Science.gov

Sample records for additionally waste generators

  1. Hazardous Waste Generators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many industries generate hazardous waste. EPA regulates hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to ensure these wastes are managed in ways that are protective of human health and the environment.

  2. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Lewis Edward

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  3. Waste generator services implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  4. Next generation enhancement of cements by the addition of industrial wastes and subsequent treatment with supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.M.V.; Rubin, J.B.; Carey, J.W.; Jones, R.; Baglin, F.G.

    1997-09-01

    The natural curing reactions which occur in a standard portland cement involve the formation of portlandite, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and calcium silicate hydrates, CSH. Over time, the cured cement abstracts carbon dioxide, CO{sub 2}, from the air, converting the portlandite and CSH to calcium carbonate, CaCO{sub 3}. It turns out, however, that this secondary conversion results in the blockage and/or closure of pores, drastically slowing the reaction rate with time. By exposing a portland cement to supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}), it is found that the carbonation reaction can be greatly accelerated. This acceleration is due to (1) the ability of the supercritical fluid to penetrate into the pores of the cement, providing continuous availability of fresh reactant, in hyper-stoichiometric concentrations; and (2) the solubility of the reaction product in the supercritical fluid, facilitating its removal. By accelerating the natural aging reactions, a chemically stable product is formed having reduced porosity, permeability and pH, while at the same time significantly enhancing the mechanical strength. The supercritical CO{sub 2} treatment process also removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement, and sequesters large amounts of carbon dioxide, permanently removing it from the environment. The authors describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of cements containing industrial waste. Some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed. Finally, some initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid CO{sub 2} treatment will be presented.

  5. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  6. Waste Generation Overview Refresher, Course 21464

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Lewis Edward

    2016-12-13

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Refresher (COURSE 21464), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to- grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL.

  7. Waste heat generation: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Yeşiller, Nazli; Hanson, James L; Yee, Emma H

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive review of heat generation in various types of wastes and of the thermal regime of waste containment facilities is provided in this paper. Municipal solid waste (MSW), MSW incineration ash, and mining wastes were included in the analysis. Spatial and temporal variations of waste temperatures, thermal gradients, thermal properties of wastes, average temperature differentials, and heat generation values are provided. Heat generation was influenced by climatic conditions, mean annual earth temperatures, waste temperatures at the time of placement, cover conditions, and inherent heat generation potential of the specific wastes. Time to onset of heat generation varied between months and years, whereas timelines for overall duration of heat generation varied between years and decades. For MSW, measured waste temperatures were as high as 60-90°C and as low as -6°C. MSW incinerator ash temperatures varied between 5 and 87°C. Mining waste temperatures were in the range of -25 to 65°C. In the wastes analyzed, upward heat flow toward the surface was more prominent than downward heat flow toward the subsurface. Thermal gradients generally were higher for MSW and incinerator ash and lower for mining waste. Based on thermal properties, MSW had insulative qualities (low thermal conductivity), while mining wastes typically were relatively conductive (high thermal conductivity) with ash having intermediate qualities. Heat generation values ranged from -8.6 to 83.1MJ/m(3) and from 0.6 to 72.6MJ/m(3) for MSW and mining waste, respectively and was 72.6MJ/m(3) for ash waste. Conductive thermal losses were determined to range from 13 to 1111MJ/m(3)yr. The data and analysis provided in this review paper can be used in the investigation of heat generation and thermal regime of a wide range of wastes and waste containment facilities located in different climatic regions.

  8. Methane generation from waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  9. Estimation of construction waste generation and management in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kofoworola, Oyeshola Femi; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2009-02-01

    This study examines construction waste generation and management in Thailand. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2005, an average of 1.1 million tons of construction waste was generated per year in Thailand. This constitutes about 7.7% of the total amount of waste disposed in both landfills and open dumpsites annually during the same period. Although construction waste constitutes a major source of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling are yet to be effectively practiced in Thailand. Recently, the management of construction waste is being given attention due to its rapidly increasing unregulated dumping in undesignated areas, and recycling is being promoted as a method of managing this waste. If effectively implemented, its potential economic and social benefits are immense. It was estimated that between 70 and 4,000 jobs would have been created between 2002 and 2005, if all construction wastes in Thailand had been recycled. Additionally it would have contributed an average savings of about 3.0 x 10(5) GJ per year in the final energy consumed by the construction sector of the nation within the same period based on the recycling scenario analyzed. The current national integrated waste management plan could enhance the effective recycling of construction and demolition waste in Thailand when enforced. It is recommended that an inventory of all construction waste generated in the country be carried out in order to assess the feasibility of large scale recycling of construction and demolition waste.

  10. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities.

  11. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form.

  12. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg.

  13. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Nancy V.

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  14. Hydrogen generation in tru waste transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B; Sheaffer, M K; Fischer, L E

    2000-03-27

    This document addresses hydrogen generation in TRU waste transportation packages. The potential sources of hydrogen generation are summarized with a special emphasis on radiolysis. After defining various TRU wastes according to groupings of material types, bounding radiolytic G-values are established for each waste type. Analytical methodologies are developed for prediction of hydrogen gas concentrations for various packaging configurations in which hydrogen generation is due to radiolysis. Representative examples are presented to illustrate how analytical procedures can be used to estimate the hydrogen concentration as a function of time. Methodologies and examples are also provided to show how the time to reach a flammable hydrogen concentration in the innermost confinement layer can be estimated. Finally, general guidelines for limiting the hydrogen generation in the payload and hydrogen accumulation in the innermost confinement layer are described.

