure with two groups of institutions trading in opposite directions.

  13. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  14. Statistics of atmospheric correlations.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, M S; Patra, P K

    2001-07-01

    For a large class of quantum systems, the statistical properties of their spectrum show remarkable agreement with random matrix predictions. Recent advances show that the scope of random matrix theory is much wider. In this work, we show that the random matrix approach can be beneficially applied to a completely different classical domain, namely, to the empirical correlation matrices obtained from the analysis of the basic atmospheric parameters that characterize the state of atmosphere. We show that the spectrum of atmospheric correlation matrices satisfy the random matrix prescription. In particular, the eigenmodes of the atmospheric empirical correlation matrices that have physical significance are marked by deviations from the eigenvector distribution. PMID:11461326

  15. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  16. Correlative Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.

    2014-04-01

    Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques.

  17. Correlative tomography.

    PubMed

    Burnett, T L; McDonald, S A; Gholinia, A; Geurts, R; Janus, M; Slater, T; Haigh, S J; Ornek, C; Almuaili, F; Engelberg, D L; Thompson, G E; Withers, P J

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques. PMID:24736640

  18. Correlative Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques. PMID:24736640

  19. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

  20. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  1. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  2. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  3. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  4. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  5. Correlative Microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopy and Imaging offers many opportunities to collaborate and cooperate with scientists in many different fields nationally and internationally. Images have proven to be very important components in basic research, product development and understanding structure/function relationships in addit...

  6. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  7. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  8. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  9. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  10. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  11. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  12. Correlative microscopy.

    PubMed

    Loussert Fonta, Céline; Humbel, Bruno M

    2015-09-01

    In recent years correlative microscopy, combining the power and advantages of different imaging system, e.g., light, electrons, X-ray, NMR, etc., has become an important tool for biomedical research. Among all the possible combinations of techniques, light and electron microscopy, have made an especially big step forward and are being implemented in more and more research labs. Electron microscopy profits from the high spatial resolution, the direct recognition of the cellular ultrastructure and identification of the organelles. It, however, has two severe limitations: the restricted field of view and the fact that no live imaging can be done. On the other hand light microscopy has the advantage of live imaging, following a fluorescently tagged molecule in real time and at lower magnifications the large field of view facilitates the identification and location of sparse individual cells in a large context, e.g., tissue. The combination of these two imaging techniques appears to be a valuable approach to dissect biological events at a submicrometer level. Light microscopy can be used to follow a labelled protein of interest, or a visible organelle such as mitochondria, in time, then the sample is fixed and the exactly same region is investigated by electron microscopy. The time resolution is dependent on the speed of penetration and fixation when chemical fixatives are used and on the reaction time of the operator for cryo-fixation. Light microscopy can also be used to identify cells of interest, e.g., a special cell type in tissue or cells that have been modified by either transfections or RNAi, in a large population of non-modified cells. A further application is to find fluorescence labels in cells on a large section to reduce searching time in the electron microscope. Multiple fluorescence labelling of a series of sections can be correlated with the ultrastructure of the individual sections to get 3D information of the distribution of the marked proteins: array

  13. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  14. Sensory Correlations in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

  15. Correlates of Adolescent Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet S.; Herz, Elicia J.

    1987-01-01

    Studied correlates of teenage parenting in self-selected sample of 177 teenage parents. Parental race, punitive attitudes toward child rearing, and parental age were statistically significant predictors of total Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores. Older, white adolescent mothers with less punitive attitudes toward child…

  16. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  17. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  18. Clinical significance of monocyte heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Brian K; Ingram, David A

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are primitive hematopoietic cells that primarily arise from the bone marrow, circulate in the peripheral blood and give rise to differentiated macrophages. Over the past two decades, considerable attention to monocyte diversity and macrophage polarization has provided contextual clues into the role of myelomonocytic derivatives in human disease. Until recently, human monocytes were subdivided based on expression of the surface marker CD16. "Classical" monocytes express surface markers denoted as CD14(++)CD16(-) and account for greater than 70% of total monocyte count, while "non-classical" monocytes express the CD16 antigen with low CD14 expression (CD14(+)CD16(++)). However, recognition of an intermediate population identified as CD14(++)CD16(+) supports the new paradigm that monocytes are a true heterogeneous population and careful identification of specific subpopulations is necessary for understanding monocyte function in human disease. Comparative studies of monocytes in mice have yielded more dichotomous results based on expression of the Ly6C antigen. In this review, we will discuss the use of monocyte subpopulations as biomarkers of human disease and summarize correlative studies in mice that may yield significant insight into the contribution of each subset to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25852821

  19. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  20. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  1. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  2. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  3. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  4. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  5. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  6. Correlations and Scaling Laws in Human Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang-Wen; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, several path-breaking findings on human mobility patterns point out a novel issue which is of important theoretical significance and great application prospects. The empirical analysis of the data which can reflect the real-world human mobility provides the basic cognition and verification of the theoretical models and predictive results on human mobility. One of the most noticeable findings in previous studies on human mobility is the wide-spread scaling anomalies, e.g. the power-law-like displacement distributions. Understanding the origin of these scaling anomalies is of central importance to this issue and therefore is the focus of our discussion. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we empirically analyze the real-world human movements which are based on GPS records, and observe rich scaling properties in the temporal-spatial patterns as well as an abnormal transition in the speed-displacement patterns together with an evidence to the real-world traffic jams. In addition, we notice that the displacements at the population level show a significant positive correlation, indicating a cascading-like nature in human movements. Furthermore, our analysis at the individual level finds that the displacement distributions of users with stronger correlations usually are closer to the power law, suggesting a correlation between the positive correlation of the displacement series and the form of an individual's displacement distribution. Conclusions/Significance These empirical findings make connections between the two basic properties of human mobility, the scaling anomalies on displacement distributions and the positive correlations on displacement series, implying the cascading-like dynamics which is exhibited by the positive correlations would cause the emergence of scaling properties on human mobility patterns. Our findings would inspire further researches on mechanisms and predictions of human mobility. PMID:24454769

  7. A Proposed Fourth Measure of Significance: The Role of Economic Significance in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine economic significance as a fourth measure of significance. In addition to describing and operationalising the concept of economic significance, a typology of economic significance indices is presented, including an example of how to compute these measures, as well as how to utilise them in applied research.…

  8. A structural-phenomenological typology of mind-matter correlations.

    PubMed

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Fach, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    We present a typology of mind-matter correlations embedded in a dual-aspect monist framework as proposed by Pauli and Jung. They conjectured a picture in which the mental and the material arise as two complementary aspects of one underlying psychophysically neutral reality to which they cannot be reduced and to which direct empirical access is impossible. This picture suggests structural, persistent, reproducible mind-matter correlations by splitting the underlying reality into aspects. In addition, it suggests induced, occasional, evasive mind-matter correlations above and below, respectively, those stable baseline correlations. Two significant roles for the concept of meaning in this framework are elucidated. Finally, it is shown that the obtained typology is in perfect agreement with an empirically based classification of the phenomenology of mind-matter correlations as observed in exceptional human experiences. PMID:23550573

  9. Interval arithmetic operations for uncertainty analysis with correlated interval variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Fu, Chun-Ming; Ni, Bing-Yu; Han, Xu

    2016-08-01

    A new interval arithmetic method is proposed to solve interval functions with correlated intervals through which the overestimation problem existing in interval analysis could be significantly alleviated. The correlation between interval parameters is defined by the multidimensional parallelepiped model which is convenient to describe the correlative and independent interval variables in a unified framework. The original interval variables with correlation are transformed into the standard space without correlation, and then the relationship between the original variables and the standard interval variables is obtained. The expressions of four basic interval arithmetic operations, namely addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, are given in the standard space. Finally, several numerical examples and a two-step bar are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Significance of irregular opacities in the radiology of coalworkers' pneumoconiosis

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, J. P.; Ryder, R. C.; Campbell, H.; Clarke, W. G.; Gough, J.

    1974-01-01

    Lyons, J. P., Ryder, R. C., Campbell, H., Clarke, W. G., and Gough, J. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 36-44. Significance of irregular opacities in the radiology of coalworkers' pneumoconiosis. A correlation study of ventilatory, morbid anatomical, and radiological findings 95 deceased coal miners who suffered with simple pneumoconiosis during life was undertaken using the new ILO U/C International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis, which now provides for the occurence of irregular opacities in addition to the classical rounded opacities. The study was carried out with a view to ascertaining the frequency of occurrence and the significance of irregular opacities in coalworkers' pneumoconiosis. Two ϰ-ray films with an average interval of 11 years between them were reported on in each case. The results showed that irregular opacities amounting to category 1 or more were present in 20% of the earlier films and in 48% of the later ones. Exceptionally they occured alone but were usually admixed with classical rounded opacities. Irregular opacities correlated positively with the extent of emphysema and the impairment of FEV1 whereas rounded opacities did not. Possible pathological causes for the irregular opacities are discussed and it is maintained that coalworkers' pneumoconiosis is the most probable one. Finally, it is suggested that the significance of these irregular changes may have been underrated in certain cases hitherto, with consequent underestimation of pneumoconiosis and its related effects. Morphological findings in a typical case showing radiologically mixed irregular and rounded opacities are demonstrated. Images PMID:4821410

  11. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  12. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  13. Conditions for positive and negative correlations between fitness and heterozygosity in equilibrium populations.

    PubMed Central

    Deng, H W; Fu, Y X

    1998-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed extensive efforts to correlate fitness traits with genomic heterozygosity. While positive correlations are revealed in most of the organisms studied, results of no/negative correlations are not uncommon. There has been little effort to reveal the genetic causes of these negative correlations. The positive correlations are regarded either as evidence for functional overdominance in large, randomly mating populations at equilibrium, or the results of populations at disequilibrium under dominance. More often, the positive correlations are viewed as a phenomenon of heterosis, so that it cannot possibly occur under within-locus additive allelic effects. Here we give exact genetic conditions that give rise to positive and negative correlations in populations at Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibria, thus offering a genetic explanation for the observed negative correlations. Our results demonstrate that the above interpretations concerning the positive correlations are not complete or even necessary. Such a positive correlation can result under dominance and potentially under additivity, even in populations where associated overdominance due to linked alleles at different loci is not significant. Additionally, negative correlations and heterosis can co-occur in a single population. Although our emphasis is on equilibrium populations and for biallelic genetic systems, the basic conclusions are generalized to non-equilibrium populations and for multi-allelic situations. PMID:9539446

  14. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  17. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  18. The Neurogenetic Correlates of Consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandy, John K.

    2013-09-01

    The neurogenetic correlates of consciousness (NgCC) is a new field of consciousness studies that focuses on genes that have an effect on or are involved in the continuum of neuron-based consciousness. A framework of consciousness based on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has already been established by Francis Crick and Christof Kock. In this work I propose that there are NgCC underlying the NCC which are both active during the conscious experience. So how are genes involved? There are two significant connections between DNA and neurons that are involved in the conscious experience. First, any brain system can be adversely affected by underlying genetic abnormalities which can be expressed in an individual at birth, in adulthood, or later in life. Second, the DNA molecule does not lay dormant while the neuron runs on autopilot. DNA is active in translating and transcribing RNA and protein products that are utilized during neuron functioning. Without these products being continuously produced by the DNA during a conscious experience the neurons would cease to function correctly and be rendered unable to provide a continuum of human consciousness. Consequently, in addition to NCC, NgCC must be factored in when appreciating a conscious event. In this work I will discuss and explain some NgCC citing several examples.

  19. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  20. Assessing statistical significance in multivariable genome wide association analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buzdugan, Laura; Kalisch, Markus; Navarro, Arcadi; Schunk, Daniel; Fehr, Ernst; Bühlmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Although Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) genotype a very large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the data are often analyzed one SNP at a time. The low predictive power of single SNPs, coupled with the high significance threshold needed to correct for multiple testing, greatly decreases the power of GWAS. Results: We propose a procedure in which all the SNPs are analyzed in a multiple generalized linear model, and we show its use for extremely high-dimensional datasets. Our method yields P-values for assessing significance of single SNPs or groups of SNPs while controlling for all other SNPs and the family wise error rate (FWER). Thus, our method tests whether or not a SNP carries any additional information about the phenotype beyond that available by all the other SNPs. This rules out spurious correlations between phenotypes and SNPs that can arise from marginal methods because the ‘spuriously correlated’ SNP merely happens to be correlated with the ‘truly causal’ SNP. In addition, the method offers a data driven approach to identifying and refining groups of SNPs that jointly contain informative signals about the phenotype. We demonstrate the value of our method by applying it to the seven diseases analyzed by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC). We show, in particular, that our method is also capable of finding significant SNPs that were not identified in the original WTCCC study, but were replicated in other independent studies. Availability and implementation: Reproducibility of our research is supported by the open-source Bioconductor package hierGWAS. Contact: peter.buehlmann@stat.math.ethz.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153677

  1. MAGNETOMETRY, SELF-POTENTIAL, AND SEISMIC - ADDITIONAL GEOPHYSICAL METHODS HAVING POTENTIALLY SIGNIFICANT FUTURE UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods can provide important information in agricultural settings, and the use of these techniques are becoming more and more widespread. Magnetrometry, self-potential, and seismic are three geophysical methods, all of which have the potential for substantial future use in agriculture, ...

  2. Evidence for spin correlation in tt production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2012-01-19

    We present a measurement of the ratio of events with correlated t and t spins to the total number of tt events. This ratio f is evaluated using a matrix-element-based approach in 729 tt candidate events with a single lepton ℓ (electron or muon) and at least four jets. The analyzed pp collisions data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 and were collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider operating at a center-of-mass energy \\(\\sqrt{s}=1.96\\) TeV. Combining this result with a recent measurement of f in dileptonic final states, we find f in agreement withmore » the standard model. In addition, the combination provides evidence for the presence of spin correlation in tt events with a significance of more than 3 standard deviations.« less

  3. Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-12-01

    For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρDCCA(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρDCCA(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1. Here we derive -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρDCCA within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine—and for nonoverlapping windows we derive—that the standard deviation of ρDCCA(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρDCCA(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series.

  4. Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-12-01

    For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρ(DCCA)(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρ(DCCA)(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1 ≤ ρ(DCCA)(T,n) ≤ 1. Here we derive -1 ≤ ρ DCCA)(T,n) ≤ 1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρ(DCCA) within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine-and for nonoverlapping windows we derive--that the standard deviation of ρ(DCCA)(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρ(DCCA)(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series. PMID:22304166

  5. Phase behavior of coal fluids: Data for correlation development

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Shaver, R.D.

    1989-10-15

    During the present report period, our framework for correlating saturation properties using the scaled-variable-reduced coordinate approach was used to develop a correlation for saturated liquid densities of pure fluids at temperatures from the triple point to the critical point. The new correlation results in precise representation of liquid densities of diverse chemical species with average errors of 0.12% when two adjustable parameters are used to characterize each substance. In addition, the proposed model compares favorably with the modified Rackett and the Hankinson-Thomson correlations with the added advantages of covering the full saturation range and obeying scaling-law behavior in the near-critical region. Although the approach is essentially empirical, the results obtained suggest an underlying physical significance for the model parameters and show an excellent potential for generalized predictions. This is demonstrated by the results given here for saturated liquid densities where fully generalized predictions yield average errors of less than 1.0%.

  6. Strongly correlated electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, K.; Albers, R.; Balatsky, A.; Bishop, A.; Bonca, J.; Gubernatis, J.; Gulasci, M.; Silver, R.; Trugman, S.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year project. Novel electronic materials characterized by strong electronic correlations display a number of unexpected, often extraordinary, properties. These are likely to play a major role in purpose-specific high-technology electronic materials of the future developed for electronic, magnetic, and optical applications. This project sought to develop predictive control of the novel properties by formulating, solving and applying many-body models for the underlying microscopic physics. This predictive control required the development of new analytical and numerical many-body techniques and strategies for materials of varying strengths of interactions, dimensionality and geometry. Results are compared with experiment on classes of novel materials, and the robust techniques are used to predict additional properties and motivate key additional experiments.

  7. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  8. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  9. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  10. Correlations in the population structure of music, genes and language

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Steven; Savage, Patrick E.; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Stoneking, Mark; Ko, Ying-Chin; Loo, Jun-Hun; Trejaut, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    We present, to our knowledge, the first quantitative evidence that music and genes may have coevolved by demonstrating significant correlations between traditional group-level folk songs and mitochondrial DNA variation among nine indigenous populations of Taiwan. These correlations were of comparable magnitude to those between language and genes for the same populations, although music and language were not significantly correlated with one another. An examination of population structure for genetics showed stronger parallels to music than to language. Overall, the results suggest that music might have a sufficient time-depth to retrace ancient population movements and, additionally, that it might be capturing different aspects of population history than language. Music may therefore have the potential to serve as a novel marker of human migrations to complement genes, language and other markers. PMID:24225453

  11. CMB Lensing Cross Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleem, Lindsey

    2014-03-01

    A new generation of experiments designed to conduct high-resolution, low-noise observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)--including ACTpol, Planck, POLARBEAR and SPTpol--are producing exquisite measurements of the gravitational lensing of the CMB. Such measurements, covering large fractions of the sky, provide detailed maps of the projected mass distribution extending to the surface of the CMB's last scattering. Concurrently, a large number of deep, wide-area imaging and spectroscopic surveys (e.g., the Dark Energy Survey (DES),WISE all-sky survey, Subaru HyperSuprimeCam Survey, LSST, MS-DESI, BigBoss, etc.) are, or will soon be, providing maps of the distribution of galaxies in the Universe. Correlations of such tracer populations with lensing data allows new probes of where and how galaxies form in the dark matter skeleton of the Universe. Recent correlations of maps of galaxy and quasar densities with lensing convergence maps have produced significant measurements of galaxy bias. The near-term prospect for improvements in such measurements is notable as more precise lensing data from CMB polarization experiments will help to break cosmological and astrophysical parameter degeneracies. Work by the Planck, SPT, and POLARBEAR collaborations has also focused on the correlation of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) with CMB lensing convergence maps. This correlation is particularly strong as the redshifts of the CIB and CMB lensing kernel are well matched. Such correlations probe high-redshift structure, constraining models of star-formation and the characteristic mass scale for halos hosting CIB galaxies and have also been used to demonstrate the first detection of CMB B-mode polarization--an important milestone in CMB observations. Finally, combining galaxy number density, cosmic shear and CMB lensing maps has the potential to provide valuable systematic tests for upcoming cosmological results from large optical surveys such as LSST.

  12. The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam M

    2008-01-01

    Does task significance increase job performance? Correlational designs and confounded manipulations have prevented researchers from assessing the causal impact of task significance on job performance. To address this gap, 3 field experiments examined the performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance. In Experiment 1, fundraising callers who received a task significance intervention increased their levels of job performance relative to callers in 2 other conditions and to their own prior performance. In Experiment 2, task significance increased the job dedication and helping behavior of lifeguards, and these effects were mediated by increases in perceptions of social impact and social worth. In Experiment 3, conscientiousness and prosocial values moderated the effects of task significance on the performance of new fundraising callers. The results provide fresh insights into the effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance, offering noteworthy implications for theory, research, and practice on job design, social information processing, and work motivation and performance. PMID:18211139

  13. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  14. HEAT: High accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. III. Additional improvements and overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M. E.; Vazquez, J.; Ruscic, B.; Wilson, A. K.; Gauss, J.; Stanton, J. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. t Mainz; The Univ. of Texas; Univ. of North Texas

    2008-01-01

    Effects of increased basis-set size as well as a correlated treatment of the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer approximation are studied within the context of the high-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry (HEAT) theoretical model chemistry. It is found that the addition of these ostensible improvements does little to increase the overall accuracy of HEAT for the determination of molecular atomization energies. Fortuitous cancellation of high-level effects is shown to give the overall HEAT strategy an accuracy that is, in fact, higher than most of its individual components. In addition, the issue of core-valence electron correlation separation is explored; it is found that approximate additive treatments of the two effects have limitations that are significant in the realm of <1 kJ mol{sup -1} theoretical thermochemistry.

  15. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  16. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial transaction. 561.404 Section 561.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  17. Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385

  18. Significance of Nuclear Accumulation of Foxo3a in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.-F. Fang, F.-M.; Lu, C.-H.; Lu, M.-S.; Chen, W.-C.; Lee, K.-D.; Lin, P.-Y.