  15. Waste tank deflagration source generation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Paddleford, D.F.; Thomas, J.K.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the models employed and analyses performed to estimate the source terms which would result from deflagrations in waste storage and processing tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). It should be noted that SRS waste tank deflagrations are very low probability events. The three main source generation mechanisms associated with waste tank deflagrations are: (1) entrainment from the liquid surface, (2) vaporization from the liquid surface, and (3) solids fire ignited as a result of the deflagration. The results of this work show that entrainment would be the dominant source term generation mode for cases where the liquid waste solution level is near the vent path. Vaporization would be the dominant mode for cases where the liquid level is lower. The maximum vaporization source term is approximately an order of magnitude less than that maximum entrainment source term. The source term associated with a solids fire would be insignificant in comparison.

  16. Use of waste rubber as concrete additive.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang Hsing; Lu, Chun-Ku; Chang, Jen-Ray; Lee, Maw Tien

    2007-02-01

    For resource reutilization, scrap tyres have long been investigated as an additive to concrete to form 'Rubcrete' for various applications and have shown promising results. However, the addition of rubber particles leads to the degradation of physical properties, particularly, the compressive strength of the concrete. In this study, a theoretical model was proposed to shed light on the mechanisms of decrease in compressive strength due to the addition of rubber particles as well as improvement in compressive strength through modification of particle surfaces. The literature suggests that the compressive strength can be improved by soaking the rubber particles in alkaline solution first to increase the inter-phase bonding between the rubber particles and cement. Instead, we discovered that the loss in compressive strength was due to local imperfections in the hydration of cement, induced by the addition of heterogeneous and hydrophobic rubber particles. Microscopic studies showed that the rubber particles disturbed the water transfer to create channels, which were prone to cracking and led to a loss in the compressive strength. Unexpectedly, no cracking was found along the surfaces of the rubber particles, indicating that the bonding strength between the rubber particles and cement phases was not the critical factor in determining the compressive strength. Therefore, a theoretical model was proposed to describe the water transfer in the Rubcrete specimens to explain the experimental data. In the model, the local water available for hydration (Q) is: Q = -A(slv)/6piv, where Q, A(slv), and v are mass flow rate (kg s(-1)), Hamaker constant (J), and dynamic viscosity (m2 s(-1)), respectively. By maximizing the quantity Q and, in turn, the Hamaker constant A(slv), the compressive strength could be improved. The Hamaker constant A(slv) for water film on rubber particle surfaces was smaller than that for the hydrated cement particles; the water transfer rate was lower in

  17. Method for generating heat from waste fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, F.H.; Lefcort, M.D.; Rada, P.

    1981-11-17

    A combustion method is disclosed in which heat is generated from particulate laden combustible gas containing mineral matter created from gasifying waste wood, coke or other combustible material. The waste is fed into a pile, under-fire combustion air dries and gasifies the waste, oxidizing the fixed carbon in a first chamber to generate heat at a temperature less than the melting temperature of the non-combustible material so as not to form slag. Air is added in the first chamber in an amount less than stoichiometric with the air introduced in a swirling fashion to move the particulate laterally away from the discharge of the primary chamber, impeding the movement of this particulate also by adding secondary combustion air in a downward swirling direction in the secondary chamber so that very little noncombustible material reaches the second chamber where melting can occur.

  18. Next Generation Bare Base Waste Processing System (Phase 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Generation in the United States in 1994 ............. 10 Table 5.3.1.2 Estimated Bare Base Solid Waste Generation...with municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates reported in contemporary literature. Liquid waste stream estimates were made using generally...Therefore, information regarding municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the United States was also used to derive estimates of the amount and nature ofthe

  19. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site`s inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons.

  20. Solid waste electrical generating feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The feasibility of recommissioning the existing 3 megawatt steam turbine driven electrical generator of the Municipal Utilities of Valley City, North Dakota, using steam generated in a new facility from the incineration of municipal solid waste generated in the area is examined. It is concluded that (1) there is sufficient municipal solid waste that can be obtained from Valley City, Moorhead and Jamestown (and/or West Fargo) to fuel the plant; (2) the seasonal fluctuation in the amounts of municipal solid waste indicates that a supplementary source of fuel for use during winter would increase plant efficiency; (3) the probable capital cost of the project will be $3,590,000.00; (4) the cost of production of electricity could range from 3.72 cents/kWh to 4.90 cents/kWh, depending on the construction costs, interest rate, lifetime of the project, availability for the plant and steam produced per ton of municipal solid waste; (5) there is no compelling reason why the tertiary cell of the sewage lagoon, cannot be used for cooling water; (6) the State Health Department is ambivalent toward the project; and (7) the public perception of the project is positive. 92 references.

  1. Glassy slags for minimum additive waste stabilization. Interim progress report, May 1993--February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Gong, M.; Emery, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    Glassy slag waste forms are being developed to complement glass waste forms in implementing Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) for supporting DOE`s environmental restoration efforts. The glassy slag waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. The MAWS approach was adopted by blending multiple waste streams to achieve up to 100% waste loadings. The crystalline phases, such as spinels, are very durable and contain hazardous and radioactive elements in their lattice structures. These crystalline phases may account for up to 80% of the total volume of slags having over 80% metal loading. The structural bond strength model was used to quantify the correlation between glassy slag composition and chemical durability so that optimized slag compositions were obtained with limited crucible melting and testing. Slag compositions developed through crucible melts were also successfully generated in a pilot-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace at Ukiah, California. Utilization of glassy slag waste forms allows the MAWS approach to be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than glass waste forms. The initial work at ANL has indicated that glassy slags are good final waste forms because of (1) their high chemical durability; (2) their ability to incorporate large amounts of metal oxides; (3) their ability to incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components; (4) their less stringent requirements on processing parameters, compared to glass waste forms; and (5) their low requirements for purchased additives, which means greater waste volume reduction and treatment cost savings.

  2. Solid waste electrical generating feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The feasibility of recommissioning the existing 3 megawatt steam turbine driven electrical generator of the Municipal Utilities of Valley City, North Dakota, using steam generated in a new facility from the incineration of municipal solid waste generated in the area is examined. It is concluded that (1) there is sufficient municipal solid waste that can be obtained from Valley City, Moorhead and Jamestown (and/or West Fargo) to fuel the plant; (2) the seasonal fluctuation in the amounts of municipal solid waste indicates that a supplementary source of fuel for use during winter would increase plant efficiency; (3) the probable capital cost of the project will be $3,590,000.00; (4) the cost of production of electricity could range from 3.72 cents/kWh to 4.90 cents/kWh, depending on the construction costs, interest rate, lifetime of the project, availability for the plant and steam produced per ton of municipal solid waste; (5) there is no compelling reason why the tertiary cell of the sewage lagoon, cannot be used for cooling water; (6) the State Health Department is ambivalent toward the project; and (7) the public perception of the project is positive. The recommendations include (1) obtain the blessing of the appropriate authorities to proceed to the next steps; (2) obtain letters of intent to commit their municipal solid waste stream to this project from other municipalities; (3) develop a complete and detailed ''Request for Proposals'' based on demonstrated performance; and (4) explore vigorously the possibilities of grant monies to offset part of the cost. 92 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Hazardous Waste Generator Regulations: A User-Friendly Reference Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    User-friendly reference to assist EPA and state staff, industrial facilities generating and managing hazardous wastes as well as the general public, in locating and understanding RCRA hazardous waste generator regulations.

  4. A Study on Optimal Operation of Power Generation by Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Hideo; Aoyagi, Yoshihiro; Kato, Masakazu

    This paper proposes the optimal operation of power generation by waste. Refuse is taken as a new energy resource of biomass. Although some fossil fuel origin refuse like plastic may be mixed in, CO2 emission is not counted up except for above fossil fuel origin refuse for the Kyoto Protocol. Incineration is indispensable for refuse disposal and power generation by waste is environment-friendly and power system-friendly using synchronous generators. Optimal planning is a key point to make much of this merit. The optimal plan includes refuse incinerator operation plan with refuse collection and maintenance scheduling of refuse incinerator plant. In this paper, it has been made clear that the former plan increases generation energy through numerical simulations. Concerning the latter plan, a method to determine the maintenance schedule using genetic algorithm has been established. In addition, taking environmental load of CO2 emission into account, this is expected larger merits from environment and energy resource points of view.

  5. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm.

  6. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This fourth Annual Report presents and analyzes 1995 DOE complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 40 reporting sites in 25 States, and trends DOE waste generation from 1991 through 1995. DOE has established a 50% reduction goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, due by December 31, 1999. Routine operations waste generation decreased 37% from 1994 to 1995, and 43% overall from 1993--1995.

  7. Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Keri B; Ducey, Thomas; Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G

    2008-11-01

    The use of biological and thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies in livestock waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels. The primary objective of this work is to present established and emerging energy conversion opportunities that can transform the treatment of livestock waste from a liability to a profit center. While biological production of methanol and hydrogen are in early research stages, anaerobic digestion is an established method of generating between 0.1 to 1.3m3m(-3)d(-1) of methane-rich biogas. The TCC processes of pyrolysis, direct liquefaction, and gasification can convert waste into gaseous fuels, combustible oils, and charcoal. Integration of biological and thermal-based conversion technologies in a farm-scale hybrid design by combining an algal CO2-fixation treatment requiring less than 27,000m2 of treatment area with the energy recovery component of wet gasification can drastically reduce CO2 emissions and efficiently recycle nutrients. These designs have the potential to make future large scale confined animal feeding operations sustainable and environmentally benign while generating on-farm renewable energy.

  8. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This sixth Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 36 reporting sites from 1993 through 1997. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December 31, 1999. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation increased three percent from 1996 to 1997, and decreased 61 percent overall from 1993 to 1997. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1997 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. However, it is important to note that increases in low-level radioactive and low-level mixed waste generation could reverse this achievement. From 1996 to 1997, low-level radioactive waste generation increased 10 percent, and low-level mixed waste generation increased slightly. It is critical that DOE sites continue to reduce routine operations waste generation for all waste types, to ensure that DOE`s Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals are achieved by December 31, 1999.