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of Foxo3a in predicting the response to neoadjuvant treatment of, and prognosis for, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining was performed in a retrospective series of 60 biopsied esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and the correlation between nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a and clinicopathologic features was analyzed, including patient survival. In addition, in vitro biologic changes, radiosensitivity, and in vivo tumorigenicity of esophageal carcinoma cells after experimental manipulation of Foxo3a expression levels were determined. Results: Clinical findings point to a significant correlation between the nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a and the survival rate of esophageal cancer patients. In addition, Foxo3a is a significant predictor for the response to neoadjuvant therapy. In cell culture, irradiation and oxidative stress seemed to result in nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a. Down-regulation of Foxo3a significantly decreased radiosensitivity but had no obvious effect on tumor growth, as measured by a clonogenic assay in vitro and growth delay in vivo. Conclusions: Nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a in tumor cells was correlated with increased radiosensitivity and with improved patient survival. Thus, it is suggested that Foxo3a may be a potential marker for esophageal cancer.

  19. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  20. Estimating correlations of neighboring frequencies in ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-05-01

    Extracting accurate empirical Green's functions from the ambient seismic noise field requires the noise to be fully diffuse and that different frequency components are not correlated. Calculating a matrix of correlation coefficients of power spectral samples can be used to estimate deviations from a fully diffuse random noise field in the analyzed frequency range. A fully diffuse field has correlations only in a narrow region around the diagonal of the matrix, with frequency resolution inversely proportional to length of the used time window. Analysis of low frequency data (0.005-0.6 Hz) recorded by three broadband stations of the southern California seismic network reveals three common types of correlations, manifested in the correlation coefficient matrix as square, diagonal halo and correlated stripes. Synthetic calculations show that these types of signatures in the correlation coefficient matrix can result from certain combinations of cross-frequency correlated random components and diffuse field. The analysis of observed data indicates that the secondary microseismic peak around 0.15 Hz is correlated with its neighboring frequencies, while the primary peak around 0.06 Hz is more diffuse. This suggests that the primary and secondary peaks may be associated with somewhat different physical origins. In addition, significant correlation of frequencies below that of the primary microseismic peak suggests that the very low frequencies noise is less scattered during propagation. The power spectra recorded by a station close to the edge of the Los Angles basin is higher compared to data recorded by stations outside the basin perhaps because of enhanced basin reverberations and/or closer proximity to the ocean. This and other regional variations should be tested further using data from many more stations.

  1. Revisiting the correlation between stellar activity and planetary surface gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Oshagh, M.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Santos, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We re-evaluate the correlation between planetary surface gravity and stellar host activity as measured by the index log (R'HK). This correlation, previously identified by Hartman (2010, ApJ, 717, L138), is now analyzed in light of an extended measurement dataset, roughly three times larger than the original one. Methods: We calculated the Spearman rank correlation coefficient between the two quantities and its associated p-value. The correlation coefficient was calculated for both the full dataset and the star-planet pairs that follow the conditions proposed by Hartman (2010). To do so, we considered effective temperatures both as collected from the literature and from the SWEET-Cat catalog, which provides a more homogeneous and accurate effective temperature determination. Results: The analysis delivers significant correlation coefficients, but with a lower value than those obtained by Hartman (2010). The two datasets are compatible, and we show that a correlation coefficient as high as previously published can arise naturally from a small-number statistics analysis of the current dataset. The correlation is recovered for star-planet pairs selected using the different conditions proposed by Hartman (2010). Remarkably, the usage of SWEET-Cat temperatures led to higher correlation coefficient values. We highlight and discuss the role of the correlation betwen different parameters such as effective temperature and activity index. Several additional effects on top of those discussed previously were considered, but none fully explains the detected correlation. In light of the complex issue discussed here, we encourage the different follow-up teams to publish their activity index values in the form of a log (R'HK) index so that a comparison across stars and instruments can be pursued. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Estimating correlations of neighbouring frequencies in ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-08-01

    Extracting accurate empirical Green's functions from the ambient seismic noise field requires the noise to be fully diffuse and that different frequency components are not correlated. Calculating a matrix of correlation coefficients of power spectral samples can be used to estimate deviations from a fully diffuse random noise field in the analysed frequency range. A fully diffuse field has correlations only in a narrow region around the diagonal of the matrix, with frequency resolution inversely proportional to length of the used time window. Analysis of low-frequency data (0.005-0.6 Hz) recorded by three broad-band stations of the southern California seismic network reveals three common types of correlations, manifested in the correlation coefficient matrix as square, diagonal halo and correlated stripes. Synthetic calculations show that these types of signatures in the correlation coefficient matrix can result from certain combinations of cross-frequency correlated random components and diffuse field. The analysis of observed data indicates that the secondary microseismic peak around 0.15 Hz is correlated with its neighbouring frequencies, while the primary peak around 0.06 Hz is more diffuse. This suggests that the primary and secondary peaks may be associated with somewhat different physical origins. In addition, significant correlation of frequencies below that of the primary microseismic peak suggests that the very low frequencies noise is less scattered during propagation. The power spectra recorded by a station close to the edge of the Los Angeles basin is higher compared to data recorded by stations outside the basin perhaps because of enhanced basin reverberations and/or closer proximity to the ocean. This and other regional variations should be tested further using data from many more stations.

  3. Warming and Nitrogen Addition Increase Litter Decomposition in a Temperate Meadow Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shiwei; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Tao; Guo, Jixun

    2015-01-01

    Background Litter decomposition greatly influences soil structure, nutrient content and carbon sequestration, but how litter decomposition is affected by climate change is still not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A field experiment with increased temperature and nitrogen (N) addition was established in April 2007 to examine the effects of experimental warming, N addition and their interaction on litter decomposition in a temperate meadow steppe in northeastern China. Warming, N addition and warming plus N addition reduced the residual mass of L. chinensis litter by 3.78%, 7.51% and 4.53%, respectively, in 2008 and 2009, and by 4.73%, 24.08% and 16.1%, respectively, in 2010. Warming, N addition and warming plus N addition had no effect on the decomposition of P. communis litter in 2008 or 2009, but reduced the residual litter mass by 5.58%, 15.53% and 5.17%, respectively, in 2010. Warming and N addition reduced the cellulose percentage of L. chinensis and P. communis, specifically in 2010. The lignin percentage of L. chinensis and P. communis was reduced by warming but increased by N addition. The C, N and P contents of L. chinensis and P. communis litter increased with time. Warming and N addition reduced the C content and C:N ratios of L. chinensisand P. communis litter, but increased the N and P contents. Significant interactive effects of warming and N addition on litter decomposition were observed (P<0.01). Conclusion/Significance The litter decomposition rate was highly correlated with soil temperature, soil water content and litter quality. Warming and N addition significantly impacted the litter decomposition rate in the Songnen meadow ecosystem, and the effects of warming and N addition on litter decomposition were also influenced by the quality of litter. These results highlight how climate change could alter grassland ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in soil by influencing litter decomposition. PMID:25774776

  4. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.

  5. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  6. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  7. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  8. Flatbands under Correlated Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodyfelt, Joshua D.; Leykam, Daniel; Danieli, Carlo; Yu, Xiaoquan; Flach, Sergej

    2014-12-01

    Flatband networks are characterized by the coexistence of dispersive and flatbands. Flatbands (FBs) are generated by compact localized eigenstates (CLSs) with local network symmetries, based on destructive interference. Correlated disorder and quasiperiodic potentials hybridize CLSs without additional renormalization, yet with surprising consequences: (i) states are expelled from the FB energy EFB, (ii) the localization length of eigenstates vanishes as ξ ˜1 /ln (E -EFB) , (iii) the density of states diverges logarithmically (particle-hole symmetry) and algebraically (no particle-hole symmetry), and (iv) mobility edge curves show algebraic singularities at EFB . Our analytical results are based on perturbative expansions of the CLSs and supported by numerical data in one and two lattice dimensions.

  9. Flatbands under correlated perturbations.

    PubMed

    Bodyfelt, Joshua D; Leykam, Daniel; Danieli, Carlo; Yu, Xiaoquan; Flach, Sergej

    2014-12-01

    Flatband networks are characterized by the coexistence of dispersive and flatbands. Flatbands (FBs) are generated by compact localized eigenstates (CLSs) with local network symmetries, based on destructive interference. Correlated disorder and quasiperiodic potentials hybridize CLSs without additional renormalization, yet with surprising consequences: (i) states are expelled from the FB energy E_{FB}, (ii) the localization length of eigenstates vanishes as ξ∼1/ln(E-E_{FB}), (iii) the density of states diverges logarithmically (particle-hole symmetry) and algebraically (no particle-hole symmetry), and (iv) mobility edge curves show algebraic singularities at E_{FB}. Our analytical results are based on perturbative expansions of the CLSs and supported by numerical data in one and two lattice dimensions. PMID:25526142

  10. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  11. Usefulness of additional measurements of the median nerve with ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Claes, F; Meulstee, J; Claessen-Oude Luttikhuis, T T M; Huygen, P L M; Verhagen, W I M

    2010-12-01

    High resolution sonography is a relatively new diagnostic technique in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Normal values in different studies, however, vary and this makes their practical use difficult. The aim of this study was to establish normal values for the median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) and to investigate the value of measuring additional parameters. Ninety-eight wrists of 29 women and 25 men without signs or symptoms of CTS were included. Width and circumference of the wrist were measured. The CSA of the median nerve at the level of the pisiform bone was measured using ultrasonography. We found a significant correlation between the CSA of the median nerve at the wrist and wrist circumference. Measuring wrist circumference will establish the upper level of normal more accurately compared to predictions solely based upon gender. This has important implications in diagnosing CTS with ultrasonography. PMID:20429021

  12. The stability of alloying additions in Zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, S. C.; Murphy, S. T.; Burr, P. A.; Grimes, R. W.; Chard-Tuckey, P. R.; Wenman, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    The interactions of Cr, Fe, Nb, Ni, Sn, V and Y with Zr are simulated using density functional theory. Thermodynamic stabilities of various different Zr based intermetallic compounds, including multiple Laves phase structures and solutions of alloying additions in both α and β-Zr were investigated. The thermodynamic driving forces in this system can be correlated with trends in atomic radii and the relative electronegativities of the different species. Formation energies of Fe, Ni and Sn based intermetallic compounds were found to be negative, and the ZrFe and ZrNi intermetallics were metastable. Most elements displayed negative energies of solution in β-Zr but positive energies in the α-phase, with the exception of Sn (which was negative for both) and Y (which was positive for both). Solutions formed from intermetallics showed a similar trend. Cr -3s23p64s13d5. Fe -4s23d6. Nb -4s24p65s14d4. Ni -4s23d8. Sn -5s25p2. V -3s23p64s23d3. Y -4s24p65s24d1. Zr -4s24p65s24d2. The pseudopotential scheme used is "on-the-fly" generation, in which an isolated all-electron calculation is carried out before the main calculation and used as a starting point to generate a pseudopotential. This was carried out for all pseudopotentials except Cr and V, as the default on-the-fly pseudopotentials for these elements required a much higher cut-off energy. Instead, standard ultrasoft pseudopotentials, as found in the CASTEP pseudopotential library, were used for Cr and V. All pseudopotentials (both on-the-fly and library) are of the ultrasoft type [15], and so are compatible with each-other. Exchange-correlation was modelled using the Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof formalisation of the Generalised Gradient Approximation [16].A series of simulations were run to establish an appropriate basis set cut-off energy, and the density of sampling in the Brillouin zone. The results were converged to within two decimal places for a cut-off energy of 450 eV and a k-point spacing of 0.003 nm-1. The k

  13. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  14. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  15. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  16. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference. PMID:24767072

  17. Prognostic significance of minichromosome maintenance proteins in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Hang Fai; Zhang, Shu-Dong; McCrudden, Cian M; Yuen, Hiu-Fung; Ting, Kam-Po; Wen, Qing; Khoo, Ui-Soon; Chan, Kelvin Yuen-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    A role for the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins in cancer initiation and progression is slowly emerging. Functioning as a complex to ensure a single chromosomal replication per cell cycle, the six family members have been implicated in several neoplastic disease states, including breast cancer. Our study aim to investigate the prognostic significance of these proteins in breast cancer. We studied the expression of MCMs in various datasets and the associations of the expression with clinicopathological parameters. When considered alone, high level MCM4 overexpression was only weakly associated with shorter survival in the combined breast cancer patient cohort (n = 1441, Hazard Ratio = 1.31; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.11-1.55; p = 0.001). On the other hand, when we studied all six components of the MCM complex, we found that overexpression of all MCMs was strongly associated with shorter survival in the same cohort (n = 1441, Hazard Ratio = 1.75; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.31-2.34; p < 0.001), suggesting these MCM proteins may cooperate to promote breast cancer progression. Indeed, their expressions were significantly correlated with each other in these cohorts. In addition, we found that increasing number of overexpressed MCMs was associated with negative ER status as well as treatment response. Together, our findings are reproducible in seven independent breast cancer cohorts, with 1441 patients, and suggest that MCM profiling could potentially be used to predict response to treatment and prognosis in breast cancer patients. PMID:25628920

  18. Significant results: statistical or clinical?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The null hypothesis significance test method is popular in biological and medical research. Many researchers have used this method for their research without exact knowledge, though it has both merits and shortcomings. Readers will know its shortcomings, as well as several complementary or alternative methods, as such the estimated effect size and the confidence interval. PMID:27066201

  19. The Most Significant Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Daniel E.

    1972-01-01

    A reexamination of the significant research done in the decade from 1956-1966 and a revision of this list to include work up to 1971. Human characteristics, equality of educational opportunity, development of the individual, nature of intelligence, methodology of educational research, and principles of learning are some of the areas covered. (RB)

  20. Potential clinical significance of ERβ ON promoter methylation in sporadic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Božović, Ana; Markićević, Milan; Dimitrijević, Bogomir; Jovanović Ćupić, Snežana; Krajnović, Milena; Lukić, Silvana; Mandušić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess how hypermethylation of the ON promoter of the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) gene affects its expression (at the mRNA and protein level) and to correlate these with some clinical and histopathological parameters. A total of 131 samples of frozen breast cancer tissue was analyzed. A custom-designed, two-step PCR method was used to measure the methylation index of the ERβ gene ON promoter region. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to quantify mRNA of the ERβ1 isoform, while ERβ1 protein was determined using the Western blot method. There was a significant difference in the methylation index of the ERβ gene ON promoter between the groups of patients with negative and positive axillary lymph node status (P = 0.03). In addition, the methylation index of the ON promoter was positively correlated with estrogen receptor alfa (ERα) protein levels (ρ = 0.31, P = 0.02). There was a significant difference in the methylation index of the ON promoter between the progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and PR-positive groups of patients (P = 0.01). ERβ1 protein levels were negatively correlated with ERα protein (ρ = -0.27, P < 0.01). The methylation index of the ON promoter could be a more reliable additional parameter for prediction and/or prognosis in breast cancer than ERβ1-mRNA and/or protein levels. PMID:23794253

  1. Largescale QSO - Galaxy Correlations Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelmann, M.; Schneider, P.

    1993-04-01

    Fugmann (1990) claimed indications for correlations between Lick galaxies and high-redshift, radio-loud background sources. We re- analyze these correlations using an improved statistical method based on Spearman's rank-order test, which we have introduced recently (Bartelmann & Schneider 1993). To our surprise, we are not able to reproduce Fugmann's results, but we detect a significant correlation between moderate-redshift sources from the 1-Jansky catalog and Lick galaxies, which increases when we apply an optical flux limit to the source sample. We interpret these empirical results in terms of an amplification bias caused by gravitational light deflection by dark matter; in particular, we argue that the observed large-scale QSO-galaxy correlations can provide a proof for the association of luminous matter (galaxies) with dark matter.

  2. Personality Correlates of Pain Perception and Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Penny R.; Ray, A. Bartow

    1982-01-01

    Explored personality correlates of pain perception and tolerance in a nonmedical sample and setting. Results showed no significant correlations with personality measures and cold-pressor scores, but a significant relationship between pain tolerance and cognitive focus; those who focused on the experimental situation had much shorter tolerance…

  3. [Significance of inhaled environmental allergens].

    PubMed

    Zochert, J

    1983-01-01

    Whereas the importance of pollen as inhalative allergens has been largely investigated and is generally known, the experience in the frequency and the role of the sensibilization with air-borne fungi is relatively limited. In 720 patients with Asthma bronchiale the degree of sensitization has been tested with various extracts of air-borne fungi of SSW Dresden (mould mixture, aspergillin, mucor, cladosporium and penicillium and alternaria). The most frequent and also the strongest reactions were found with alternaria and the smallest part of positive skin reactions with penicillium. An isolated sensitization with mould has been demonstrated in 20 per cent of the cases. In 60 per cent of the tested patients a manifest mould allergy was shown by means of the Inhalative Allergen Test, the most favourable correlation between Intracutaneous Test (ICT) and Inhalative Test (IAT) was found with alternaria (76%). A conformance between ICT and basophils degranulation test (BDT) was stated in 69% of the cases. The aim should be comparable tests with allergen extracts without irritative effects and qualitative measurements of air-borne fungi. PMID:6649704

  4. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  5. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  6. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  7. A study of correlations between crude oil spot and futures markets: A rolling sample test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Wan, Jieqiu

    2011-10-01

    In this article, we investigate the asymmetries of exceedance correlations and cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot and futures markets. First, employing the test statistic proposed by Hong et al. [Asymmetries in stock returns: statistical tests and economic evaluation, Review of Financial Studies 20 (2007) 1547-1581], we find that the exceedance correlations were overall symmetric. However, the results from rolling windows show that some occasional events could induce the significant asymmetries of the exceedance correlations. Second, employing the test statistic proposed by Podobnik et al. [Quantifying cross-correlations using local and global detrending approaches, European Physics Journal B 71 (2009) 243-250], we find that the cross-correlations were significant even for large lagged orders. Using the detrended cross-correlation analysis proposed by Podobnik and Stanley [Detrended cross-correlation analysis: a new method for analyzing two nonstationary time series, Physics Review Letters 100 (2008) 084102], we find that the cross-correlations were weakly persistent and were stronger between spot and futures contract with larger maturity. Our results from rolling sample test also show the apparent effects of the exogenous events. Additionally, we have some relevant discussions on the obtained evidence.

  8. An investigation into the linear and nonlinear correlation of two music walk sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhi-Yuan; Wu, Tzuyin; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Huang, Hsin-Yi

    2008-08-01

    In order to investigate the features of a multiple-part musical score which enhance its appeal to the listener’s ear, this study performs a robust analysis of the correlation between two musical sequences. In the proposed approach, a series of notes are extracted from seven well-known classical pieces of music and are converted into one-variable “music walks”. The linear correlation between pairs of music walks is assessed using the conventional linear correlation coefficient, while the nonlinear correlation is examined using the mutual information concept. The results show that even though two musical time walks may exhibit virtually no linear correlation, they invariably have a certain degree of nonlinear correlation. In other words, to truly understand the correlation between two musical sequences, it is necessary to consider not only the linear correlation between them, but also the nonlinear correlation. In addition, it is shown that the normalized mutual information coefficient between musical sequences has a relatively low value and varies significantly over the course of the musical score. Thus, it can be inferred that the appeal of a musical score stems at least in part from significant variations in both the melody and the rhythm of the constituent parts such that the overall score has a rich and unpredictable property.

  9. Motion-sensitive optical correlator using a VanderLugt correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A new type of optical correlator is presented. The correlator performs motion detection or background clutter suppression and correlation simultaneously in a single photorefractive crystal. Additionally, the device is useful for moving target identification and tracking and for stationary clutter rejection. The correlation is of the VanderLugt type, and the motion detection or background clutter suppression is based on the erasing property of photorefractive crystals.

  10. Correlation, Cost Risk, and Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1992-01-01

    The geometric viewpoint identifies the choice of a correlation matrix for the simulation of cost risk with the pairwise choice of data vectors corresponding to the parameters used to obtain cost risk. The correlation coefficient is the cosine of the angle between the data vectors after translation to an origin at the mean and normalization for magnitude. Thus correlation is equivalent to expressing the data in terms of a non orthogonal basis. To understand the many resulting phenomena requires the use of the tensor concept of raising the index to transform the measured and observed covariant components into contravariant components before vector addition can be applied. The geometric viewpoint also demonstrates that correlation and covariance are geometric properties, as opposed to purely statistical properties, of the variates. Thus, variates from different distributions may be correlated, as desired, after selection from independent distributions. By determining the principal components of the correlation matrix, variates with the desired mean, magnitude, and correlation can be generated through linear transforms which include the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the correlation matrix. The conversion of the data to a non orthogonal basis uses a compound linear transformation which distorts or stretches the data space. Hence, the correlated data does not have the same properties as the uncorrelated data used to generate it. This phenomena is responsible for seemingly strange observations such as the fact that the marginal distributions of the correlated data can be quite different from the distributions used to generate the data. The joint effect of statistical distributions and correlation remains a fertile area for further research. In terms of application to cost estimating, the geometric approach demonstrates that the estimator must have data and must understand that data in order to properly choose the correlation matrix appropriate for a given estimate

  11. Study of adaptive correlation filter synthesis guided by the peak and shape of the correlation output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Trujillo, Oliver G.; Díaz Blancas, Gerardo

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, many proposals that consider an adaptive perspective had been developed to solve some drawbacks, such as geometric distortions, background noise and target discrimination. The metrics are based only in the correlation peak output for the filter synthesis. In this paper, the correlation shape is studied to implement adaptive correlation filters guided by the peak and shape of the correlation output. Furthermore, the shape of correlation output is studied to improve the search in the filters bank. In addition, parallel algorithms are developed for accelerated the search in the filters bank. Some results are shown, such as time of synthesis, filter performance and comparisons with other adaptive correlation filter proposals.