  9. Analysis of Additive Random Number Generators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    linear congruential generators yn*\\* ayn+bmo,iPa- The simplest example of a sequence satisfying (1.1) with *> I is the Fibonacci sequence with p - 2...However, the Fibonacci sequence is not a suitable random number generator because successive triples are very poorly distributed in three...number generator should have small discrepancy. Definition 2.1 can be extended naturally to define discrepancy for sequences of points yn lying in

  10. Waste Generated from LMR-AMTEC Reactor Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Ahmed; Mohamed, Yasser, T.; Mohammaden, Tarek, F.

    2003-02-25

    The candidate Liquid Metal Reactor-Alkali Metal Thermal -to- Electric Converter (LMR-AMTEC) is considered to be the first reactor that would use pure liquid potassium as a secondary coolant, in which potassium vapor aids in the conversion of thermal energy to electric energy. As with all energy production, the thermal generation of electricity produces wastes. These wastes must be managed in ways which safeguard human health and minimize their impact on the environment. Nuclear power is the only energy industry, which takes full responsibility for all its wastes. Based on the candidate design of the LMR-AMTEC components and the coolant types, different wastes will be generated from LMR. These wastes must be classified and characterized according to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulation, CFR. This paper defines the waste generation and waste characterization from LMR-AMTEC and reviews the applicable U.S. regulations that govern waste transportation, treatment, storage and final disposition. The wastes generated from LMR-AMTEC are characterized as: (1) mixed waste which is generated from liquid sodium contaminated by fission products and activated corrosion products; (2) hazardous waste which is generated from liquid potassium contaminated by corrosion products; (3) spent nuclear fuel; and (4) low-level radioactive waste which is generated from the packing materials (e.g. activated carbon in cold trap and purification units). The regulations and management of these wastes are summarized in this paper.

  11. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-09-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments.

  12. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes.

  13. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

  14. Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast.

  15. Use of boron waste as an additive in red bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, T.; Arol, A.I

    2004-07-01

    In boron mining and processing operations, large amounts of clay containing tailings have to be discarded. Being rich in boron, the tailings do not only cause economical loss but also pose serious environmental problems. Large areas have to be allocated for waste disposal. In order to alleviate this problem, the possibility of using clayey tailings from a borax concentrator in red brick manufacturing was investigated. Up to 30% by weight tailings addition was found to improve the brick quality.

  16. Use of boron waste as an additive in red bricks.

    PubMed

    Uslu, T; Arol, A I

    2004-01-01

    In boron mining and processing operations, large amounts of clay containing tailings have to be discarded. Being rich in boron, the tailings do not only cause economical loss but also pose serious environmental problems. Large areas have to be allocated for waste disposal. In order to alleviate this problem, the possibility of using clayey tailings from a borax concentrator in red brick manufacturing was investigated. Up to 30% by weight tailings addition was found to improve the brick quality.

  17. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H{sub 2}. CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}0, NO, and NH{sub 3}. For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and NO.

  18. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Chang, Jie

    2008-11-01

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na2CO3, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 degrees C to 600 degrees C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 degrees C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 degrees C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) approximately 205 degrees C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na2CO3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  19. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  20. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  1. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  2. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  3. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant.

  4. Using of borosilicate glass waste as a cement additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Weiwei; Sun, Tao; Li, Xinping; Sun, Mian; Lu, Yani

    2016-08-01

    Borosilicate glass waste is investigated as a cement additive in this paper to improve the properties of cement and concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength and radiation shielding. The results demonstrate that borosilicate glass is an effective additive, which not only improves the radiation shielding properties of cement paste, but also shows the irradiation effect on the mechanical and optical properties: borosilicate glass can increase the compressive strength and at the same time it makes a minor impact on the setting time and main mineralogical compositions of hydrated cement mixtures; and when the natural river sand in the mortar is replaced by borosilicate glass sand (in amounts from 0% to 22.2%), the compressive strength and the linear attenuation coefficient firstly increase and then decrease. When the glass waste content is 14.8%, the compressive strength is 43.2 MPa after 28 d and the linear attenuation coefficient is 0.2457 cm-1 after 28 d, which is beneficial for the preparation of radiation shielding concrete with high performances.

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  6. Gas generation results and venting study for transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Arnold, P.M.; Simmons, W.C.; D'Amico, E.L.

    1985-09-23

    Sixteen waste drums, containing six categories of plutonium-contaminated waste, were monitored for venting and gas generation for six months. The venting devices tested appeared adequate to relieve pressure and prevent hydrogen accumulation. Most of the gas generation, primarily H2 and CO2, was due to radiolytic decomposition of the hydrogenous wastes. Comparison of the gas yields with those obtained previously in laboratory tests showed very reasonable agreement with few exceptions.

  7. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated tru waste certification. Final revised version 3/97

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from many of the expensive characterization activities associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying most of its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form.