  12. 77 FR 71400 - Procurement List, Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 8/24/2012 (77 FR 51522-51523) and 10/5/2012 (77 FR 60969), the Committee.... Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification I certify that the following action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this...

  13. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a business development strategy. (d) Nexus. The proximity between the foreign financial institution... (b)(3) of that section. For example, a transaction or financial service in which a foreign financial... significance than a transaction or financial service a foreign financial institution conducts for or...

  14. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... part of a pattern of conduct or the result of a business development strategy. (d) Nexus. The proximity... service in which a foreign financial institution provides brokerage or clearing services to, or maintains... generally would be of greater significance than a transaction or financial service a foreign...

  15. An Additive Definition of Molecular Complexity.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Thomas

    2016-03-28

    A framework for molecular complexity is established that is based on information theory and consistent with chemical knowledge. The resulting complexity index Cm is derived from abstracting the information content of a molecule by the degrees of freedom in the microenvironments on a per-atom basis, allowing the molecular complexity to be calculated in a simple and additive way. This index allows the complexity of any molecule to be universally assessed and is sensitive to stereochemistry, heteroatoms, and symmetry. The performance of this complexity index is evaluated and compared against the current state of the art. Its additive character gives consistent values also for very large molecules and supports direct comparisons of chemical reactions. Finally, this approach may provide a useful tool for medicinal chemistry in drug design and lead selection, as demonstrated by correlating molecular complexities of antibiotics with compound-specific parameters. PMID:26857537

  16. Asphalt and asphalt additives. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Contents: use of asphalt emulsions for in-place recycling: oregon experience; gap-graded cold asphalt concrete: benefits of polymer-modified asphalt cement and fibers; cold in-place recycling for rehabilitation and widening of low-volume flexible pavements in indiana; in situ cold recycling of bituminous pavements with polymer-modified high float emulsions; evaluation of new generation of antistripping additives; correlation between performance-related characteristics of asphalt cement and its physicochemical parameters using corbett's fractions and hpgc; reaction rates and hardening susceptibilities as determined from pressure oxygen vessel aging of asphalts; evaluation of aging characteristics of asphalts by using tfot and rtfot at different temperature levels; summary of asphalt additive performance at selected sites; relating asphalt absorption to properties of asphalt cement and aggregate; study of the effectiveness of styrene-butadiene rubber latex in hot mix asphalt mixes; stability of straight and polymer-modified asphalts.

  17. Different responses of soil respiration and its components to nitrogen addition among biomes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyan; Zhou, Xuhui; Zhang, Baocheng; Lu, Meng; Luo, Yiqi; Liu, Lingli; Li, Bo

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen (N) deposition by threefold to fivefold over the last century, which may considerably affect soil respiration (Rs). Although numerous individual studies and a few meta-analyses have been conducted, it remains controversial as to how N addition affects Rs and its components [i.e., autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh)]. To reconcile the difference, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 295 published studies to examine the responses of Rs and its components to N addition in terrestrial ecosystems. We also assessed variations in their responses in relation to ecosystem types, environmental conditions, and experimental duration (DUR). Our results show that N addition significantly increased Rs by 2.0% across all biomes but decreased by 1.44% in forests and increased by 7.84% and 12.4% in grasslands and croplands, respectively (P < 0.05). The differences may largely result from diverse responses of Ra to N addition among biomes with more stimulation of Ra in croplands and grasslands compared with no significant change in forests. Rh exhibited a similar negative response to N addition among biomes except that in croplands, tropical and boreal forests. Methods of partitioning Rs did not induce significant differences in the responses of Ra or Rh to N addition, except that Ra from root exclusion and component integration methods exhibited the opposite responses in temperate forests. The response ratios (RR) of Rs to N addition were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), with being more significant when MAT was less than 15 °C, but negatively with DUR. In addition, the responses of Rs and its components to N addition largely resulted from the changes in root and microbial biomass and soil C content as indicated by correlation analysis. The response patterns of Rs to N addition as revealed in this study can be benchmarks for future modeling and experimental studies. PMID:24323545

  18. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  19. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  20. Where boosted significances come from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

  1. Predicting Significant Reductions in Instructional Expenditures by School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Patrick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses survival analysis to investigate the symptoms of fiscal distress that can lead to significant reductions in instructional expenditures by independent public school districts in the United States. We hypothesize that the likelihood of significant reductions in instructional expenditures is positively correlated with revenue…

  2. Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fulei

    The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students' professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

  3. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development. PMID:27139354

  4. Correlation monitor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    This task has been established with the explicit purpose of ensuring the continued availability of the pedigreed and extremely well-characterized material now required for inclusion in all additional and future surveillance capsules in commercial light-water reactors. During this reporting period, concrete was poured and pallets storage racks were installed to provide adequate room for the storage of the correlation monitor material being transferred from its location at the Y-12 Plant to its archival storage location at ORNL. The racks came from surplus material storage at ORNL and hence were obtained at no cost to the HSSI Program. Inquiries into cost-effective means of sheltering the blocks of correlation monitor materials from further weather-related deteriorization were initiated. The most likely approach would be to procure a turn-key sheet metal building installed over the storage racks by an outside contractor to minimize costs. Most of the material has now been transferred from Y-12 to the ORNL storage area. It has been repositioned on new storage pallets and placed into the storage racks, An update of the detailed material inventory was initiated to ascertain the revised location of all blocks. Pieces of HSST plate O3 were distributed to participants in the ASTM cross-comparison exercise on subsize specimen testing technology. The use of the HSST O3 will provide for data from the many varieties of tests to be performed to be compared with the standardized data previously developed. The testing techniques will focus on ways to measure transition temperature and fracture toughness.

  5. Clinical significance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The concept of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process where cells change their epithelial towards a mesenchymal phenotype, has gained overwhelming attention especially in the cancer research community. Thousands of scientific reports investigated changes in gene, mRNA and protein expression compatible with EMT and their possible correlation with tumor invasion, metastatic spread or patient prognosis; however, up to now, a proof of clinical significance of the concept is still missing. This review, with a main focus on the role of EMT in tumors, will summarize the basic molecular events underlying EMT including the signaling pathways capable of its induction as well as changes in EMT-associated protein expression and will very briefly touch the role of microRNAs in EMT. We then outline protein markers that are used most frequently for the assessment of EMT in research and diagnostic evaluation of tumor specimens and depict the link between EMT, a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype and resistance to conventional antineoplastic therapies. Furthermore, we evaluate a possible correlation between EMT marker expression and patient prognosis as well as current therapeutic concepts targeting the EMT process to slow down or prevent metastatic spread of malignant tumors. PMID:25050175

  6. Subchorionic hemorrhage: sonographic diagnosis and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Abu-Yousef, M M; Bleicher, J J; Williamson, R A; Weiner, C P

    1987-10-01

    Twenty-one pregnancies with sonographic evidence of subchorionic hemorrhage were evaluated clinically and sonographically. Clinical evaluation included maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age, presence of pain, presence and amount of bleeding, and pregnancy outcome. Sonographic evaluation included the relative and absolute size of the hematoma, its echogenicity and location in relation to the placenta, the presence of marginal placental abruption, and progress on follow-up examinations. The outcome of these pregnancies was unfavorable in 15 cases (71%) and correlated well with the relative and absolute size of the hematoma, severity of vaginal bleeding, change in hematoma size on follow-up examination, and presence of pain. There was no significant correlation between the outcome and the echogenicity of the hematoma, presence of placental margin elevation, gestational and maternal age, gravidity, or parity. All hematomas extended to the margin of the placenta. Subchorionic hemorrhage is a frequent cause of first and second trimester bleeding and has a grave prognosis. Familiarity with the varied sonographic appearances and meticulous sonographic examination with special attention to the placental margins can be helpful in the diagnosis. PMID:3307354

  7. Uses and Misuses of the Correlation Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Daniel, Larry G.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth critical analysis of the use and misuse of correlation coefficients. Various analytical and interpretational misconceptions are reviewed, beginning with the egregious assumption that correlational statistics may be useful in inferring causality. Additional misconceptions, stemming from…

  8. Significance testing testate amoeba water table reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Richard J.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; van Bellen, Simon; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Booth, Robert K.; Charman, Dan J.; Ellershaw, Megan R.; Gilbert, Daniel; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Lamentowicz, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Malysheva, Elena A.; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Mazei, Yuri; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Turner, T. Edward; Telford, Richard J.

    2016-04-01

    Transfer functions are valuable tools in palaeoecology, but their output may not always be meaningful. A recently-developed statistical test ('randomTF') offers the potential to distinguish among reconstructions which are more likely to be useful, and those less so. We applied this test to a large number of reconstructions of peatland water table depth based on testate amoebae. Contrary to our expectations, a substantial majority (25 of 30) of these reconstructions gave non-significant results (P > 0.05). The underlying reasons for this outcome are unclear. We found no significant correlation between randomTF P-value and transfer function performance, the properties of the training set and reconstruction, or measures of transfer function fit. These results give cause for concern but we believe it would be extremely premature to discount the results of non-significant reconstructions. We stress the need for more critical assessment of transfer function output, replication of results and ecologically-informed interpretation of palaeoecological data.

  9. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. PMID:23956227

  10. Significance of placental pathology in transplacental haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Banti; Jennison, R. F.; Langley, F. A.

    1968-01-01

    Placentae were examined from 120 women whose pregnancy and delivery was normal, from 264 women whose pregnancy or delivery was complicated, and from 98 women who were Rh-negative without antibodies and 35 women Rh-negative with antibodies. The presence of Kline's haemorrhages, intervillous thrombi, infarcts, and retroplacental haemorrhages was positively correlated with the presence of foetal cells in the maternal circulation. When there were no maternal antibodies transplacental haemorrhages occurred occasionally in the absence of such placental lesions but more frequently when these lesions were present. Moreover, the greater the number of lesions in a placenta the greater the size of the transplacental haemorrhage. In Rh-negative women with antibodies the observed incidence of transplacental haemorrhage was significantly less despite an appreciable increase in placental lesions. Images PMID:4972435

  11. Spherical disharmonics in the Earth sciences and the spatial solution: Ridges, hotspots, slabs, geochemistry and tomography correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Anderson, Don L.

    1994-01-01

    There is increasing use of statistical correlations between geophysical fields and between geochemical and geophysical fields in attempts to understand how the Earth works. Typically, such correlations have been based on spherical harmonic expansions. The expression of functions on the sphere as spherical harmonic series has many pitfalls, especially if the data are nonuniformly and/or sparsely sampled. Many of the difficulties involved in the use of spherical harmonic expansion techniques can be avoided through the use of spatial domain correlations, but this introduces other complications, such as the choice of a sampling lattice. Additionally, many geophysical and geochemical fields fail to satisfy the assumptions of standard statistical significance tests. This is especially problematic when the data values to be correlated with a geophysical field were collected at sample locations which themselves correlate with that field. This paper examines many correlations which have been claimed in the past between geochemistry and mantle tomography and between hotspot, ridge, and slab locations and tomography using both spherical harmonic coefficient correlations and spatial domain correlations. No conclusively significant correlations are found between isotopic geochemistry and mantle tomography. The Crough and Jurdy (short) hotspot location list shows statistically significant correlation with lowermost mantle tomography for degree 2 of the spherical harmonic expansion, but there are no statistically significant correlations in the spatial case. The Vogt (long) hotspot location list does not correlate with tomography anywhere in the mantle using either technique. Both hotspot lists show a strong correlation between hotspot locations and geoid highs when spatially correlated, but no correlations are revealed by spherical harmonic techniques. Ridge locations do not show any statistically significant correlations with tomography, slab locations, or the geoid; the

  12. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  13. Yawning and its physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  14. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

  15. The functional significance of stereopsis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anna R; Birch, Eileen E; Anderson, Susan; Draper, Hayley

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Development or restoration of binocular vision is one of the key goals of strabismus management; however, the functional impact of stereoacuity has largely been neglected. Methods. Subjects aged 10 to 30 years with normal, reduced, or nil stereoacuity performed three tasks: Purdue pegboard (measured how many pegs placed in 30 seconds), bead threading (with two sizes of bead, to increase the difficulty; measured time taken to thread a number of beads), and water pouring (measured both accuracy and time). All tests were undertaken both with and without occlusion of one eye. Results. One hundred forty-three subjects were recruited, 32.9% (n = 47) with a manifest deviation. Performances on the pegboard and bead tasks were significantly worse in the nil stereoacuity group when compared with that of the normal stereoacuity group. On the large and small bead tasks, those with reduced stereoacuity were better than those with nil stereoacuity (when the Preschool Randot Stereoacuity Test [Stereo Optical Co, Inc., Chicago, IL] results were used to determine stereoacuity levels). Comparison of the short-term monocular conditions (those with normal stereoacuity but occluded) with nil stereoacuity showed that, on all measures, the performance was best in the nil stereoacuity group and was statistically significant for the large and small beads task, irrespective of which test result was used to define the stereoacuity levels. Conclusions. Performance on motor skills tasks was related to stereoacuity, with subjects with normal stereoacuity performing best on all tests. This quantifiable degradation in performance on some motor skill tasks supports the need to implement management strategies to maximize development of high-grade stereoacuity. PMID:19933184

  16. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  17. Expression and clinical significance of Nectin-4 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Sheng, ZhiYong; Lv, Yang; Liu, WenBin; Yao, QiYang; Pan, TingTing; Xu, ZhiJun; Zhang, ChuanHai; Xu, GeLiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nectin-4 is a member of the Nectin family of four Ca+-independent immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules and implicated in cell adhesion, movement, proliferation, differentiation, polarization, and survival. The aberrant expression of Nectin-4 has been found in a variety of tumors; however, its expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still poorly understood. This study was to investigate the expression of Nectin-4 and its clinical significance in the patients with HCC. Methods The expression of Nectin-4 was assessed at mRNA and protein levels by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting assays in 20 HCC specimens and adjacent non-tumor live tissues. Furthermore, the clinical significance of Nectin-4 in 87 cases of HCC was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results The mRNA and protein levels of Nectin-4 were higher in HCC tumor tissues than in the matched non-tumor tissues. Nectin-4 was located in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and over-expressed in 67.82% (59/87) HCC tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Positive Nectin-4 expression was significantly correlated with tumor size (P=0.029), status of metastasis (P=0.023), vascular invasion (P=0.018) and tumor-node-metastasis stage (P=0.003). In addition, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis indicated that positive Nectin-4 expression was associated with worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.006 and P=0.005, respectively). In multivariate analysis, Nectin-4 was an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS in the patients with HCC. Conclusion Nectin-4 is upregulated in HCC and may be a novel prognostic biomarker for the patients after surgical resection. PMID:26793002

  18. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  19. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  20. Codes with special correlation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.

    1964-01-01

    Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets

  1. What is the significance of interictal water diffusion changes in frontal lobe epilepsies?

    PubMed

    Guye, M; Ranjeva, J P; Bartolomei, F; Confort-Gouny, S; McGonigal, A; Régis, J; Chauvel, P; Cozzone, P J

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the significance of interictal changes in water molecule diffusivity defined by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), as well as to test the accuracy of interictal DWI in the definition of the epileptogenic zone (EZ). DWI was carried out in 14 patients with refractory FLE (9 negative-MRI) as well as in 25 controls. Statistical mapping analysis (SPM2) of diffusivity maps was used to detect, for each subject, significant diffusivity alterations. We then studied the relationships between diffusion and depth recorded electrical abnormalities. Clinical correlates of the extent of diffusivity changes were also tested. We found areas of significantly increased diffusivity (SID) in 13 patients. Eight had SID in the EZ, 9 within the irritative zone (IZ) and 12 outside, mainly in connected areas. We found a correlation between the extent of SID and the duration of epilepsy (p corrected=0.026, R=0.621). In addition, SID was significantly less widespread in negative-MRI patients (p=0.028). However, we found no significant differences concerning either seizure frequency (p=0.302), seizure generalization (p=0.841), history of status (p=0.396), or surgical outcome (p=0.606). We suggest that SID in normal appearing areas is not a specific signature of epileptogenicity in FLE, and is more likely to reflect multifactorial and potentially evolving neuro-glial injuries. PMID:17239624

  2. The exchange-correlation effects on surface plasmon oscillations in semi-bounded quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shahmansouri, Mehran

    2015-09-15

    We studied the surface plasmon waves in a quantum plasma half-space by considering the effects of exchange and correlation for the electrons. We used a quantum hydrodynamic approach, including the full set of Maxwell equations and considering two new quantities (measuring the exchange and correlation effects) in addition to the Fermi electron temperature and the quantum Bohm potential, to derive the dispersion relation for the surface plasmon waves. It was found that the exchange-correlation effects significantly modified the behavior of surface plasmon waves. We showed that the frequency of surface plasmon wave was down-shifted by the exchange-correlation effects. On the other hand, the quantum effects (including of the exchange-correlation effects and the quantum Bohm potential) was seen to cause an increase in the phase speed of surface plasmon waves. Our results can help to understand the propagation properties of surface waves in intense laser produced solid density plasmas and metallic plasmas.

  3. IAA Correlator Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkis, Igor; Ken, Voitsekh; Melnikov, Alexey; Mishin, Vladimir; Sokolova, Nadezda; Shantyr, Violet; Zimovsky, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The activities of the six-station IAA RAS correlator include regular processing of national geodetic VLBI programs Ru-E, Ru-U, and Ru-F. The Ru-U sessions have been transferred in e-VLBI mode and correlated in the IAA Correlator Center automatically since 2011. The DiFX software correlator is used at the IAA in some astrophysical experiments.

  4. Correlation in business networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souma, Wataru; Aoyama, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Kaizoji, Taisei

    2006-10-01

    This paper considers business networks. Through empirical study, we show that business networks display characteristics of small-world networks and scale-free networks. In this paper, we characterize firms as sales and bankruptcy probabilities. A correlation between sales and a correlation between bankruptcy probabilities in business networks are also considered. The results reveal that the correlation between sales depends strongly on the type of network, whereas the correlation between bankruptcy probabilities does so only weakly.

  5. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  6. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement. PMID:26357049

  7. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  8. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  9. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  10. [The significance of antiphospholipid antibodies].

    PubMed

    Fojtík, Z

    2004-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) present very heterogeneous groups of antibodies which can significantly influence processes on different levels of coagulation cascade depending on effects of phospholipid surfaces on blood coagulation. This usually leads to a particular level of thrombophylia. Clinical syndrome accompanying positive APLA, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, was defined by clinical and laboratory symptoms. This clinical syndrome can be a primary syndrome, if other disorders with ability to induce generation of antibodies can be excluded, or a secondary syndrome. The most often in cases of systemic tissue disease. APLA can be divided according to the presence of lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. According to a definition lupus anticoagulants are antibodies able to inhibit and prolong in vitro one or more blood clotting processes dependent on phospholipid surfaces. Anticardiolipin antibodies are antibodies measured by ELISA method with cardiolipin used as an antibody. Findings show that some APLA are directed against proteins bound to phospholipid surfaces. Main cofactor proteins include beta 2-GPI and prothrombin. Because of their heterogeneous specificity, APLA are directed against negative phospholipids or proteins bound to phospholipid surfaces and have important pathophysiology role in development of antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:15214303

  11. Petascale cross correlation in software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsdell, Benjamin R.; Clark, M. A.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2014-04-01

    The exascale computational demands of back-end processing in the era of the SKA and HERA, headlined by the needs of cross-correlation, are likely to require solutions that differ significantly from traditional approaches on smaller arrays. The rapid growth of massively-parallel general-purpose computing hardware presents an alternative to ASIC- or FPGA-based designs and promises several advantages. In this talk we present strong scaling results for an FX correlator that runs entirely in software on GPU-based off-the-shelf HPC clusters.

  12. Recirculating cross-correlation detector

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

    1985-01-18

    A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

  13. What Is Strong Correlation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    Interpretation of correlation is often based on rules of thumb in which some boundary values are given to help decide whether correlation is non-important, weak, strong or very strong. This article shows that such rules of thumb may do more harm than good, and instead of supporting interpretation of correlation--which is their aim--they teach a…

  14. Reverse Correlation in Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringach, Dario; Shapley, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a review of reverse correlation in neurophysiology. We discuss the basis of reverse correlation in linear transducers and in spiking neurons. The application of reverse correlation to measure the receptive fields of visual neurons using white noise and m-sequences, and classical findings about spatial and color processing in…

  15. Constrained Canonical Correlation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSarbo, Wayne S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A variety of problems associated with the interpretation of traditional canonical correlation are discussed. A response surface approach is developed which allows for investigation of changes in the coefficients while maintaining an optimum canonical correlation value. Also, a discrete or constrained canonical correlation method is presented. (JKS)

  16. VLBI Correlators in Kashima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) is making use of two kinds of software correlators, the multi-channel K5/VSSP software correlator and the fast wide-band correlator 'GICO3,' for geodetic and R&D VLBI experiments. Overview of the activity and future plans are described in this paper.

  17. Development of additional tasks for the executive function performance test.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Bridget; Baum, Carolyn; Moore, Jennifer; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Spoeri, Susan; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) is a reliable and valid performance-based assessment of executive function for people with stroke. The objective of this study was to enhance the clinical utility of the EFPT by developing and testing additional tasks for the EFPT in the Alternate EFPT (aEFPT). METHOD. We performed a cross-sectional study with poststroke participants (n = 25) and healthy control participants (n = 25). All participants completed a neuropsychological assessment battery and both the EFPT and the aEFPT. RESULTS. No statistically significant differences were found between the EFPT and the aEFPT when examining total scores, construct scores, and two overall task scores. Correlations between the aEFPT and the neuropsychological measures were adequate to strong (r2s = .59-.83). CONCLUSION. The aEFPT tasks are comparable to the original EFPT tasks, providing occupational therapy practitioners with additional tasks that can be used clinically to identify performance-based executive function deficits in people with stroke. PMID:25397771

  18. Control of Microthrix parvicella by aluminium salts addition.

    PubMed

    Durban, N; Juzan, L; Krier, J; Gillot, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and iron chloride were added to a biological nutrient removal pilot plant (1,500 population equivalent) treating urban wastewater to investigate the control of Microthrix parvicella bulking and foaming by metallic salts. Monitoring plant performance over two 6-month periods showed a slight impact on the removal efficiencies. Addition of metallic salts (Me; aluminium or aluminium + iron) at a concentration of 41 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) (MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids) over 70 days allowed a stabilization of the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), whereas higher dosages (94 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 35 days or 137 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 14 days induced a significant improvement of the settling conditions. Microscopic observations showed a compaction of biological aggregates with an embedding of filamentous bacteria into the flocs that is not specific to M. parvicella as bacteria from phylum Chloroflexi are embedded too. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting M. parvicella further indicated a possible growth limitation in addition to the flocculation impact at the high dosages of metallic salts investigated. DSVI appeared to be correlated with the relative abundance of M. parvicella. PMID:26819398

  19. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  20. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions. PMID:27446159

  1. Quantifying meta-correlations in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Preis, Tobias; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2012-08-01

    Financial markets are modular multi-level systems, in which the relationships between the individual components are not constant in time. Sudden changes in these relationships significantly affect the stability of the entire system, and vice versa. Our analysis is based on historical daily closing prices of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) from March 15th, 1939 until December 31st, 2010. We quantify the correlation among these components by determining Pearson correlation coefficients, to investigate whether mean correlation of the entire portfolio can be used as a precursor for changes in the index return. To this end, we quantify the meta-correlation - the correlation of mean correlation and index return. We find that changes in index returns are significantly correlated with changes in mean correlation. Furthermore, we study the relationship between the index return and correlation volatility - the standard deviation of correlations for a given time interval. This parameter provides further evidence of the effect of the index on market correlations and their fluctuations. Our empirical findings provide new information and quantification of the index leverage effect, and have implications to risk management, portfolio optimization, and to the increased stability of financial markets.

  2. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  3. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  4. Correlations in Werner States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shun-Long; Li, Nan

    2008-02-01

    Werner states are paradigmatic examples of quantum states and play an innovative role in quantum information theory. In investigating the correlating capability of Werner states, we find the curious phenomenon that quantum correlations, as quantified by the entanglement of formation, may exceed the total correlations, as measured by the quantum mutual information. Consequently, though the entanglement of formation is so widely used in quantifying entanglement, it cannot be interpreted as a consistent measure of quantum correlations per se if we accept the folklore that total correlations are measured (or rather upper bounded) by the quantum mutual information.

  5. Complementarity and Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Lorenzo; Bruß, Dagmar; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    We provide an interpretation of entanglement based on classical correlations between measurement outcomes of complementary properties: States that have correlations beyond a certain threshold are entangled. The reverse is not true, however. We also show that, surprisingly, all separable nonclassical states exhibit smaller correlations for complementary observables than some strictly classical states. We use mutual information as a measure of classical correlations, but we conjecture that the first result holds also for other measures (e.g., the Pearson correlation coefficient or the sum of conditional probabilities).

  6. Complementarity and correlations.

    PubMed

    Maccone, Lorenzo; Bruß, Dagmar; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    We provide an interpretation of entanglement based on classical correlations between measurement outcomes of complementary properties: States that have correlations beyond a certain threshold are entangled. The reverse is not true, however. We also show that, surprisingly, all separable nonclassical states exhibit smaller correlations for complementary observables than some strictly classical states. We use mutual information as a measure of classical correlations, but we conjecture that the first result holds also for other measures (e.g., the Pearson correlation coefficient or the sum of conditional probabilities). PMID:25884117

  7. Correlations between MRI and Information Processing Speed in MS: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, S. M.; Martin, A. L.; Huelin, R.; Wissinger, E.; Khankhel, Z.; Kim, E.; Fahrbach, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine relationships between conventional MRI measures and the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) and symbol digit modalities test (SDMT). Methods. A systematic literature review was conducted. Included studies had ≥30 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, administered the SDMT or PASAT, and measured T2LV or brain atrophy. Meta-analysis of MRI/information processing speed (IPS) correlations, analysis of MRI/IPS significance tests to account for reporting bias, and binomial testing to detect trends when comparing correlation strengths of SDMT versus PASAT and T2LV versus atrophy were conducted. Results. The 39 studies identified frequently reported only significant correlations, suggesting reporting bias. Direct meta-analysis was only feasible for correlations between SDMT and T2LV (r = −0.45, P < 0.001) and atrophy in patients with mixed-MS subtypes (r = −0.54, P < 0.001). Familywise Holm-Bonferroni testing found that selective reporting was not the source of at least half of significant results reported. Binomial tests (P = 0.006) favored SDMT over PASAT in strength of MRI correlations. Conclusions. A moderate-to-strong correlation exists between impaired IPS and MRI in mixed MS populations. Correlations with MRI were stronger for SDMT than for PASAT. Neither heterogeneity among populations nor reporting bias appeared to be responsible for these findings. PMID:24795824

  8. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  10. Biometric verification with correlation filters.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Kumar, B V K; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2004-01-10

    Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive candidates for the matching precision needed in biometric verification. In particular, advanced correlation filters, such as synthetic discriminant function filters, can offer very good matching performance in the presence of variability in these biometric images (e.g., facial expressions, illumination changes, etc.). We investigate the performance of advanced correlation filters for face, fingerprint, and iris biometric verification. PMID:14735958

  11. Biometric verification with correlation filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2004-01-01

    Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive candidates for the matching precision needed in biometric verification. In particular, advanced correlation filters, such as synthetic discriminant function filters, can offer very good matching performance in the presence of variability in these biometric images (e.g., facial expressions, illumination changes, etc.). We investigate the performance of advanced correlation filters for face, fingerprint, and iris biometric verification.

  12. Sequence correlations shape protein promiscuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukatsky, David B.; Afek, Ariel; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2011-08-01

    We predict analytically that diagonal correlations of amino acid positions within protein sequences statistically enhance protein propensity for nonspecific binding. We use the term "promiscuity" to describe such nonspecific binding. Diagonal correlations represent statistically significant repeats of sequence patterns where amino acids of the same type are clustered together. The predicted effect is qualitatively robust with respect to the form of the microscopic interaction potentials and the average amino acid composition. Our analytical results provide an explanation for the enhanced diagonal correlations observed in hubs of eukaryotic organismal proteomes [J. Mol. Biol. 409, 439 (2011)], 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.03.056. We suggest experiments that will allow direct testing of the predicted effect.

  13. Parent-Offspring Correlations in Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, David; Caille, Agnès; Borys, Jean-Michel; Lommez, Agnès; Couet, Charles; Charles, Marie-Aline; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is a major component of a healthy lifestyle in youth and adults. To identify determinants of this complex behavior is an important research objective in the process of designing interventions to promote physical activity at population level. In addition to individual determinants, there is evidence documenting familial influences on physical activity. However, the few studies that have addressed this issue with objective measures did not provide data on parent-offspring physical activity relationships throughout childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to assess familial correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity. Methods We measured ambulatory activity in 286 French nuclear families (283 mothers, 237 fathers, and 631 children aged 8–18 years) by pedometer recordings (Yamax Digiwalker DW 450) over a week. Correlations were computed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for spouse pairs, siblings, mother-offspring, and father-offspring. Data were expressed as steps per day and computed both for the full recording period and separately for weekdays and weekends. Results The correlations were the highest between siblings (r = 0.28, 95%CI: 0.17–0.38). Parent–offspring correlations were significant in mothers (r = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.12–0.30), especially between mothers and daughters (r = 0.24, 95%CI: 0.12–0.36 vs. r = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.05–0.31 for sons), but were almost nonexistent in fathers. Correlations were generally higher on weekend days compared to weekdays. Mother-offspring correlations did not decrease with increasing age of children (r = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.00–0.34 in 8–11-year-olds, r = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.07–0.33 in 12–15-year-olds, and r = 0.25, 95%CI: 0.07–0.39 in ≥16-year-olds). Finally, between-spouse correlations were significant only during weekend days (r = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.01–0.27). Conclusion Ambulatory activity correlated within families, with a

  14. Correlating Fast Fluence to dpa in Atypical Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Thomas H.

    2016-02-01

    Damage to a nuclear reactor's materials by high-energy neutrons causes changes in the ductility and fracture toughness of the materials. The reactor vessel and its associated piping's ability to withstand stress without brittle fracture are paramount to safety. Theoretically, the material damage is directly related to the displacements per atom (dpa) via the residual defects from induced displacements. However in practice, the material damage is based on a correlation to the high-energy (E > 1.0 MeV) neutron fluence. While the correlated approach is applicable when the material in question has experienced the same neutron spectrum as test specimens which were the basis of the correlation, this approach is not generically acceptable. Using Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes, the energy dependent neutron flux is determined throughout the reactor structures and the reactor vessel. Results from the models provide the dpa response in addition to the high-energy neutron flux. Ratios of dpa to fast fluence are calculated throughout the models. The comparisons show a constant ratio in the areas of historical concern and thus the validity of the correlated approach to these areas. In regions above and below the fuel however, the flux spectrum has changed significantly. The correlated relationship of material damage to fluence is not valid in these regions without adjustment. An adjustment mechanism is proposed.

  15. Core-core and core-valence correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of (1s) core correlation on properties and energy separations was analyzed using full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations. The Be 1 S - 1 P, the C 3 P - 5 S and CH+ 1 Sigma + or - 1 Pi separations, and CH+ spectroscopic constants, dipole moment and 1 Sigma + - 1 Pi transition dipole moment were studied. The results of the FCI calculations are compared to those obtained using approximate methods. In addition, the generation of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as a method for contracting a primitive basis set for both valence and core correlation, is discussed. When both core-core and core-valence correlation are included in the calculation, no suitable truncated CI approach consistently reproduces the FCI, and contraction of the basis set is very difficult. If the (nearly constant) core-core correlation is eliminated, and only the core-valence correlation is included, CASSCF/MRCI approached reproduce the FCI results and basis set contraction is significantly easier.

  16. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  17. 7 CFR 1469.4 - Significant resource concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1469.4 Significant resource concerns. (a) Soil quality and water quality are nationally significant resource concerns for all land uses. (b) For each sign-up, the Chief may determine additional... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Significant resource concerns. 1469.4 Section...

  18. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. [Significance of zinc and sarcopenia in patients undergoing surgery].

    PubMed

    Kaido, Toshimi; Tamai, Yumiko; Uemoto, Shinji

    2016-07-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by muscle mass depletion and decrease in muscle power or physical activity. We evaluated significance of sarcopenia in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Patients with low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) had significantly worse survival compared with patients with normal/high SMM (p < 0.001). Correlations of preoperative zinc with prealbumin and branched-chain amino acids were significantly positive. While, correlations of zinc with tyrosine and ammonia levels were significantly negative. The low pre-transplant zinc level steeply dropped for 2/3 days after LDLT and subsequently increased back to reach the pre-transplant level around the postoperative day 5, and continued to increase until normalized during 2 weeks. Perioperative nutritional therapy including zinc supplement significantly increased survival in patients with low SMM (p = 0.009). PMID:27455815

  20. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  1. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  2. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  3. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  4. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  5. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  6. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  8. Laboratory testing in monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS).

    PubMed

    Leung, Nelson; Barnidge, David R; Hutchison, Colin A

    2016-06-01

    Recently, monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) reclassified all monoclonal (M) gammopathies that are associated with the development of a kidney disease but do not meet the definition of symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) or malignant lymphoma. The purpose was to distinguish the M gammopathy as the nephrotoxic agent independent from the clonal mass. The diagnosis of MGRS obviously depends on the detection of the M-protein. More importantly, the success of treatment is correlated with the reduction of the M-protein. Therefore, familiarity with the M-protein tests is a must. Protein electrophoresis performed in serum or urine is inexpensive and rapid due to automation. However, poor sensitivity especially with the urine is an issue particularly with the low-level M gammopathy often encountered with MGRS. Immunofixation adds to the sensitivity and specificity but also the cost. Serum free light chain (sFLC) assays have significantly increased the sensitivity of M-protein detection and is relatively inexpensive. It is important to recognize that there is more than one assay on the market and their results are not interchangeable. In addition, in certain diseases, immunofixation is more sensitive than sFLC. Finally, novel techniques with promising results are adding to the ability to identify M-proteins. Using the time of flight method, the use of mass spectrometry of serum samples has been shown to dramatically increase the sensitivity of M-protein detection. In another technique, oligomeric LCs are identified on urinary exosomes amplifying the specificity for the nephrotoxic M-protein. PMID:27107835

  9. Significant predictors of patients' uncertainty in primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Chien, Lung-Chang; Acquaye, Alvina A; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-05-01

    Patients with primary brain tumors (PBT) face uncertainty related to prognosis, symptoms and treatment response and toxicity. Uncertainty is correlated to negative mood states and symptom severity and interference. This study identified predictors of uncertainty during different treatment stages (newly-diagnosed, on treatment, followed-up without active treatment). One hundred eighty six patients with PBT were accrued at various points in the illness trajectory. Data collection tools included: a clinical checklist/a demographic data sheet/the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale-Brain Tumor Form. The structured additive regression model was used to identify significant demographic and clinical predictors of illness-related uncertainty. Participants were primarily white (80 %) males (53 %). They ranged in age from 19-80 (mean = 44.2 ± 12.6). Thirty-two of the 186 patients were newly-diagnosed, 64 were on treatment at the time of clinical visit with MRI evaluation, 21 were without MRI, and 69 were not on active treatment. Three subscales (ambiguity/inconsistency; unpredictability-disease prognoses; unpredictability-symptoms and other triggers) were different amongst the treatment groups (P < .01). However, patients' uncertainty during active treatment was as high as in newly-diagnosed period. Other than treatment stages, change of employment status due to the illness was the most significant predictor of illness-related uncertainty. The illness trajectory of PBT remains ambiguous, complex, and unpredictable, leading to a high incidence of uncertainty. There was variation in the subscales of uncertainty depending on treatment status. Although patients who are newly diagnosed reported the highest scores on most of the subscales, patients on treatment felt more uncertain about unpredictability of symptoms than other groups. Due to the complexity and impact of the disease, associated symptoms, and interference with functional status, comprehensive assessment of patients

  10. Significance of vaspin in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    PAN, ZHE; ZHUANG, XIANGHUA; LI, XIAOBO; HUANG, SHAOYI; ZHANG, LIANG; LOU, FUCHEN; CHEN, SHIHONG; NI, YIHONG

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a commonly-diagnosed chronic sleep disorder. It is considered to be an important independent risk factor in the development of insulin resistance (IR). Patients with OSAHS exhibit a variety of metabolic disorders, including obesity and metabolic syndrome. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin) is an adipokine that is considered to be a link between obesity and IR. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of plasma vaspin in patients with OSAHS and examine their potential correlation with sleep characteristics. A total of 20 healthy male subjects and 42 male patients with OSAHS were selected, and patients were divided into mild (n=22) and severe (n=20) OSAHS groups. The 20 patients in the severe OSAHS group received nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment for 2 months. Venous blood samples were drawn from all patients in a fasting state prior to and subsequent to nCPAP treatment, which were used to measure the levels of biochemical indicators. The sleep parameters and serologic index changes were compared prior to and following treatment. The values of contractive pressure (SBP), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and hip circumference (HC) in the two OSAHS groups were significantly increased compared with those in the control group. In addition, the levels of vaspin in OSAHS patients were markedly increased and vaspin was revealed to be positively associated with fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment-IR, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), NC, WC, BMI and WHR (P<0.05). After 2 months of nCPAP treatment, the SBP and AHI were significantly reduced. In conclusion, vaspin may have an important role in OSAHS patients with IR and treatment using nCPAP may improve the condition of OSAHS patients. PMID:26998001

  11. Evidence for Significantly Enriched Heavy Oxygen in Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, Timothy A.; Kostiuk, T.; Hewagama, T.; Smith, R. L.; Sonnabend, G.; Sornig, M.; Stangier, T.