  8. Medical and Biohazardous Waste Generator's Guide (Revision2)

    SciTech Connect

    Waste Management Group

    2006-11-29

    These guidelines describe procedures to comply with all Federal and State laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) policy applicable to State-regulated medical and unregulated, but biohazardous, waste (medical/biohazardous waste). These guidelines apply to all LBNL personnel who: (1) generate and/or store medical/biohazardous waste, (2) supervise personnel who generate medical/biohazardous waste, or (3) manage a medical/biohazardous waste pickup location. Personnel generating biohazardous waste at the Joint Genome Institute/Production Genomics Facility (JGI/PGF) are referred to the guidelines contained in Section 9. Section 9 is the only part of these guidelines that apply to JGI/PGF. Medical/biohazardous waste referred to in this Web site includes biohazardous, sharps, pathological and liquid waste. Procedures for proper storage and disposal are summarized in the Solid Medical/Biohazardous Waste Disposal Procedures Chart. Contact the Waste Management Group at 486-7663 if you have any questions regarding medical/biohazardous waste management.

  9. Seasonal generation and composition of garden waste in Aarhus (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    Garden waste generation and composition were studied in Aarhus, Denmark. The amount of garden waste generated varied seasonally, from 2.5kgperson(-1)month(-1) in winter to 19.4kgperson(-1)month(-1) in summer. Seasonal fractional composition and chemical characterization of garden waste were determined by sorting and sampling garden waste eight times during 1year. On a yearly basis, the major fraction of garden waste was "small stuff" (flowers, grass clippings, hedge cuttings and soil) making up more than 90% (wet waste distribution) during the summer. The woody fractions (branches, wood) are more significant during the winter. Seasonal trends in waste chemical composition were recorded and an average annual composition of garden waste was calculated, considering the varying monthly generation and material fraction composition: the wet garden waste contained 40% water, 30% organic matter (VS) and 30% ash. The ash content suggests that the garden waste contains a significant amount of soil. This is in particular the case during summer. Of nutrients, the garden waste contained in average on a dry matter basis 0.6% N, 0.1% P, and 1.0% K. However, the contents varied significantly among the fractions and during the year. The content of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was low.

  10. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    PubMed

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain.

  11. Production of sodalite waste forms by addition of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, C.

    1995-05-01

    Spent nuclear fuel can be treated in a molten salt electrorefiner for conversion into metal and mineral waste forms for geologic disposal. Sodalite is one of the mineral waste forms under study. Fission products in the molten salt are ion-exchanged into zeolite A, which is converted to sodalite and consolidated. Sodalite can be formed directly from mixtures of salt and zeolite A at temperatures above 975 K; however, nepheline is usually produced as a secondary phase. Addition of small amounts of glass frit to the mixture reduced nepheline formation significantly. Loss of fission products was not observed for reaction below 1000 K. Hot-pressing of the sodalite powders yielded dense pellets ({approximately}2.3 g/cm{sup 3}) without any loss of fission product species. Normalized release rates were below 1 g/m{sup 2}{center_dot}day for pre-washed samples in 28-day leach tests based on standard MCC-1 tests but increased with the presence of free salt on the sodalite.

  12. Mathematical modeling to predict residential solid waste generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda Benitez, Sara; Vega, Carolina Armijo de

    2008-07-01

    One of the challenges faced by waste management authorities is determining the amount of waste generated by households in order to establish waste management systems, as well as trying to charge rates compatible with the principle applied worldwide, and design a fair payment system for households according to the amount of residential solid waste (RSW) they generate. The goal of this research work was to establish mathematical models that correlate the generation of RSW per capita to the following variables: education, income per household, and number of residents. This work was based on data from a study on generation, quantification and composition of residential waste in a Mexican city in three stages. In order to define prediction models, five variables were identified and included in the model. For each waste sampling stage a different mathematical model was developed, in order to find the model that showed the best linear relation to predict residential solid waste generation. Later on, models to explore the combination of included variables and select those which showed a higher R{sup 2} were established. The tests applied were normality, multicolinearity and heteroskedasticity. Another model, formulated with four variables, was generated and the Durban-Watson test was applied to it. Finally, a general mathematical model is proposed to predict residential waste generation, which accounts for 51% of the total.

  13. Waste-to-energy generation increases

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    1995-06-01

    Accoding to a study by Government Advisory Associates Inc. (GAA), wse-to-energy (WTE) facilities located in the US have a generating capacity of 2,963 MW. Another 797 MW will soon be added to this capacity by facilities that are currently under construction or in the advanced planning stages. Capacity will increase by 435 MW if current conceptual sites pan out.Even though fewer WTE projects are being planned, there are more WTE facilities now open than at any time in US history. Electricity is the single energy product for almost half the WTE facilities that are now operating. Most of the facilities are owned by private companies, municipalities or counties. The main purpose of WTE facilities has been, and still is, to reduce the amount of wste that must be buried in landfills. The production of energy has simply reduced waste disposal costs. The sale of electricity involves considerably less financial risk to plant developers since the market for electricity is far more stable. It is still not yet proven that a commercial facility is economically competitive, but it is expected to be less than the cost of using natural gas.

  14. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  15. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas.

  16. Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian

    2010-03-01

    The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation.