    2012-10-01

    The loss of primordial atmosphere from Mars should have resulted in significant enrichment of heavy isotopes in Mars carbon dioxide, which has not previously been observed. Atmospheric isotope ratios provide important context in which to interpret the geochemistry of Mars meteorites and future returned samples. Biotic and abiotic isotope-fractionation occur relative to the available chemical reservoirs, enabling a tool to interpret chemical fossils for Mars astrobiology. We report on high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of Mars obtained in October 2007 from the NASA IRTF, targeting the sub-solar latitude in late southern summer. The measured spectra include fully-resolved pressure-broadened absorption features due to cool tropospheric carbon dioxide above the warm surface and an absorption feature that is definitively due to the isotopologue that is singly-substituted with oxygen-18. The ratio of oxygen-18 to the normal isotope can be recovered from fitting the whole spectrum in absorption against the warm surface. The mean value of the retrieved oxygen-18 fraction differs insignificantly from the terrestrial VSMOW standard, consistent with prior in situ and remote-spectroscopy efforts, which found only modest differences from VSMOW. Comparison between the retrieved isotope ratio and the surface temperature reveals that the concentration of isotopically heavy carbon dioxide is correlated with the local surface temperature, suggesting that the heavy gas is preferentially adsorbed by the regolith at low night temperatures and released in warm day temperatures. The minimum retrieved isotope fraction is consistent with the solar wind ratio measured by the Genesis mission, indicating that any accuracy error in the spectroscopic parameters used for the retrieval must have resulted in underestimating heavy-isotope enrichment. The maximum retrieved isotope ratio is significantly enhanced relative to VSMOW and relative to prior retrievals on Mars. We provide additional

  12. Immunohistochemical Expression and Clinical Significance of Suggested Stem Cell Markers in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jong Jin; Noh, Sang Jae; Bae, Jun Sang; Park, Ho Sung; Jang, Kyu Yun; Chung, Myoung Ja; Moon, Woo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence has shown that tumor initiation and growth are nourished by a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor mass. CSCs are posited to be responsible for tumor maintenance, growth, distant metastasis, and relapse after curative operation. We examined the expression of CSC markers in paraffin-embedded tissue sections of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and correlated the results with clinicopathologic characteristics. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for the markers believed to be expressed in the CSCs, including epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), keratin 19 (K19), CD133, and CD56, was performed in 82 HCC specimens. Results: EpCAM expression was observed in 56% of the HCCs (46/82) and K19 in 6% (5/82). EpCAM expression in HCC significantly correlated with elevated α-fetoprotein level, microvessel invasion of tumor cells, and high histologic grade. In addition, EpCAM expression significantly correlated with K19 expression. The overall survival and relapsefree survival rates in patients with EpCAM-expressing HCC were relatively lower than those in patients with EpCAM-negative HCC. All but two of the 82 HCCs were negative for CD133 and CD56, respectively. Conclusions: Our results suggest that HCCs expressing EpCAM are associated with unfavorable prognostic factors and have a more aggressive clinical course than those not expressing EpCAM. Further, the expression of either CD133 or CD56 in paraffin-embedded HCC tissues appears to be rare. PMID:26581206

  13. Nitrogen Addition Regulates Soil Nematode Community Composition through Ammonium Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Cunzheng; Zheng, Huifen; Li, Qi; Lü, Xiaotao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Haiyang; Chen, Quansheng; He, Nianpeng; Kardol, Paul; Liang, Wenju; Han, Xingguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment resulting from anthropogenic activities has greatly changed the composition and functioning of soil communities. Nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse groups of soil organisms, and they occupy key trophic positions in the soil detritus food web. Nematodes have therefore been proposed as useful indicators for shifts in soil ecosystem functioning under N enrichment. Here, we monitored temporal dynamics of the soil nematode community using a multi-level N addition experiment in an Inner Mongolia grassland. Measurements were made three years after the start of the experiment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the mechanisms regulating nematode responses to N enrichment. Across the N enrichment gradient, significant reductions in total nematode abundance, diversity (H' and taxonomic richness), maturity index (MI), and the abundance of root herbivores, fungivores and omnivores-predators were found in August. Root herbivores recovered in September, contributing to the temporal variation of total nematode abundance across the N gradient. Bacterivores showed a hump-shaped relationship with N addition rate, both in August and September. Ammonium concentration was negatively correlated with the abundance of total and herbivorous nematodes in August, but not in September. Ammonium suppression explained 61% of the variation in nematode richness and 43% of the variation in nematode trophic group composition. Ammonium toxicity may occur when herbivorous nematodes feed on root fluid, providing a possible explanation for the negative relationship between herbivorous nematodes and ammonium concentration in August. We found a significantly positive relationship between fungivores and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), suggesting bottom-up control of fungivores. No such relationship was found between bacterivorous nematodes and bacterial PLFA. Our findings contribute to the understanding of effects of N enrichment in

  14. Thermochemical Kinetics for Multireference Systems: Addition Reactions of Ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yan; Tishchenko, Oksana; Gour, Jeffrey R.; Li, Wei; Lutz, Jesse; Piecuch, Piotr; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2009-05-14

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of ozone to ethyne and ethene provide extreme examples of multireference singlet-state chemistry, and they are examined here to test the applicability of several approaches to thermochemical kinetics of systems with large static correlation. Four different multireference diagnostics are applied to measure the multireference characters of the reactants, products, and transition states; all diagnostics indicate significant multireference character in the reactant portion of the potential energy surfaces. We make a more complete estimation of the effect of quadruple excitations than was previously available, and we use this with CCSDT/CBS estimation of Wheeler et al. (Wheeler, S. E.; Ess, D. H.; Houk, K. N. J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 1798.) to make new best estimates of the van der Waals association energy, the barrier height, and the reaction energy to form the cycloadduct for both reactions. Comparing with these best estimates, we present comprehensive mean unsigned errors for a variety of coupled cluster, multilevel, and density functional methods. Several computational aspects of multireference reactions are considered: (i) the applicability of multilevel theory, (ii) the convergence of coupled cluster theory for reaction barrier heights, (iii) the applicability of completely renormalized coupled cluster methods to multireference systems, (iv) the treatment by density functional theory, (v) the multireference perturbation theory for multireference reactions, and (vi) the relative accuracy of scaling-type multilevel methods as compared with additive ones. It is found that scaling-type multilevel methods do not perform better than the additive-type multilevel methods. Among the 48 tested density functionals, only M05 reproduces the best estimates within their uncertainty. Multireference perturbation theory based on the complete-active-space reference wave functions constructed using a small number of reaction-specific active orbitals

  15. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  16. Theoretical and experimental investigation of additive drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibulkin, Merwin

    1954-01-01

    The significance of additive drag is discussed and equations for determining its approximate value are derived for annular and open-nose inlets. Charts are presented giving values of additive drag coefficient over a range of free-stream Mach numbers for open and for annular-nose inlets with conical flow at the inlet. The effects on additive drag of variable inlet-total-pressure recovery and static pressures on the centerbody are investigated and an analytical method of predicting the variation of pressure on the centerbody with mass-flow ratio is given. Experimental additive-drag values are presented for a series of 20 degree and 25 degree cone half-angle inlets and one open-nose inlet operating at free-stream Mach numbers of 1.8 and 1.6. A comparison with the theoretical values of additive drag shows excellent agreement for the open-nose inlet and moderately good agreement for the annular inlets. (author)

  17. Marital Adjustment Correlates in Young Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Samuel D.

    The Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale was administered to 35 Caucasian, Protestant couples who were married an average of nine years, largely middle class, and lived in Knoxville, Tennessee. Significant correlates of marital adjustment were organized into groups of similar variables. Correlate groups that were the same for the husband and…

  18. A SIGNIFICANCE TEST FOR THE LASSO1

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Richard; Taylor, Jonathan; Tibshirani, Ryan J.; Tibshirani, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In the sparse linear regression setting, we consider testing the significance of the predictor variable that enters the current lasso model, in the sequence of models visited along the lasso solution path. We propose a simple test statistic based on lasso fitted values, called the covariance test statistic, and show that when the true model is linear, this statistic has an Exp(1) asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis (the null being that all truly active variables are contained in the current lasso model). Our proof of this result for the special case of the first predictor to enter the model (i.e., testing for a single significant predictor variable against the global null) requires only weak assumptions on the predictor matrix X. On the other hand, our proof for a general step in the lasso path places further technical assumptions on X and the generative model, but still allows for the important high-dimensional case p > n, and does not necessarily require that the current lasso model achieves perfect recovery of the truly active variables. Of course, for testing the significance of an additional variable between two nested linear models, one typically uses the chi-squared test, comparing the drop in residual sum of squares (RSS) to a χ12 distribution. But when this additional variable is not fixed, and has been chosen adaptively or greedily, this test is no longer appropriate: adaptivity makes the drop in RSS stochastically much larger than χ12 under the null hypothesis. Our analysis explicitly accounts for adaptivity, as it must, since the lasso builds an adaptive sequence of linear models as the tuning parameter λ decreases. In this analysis, shrinkage plays a key role: though additional variables are chosen adaptively, the coefficients of lasso active variables are shrunken due to the l1 penalty. Therefore, the test statistic (which is based on lasso fitted values) is in a sense balanced by these two opposing properties—adaptivity and

  19. Biochemical and Histological Correlations of Regeneration After Experimental Liver Damage: Significance of Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    More, I. A. R.

    1973-01-01

    Chromatin was isolated from rat liver after the animal had been subjected to a variety of stimuli calculated to cause liver damage and regeneration. It was found that the regenerating nodule in the cirrhotic rat and the liver regenerating after partial hepatectomy showed similar changes. Both involved an increase in the content of active chromatin, an increased ability to make RNA and the derepression of a relatively small portion of the genome. ImagesFigs. 1-2Figs. 3-4Figs. 5-6 PMID:4726093

  20. The Significance of Gender Boundaries in Preadolescence: Contemporary Correlates and Antecedents of Boundary Violation and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Rated gender boundary violation and maintenance of 47 preadolescents participating in a summer day camp. Found that children who violated gender boundaries tended to be unpopular with peers; and children who maintained boundaries were judged by camp counselors to be more competent socially than children who violated boundaries. (MDM)

  1. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  2. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  3. Resistant multiple sparse canonical correlation.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jacob; Replogle, Joseph; Chandler, Gabriel; Hardin, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a multivariate technique that takes two datasets and forms the most highly correlated possible pairs of linear combinations between them. Each subsequent pair of linear combinations is orthogonal to the preceding pair, meaning that new information is gleaned from each pair. By looking at the magnitude of coefficient values, we can find out which variables can be grouped together, thus better understanding multiple interactions that are otherwise difficult to compute or grasp intuitively. CCA appears to have quite powerful applications to high-throughput data, as we can use it to discover, for example, relationships between gene expression and gene copy number variation. One of the biggest problems of CCA is that the number of variables (often upwards of 10,000) makes biological interpretation of linear combinations nearly impossible. To limit variable output, we have employed a method known as sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA), while adding estimation which is resistant to extreme observations or other types of deviant data. In this paper, we have demonstrated the success of resistant estimation in variable selection using SCCA. Additionally, we have used SCCA to find multiple canonical pairs for extended knowledge about the datasets at hand. Again, using resistant estimators provided more accurate estimates than standard estimators in the multiple canonical correlation setting. R code is available and documented at https://github.com/hardin47/rmscca. PMID:26963062

  4. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  5. Almost quantum correlations.

    PubMed

    Navascués, Miguel; Guryanova, Yelena; Hoban, Matty J; Acín, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Quantum theory is not only successfully tested in laboratories every day but also constitutes a robust theoretical framework: small variations usually lead to implausible consequences, such as faster-than-light communication. It has even been argued that quantum theory may be special among possible theories. Here we report that, at the level of correlations among different systems, quantum theory is not so special. We define a set of correlations, dubbed 'almost quantum', and prove that it strictly contains the set of quantum correlations but satisfies all-but-one of the proposed principles to capture quantum correlations. We present numerical evidence that the remaining principle is satisfied too. PMID:25697645

  6. Local available quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundarain, Douglas F.; de Guevara, María L. Ladrón

    2015-12-01

    In this work, local available quantum correlations are studied. They are defined in terms of mutual information of bipartite local measurements done over an optimal local basis complementary to the local basis which defines the respective classical correlations. For two qubits, it is always possible to choose the basis of classical correlations as the set of eigenvectors of σ _z (the third Pauli matrix) and complementary bases become the sets of eigenvectors of the observables orthogonal to σ _z. It is shown that all states with zero local available quantum correlations are separable but not necessarily strictly classical; this fact puts this kind of correlations in the middle between discord and entanglement. Since in many cases it may suffice to know whether a given state has quantum correlations, the structure of the states with zero local available quantum correlations is presented. It is also shown that there is a close connection between local available quantum correlations and the protocol of entanglement activation developed by Piani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 106:220403, 2011). If a state satisfies the sufficient condition for the entanglement swapping associated with this protocol, this state has nonzero local available quantum correlations.

  7. Generation of biphoton correlation trains through spectral filtering.

    PubMed

    Lukens, Joseph M; Odele, Ogaga; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2014-04-21

    We demonstrate the generation of two-photon correlation trains based on spectral filtering of broadband biphotons. Programmable amplitude filtering is employed to create biphoton frequency combs, which when coupled with optical dispersion allows us to experimentally verify the temporal Talbot effect for entangled photons. Additionally, an alternative spectral phase-filtering approach is shown to significantly improve the overall efficiency of the generation process when a comb-like spectrum is not required. Our technique is ideal for the creation of tunable and high-repetition-rate biphoton states. PMID:24787846

  8. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  9. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  10. Correlates of Student Political Activism and Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Steven H.; Kraut, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Yale freshmen were classified into four ideology groupings and two levels of activism. The absence of significant interactions and the concordance of some correlates of activism and ideology are discussed. (DM)

  11. 9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION OF OUTPATIENT CLINIC ADDITION - U.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 600 South Seventieth Street, Lincoln, Lancaster County, NE

  12. 40 CFR 725.950 - Additional recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.950 Additional recordkeeping requirements. Persons submitting a MCAN for a significant new use of a microorganism must comply with...

  13. 40 CFR 725.950 - Additional recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.950 Additional recordkeeping requirements. Persons submitting a MCAN for a significant new use of a microorganism must comply with...

  14. Correlates of hysterectomy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Santow, G; Bracher, M

    1992-04-01

    With around one in five women undergoing hysterectomy by the age of 50, the prevalence of hysterectomy in Australia is greater than in Europe but less than in the United States. In this paper, data from a nationally representative sample survey of 2547 Australian women aged 20-59 years are employed to identify correlates of hysterectomy and tubal sterilization over the last 30 years. Physiological, socio-economic and supply-side factors all influence the propensity to undergo hysterectomy, and a comparison with the correlates of tubal sterilization reveals parallels and contrasts between the determinants of the two operations. Age and parity are important predictors of hysterectomy. In addition, use of oral contraceptives for at least five years reduces the risk of hysterectomy, as do tubal sterilization, tertiary education and birthplace in Southern Europe. Conversely, risk increases after experiencing side effects with the IUD or repeated foetal losses, or after bearing a third child before the age of 25. PMID:1604382

  15. The clinical significance of marginal fit.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of restoration acceptability includes marginal adaptation, restoration and preservation of anatomic form, color match, cavosurface discoloration, and presence of marginal caries. This paper will review what is known about marginal fit of all materials relative to their acceptable fit. Some explanation will be given of how material properties affect marginal fit, what the expected longevity of different materials is relative to marginal fit, and how marginal fit affects development of secondary or marginal caries. Marginal fit is assumed to affect restoration longevity by either encouraging or discouraging microleakage and development of secondary or marginal caries. Marginal fit and its effect on the health of the gingival tissues have been reviewed in an earlier paper on polishing and will not be reviewed here. Is there some correlation between marginal fit of the various materials used in restorative dentistry and this assumption? This paper will review the literature found on Medline and present the science behind the clinical significance of marginal fit utilizing in vitro studies where necessary and in vivo studies whenever possible. Numerous authors replicating these studies are used to improve reliability and replicability. PMID:22439529

  16. Ultrafast amplifier additive timing jitter characterization and control.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Alexis; D'Acremont, Quentin; Santarelli, Giorgio; Dilhaire, Stefan; Courjaud, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    We report on the characterization and long-term compensation of additive timing jitter introduced by a femtosecond ytterbium regenerative amplifier with a 100 kHz repetition rate. A balanced optical cross-correlation technique is used to generate a jitter error signal. This approach is well suited to characterize the additive timing jitter of Yb amplifiers seeded by narrow spectrum Yb oscillators. The balanced optical cross-correlator is in a noncollinear configuration allowing a background free coindence detection. This setup enables the measurement of additive timing jitter from the amplifier, with a noise floor of 300 as integrated from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The measured additive timing jitter level is about 5 fs, integrated from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz. The amplifier timing drift characterization and control are performed for more than an hour. PMID:26974074

  17. Biochemical correlates of neurosensory changes in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Reschke, Millard F.

    1989-01-01

    The possible existence of a relationship between space motion sickness and chemical and biochemical variables measured in body fluids is studied. Clinical chemistry and endocrine measurements from blood and urine samples taken before and after Space Shuttle flights were analyzed along with the occurrence of SMS during flight and provocative testing before flight. Significant positive correlations were observed with serum chloride and significant negative correlations with serum phosphate, serum uric acid, and plasma thyroid stimulating hormone.

  18. Significance of the disc damage likelihood scale objectively measured by a non-mydriatic fundus camera in preperimetric glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Torun, Necip; Erb, Carl; Bruenner, Jeanette; Maier, Anna Karina B; Gonnermann, Johannes; Bertelmann, Eckart; Klamann, Matthias K J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the correlation between the disc damage likelihood scale (DDLS) objectively measured by a non-mydriatic fundus camera, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3, and optic coherence tomography in preperimetric glaucoma. Methods One-hundred-twenty-five patients with preperimetric primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (n=30) were included (mean age 58.9±15.9 years). All three devices graded the optic disc topography: Diagnosis 1 was defined as “outside normal limits”, while Diagnosis 2 as “borderline or outside normal limits”. Results For Diagnosis 1, a significant correlation was shown between DDLS and Moorfields regression analysis (P=0.022), and for Diagnosis 2 with glaucoma probability score analysis (P=0.024), in POAG. In pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, DDLS did not correlate significantly with Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 and optic coherence tomography. Regarding the area under the curve the highest predictive power was demonstrated by the objective DDLS (0.513–0.824) compared to Burk (0.239–0.343) and Mikelberg (0.093–0.270) coefficients. Conclusions The DDLS showed a significant correlation to the Moorfields regression analysis in preperimetric POAG. The objective DDLS showed the highest predictive power and thus is an additive tool in diagnosing preperimetric glaucoma. PMID:26640365

  19. Neural correlates underlying micrographia in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Jiarong; Hallett, Mark; Feng, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Chan, Piu

    2016-01-01

    Micrographia is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease, which manifests as either a consistent or progressive reduction in the size of handwriting or both. Neural correlates underlying micrographia remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate micrographia-related neural activity and connectivity modulations. In addition, the effect of attention and dopaminergic administration on micrographia was examined. We found that consistent micrographia was associated with decreased activity and connectivity in the basal ganglia motor circuit; while progressive micrographia was related to the dysfunction of basal ganglia motor circuit together with disconnections between the rostral supplementary motor area, rostral cingulate motor area and cerebellum. Attention significantly improved both consistent and progressive micrographia, accompanied by recruitment of anterior putamen and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Levodopa improved consistent micrographia accompanied by increased activity and connectivity in the basal ganglia motor circuit, but had no effect on progressive micrographia. Our findings suggest that consistent micrographia is related to dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor circuit; while dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor circuit and disconnection between the rostral supplementary motor area, rostral cingulate motor area and cerebellum likely contributes to progressive micrographia. Attention improves both types of micrographia by recruiting additional brain networks. Levodopa improves consistent micrographia by restoring the function of the basal ganglia motor circuit, but does not improve progressive micrographia, probably because of failure to repair the disconnected networks. PMID:26525918

  20. RECONSTRUCTING THE SHAPE OF THE CORRELATION FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Huffenberger, K. M.; Galeazzi, M.; Ursino, E.

    2013-06-01

    We develop an estimator for the correlation function which, in the ensemble average, returns the shape of the correlation function, even for signals that have significant correlations on the scale of the survey region. Our estimator is general and works in any number of dimensions. We develop versions of the estimator for both diffuse and discrete signals. As an application, we apply them to Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray background measurements. These include a realistic, spatially inhomogeneous population of spurious detector events. We discuss applying the estimator to the averaging of correlation functions evaluated on several small fields, and to other cosmological applications.

  1. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  2. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  3. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  4. Evidence for spin correlation in t ̅t production.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Aoki, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atkins, S; Atramentov, O; Augsten, K; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-Guerra, G A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jamin, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2012-01-20

    We present a measurement of the ratio of events with correlated t and t ̅t spins to the total number of t ̅t events. This ratio f is evaluated using a matrix-element-based approach in 729 t ̅t candidate events with a single lepton ℓ (electron or muon) and at least four jets. The analyzed p ̅p collisions data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb(-1) and were collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider operating at a center-of-mass energy √s=1.96 TeV. Combining this result with a recent measurement of f in dileptonic final states, we find f in agreement with the standard model. In addition, the combination provides evidence for the presence of spin correlation in t ̅t events with a significance of more than 3 standard deviations. PMID:22400731

  5. Evidence for spin correlation in tt̄ production

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2012-01-19

    We present a measurement of the ratio of events with correlated t and t̄ spins to the total number of tt̄ events. This ratio f is evaluated using a matrix-element-based approach in 729 tt̄ candidate events with a single lepton ℓ (electron or muon) and at least four jets. The analyzed pp̄ collisions data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 and were collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider operating at a center-of-mass energy \\(\\sqrt{s}=1.96\\) TeV. Combining this result with a recent measurement of f in dileptonic final states, we find f in agreement with the standard model. In addition, the combination provides evidence for the presence of spin correlation in tt̄ events with a significance of more than 3 standard deviations.

  6. Correlates of Academic Procrastination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Norman A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated concurrent correlates of academic procrastination in Israeli college preparatory students (n=113). Procrastination in one course of study was found to be moderately correlated with procrastination in another but not to procrastination in routine tasks of daily living. Procrastination was weakly related to emotional upset about it and…

  7. ALMA correlator computer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Jim; Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus

    2004-09-01

    We present a design for the computer systems which control, configure, and monitor the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) correlator and process its output. Two distinct computer systems implement this functionality: a rack- mounted PC controls and monitors the correlator, and a cluster of 17 PCs process the correlator output into raw spectral results. The correlator computer systems interface to other ALMA computers via gigabit Ethernet networks utilizing CORBA and raw socket connections. ALMA Common Software provides the software infrastructure for this distributed computer environment. The control computer interfaces to the correlator via multiple CAN busses and the data processing computer cluster interfaces to the correlator via sixteen dedicated high speed data ports. An independent array-wide hardware timing bus connects to the computer systems and the correlator hardware ensuring synchronous behavior and imposing hard deadlines on the control and data processor computers. An aggregate correlator output of 1 gigabyte per second with 16 millisecond periods and computational data rates of approximately 1 billion floating point operations per second define other hard deadlines for the data processing computer cluster.