  17. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

  18. Estimation of construction and demolition waste volume generation in new residential buildings in Spain.

    PubMed

    Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; Porras-Amores, César

    2012-02-01

    The management planning of construction and demolition (C&D) waste uses a single indicator which does not provide enough detailed information. Therefore the determination and implementation of other innovative and precise indicators should be determined. The aim of this research work is to improve existing C&D waste quantification tools in the construction of new residential buildings in Spain. For this purpose, several housing projects were studied to determine an estimation of C&D waste generated during their construction process. This paper determines the values of three indicators to estimate the generation of C&D waste in new residential buildings in Spain, itemizing types of waste and construction stages. The inclusion of two more accurate indicators, in addition to the global one commonly in use, provides a significant improvement in C&D waste quantification tools and management planning.

  19. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities.

  20. Fuel cells for power generation and waste treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gair, S.; Cruden, A.; McDonald, J.; Hegarty, T.; Chesshire, M.

    It is now becoming increasingly clear that the in situ use of biomass and organic waste streams are likely to provide the key to energy self sustainability for islands and remote communities. Traditionally biofuels have been used in combustion engines for electric power generation, however, when replaced by fuel cells there is the prospect of achieving higher generating efficiencies, coupled with, in some instances, the opportunity to produce biofuel at a cheaper rate than conventional fuels. Additionally, important environmental benefits can be achieved by way of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, whilst providing a carbon sink. This paper presents the design details of such an installation that will provide a practical solution on an island (and be applicable in other remote and rural areas) where connection to the grid can be expensive, and where biofuels can be produced on site at no significant extra cost.

  1. Radioactive waste acceptance team and generator interface yields successful implementation of waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.G.; Griffin, W.A.; Rast, D.M.

    1996-02-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project has developed a successful Low Level Waste Shipping Program in compliance with the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325, Revision 1. This shipping program is responsible for the successful disposal of more than 4 million cubic feet of Low Level Waste over the past decade. The success of the Fernald Low Level Waste Shipping Program is due to the generator program staff working closely with the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program Team to achieve win/win situations. The teamwork is the direct result of dedicated, proactive professionals working together toward a common objective: the safe disposition of low level radioactive waste. The growth and development of this program has many lessons learned to share with the low level waste generating community. The recognition of reciprocal interests enables consistently high annual volumes of Fernald waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site without incident. The large volumes successfully disposed serve testimony to the success of the program which is equally important to all Nevada Test Site and Fernald stakeholders. The Fernald approach to success is currently being shared with other low-level waste generators through DOE-NV sponsored outreach programs. This paper introduces examples of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation contributions to the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program outreach initiatives. These practices are applicable to other low level waste disposal programs whether federal, commercial, domestic or international.

  2. Effect of Olive-mill Waste Addition to Soil on Sorption, Persistence, and Leaching of the Herbicide Fluometuron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic amendment addition to agricultural soils is an agronomic practice that can greatly affect the behavior of pesticides. Olive-mill waste (OMW) is an organic residue generated in great amounts in olive oil producing countries, and its addition to agricultural soils has been proposed as an alter...

  3. Factors determining waste generation in Spanish towns and cities.

    PubMed

    Prades, Miriam; Gallardo, Antonio; Ibàñez, Maria Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the generation and composition of municipal solid waste in Spanish towns and cities with more than 5000 inhabitants, which altogether account for 87% of the Spanish population. To do so, the total composition and generation of municipal solid waste fractions were obtained from 135 towns and cities. Homogeneity tests revealed heterogeneity in the proportions of municipal solid waste fractions from one city to another. Statistical analyses identified significant differences in the generation of glass in cities of different sizes and in the generation of all fractions depending on the hydrographic area. Finally, linear regression models and residuals analysis were applied to analyze the effect of different demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic variables on the generation of waste fractions. The conclusions show that more densely populated towns, a hydrographic area, and cities with over 50,000 inhabitants have higher waste generation rates, while certain socioeconomic variables (people/car) decrease that generation. Other socioeconomic variables (foreigners and unemployment) show a positive and null influence on that waste generation, respectively.

  4. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment... General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality Assurance Programs at Waste Generator Sites. The Agency will...

  5. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment... General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality Assurance Programs at Waste Generator Sites. The Agency will...

  6. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment... General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality Assurance Programs at Waste Generator Sites. The Agency will...

  7. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment... General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality Assurance Programs at Waste Generator Sites. The Agency will...

  8. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment... General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality Assurance Programs at Waste Generator Sites. The Agency will...

  9. Medical and biohazardous waste generator`s guide: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Guide describes the procedures required to comply with all federal and state laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) policy applicable to medical and biohazardous waste. The members of the LBL Biological Safety Subcommittee participated in writing these policies and procedures. The procedures and policies in this Guide apply to LBL personnel who work with infectious agents or potentially infectious agents, publicly perceived infectious items or materials (e.g., medical gloves, culture dishes), and sharps (e.g., needles, syringes, razor blades). If medical or biohazardous waste is contaminated or mixed with a hazardous chemical or material, with a radioactive material, or with both, the waste will be handled in accordance with the applicable federal and State of California laws and regulations for hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste.