  8. Harmonic electron correlation operator.

    PubMed

    Rassolov, Vitaly A

    2011-07-21

    An appealing way to model electron correlation within the single determinant wave function formalism is through the expectation value of a linear two-electron operator. For practical reasons, it is desirable for such an operator to be universal, i.e., not depend on the positions and types of nuclei in a molecule. We show how a perturbation theory applied to a hookium atom provides for a particular form of a correlation operator, hence called the harmonic correlation operator. The correlation operator approach is compared and contrasted to the traditional ways to describe electron correlation. To investigate the two-electron approximation of this operator, we apply it to many-electron hookium systems. To investigate the harmonic approximation, we apply it to the small atomic systems. Directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:21786991

  9. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  10. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  11. Significance of Phi bodies in acute leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Cardullo, L de S; Morilla, R; Catovsky, D

    1981-01-01

    Material from 39 patients with acute leukaemia was investigated with the peroxidase cytochemical reaction using 3,3'diaminobenzidine (DAB) and other substrates in order to test their sensitivity in detecting myeloid differentiation. The proportion of positive blasts and of cases with Auer rods in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) was significantly greater with DAB than with benzidine. In addition, Phi bodies were demonstrated in AML blasts only when DAB was used; Phi bodies were also observed in two out of seven cases of chronic granulocytic leukaemia in "myeloid" blast crisis but were not seen in any case of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Phi bodies were more numerous when the reaction was carried out at pH 9.7, and their number was significantly reduced in the presence of 3-amino 1,2,4-triazole. Both findings suggest that the Phi bodies derive from catalase-containing granules (microperoxisomes) and are distinct from Auer rods, which derive from peroxidase-containing (primary) granules. Like Auer rods, Phi bodies appear to be characteristics of immature myeloid cells in leukaemia but are seen with a higher frequency than Auer rods in acute myeloid leukemia. Images p154-a PMID:6262384

  12. Influence of Polarization on Carbohydrate Hydration: A Comparative Study Using Additive and Polarizable Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Mallajosyula, Sairam S

    2016-07-14

    Carbohydrates are known to closely modulate their surrounding solvent structures and influence solvation dynamics. Spectroscopic investigations studying far-IR regions (below 1000 cm(-1)) have observed spectral shifts in the libration band (around 600 cm(-1)) of water in the presence of monosaccharides and polysaccharides. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics simulations to gain atomistic insight into carbohydrate-water interactions and to specifically highlight the differences between additive (nonpolarizable) and polarizable simulations. A total of six monosaccharide systems, α and β anomers of glucose, galactose, and mannose, were studied using additive and polarizable Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) carbohydrate force fields. Solvents were modeled using three additive water models TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP5P in additive simulations and polarizable water model SWM4 in polarizable simulations. The presence of carbohydrate has a significant effect on the microscopic water structure, with the effects being pronounced for proximal water molecules. Notably, disruption of the tetrahedral arrangement of proximal water molecules was observed due to the formation of strong carbohydrate-water hydrogen bonds in both additive and polarizable simulations. However, the inclusion of polarization resulted in significant water-bridge occupancies, improved ordered water structures (tetrahedral order parameter), and longer carbohydrate-water H-bond correlations as compared to those for additive simulations. Additionally, polarizable simulations also allowed the calculation of power spectra from the dipole-dipole autocorrelation function, which corresponds to the IR spectra. From the power spectra, we could identify spectral signatures differentiating the proximal and bulk water structures, which could not be captured from additive simulations. PMID:27266974

  13. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  14. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  15. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3 -Vaidya background. We gave a prescription for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator ⟨ O (v ,x )O (v ,0 )⟩ , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. We found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlator and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.

  16. Identifying the structure of group correlation in the Korean financial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sanghyun; Choi, Jaewon; Lim, Gyuchang; Cha, Kil Young; Kim, Sooyong; Kim, Kyungsik

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the structure of the cross-correlation in the Korean stock market. We analyze daily cross-correlations between price fluctuations of 586 different Korean stock entities for the 6-year time period from 2003 to 2008. The main purpose is to investigate the structure of group correlation and its stability by undressing the market-wide effect using the Markowitz multi-factor model and the network-based approach. We find the explicit list of significant firms in the few largest eigenvectors from the undressed correlation matrix. We also observe that each contributor is involved in the same business sectors. The structure of group correlation can not remain constant during each 1-year time period with different starting points, whereas only two largest eigenvectors are stable for 6 years 8-9 eigenvectors remain stable for half-year. The structure of group correlation in the Korean financial market is disturbed during a sufficiently short time period even though the group correlation exists as an ensemble for the 6-year time period in the evolution of the system. We verify the structure of group correlation by applying a network-based approach. In addition, we examine relations between market capitalization and businesses. The Korean stock market shows a different behavior compared to mature markets, implying that the KOSPI is a target for short-positioned investors.

  17. Correlated noise in networks of gravitational-wave detectors: Subtraction and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrane, E.; Christensen, N.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Effler, A.

    2014-07-01

    One of the key science goals of advanced gravitational-wave detectors is to observe a stochastic gravitational-wave background. However, recent work demonstrates that correlated magnetic fields from Schumann resonances can produce correlated strain noise over global distances, potentially limiting the sensitivity of stochastic background searches with advanced detectors. In this paper, we estimate the correlated noise budget for the worldwide advanced detector network and conclude that correlated noise may affect upcoming measurements. We investigate the possibility of a Wiener filtering scheme to subtract correlated noise from Advanced LIGO searches, and estimate the required specifications. We also consider the possibility that residual correlated noise remains following subtraction, and we devise an optimal strategy for measuring astronomical parameters in the presence of correlated noise. Using this new formalism, we estimate the loss of sensitivity for a broadband, isotropic stochastic background search using 1 yr of LIGO data at design sensitivity. Given our current noise budget, the uncertainty with which LIGO can estimate energy density will likely increase by a factor of ≈12—if it is impossible to achieve significant subtraction. Additionally, narrow band cross-correlation searches may be severely affected at low frequencies f ≲70 Hz without effective subtraction.

  18. Convergence enhancement of single-pixel PIV with symmetric double correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avallone, Francesco; Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro

    2015-04-01

    A symmetric correlation approach is proposed to improve the convergence of the single-pixel technique for particle image velocimetry (PIV). Nogueira et al. (Exp Fluids 30:309-316, 2001) introduced this method to remove a source of random errors in PIV when small interrogation windows are used; it consists in applying the cross-correlation operator by considering fixed the first exposure and moving the second one, and vice versa, and then calculating the cross-correlation map as the average of the two maps. The symmetric correlation suppresses the effects of truncation of the particles lying on the border of the interrogation windows. In this paper, the application of symmetric correlation to single-pixel PIV algorithms is reported. Since symmetric direct correlation provides a significant improvement in the cross-correlation peak shape with respect to the standard asymmetric single-pixel implementation, a faster convergence in estimating the average velocity components and turbulence statistics is achieved. An additional improvement is due to the possibly limited correlation between the background noise for the two exposures. The algorithm is tested via synthetic images with imposed constant and sinusoidal displacement and then tested with real data of a jet flow. The technique has shown that the same accuracy of the standard asymmetric approach can be achieved with 50 % of the samples and that a reduction in the measurement error by 30 % is obtained when using the same number of samples.

  19. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  20. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder. PMID:3826294

  1. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  2. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  3. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  4. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  5. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  6. Correlation reflectometry at TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Soldatov, S.; Vowinkel, B.; Mueller, P.

    2010-11-15

    In high temperature fusion plasmas the transport of energy and particles is commonly believed to be driven by turbulence. Turbulence quantities as correlation length and decorrelation time are important for the confinement properties of a plasma. Besides other diagnostics, correlation reflectometry has proven to be a suitable tool for the measurement of turbulence properties. At the medium sized Toroidal EXperiment for Technical Oriented Research (TEXTOR) the existing correlation reflectometry has been recently upgraded. A new reflectometer based on a microwave synthesizer has been developed and installed for the investigation of turbulence properties in a fusion plasma. Together with the existing reflectometer the measurement of radial correlation length and decorrelation time becomes available. Both reflectometers are computer controlled and allow to program individual frequency sequences and the duration of each frequency step. With the existing poloidal antenna array at {theta}=0 deg. and on top of the vacuum vessel, the system allows the measurement of radial correlation and poloidal correlations at the same time. First experiments have been performed and the results on the radial correlation length of density fluctuations in a fusion plasma are presented.

  7. Examining the impact of harmonic correlation on vibrational frequencies calculated in localized coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.

    2015-10-28

    Carefully choosing a set of optimized coordinates for performing vibrational frequency calculations can significantly reduce the anharmonic correlation energy from the self-consistent field treatment of molecular vibrations. However, moving away from normal coordinates also introduces an additional source of correlation energy arising from mode-coupling at the harmonic level. The impact of this new component of the vibrational energy is examined for a range of molecules, and a method is proposed for correcting the resulting self-consistent field frequencies by adding the full coupling energy from connected pairs of harmonic and pseudoharmonic modes, termed vibrational self-consistent field (harmonic correlation). This approach is found to lift the vibrational degeneracies arising from coordinate optimization and provides better agreement with experimental and benchmark frequencies than uncorrected vibrational self-consistent field theory without relying on traditional correlated methods.

  8. Correlated genotypes in friendship networks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, James H.; Settle, Jaime E.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that humans tend to associate with other humans who have similar characteristics, but it is unclear whether this tendency has consequences for the distribution of genotypes in a population. Although geneticists have shown that populations tend to stratify genetically, this process results from geographic sorting or assortative mating, and it is unknown whether genotypes may be correlated as a consequence of nonreproductive associations or other processes. Here, we study six available genotypes from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test for genetic similarity between friends. Maps of the friendship networks show clustering of genotypes and, after we apply strict controls for population stratification, the results show that one genotype is positively correlated (homophily) and one genotype is negatively correlated (heterophily). A replication study in an independent sample from the Framingham Heart Study verifies that DRD2 exhibits significant homophily and that CYP2A6 exhibits significant heterophily. These unique results show that homophily and heterophily obtain on a genetic (indeed, an allelic) level, which has implications for the study of population genetics and social behavior. In particular, the results suggest that association tests should include friends’ genes and that theories of evolution should take into account the fact that humans might, in some sense, be metagenomic with respect to the humans around them. PMID:21245293

  9. Enhancer additivity and non-additivity are determined by enhancer strength in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bothma, Jacques P; Garcia, Hernan G; Ng, Samuel; Perry, Michael W; Gregor, Thomas; Levine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan genes are embedded in a rich milieu of regulatory information that often includes multiple enhancers possessing overlapping activities. In this study, we employ quantitative live imaging methods to assess the function of pairs of primary and shadow enhancers in the regulation of key patterning genes-knirps, hunchback, and snail-in developing Drosophila embryos. The knirps enhancers exhibit additive, sometimes even super-additive activities, consistent with classical gene fusion studies. In contrast, the hunchback enhancers function sub-additively in anterior regions containing saturating levels of the Bicoid activator, but function additively in regions where there are diminishing levels of the Bicoid gradient. Strikingly sub-additive behavior is also observed for snail, whereby removal of the proximal enhancer causes a significant increase in gene expression. Quantitative modeling of enhancer–promoter interactions suggests that weakly active enhancers function additively while strong enhancers behave sub-additively due to competition with the target promoter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07956.001 PMID:26267217

  10. Hadronic Correlations and Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Volker

    2008-10-09

    We will provide a review of some of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. We will discuss Lattice QCD results on fluctuations and correlations and will put them into context with observables which have been measured in heavy-ion collisions. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region, and we will discuss how the measurement of fluctuations and correlations can help in an experimental search for non-trivial structures in the QCD phase diagram.

  11. Haystack Observatory VLBI Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, Mike; Cappallo, Roger; Corey, Brian; Dudevoir, Kevin; Niell, Arthur; Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Haystack Correlator during 2012. Highlights include finding a solution to the DiFX InfiniBand timeout problem and other DiFX software development, conducting a DBE comparison test following the First International VLBI Technology Workshop, conducting a Mark IV and DiFX correlator comparison, more broadband delay experiments, more u- VLBI Galactic Center observations, and conversion of RDV session processing to the Mark IV/HOPS path. Non-real-time e-VLBI transfers and engineering support of other correlators continued.

  12. Correlation Plenoptic Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging. PMID:27314718

  13. Entropic Nonsignaling Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Rafael; Budroni, Costantino

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the concept of entropic nonsignaling correlations, i.e., entropies arising from probabilistic theories that are compatible with the fact that we cannot transmit information instantaneously. We characterize and show the relevance of these entropic correlations in a variety of different scenarios, ranging from typical Bell experiments to more refined descriptions such as bilocality and information causality. In particular, we apply the framework to derive the first entropic inequality testing genuine tripartite nonlocality in quantum systems of arbitrary dimension and also prove the first known monogamy relation for entropic Bell inequalities. Further, within the context of complex Bell networks, we show that entropic nonlocal correlations can be activated.

  14. Correlation Plenoptic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V.; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging.

  15. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A.; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M.; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J.; Reilly, Richard B.; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder. PMID:26693398

  16. Correlation of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in the Canine Brain

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dalun; Calabrese, Evan; White, Leonard E; Wei, Peter; Chen, Steven; Platt, Simon R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the degree to which ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters correlate to one another in white matter regions on very high resolution MR scans. Specifically, we hypothesized that radial diffusivity (RD) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) would correlate more closely than either would correlate with fractional anisotropy (FA). We performed post mortem DTI imaging on three canine brains on a 7 T MR scanner (TR = 100 ms, NEX = 1, gradient amplitude = 600 mT/m, b = 1492–1,565 s/mm2) and generated maps of FA, RD, and ADC. We measured RD, FA and ADC within 14 regions of interest representative of various portions of white matter. We compared the three combinations of values, i.e., FA vs ADC, FA vs RD and ADC vs RD, using linear regression models. Linear regression demonstrated that RD was significantly correlated with FA (p << 0.01; R2 = 0.3053) and also with ADC (p << 0.01; R2 = 0.6755), but to a much greater degree. However, ADC was not significantly correlated with FA (p = 0.526; R2 = 0.101). Our findings suggest that both RD and ADC reflect similar cytoarchitectural features, most likely that of myelination, whereas FA values likely reflect both myelination and additional microstructural features that constrain the diffusion of water in white matter. PMID:25924167

  17. Seasonal Patterns of Soil Respiration and Related Soil Biochemical Properties under Nitrogen Addition in Winter Wheat Field

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guopeng; Houssou, Albert A.; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wu, Xueping; Gao, Lili; Li, Jing; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes of soil respiration under increasing N fertilizer in cropland ecosystems is crucial to accurately predicting global warming. This study explored seasonal variations of soil respiration and its controlling biochemical properties under a gradient of Nitrogen addition during two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons (2013–2015). N was applied at four different levels: 0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1 year-1 (denoted as N0, N12, N18 and N24, respectively). Soil respiration exhibited significant seasonal variation and was significantly affected by soil temperature with Q10 ranging from 2.04 to 2.46 and from 1.49 to 1.53 during 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season, respectively. Soil moisture had no significant effect on soil respiration during 2013–2014 winter wheat growing season but showed a significant and negative correlation with soil respiration during 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season. Soil respiration under N24 treatment was significantly higher than N0 treatment. Averaged over the two growing seasons, N12, N18 and N24 significantly increased soil respiration by 13.4, 16.4 and 25.4% compared with N0, respectively. N addition also significantly increased easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EEG), soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. In addition, soil respiration was significantly and positively correlated with β-glucosidase activity, EEG, SOC, total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. The results indicated that high N fertilization improved soil chemical properties, but significantly increased soil respiration. PMID:26629695

  18. Does "cooling by heating" protect quantum correlations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas-Boas, C. J.; Cardoso, W. B.; Avelar, A. T.; Xuereb, A.; de Almeida, N. G.

    2016-05-01

    The connection between nonequilibrium quantum correlations, such as entanglement and quantum discord, and cooling by heating is investigated for a system composed by two atoms interacting with a single electromagnetic mode of a lossy cavity. This Hamiltonian model is experimentally feasible in the quantum optics domain and presents the occurrence of both nonequilibrium quantum correlations and cooling by heating for a range of parameters. Since in the cooling by heating phenomenon the effective temperature of the system decreases even increasing the environments temperature, it could be expected that quantum correlations could be enhanced. Interestingly, for some parameters we show that, contrary to this expectation, in the case studied here the lowering of the system effective temperature leads to no enhancement in the quantum correlations. In addition, we found that at both zero and finite temperature, depending on the parameters used, quantum correlations can be enhanced even when increasing the damping rates, a somewhat counterintuitive result.

  19. Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan

    2011-06-15

    In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.

  20. Significance of Heterogeneous Twist2 Expression in Human Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yubin; Zhang, Nini; Xu, Jinfei; Ding, Zhijie; Zong, Rongrong; Liu, Zuguo

    2012-01-01

    Background Twist2 (Dermo1) has been shown to mediate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote tumor invasion and even metastasis. However, the involvement of EMT in breast cancer progression is highly debated, partially due to clinical observations showing that the majority of human breast carcinoma metastases express E-cadherin and maintain their epithelial morphology. The molecular mechanism by which Twist2 participates in EMT of breast cancer in vivo remains poorly understood. Methods We examined Twist2 expression pattern in human breast carcinomas by western blot and tissue microarray, and analyzed Twist2 cellular localization by confocal microscopy, cell fractionation and other approaches. Results Twist2 expression was significantly increased in breast cancer. Cytoplasmic Twist2 positive cancer cells expressing E-cadherin on the cellular membrane were mainly located at tumor center of primary carcinomas and lymph metastases, while cancer cells with nuclear Twist2 clearly showed loss of E-cadherin and were detected at the invasive front in ductal breast carcinomas. In addition, ectopically stable-expressed Twist2 was found to localize in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Collectively, these data indicate that upregulation of cytoplasmic Twist2 is correlated with tumor histological type and tumor metastasis in human breast cancers. Conclusion The differential cellular distribution of Twist2 may be associated with tumor progression. The cytoplasmic Twist2 in cancer cells at tumor center of primary carcinomas and lymph metastases contributes to the maintenance of epithelial cancer characteristics expressing E-cadherin in a noninvasive state, while the nuclear Twist2 at the cancer invasion front activates EMT to deprive epithelial property of neoplastic cells, thus facilitating invasion and metastasis. These findings suggest that heterogeneous expression of Twist2 in tumors may have a functional link to tumor progression. PMID:23133563

  1. Large-N correlator systems for low frequency radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Griffin

    Low frequency radio astronomy has entered a second golden age driven by the development of a new class of large-N interferometric arrays. The low frequency array (LOFAR) and a number of redshifted HI Epoch of Reionization (EoR) arrays are currently undergoing commission and regularly observing. Future arrays of unprecedented sensitivity and resolutions at low frequencies, such as the square kilometer array (SKA) and the hydrogen epoch of reionization array (HERA), are in development. The combination of advancements in specialized field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware for signal processing, computing and graphics processing unit (GPU) resources, and new imaging and calibration algorithms has opened up the oft underused radio band below 300 MHz. These interferometric arrays require efficient implementation of digital signal processing (DSP) hardware to compute the baseline correlations. FPGA technology provides an optimal platform to develop new correlators. The significant growth in data rates from these systems requires automated software to reduce the correlations in real time before storing the data products to disk. Low frequency, widefield observations introduce a number of unique calibration and imaging challenges. The efficient implementation of FX correlators using FPGA hardware is presented. Two correlators have been developed, one for the 32 element BEST-2 array at Medicina Observatory and the other for the 96 element LOFAR station at Chilbolton Observatory. In addition, calibration and imaging software has been developed for each system which makes use of the radio interferometry measurement equation (RIME) to derive calibrations. A process for generating sky maps from widefield LOFAR station observations is presented. Shapelets, a method of modelling extended structures such as resolved sources and beam patterns has been adapted for radio astronomy use to further improve system calibration. Scaling of computing technology allows for the

  2. Redundant correlation effect on personalized recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Han, Teng-Yue; Zhong, Li-Xin; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Guang

    2014-02-01

    The high-order redundant correlation effect is investigated for a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), through both heat conduction biased (HCB) and mass diffusion biased (MDB) correlation redundancy elimination processes. The HCB and MDB algorithms do not introduce any additional tunable parameters, but keep the simple character of the original HHM. Based on two empirical datasets, the Netflix and MovieLens, the HCB and MDB are found to show better recommendation accuracy for both the overall objects and the cold objects than the HHM algorithm. Our work suggests that properly eliminating the high-order redundant correlations can provide a simple and effective approach to accurate recommendation.