  10. SECONDARY LOW-LEVEL WASTE GENERATION RATE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D. LaRue

    1999-05-10

    The objective of this design analysis is -to update the assessment of estimated annual secondary low-level waste (LLW) generation rates resulting from the repackaging of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) for disposal at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis supports the preparation of documentation necessary for license application (LA) for the MGR. For the purposes of this analysis, secondary LLW is defined, in brief terms, as LLW generated as a direct result of processing SNF/HLW through the receiving and repackaging operations. The current Waste Handling Building (WHB) design is based on the predominant movement of fuel assemblies through the wet handling lines within the WHB. Dry handling lines are also included in the current WHB design to accommodate canistered waste (i.e., SNF and/or HLW packages). Major input changes to this analysis in comparison to previous analyses include: (1) changes in the SNF/HLW arrival schedules; (2) changes to the WHB and the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) dimensions; and (3) changes in operational staff sizes within the WHB and WTB. The rates generated in this analysis can be utilized to define necessary waste processes, waste flow rates, and equipment sizes for the processing of secondary LLW for proper disposal. This analysis is based on the present reference design, i.e., Viability Assessment (VA) design, and present projections on spent fuel delivery and processing. LLW generation rates, for both liquids and solids, are a direct function of square footages in radiological areas, and a direct function of spent fuel throughput. Future changes in the approved reference design or spent fuel throughput will directly impact the LLW generation rates defined in this analysis. Small amounts of wastes other than LLW may be generated on a non-routine basis. These wastes may include transuranic (TRU), hazardous, and mixed wastes. Although the objective of this analysis is to define LLW waste generation

  11. Estimating maquiladora hazardous waste generation on the U.S./Mexico border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Mace M.; Kontuly, Thomas; Hepner, George F.

    1995-03-01

    Maquiladoras, manufacturing plants that primarily assemble foreign components for reexport, are located in concentrations along the northern frontier of the US/Mexico border. These plants process a wide variety of materials using modern industrial technologies within the context of developing world institutions and infrastructure. Hazardous waste generation by maquiladoras represents a critical environmental management issue because of the spatial concentration of these plants in border municipalities where the infrastructure for waste management is nonexistent or poor. These border municipalities contain rapidly increasing populations, which further stress their waste handling infrastructure capacities while exposing their populations to greater contaminant risks. Limited empirical knowledge exists concerning hazardous waste types and generation rates from maquiladorsas. There is no standard reporting method for waste generation or methodology for estimating generation rates at this time. This paper presents a method that can be used for the rapid assessment of hazardous waste generation. A first approximation of hazardous waste generation is produced for maquiladoras in the three municipalities of Nogales, Sonora, Mexicali, Baja California, and Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, using the INVENT model developed by the World Bank. In addition, our intent is to evaluate the potential of the INVENT model for adaptation to the US/Mexico border industrial situation. The press of border industrial development, especially with the recent adoption of the NAFTA, make such assessments necessary as a basis for the environmental policy formulation and management needed in the immediate future.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF WASTE RAG GENERATION AT NAVAL STATION MAYPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of an investigation examining pollution prevention alternatives for reducing the volume of waste rags generated at Naval Station Mayport, located near Jacksonville Beach, Florida. he report recommends five specific pollution prevention alternative...

  13. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report.

  14. Estimating the magnitude of food waste generated in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oelofse, Suzan Hh; Nahman, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between a third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted globally are constrained by limited data, particularly from developing countries. This article attempts to quantify total food waste generation (including both pre-consumer food losses, as well as post-consumer food waste) in South Africa. The estimates are based on available food supply data for South Africa and on estimates of average food waste generation at each step of the food supply chain for sub-Saharan Africa. The preliminary estimate of the magnitude of food waste generation in South Africa is in the order of 9.04 million tonnes per annum. On a per capita basis, overall food waste in South Africa in 2007 is estimated at 177 kg/capita/annum and consumption waste at 7 kg/capita/annum. However, these preliminary figures should be used with caution and are subject to verification through ongoing research.

  15. Regulatory compliance by small-quantity generators of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deyle, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    While small quantity and very small quantity generators of hazardous waste (SQCs and VSQGs) are responsible for less than one percent of the total hazardous waste produced, mismanagement of even small quantities of many types of hazardous waste can cause significant local impacts. Most SQGs and VSQGs are also small businesses. They are presumed to face significant time, expertise, and other resource constraints in complying with legally and technically complex regulations such as those that govern hazardous waste management. A sample of 400 SQGs and VSQGs in New Jersey was surveyed to assess policy options for two policy issues identified by the New Jersey Hazardous Waste Facilities Siting Commission: (1) enhancing regulatory compliance by SQGs, and (2) promoting voluntary adherence with hazardous waste regulations by VSQGs in the state. The analysis empirically tests hypotheses based on the rational utility maximization and bounded rationality models of individual and organizational decision making and compliance behavior.

  16. Improving green waste composting by addition of sugarcane bagasse and exhausted grape marc.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-10-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic waste into compost is a potential way of sustainably disposing of a waste while generating a useful product. The current study determined whether the addition of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) (at 0, 15, and 25%) and/or exhausted grape marc (EGM) (at 0, 10, and 20%) improved the two-stage composting of green waste (GW). The combined addition of SCB and EGM improved composting conditions and the quality of the compost product in terms of temperature, water-holding capacity, particle-size distribution, coarseness index, pH, electrical conductivity, water-extractable organic carbon and nitrogen, microbial numbers, enzymatic activities, polysaccharide and lignin content, nutrient content, respiration, and phytotoxicity. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with the combined addition of 15% SCB and 20% EGM. With the optimized two-stage composting method, the compost matured in only 21days rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting.