  3. (Al, B)-ZSM-11 FCC additive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hsing, L.H.; O`Young, C.L.

    1996-10-01

    ZSM-5 additive has been used extensively in the petroleum refining industry to enhance the light olefins production from the FCCU operation. In this paper, an FCC additive, (Al, B)-ZSM-11 was evaluated for its performance on a circulated FCC pilot unit. This additive was prepared by partially replacing the frame-work aluminum with boron, which in turn, will alternate its acid characteristics and performance as an FCC additive in promoting light olefin production. The (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive increased C3=, C4=, and C5= yields, but was less effective in increasing C3=, C4= yields, particularly I-C4= than ZSM-5 additive. The (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive increased branched C5= and decreased linear C5= yields resulting from skeletal isomerization. C5= and FC naphtha yields with (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive are higher than those obtained with ZSM-5 additive indicating lower cracking of FC naphtha and C%= to lower olefins with (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive than ZSM-5. The product selectivity difference between ZSM-5 and (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additives can be correlated with their respective acidity.

  4. On the statistical significance of climate trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzke, Christian

    2010-05-01

    One of the major problems in climate science is the prediction of future climate change due to anthropogenic green-house gas emissions. The earth's climate is not changing in a uniform way because it is a complex nonlinear system of many interacting components. The overall warming trend can be interrupted by cooling periods due to natural variability. Thus, in order to statistically distinguish between internal climate variability and genuine trends one has to assume a certain null model of the climate variability. Traditionally a short-range, and not a long-range, dependent null model is chosen. Here I show evidence for the first time that temperature data at 8 stations across Antarctica are long-range dependent and that the choice of a long-range, rather than a short-range, dependent null model negates the statistical significance of temperature trends at 2 out of 3 stations. These results show the short comings of traditional trend analysis and imply that more attention should be given to the correlation structure of climate data, in particular if they are long-range dependent. In this study I use the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to decompose the univariate temperature time series into a finite number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) and an instantaneous mean. While there is no unambiguous definition of a trend, in this study we interpret the instantaneous mean as a trend which is possibly nonlinear. The EMD method has been shown to be a powerful method for extracting trends from noisy and nonlinear time series. I will show that this way of identifying trends is superior to the traditional linear least-square fits.

  5. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  6. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  7. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  8. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  9. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  10. Quantum correlations beyond Tsirelson's bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Dominic; Ringbauer, Martin; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; White, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Violations of Bell inequalities show that there are correlations that cannot explained by any classical theory. Further violation, beyond Tsirelson's bound, shows that there are correlations that are not explained by quantum mechanics. Such super-quantum correlations would enable violation of information causality, where communication of one bit provides more than one bit of information [Nature 461, 1101 (2009)]. An unavoidable feature of all realistic Bell inequality experiments is loss. If one postselects on successful measurements, unentangled states can violate Bell inequalities. On the other hand, loss can be used to enhance the violation of Bell inequalities for entangled states. This can improve the ability to distinguish between entangled and unentangled states, despite loss. Here we report an optical experiment providing maximal violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality with entangled states. Due to loss and postselection, Tsirelson's bound is also violated. This enables us to more easily distinguish between entangled and unentangled states. In addition, it provides violation of information causality for the postselected data.

  11. Comparison of Statistical Methods for Assessing Spatial Correlations Between Maps of Different Arterial Properties.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Ethan M; Mohamied, Yumnah; Yean Chooi, K; Bailey, Emma L; Weinberg, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Assessing the anatomical correlation of atherosclerosis with biomechanical localizing factors is hindered by spatial autocorrelation (SA), wherein neighboring arterial regions tend to have similar properties rather than being independent, and by the use of aggregated data, which artificially inflates correlation coefficients. Resampling data at lower resolution or reducing degrees-of-freedom in significance tests negated effects of SA but only in artificial situations where it occurred at a single length scale. Using Fourier or wavelet transforms to generate autocorrelation-preserving surrogate datasets, and thus to compute the null distribution, avoided this problem. Bootstrap methods additionally circumvented the errors caused by aggregating data. The bootstrap technique showed that wall shear stress (WSS) was significantly correlated with atherosclerotic lesion frequency and endothelial nuclear elongation, but not with the permeability of the arterial wall to albumin, in immature rabbits. PMID:26201866

  12. Tsukuba VLBI Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurihara, Shinobu; Nozawa, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    The K5/VSSP software correlator (Figure 1), located in Tsukuba, Japan, is operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI). It is fully dedicated to processing the geodetic VLBI sessions of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. All of the weekend IVS Intensives (INT2) and the Japanese domestic VLBI observations organized by GSI were processed at the Tsukuba VLBI Correlator.

  13. Correlations and droplet growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration is given to the time development of a system in which small spheres of a stable phase grow out of a supersaturated melt. The spheres then grow and shrink in a manner similar to Ostwald ripening. The growth process of pairs of particles in an effective background accounts for can be used to explain the long time correlations which develop in the system. The correlations broaden the distribution of particles sizes, even for relatively dilute systems.

  14. ANGER CORRELATED WITH PSYCHOSOCIAL VARIABLES IN RURAL YOUTH

    PubMed Central

    Puskar, Kathryn; Ren, Dianxu; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Haley, Tammy; Hetager Stark, Kirsti

    2009-01-01

    Uncontrolled anger is a contributing force in the three leading causes of adolescent death: homicide, suicide, and injuries. Anger may be one of the early warning signs which could lead to violent behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between anger experience and expression with the potential correlates of life events, perceived social support, self-esteem, optimism, drug use, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in rural adolescents. The participants (n=193) were aged 14 to 17 years old in ninth through eleventh grades enrolled at three rural Western Pennsylvania public high schools. Participants completed nine questionnaires. Negative life events, anxiety, drug use, and depressive symptoms had significant positive correlations with anger. In addition, anger was found to have significant negative correlations with the adolescents’ perceived family support, self-esteem, and optimism. With this knowledge, health promotion programs conducted by pediatric nurses can target anxiety, drug use, and depressive symptoms while bolstering family support, self-esteem, and optimism to promote anger management in adolescent health care. PMID:18569198

  15. The responses of soil respiration to nitrogen addition in a temperate grassland in northern China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qinpu; Gong, Jirui; Zhai, Zhanwei; Pan, Yan; Liu, Min; Xu, Sha; Wang, Yihui; Yang, Lili; Baoyin, Taoge-Tao

    2016-11-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen (N) inputs to grassland ecosystems. Knowledge of the impact of soil N availability on soil respiration (RS) is critical to understand soil carbon balances and their responses to global climate change. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of RS to soil mineral N in a temperate grassland in northern China. RS, abiotic and biotic factors, and N mineralization were measured in the grassland, at rates of N addition ranging from 0 to 25gNm(-2)yr(-1). Annual and dormant-season RS ranged from 241.34 to 283.64g C m(-2) and from 61.34 to 83.84g C m(-2) respectively. High N application significantly increased RS, possibly due to increased root biomass and increased microbial biomass. High N treatment significantly increased soil NO3-N and inorganic N content compared with the control. The ratio of NO3-N to NH4-N and the N mineralization rate were significantly positively correlated with RS, but NH4-N was not correlated or negatively correlated with RS during the growing season. The temperature sensitivity of RS (Q10) was not significantly affected by N levels, and ranged from 1.90 to 2.20, but decreased marginally significantly at high N. RS outside the growing season is an important component of annual RS, accounting for 25.0 to 29.6% of the total. High N application indirectly stimulated RS by increasing soil NO3-N and net nitrification, thereby eliminating soil N limitations, promoting ecosystem productivity, and increasing soil CO2 efflux. Our results show the importance of distinguishing between NO3-N and NH4-N, as their impact on soil CO2 efflux differed. PMID:27396319

  16. Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michelle; Abraham, Charles; Bond, Rod

    2012-03-01

    A review of 13 years of research into antecedents of university students' grade point average (GPA) scores generated the following: a comprehensive, conceptual map of known correlates of tertiary GPA; assessment of the magnitude of average, weighted correlations with GPA; and tests of multivariate models of GPA correlates within and across research domains. A systematic search of PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge databases between 1997 and 2010 identified 7,167 English-language articles yielding 241 data sets, which reported on 50 conceptually distinct correlates of GPA, including 3 demographic factors and 5 traditional measures of cognitive capacity or prior academic performance. In addition, 42 non-intellective constructs were identified from 5 conceptually overlapping but distinct research domains: (a) personality traits, (b) motivational factors, (c) self-regulatory learning strategies, (d) students' approaches to learning, and (e) psychosocial contextual influences. We retrieved 1,105 independent correlations and analyzed data using hypothesis-driven, random-effects meta-analyses. Significant average, weighted correlations were found for 41 of 50 measures. Univariate analyses revealed that demographic and psychosocial contextual factors generated, at best, small correlations with GPA. Medium-sized correlations were observed for high school GPA, SAT, ACT, and A level scores. Three non-intellective constructs also showed medium-sized correlations with GPA: academic self-efficacy, grade goal, and effort regulation. A large correlation was observed for performance self-efficacy, which was the strongest correlate (of 50 measures) followed by high school GPA, ACT, and grade goal. Implications for future research, student assessment, and intervention design are discussed. PMID:22352812

  17. Urinary incontinence in the elderly and in the oldest old: correlation with frailty and mortality.

    PubMed

    Berardelli, Maurizio; De Rango, Francesco; Morelli, Michele; Corsonello, Andrea; Mazzei, Bruno; Mari, Vincenzo; Montesanto, Alberto; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Passarino, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is very common in the elderly and has personal and social implications. Many authors have pointed out the necessity to analyze UI in correlation with the overall quality of aging, to better understand this syndrome and define measures for its prevention and treatment. In the present study, we addressed this problem by analyzing the UI correlation with frailty, which has emerged in the last decade as the geriatric syndrome correlated with individual homeostatic capacity and then as the basis of the age-related physical decline. In addition, the monitoring of our sample for a long period allowed us to estimate the prognostic significance of UI by analyzing the correlation between UI and mortality. The analysis was performed in a large sample that included numerous ultra-nonagenarians, a population segment that is still poorly known for UI and other geriatric parameters. We found a strict correlation between UI and frailty, suggesting that UI is correlated to the homeostatic and physiological decline leading to frailty. In addition, we found that UI is an independent mortality risk factor in ultra-nonagenarians, suggesting that the neurological sensitivity needed to be continent is lost very soon when the frailty associated physiological decline begins. On the whole, our study suggests that UI is a marker of frailty and that UI patients should be monitored and, in case, treated in a timely manner to avoid, or to limit, the effects of frailty such as malnutrition, falls, and the consequent accumulation of disabilities. PMID:23496115

  18. Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal: Properties and chemical additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1992-02-19

    Coal-water slurries have the potential of a near term replacement for fuel oil. In order to gain the fundamental understanding of the preparation and handling of coal-water slurries, experiments were performed to identify the relationship between the coal content of a given coal-water slurry and its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this program were: Investigate the relationship between the chemical and physical properties of coal and the rheology of coal-water slurry Define procedures for evaluating and preparing coal water slurries for a particular coal candidate, based on the characteristic coal properties Develop improved methods of screening surfactants used in coal-water slurry preparation Perform experiments designed to investigate the effect of characteristic coal properties on slurry quality, by examining the effect of the individual coal properties on slurry quality Develop a statistical formulation to predict the coal content of a given coal water slurry content based on the coal characteristic properties.

  19. Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal properties and chemical additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to evaluate the necessary boundary conditions in the preparation and utilization of Coal Water Slurries (CWS) and also develop a data base for the conceptual analysis of a prescription to predict slurry quality for a given coal candidate.

  20. Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal properties and chemical additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology has been developed in order to determine the influence of individual particle size fractions on coal water slurry rheology. This involves the determination of the packaging concentrations and rheology of the separate particle size fractions; {minus}400 mesh, {minus}400/325, {minus}325/270, {minus}270/200 mesh, {minus}200/140 mesh, {minus}140/100 mesh and {minus}100/80 mesh as a function of solids loading. The packaging concentrations of the separate particle size fractions and that of several blends of these sizes have been determined. The packaging concentrations were determined from particle size distribution measurements and a program based on truncated log-normal distribution which has been developed at the Adelphi Center for Energy Studies. 5 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal properties and chemical additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1991-01-01

    Four coal samples PSOC 1339, 1472, 1531 and 1572 are being used to test the fundamental relationship between coal properties and slurryability. Coal properties that have been examined in order to develop a relationship between slurry quality and the coal properties are: The Equilibrium moisture, Ash Content, Volatile Matter, Carbon Content, Oxygen Content, HG Index, Fixed Carbon and Particle Size Distribution and Hydrophobicity Index. The difference between the sums of hydrogen (H), carbon (C), sulfur (S) and oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Moisture (M), ash (A) were determined for each coal and assigned as the hydrophobicity index. In order to test the validity of the relationship in equation 1, zeta potential measurements and rheological characterization of several slurries prepared from PSOC-1339 and 1527 were made. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-03-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop techniques for nitrogen oxides abatement by distributed fuel addition. The major nitrogen oxide of interest is Nitric Oxide (NO), a precursor to premature forest damage and to acid rain. Recently interest has also been evoked with respect to an additional oxide of nitrogen, namely Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O). Therefore, abatement measures for NO{sub x} are being investigated to determine their influence on N{sub 2}O as well. This report briefly describes the significance of N{sub 2}O emissions to the environment and the urgent need to develop techniques that can reduce emissions of both NO and N{sub 2}O. Reburning through distributed fuel addition may be an effective technique for NO{sub x} (mainly NO) emission control as described in the previous quarterly report. Reburning may also be effective in reducing N{sub 2}O levels. A technique for N{sub 2}O measurement by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was developed during this quarter, and is described in this report. This analysis technique will be used in the proposed experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of reburning on N{sub 2}O control.

  3. Additives for high temperature liquid lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, C.; Yavrouian, A.H.

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this task is to perform research for the Department of Energy (DOE) on the synthesis and characterization of additives for liquid lubricants which will lead to significant improvements in the major tribology task area of friction and wear reductions at high temperature. To this end JPL is surveying candidate precursor compounds which are soluble in liquid lubricants, synthesizing the most promising of these materials, characterizing them, and submitting these additives to NIST for evaluation. Calculations have been made to estimate the Hildebrand solubility parameters for candidate precursor compounds. The initial listing is confined to dinitrites which can form chelates with metals or their compounds. The goal is to find soluble additives that can react in situ with the bearing surface to form adherent lubricating film. Although none of the compounds listed match the solubility parameters of liquid lubricants, the lowest solubility parameters were calculated for dialkyl substituted compounds. In this case, there is probably sufficient solubility to provide adequate amounts of reactants on the metal surfaces. The conclusions are based on previous results where only 1/2 to 1% solubility was sufficient to give excellent lubrication.

  4. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. PMID:27473998

  5. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid Content.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2016-06-01

    A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels. PMID:27172980

  6. Effects of momentum conservation and flow on angular correlations observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Scott; Schlichting, Soeren; Gavin, Sean

    2011-08-15

    Correlations of azimuthal angles observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have gained great attention due to the prospect of identifying fluctuations of parity-odd regions in the field sector of QCD. Whereas the observable of interest related to parity fluctuations involves subtracting opposite-sign from same-sign correlations, the STAR collaboration reported the same-sign and opposite-sign correlations separately. It is shown here how momentum conservation combined with collective elliptic flow contributes significantly to this class of correlations, although not to the difference between the opposite- and same-sign observables. The effects are modeled with a crude simulation of a pion gas. Although the simulation reproduces the scale of the correlation, the centrality dependence is found to be sufficiently different in character to suggest additional considerations beyond those present in the pion gas simulation presented here.

  7. Saturated fat consumption and the Theory of Planned Behaviour: exploring additive and interactive effects of habit strength.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2008-09-01

    The additive and interactive effects of habit strength in the explanation of saturated fat intake were explored within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Cross-sectional data were gathered in a Dutch adult sample (n=764) using self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses and simple slope analyses. Results showed that habit strength was a significant correlate of fat intake (beta=-0.11) and significantly increased the amount of explained variance in fat intake (R(2-change)=0.01). Furthermore, based on a significant interaction effect (beta=0.11), simple slope analyses revealed that intention was a significant correlate of fat intake for low levels (beta=-0.29) and medium levels (beta=-0.19) of habit strength, but a weaker and non-significant correlate for high levels (beta=-0.07) of habit strength. Higher habit strength may thus make limiting fat intake a non-intentional behaviour. Implications for information and motivation-based interventions are discussed. PMID:18471932

  8. Effect of an organic additive on the rheology of an aluminous cement paste and consequences on the densification of the hardened material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hafiane, Y.; Smith, A.; Bonnet, J. P.; Tanouti, B.

    2005-03-01

    The material used in the present work is Secar 71 (Lafarge) mixed with water containing an organic additive (acetic acid noted HOAc). The rheological behavior of these pastes is studied. The best dispersion is obtained when the mass content of the additive with respect to the cement is equal to 0.5%. The microstructural characterizations of samples aged 4 days at 20° C and 95 % relative humidity reveal a significant increase in the density and a reduction in porosity for very small percentages of additive. The remarkable effect of the acetic acid on the microstructure of hardened material is correlated with its good dispersing action.

  9. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H.

    1994-09-01

    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  10. Physical significance of interfaces on fracture growth

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.J.; Guo, Q. )

    1993-08-01

    Details of the interfaces between two geologic materials are normally neglected in predicting the growth of hydraulic fractures. In addition, perfect bonding is assumed across the interface. However, due to a combination of reasons, the perfect bonding assumption is violated to various degrees. Assessment for potential slippage is important to fracture-growth modeling. As a fracture approaches an interface, both mode I (for a fracture crossing the interface) and mode II (for a fracture extending in the interface) stress-intensity factors need to be evaluated. Should the interface properties be such that the mode I stress-intensity factor reach the critical value, the fracture will cross the interface. Should the converse happen and the mode II stress-intensity factor become critical, slippage along the interface will occur. If both the critical stress intensity factors are reached simultaneously, both fractures across the interface and slippage will occur. Good description of the interface material is needed to model the fracturing process. Methodology to model the physical significance of interfaces for calculating two-dimensional fracture growth includes descriptions of applications to oil/gas recovery and the injection of contaminants in isolated formations.

  11. Making lasting memories: Remembering the significant

    PubMed Central

    McGaugh, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Although forgetting is the common fate of most of our experiences, much evidence indicates that emotional arousal enhances the storage of memories, thus serving to create, selectively, lasting memories of our more important experiences. The neurobiological systems mediating emotional arousal and memory are very closely linked. The adrenal stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone released by emotional arousal regulate the consolidation of long-term memory. The amygdala plays a critical role in mediating these stress hormone influences. The release of norepinephrine in the amygdala and the activation of noradrenergic receptors are essential for stress hormone-induced memory enhancement. The findings of both animal and human studies provide compelling evidence that stress-induced activation of the amygdala and its interactions with other brain regions involved in processing memory play a critical role in ensuring that emotionally significant experiences are well-remembered. Recent research has determined that some human subjects have highly superior autobiographic memory of their daily experiences and that there are structural differences in the brains of these subjects compared with the brains of subjects who do not have such memory. Understanding of neurobiological bases of such exceptional memory may provide additional insights into the processes underlying the selectivity of memory. PMID:23754441

  12. Burst Firing Enhances Neural Output Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ho Ka; Yang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Changsong; Nowotny, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Neurons communicate and transmit information predominantly through spikes. Given that experimentally observed neural spike trains in a variety of brain areas can be highly correlated, it is important to investigate how neurons process correlated inputs. Most previous work in this area studied the problem of correlation transfer analytically by making significant simplifications on neural dynamics. Temporal correlation between inputs that arises from synaptic filtering, for instance, is often ignored when assuming that an input spike can at most generate one output spike. Through numerical simulations of a pair of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons receiving correlated inputs, we demonstrate that neurons in the presence of synaptic filtering by slow synapses exhibit strong output correlations. We then show that burst firing plays a central role in enhancing output correlations, which can explain the above-mentioned observation because synaptic filtering induces bursting. The observed changes of correlations are mostly on a long time scale. Our results suggest that other features affecting the prevalence of neural burst firing in biological neurons, e.g., adaptive spiking mechanisms, may play an important role in modulating the overall level of correlations in neural networks. PMID:27242499

  13. Macroscopic serosal classification of colorectal cancer and its clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Peng; Guo, Peng-Tao; Zhu, Zhi; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Yan; Ma, Si-Ping; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Macroscopic serosal classification of gastric cancer has been reported in previous studies, but rarely reported about it of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to propose a macroscopic serosal classification of colorectal cancer and to investigate clinical significance of this classification. Materials and methods: Morphologic features of colorectal cancer were analyzed according to the macroscopic serosal appearance and clinicopathologic characteristics of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Microscopic serosal structure was compared between different types under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results: Macroscopic serosal classification was divided into normal type, reactive type, nodular type and colloid type according to the macroscopic serosal appearance and microscopic structure. There were significant differences in tumor size, tumor gross type, histological type, histological grade, tumor necrosis, pT stage, number of nodes metastasis, lymph node metastasis ratio, pN stage, M stage and peritoneal metastasis between patients with different serosal types. Univariate analysis of prognosis revealed macroscopic serosal classification as one of factors significantly correlated with patient survival. However, multivariate analysis only revealed TNM stage significantly correlated with patient survival, while macroscopic serosal classification did not, maybe due to insufficient samples. Conclusions: Macroscopic serosal classification of colorectal cancer is preliminarily defined and divided into four types. Different macroscopic serosal types indicate different clinicopathologic features and correlate with prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer, but still cannot be proven as an independent factor. PMID:26884925

  14. Short Range Correlations in Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    L. B. Weinstein

    2006-11-01

    Short range correlations (SRC) are an extremely important part of nuclear structure. They are responsible for the high momentum part of the nuclear wavefunction. Instantaneous densities can significantly exceed the average neutron star density. Recent (e,e[prime]) measurements at Jefferson Lab have shown that SRC are universal in nuclei from deuterium to gold, that the probability of two-nucleon SRC is 5-25%, and that the probability of three-nucleon SRC is less than 1%. Recent (e,e[prime]pn) measurements have measured the SRC probabilities as a function of proton momentum and have measured the joint NN momentum distributions.

  15. Development of "active correlation" technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, Yu. S.

    2016-01-01

    With reaching to extremely high intensities of heavy-ion beams new requirements for the detection system of the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) will definitely be set. One of the challenges is how to apply the "active correlations" method to suppress beam associated background products without significant losses in the whole long-term experiment efficiency value. Different scenarios and equations to develop the method according this requirement are under consideration in the present paper. The execution time to estimate the dead time parameter associated with the optimal choice of the life-time parameter is presented.

  16. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  17. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  18. Nonclassicality of Temporal Correlations.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Stephen; Kosowski, Adrian; Markiewicz, Marcin; Paterek, Tomasz; Przysiężna, Anna

    2015-09-18

    The results of spacelike separated measurements are independent of distant measurement settings, a property one might call two-way no-signaling. In contrast, timelike separated measurements are only one-way no-signaling since the past is independent of the future but not vice versa. For this reason some temporal correlations that are formally identical to nonclassical spatial correlations can still be modeled classically. We propose a new formulation of Bell's theorem for temporal correlations; namely, we define nonclassical temporal correlations as the ones which cannot be simulated by propagating in time the classical information content of a quantum system given by the Holevo bound. We first show that temporal correlations between results of any projective quantum measurements on a qubit can be simulated classically. Then we present a sequence of general measurements on a single m-level quantum system that cannot be explained by propagating in time an m-level classical system and using classical computers with unlimited memory. PMID:26430975

  19. Correlational Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Chandar, Sarath; Khapra, Mitesh M; Larochelle, Hugo; Ravindran, Balaraman

    2016-02-01

    Common representation learning (CRL), wherein different descriptions (or views) of the data are embedded in a common subspace, has been receiving a lot of attention recently. Two popular paradigms here are canonical correlation analysis (CCA)-based approaches and autoencoder (AE)-based approaches. CCA-based approaches learn a joint representation by maximizing correlation of the views when projected to the common subspace. AE-based methods learn a common representation by minimizing the error of reconstructing the two views. Each of these approaches has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, while CCA-based approaches outperform AE-based approaches for the task of transfer learning, they are not as scalable as the latter. In this work, we propose an AE-based approach, correlational neural network (CorrNet), that explicitly maximizes correlation among the views when projected to the common subspace. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed CorrNet is better than AE and CCA with respect to its ability to learn correlated common representations. We employ CorrNet for several cross-language tasks and show that the representations learned using it perform better than the ones learned using other state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:26654210

  20. A study of hierarchical structure on South China industrial electricity-consumption correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Based on industrial electricity-consumption data of five southern provinces of China from 2005 to 2013, we study the industrial correlation mechanism with MST (minimal spanning tree) and HT (hierarchical tree) models. First, we comparatively analyze the industrial electricity-consumption correlation structure in pre-crisis and after-crisis period using MST model and Bootstrap technique of statistical reliability test of links. Results exhibit that all industrial electricity-consumption trees of five southern provinces of China in pre-crisis and after-crisis time are in formation of chain, and the "center-periphery structure" of those chain-like trees is consistent with industrial specialization in classical industrial chain theory. Additionally, the industrial structure of some provinces is reorganized and transferred in pre-crisis and after-crisis time. Further, the comparative analysis with hierarchical tree and Bootstrap technique demonstrates that as for both observations of GD and overall NF, the industrial electricity-consumption correlation is non-significant clustered in pre-crisis period, whereas it turns significant clustered in after-crisis time. Therefore we propose that in perspective of electricity-consumption, their industrial structures are directed to optimized organization and global correlation. Finally, the analysis of distance of HTs verifies that industrial reorganization and development may strengthen market integration, coordination and correlation of industrial production. Except GZ, other four provinces have a shorter distance of industrial electricity-consumption correlation in after-crisis period, revealing a better performance of regional specialization and integration.

  1. How far does family physician supply correlate with district health system performance?

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Robert; Naledi, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2011, a new cadre of family physicians, with 4 years of postgraduate training, was deployed in the district health services of the Western Cape, and tasked with a considerable range of duties aimed at a general improvement in care and health outcomes. There is a need to evaluate the contribution of these family physicians to the district health system. Aim To develop a methodology for describing the correlation between family physician supply and district health system performance, clinical processes and outcomes, and to measure this correlation at baseline. Method A cross-sectional study was undertaken that analysed data at an ecological level for the period of 01 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. This was a pilot project analysing data from the first year of a 4-year project. The correlations between family physician supply and 18 health system indicators were assessed within a logic model. The supplies of other categories of staff were also measured. Results Although most of the correlations with family physicians were positive, the study was unable to demonstrate any strong or statistically significant correlations at baseline. There were significant correlations with other categories of staff. Conclusions This study developed a methodology for monitoring the relationship between family physician supply using routinely collected indicators of health system performance, clinical processes and outcomes over time. Additional research will also be needed to investigate the impact of family physicians and triangulate findings as this methodology has many limitations and potential confounding factors. PMID:26245612

  2. An Examination of the Demographic and Environmental Variables Correlated with Lyme Disease Emergence in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Seukep, Sara E; Kolivras, Korine N; Hong, Yili; Li, Jie; Prisley, Stephen P; Campbell, James B; Gaines, David N; Dymond, Randel L

    2015-12-01

    Lyme disease is the United States' most significant vector-borne illness. Virginia, on the southern edge of the disease's currently expanding range, has experienced an increase in Lyme disease both spatially and temporally, with steadily increasing rates over the past decade and disease spread from the northern to the southwestern part of the state. This study used a Geographic Information System and a spatial Poisson regression model to examine correlations between demographic and land cover variables, and human Lyme disease from 2006 to 2010 in Virginia. Analysis indicated that herbaceous land cover is positively correlated with Lyme disease incidence rates. Areas with greater interspersion between herbaceous and forested land were also positively correlated with incidence rates. In addition, income and age were positively correlated with incidence rates. Levels of development, interspersion of herbaceous and developed land, and population density were negatively correlated with incidence rates. Abundance of forest fragments less than 2 hectares in area was not significantly correlated. Our results support some findings of previous studies on ecological variables and Lyme disease in endemic areas, but other results have not been found in previous studies, highlighting the potential contribution of new variables as Lyme disease continues to emerge southward. PMID:26163019

  3. Recent additions in the treatment of cough

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, cough is regarded as a challenging clinical problem due to its frequency and often limited therapeutic options. Chronic cough that remains refractory to usual medical treatment causes significant quality of life impairment in people with this problem. Methods We have examined current evidence on recent additions in the treatment of cough, specifically treatment of refractory chronic cough with speech pathology and gabapentin. Relevant randomised control trials, reviews and case reports were identified through a PubMed and SCOPUS search of English-language literature referring to these concepts over the last eight years. Summary Of the one hundred and two articles comprising this review the majority investigated the role of the transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1 in cough and the potential of TRP antagonists as effective anti-tussives. However, these have only been tested in the laboratory and therefore their clinical effectiveness is unknown. Behavioural treatments such as speech pathology have gained momentum and this was evident in the increasing number of articles investigating its positive effect on cough. Investigation on the effectiveness of neuromodulating medications in the treatment of cough have been supported primarily through case series reports and prospective reviews however; their use (particularly gabapentin) has been significantly advanced through recently conducted randomised controlled trials. Conclusions Recent additions in the treatment of chronic cough have been significant as they consider cough to have a unifying diagnosis of cough hypersensitivity with or without the presence of a neuropathic basis. Primarily, effective treatments for chronic cough target these areas and include behavioural treatment such as speech pathology and pharmaceutical treatment with neuromodulating medications such as gabapentin. PMID:25383209

  4. Trigeminal nerve morphology in Alligator mississippiensis and its significance for crocodyliform facial sensation and evolution.

    PubMed

    George, Ian D; Holliday, Casey M

    2013-04-01

    Modern crocodylians possess a derived sense of face touch, in which numerous trigeminal nerve-innervated dome pressure receptors speckle the face and mandible and sense mechanical stimuli. However, the morphological features of this system are not well known, and it remains unclear how the trigeminal system changes during ontogeny and how it scales with other cranial structures. Finally, when this system evolved within crocodyliforms remains a mystery. Thus, new morphological insights into the trigeminal system of extant crocodylians may offer new paleontological tools to investigate this evolutionary transformation. A cross-sectional study integrating histological, morphometric, and 3D imaging analyses was conducted to identify patterns in cranial nervous and bony structures of Alligator mississippiensis. Nine individuals from a broad size range were CT-scanned followed by histomorphometric sampling of mandibular and maxillary nerve divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Endocast volume, trigeminal fossa volume, and maxillomandibular foramen size were compared with axon counts from proximal and distal regions of the trigeminal nerves to identify scaling properties of the structures. The trigeminal fossa has a significant positive correlation with skull length and endocast volume. We also found that axon density is greater in smaller alligators and total axon count has a significant negative correlation with skull size. Six additional extant and fossil crocodyliforms were included in a supplementary scaling analysis, which found that size was not an accurate predictor of trigeminal anatomy. This suggests that phylogeny or somatosensory adaptations may be responsible for the variation in trigeminal ganglion and nerve size in crocodyliforms. PMID:23408584

  5. Translational significance of Nodal, Cripto-1 and Notch4 in adult nevi

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Luigi; Margaryan, Naira V.; Gerami, Pedram; Haghighat, Zahra; Harms, Paul W.; Madonna, Gabriele; Botti, Gerardo; Ascierto, Paolo A.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The TGF-β associated growth factor Nodal is highly expressed in aggressive metastatic melanoma. Determining the risk for melanomagenesis from Nodal expression in nevi prior to the development of melanoma may be useful for both the screening and prevention of melanoma. Tissue sections of human adult nevi with or without a history of melanoma were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Nodal, the Nodal co-receptor Cripto-1, and Notch4, which have previously been shown to be associated with Nodal expression in melanoma. The degree of Nodal, Cripto-1 and Notch4 staining was scored and correlated with available clinical data. Median IHC scores for Nodal, Cripto-1 and Notch4 expression were significantly higher in nevi removed from patients who eventually developed melanoma compared with nevi from patients with no history of melanoma. In addition, the degree of Nodal expression in nevi from patients who eventually developed melanoma correlated significantly with the Breslow depth of the melanoma. Expression of Nodal and components of its signaling pathway in nevi may represent a biomarker for selecting a unique subset of patients requiring increased surveillance for screening and prevention of melanoma.

  6. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-19

    Here, we studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3-Vaidya background. A prescription was given for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. Moreover, we found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlatormore » and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.« less

  7. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-11-15

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels.

  8. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen. PMID:25391237

  9. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  10. Active motion assisted by correlated stochastic torques.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christian; Radtke, Paul K; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Hänggi, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The stochastic dynamics of an active particle undergoing a constant speed and additionally driven by an overall fluctuating torque is investigated. The random torque forces are expressed by a stochastic differential equation for the angular dynamics of the particle determining the orientation of motion. In addition to a constant torque, the particle is supplemented by random torques, which are modeled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with given correlation time τ(c). These nonvanishing correlations cause a persistence of the particles' trajectories and a change of the effective spatial diffusion coefficient. We discuss the mean square displacement as a function of the correlation time and the noise intensity and detect a nonmonotonic dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient with respect to both correlation time and noise strength. A maximal diffusion behavior is obtained if the correlated angular noise straightens the curved trajectories, interrupted by small pirouettes, whereby the correlated noise amplifies a straightening of the curved trajectories caused by the constant torque. PMID:21867138

  11. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach’s Youth Self-Report (YSR). Findings The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students’ place of living and their parents’ job, and using computer games. Conclusion Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents. PMID:24494157

  12. Correlation of palaeomagnetic directions constrains eruption rate of large igneous provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttie, Neil; Biggin, Andrew J.; Holme, Richard

    2014-02-01

    The rate of eruption of lava flows in large igneous provinces is a highly controversial topic with implications for the processes by which mass extinctions of life occurred throughout the Phanerozoic. It is also an extremely difficult parameter to measure, but may be accessed through the correlation of palaeomagnetic directions recorded in neighbouring lava flows. The next-neighbour correlation can be described by a single additional parameter which can be evaluated by constructing a suitable covariance matrix. It is found to be a useful proxy for the rate of eruption of Cenozoic lavas from the North Atlantic igneous province and has the potential to help constrain the eruptive histories of other large igneous provinces. Significant next-neighbour correlation is revealed even in the absence of grouping of directions, giving a method of detecting changing eruption rates when there are no magnetostratigraphic markers. Significant correlation is found over timescales of tens of thousands of years in volcanic datasets making it doubtful that records of recent secular variation over shorter timescales can be used as a model for palaeosecular variation. By eliminating next-neighbour correlation, it is demonstrated how estimates of palaeosecular variation may be derived, with formal confidence limits, allowing robust comparisons to be made between sites. Using this method we show that the angular dispersion of the field dropped significantly during the 2.5 million year long polarity chron C24r.

  13. Simulation of uphill/downhill running on a level treadmill using additional horizontal force.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Philippe; Arnal, Pierrick J; Samozino, Pierre; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2014-07-18

    Tilting treadmills allow a convenient study of biomechanics during uphill/downhill running, but they are not commonly available and there is even fewer tilting force-measuring treadmill. The aim of the present study was to compare uphill/downhill running on a treadmill (inclination of ± 8%) with running on a level treadmill using additional backward or forward pulling forces to simulate the effect of gravity. This comparison specifically focused on the energy cost of running, stride frequency (SF), electromyographic activity (EMG), leg and foot angles at foot strike, and ground impact shock. The main results are that SF, impact shock, and leg and foot angle parameters determined were very similar and significantly correlated between the two methods, the intercept and slope of the linear regression not differing significantly from zero and unity, respectively. The correlation of oxygen uptake (V̇O2) data between both methods was not significant during uphill running (r=0.42; P>0.05). V̇O2 data were correlated during downhill running (r=0.74; P<0.01) but there was a significant difference between the methods (bias=-2.51 ± 1.94 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Linear regressions for EMG of vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, soleus and tibialis anterior were not different from the identity line but the systematic bias was elevated for this parameter. In conclusion, this method seems appropriate for the study of SF, leg and foot angle, impact shock parameters but is less applicable for physiological variables (EMG and energy cost) during uphill/downhill running when using a tilting force-measuring treadmill is not possible. PMID:24811045

  14. 78 FR 66105 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  15. 78 FR 70630 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  16. 77 FR 69706 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  17. 76 FR 5857 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  18. 75 FR 64781 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property have been blocked pending investigation pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  19. 77 FR 23807 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  20. 77 FR 44715 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  1. 77 FR 14592 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... whose property and interests in property have ] been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  2. 77 FR 2347 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  3. 75 FR 34214 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  4. 78 FR 53191 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  5. 77 FR 38140 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities) whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  6. 77 FR 56271 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  7. 78 FR 59766 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act''). DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics ] traffickers and...

  8. 76 FR 67792 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  9. 78 FR 8701 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  10. 76 FR 25407 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics ] traffickers and their organizations on...

  11. 75 FR 36474 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  12. 77 FR 29755 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  13. 78 FR 53007 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  14. 78 FR 29814 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  15. 78 FR 61000 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  16. 76 FR 25405 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  17. 78 FR 62946 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  18. 77 FR 22846 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  19. 76 FR 56875 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  20. 78 FR 28289 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  1. 78 FR 36635 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  2. 77 FR 48609 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act''). DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  3. 76 FR 6843 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  4. 77 FR 36041 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  5. 76 FR 5858 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  6. 77 FR 51616 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  7. 78 FR 13760 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  8. 76 FR 10668 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  9. 77 FR 4400 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  10. 77 FR 63418 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  11. 77 FR 28670 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  12. 78 FR 3083 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  13. 75 FR 65554 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin..., 1999. The Kingpin Act establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign...

  14. 47 CFR 22.165 - Additional transmitters for existing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (c) Environmental. The additional transmitters must not have a significant environmental effect as..., except that this limitation does not apply to nationwide network paging stations or in-building...

  15. 47 CFR 22.165 - Additional transmitters for existing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Environmental. The additional transmitters must not have a significant environmental effect as..., except that this limitation does not apply to nationwide network paging stations or in-building...

  16. Temperature-polarization correlations from tensor fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Crittenden, R.G.; Coulson, D.; Turok, N.G. |

    1995-11-15

    We study the polarization-temperature correlations on the cosmic microwave sky resulting from an initial scale-invariant spectrum of tensor (gravity wave) fluctuations, such as those which might arise during inflation. The correlation function has the opposite sign to that for scalar fluctuations on large scales, raising the possibility of a direct determination of whether the microwave anisotropies have a significant tensor component. We briefly discuss the important problem of estimating the expected foreground contamination.

  17. Velocity correlations of galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, Renyue; Bahcall, Neta A.; Gramann, Mirt

    1994-01-01

    We determine the velocity correlation function, pairwise peculiar velocity difference, and rms pairwise peculiar velocity dispersion of rich clusters of galaxies, as a function of pair separation, for three cosmological models: Omega = 1 and Omega = 0.3 cold dark matter (CDM), and Omega = 0.3 primeval baryonic isocurvature (PBI) models (all flat and Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized). We find that close cluster pairs, with separation r is less than or equal to 10/h Mpc, exhibit strong attractive peculiar velocities in all models; the cluster pairwise velocities depend sensitively on the model. The mean pairwise attractive velocity of clusters on 5/h Mpc scale ranges from approximately 1700 km/s for Omega = 1 CDM to approximately 1000 km/s for PBI to approximately 700 km/s for Omega = 0.3 CDM. The small-scale pairwise velocities depend also on cluster mass: richer, more massive clusters exhibit stronger attractive velocities than less massive clusters. On large scales, from approximately 20 to 200/h Mpc, the cluster peculiar velocities are increasingly dominated by bulk and random motions; they are independent of cluster mass. The cluster velocity correlation function is negative on small scales for Omega = 1 and Omega = 0.3 CDM, indicating strong pairwise motion relative to bulk motion on small scales; PBI exhibits relatively larger bulk motions. The cluster velocity correlation function is positive on very large scales, from r approximately 10/h Mpc to r approximately 200/h Mpc, for all models. These positive correlations, which decrease monotonically with scale, indicate significant bulk motions of clusters up to approximately 200/h Mpc. The strong dependence of the cluster velocity functions on models, especially at small separations, makes them useful tools in constraining cosmological models when compared with observations.

  18. 78 FR 9997 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). In addition, OFAC... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  19. CORRELATION AND REGRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Webcast entitled Statistical Tools for Making Sense of Data, by the National Nutrient Criteria Support Center, N-STEPS (Nutrients-Scientific Technical Exchange Partnership. The section "Correlation and Regression" provides an overview of these two techniques in the context of nut...

  20. Multivariate Intraclass Correlation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David E.; Hawkes, Thomas H.

    This paper is an explication of a statistical model which will permit an interpretable intraclass correlation coefficient that is negative, and a generalized extension of that model to cover a multivariate problem. The methodological problem has its practical roots in an attempt to find a statistic which could indicate the degree of similarity or…