  17. Assessing the addition of mineral processing waste to green waste-derived compost: an agronomic, environmental and economic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Chesworth, S; Khalid, M; Iqbal, Z

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of mixing two large volume wastes, namely mineral processing waste and source-segregated green waste compost, on the growth performance of plants targeted towards high (horticulture/agriculture) and low (amenity/restoration) value markets. The secondary aims were to evaluate the influence of mineral waste type on plant growth performance and to undertake a simple economic analysis of the use of mineral-compost mixtures in land restoration. Our results showed that in comparison to organic wastes, mineral wastes contained a low available nutrient content which reduces compost quality. This is supported by growth trials with tomato, wheat and grass which showed that, irrespective of mineral source, plants performed poorly in compost blended with mineral waste in comparison to those grown in green waste or peat-based compost alone. In terms of consumer confidence, unlike other wastes (e.g. biosolids and construction/demolition waste) the mineral quarry wastes can be expected to be free of potentially toxic elements, however, the production costs of compost-mineral waste mixtures and subsequent transport costs may limit its widespread use. In addition, handling of the material can be difficult under wet conditions and effective blending may require the purchase of specialist equipment. From our results, we conclude that mineral fines may prove useful for low quality, low value landscaping activities close to the source of production but are unsuited to high value markets.

  18. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  19. Audits of hazardous waste TSDFs let generators sleep easy. [Hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.H.

    1990-02-01

    Because of the increasingly strict enforcement of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), generators of hazardous waste are compelled to investigate the hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) they use. This investigation must include an environmental and a financial audit. Simple audits may be performed by the hazardous waste generator, while more thorough ones such as those performed for groups of generators are more likely to be conducted by environmental consultants familiar with treatment, storage, and disposal techniques and the regulatory framework that guides them.

  20. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  1. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  2. Medical waste generation in selected clinical facilities in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y W; Li, K-C; Sung, F C

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the type and amount of medical waste generated from small clinical facilities in Taiwan. We sampled 200 small medical establishments, with few or no patient beds, to survey the wastes generated and disposed. The surveyed medical facilities consisted of four groups including private clinics, medical laboratories, blood centers and public clinics. Private clinics providing surgical, dental, obstetrical, and dialysis services were included in this survey because they may generate higher amounts of infectious waste than other specialties. The overall mean general waste production rate was 3.97 kg/bed/day (or 0.075 kg/patient/day) at all the surveyed facilities, higher than that obtained from larger hospitals in Taiwan, which ranged from 2.41 to 3.26 kg/bed/day. The highest amount of infectious wastes generated among the four groups of facilities were from blood centers (3.14 kg/bed/day), followed by private clinics, medical laboratories and public clinics (1.91, 1.07, and 0.053 kg/bed/day, respectively). The overall average was 2.08 kg/bed/day. This study suggests that the waste generated at small medical facilities ranged widely.

  3. Contingency Base Camp Solid Waste Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    ket for plastic recycling ; as a result, the site had accumulated a large quan- tity of plastic bottles that could not be properly disposed of. Finally...compound ...................................................................... 11 6 Recycling bins at New Kabul Compound...4. Table 3-2, p. 3-14: This table presents planning factors for components of solid waste assuming none is being reused or recycled . Table 2 lists

  4. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations.

  5. Vitrification of F006 plating waste sludge by Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1994-06-01

    Solidification into glass of nickel-on-uranium plating wastewater treatment plant sludge (F006 Mixed Waste) has been demonstrated at the Savannah River She (SRS). Vitrification using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), greatly enhanced the solubility and retention of heavy metals In glass. The bench-scale tests using RASP achieved 76 wt% waste loading In both soda-lime-silica and borosilicate glasses. The RASP has been Independently verified by a commercial waste management company, and a contract awarded to vitrify the approximately 500,000 gallons of stored waste sludge. The waste volume reduction of 89% will greatly reduce the disposal costs, and delisting of the glass waste is anticipated. This will be the world`s first commercial-scale vitrification system used for environmental cleanup of Mixed Waste. Its stabilization and volume reduction abilities are expected to set standards for the future of the waste management Industry.

  6. Health care industries: potential generators of genotoxic waste.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Manish; Mathur, N; Singh, A; Bhatnagar, P; Sogani, M

    2013-08-01

    Health care waste includes all the waste generated by health care establishments, research facilities, and laboratories. This constitutes a variety of chemical substances, such as pharmaceuticals, radionuclides, solvents, and disinfectants. Recently, scientists and environmentalists have discovered that wastewater produced by hospitals possesses toxic properties due to various toxic chemicals and pharmaceuticals capable of causing environmental impacts and even lethal effects to organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Many of these compounds resist normal wastewater treatment and end up in surface waters. Besides aquatic organisms, humans can be exposed through drinking water produced from contaminated surface water. Indeed, some of the substances found in wastewaters are genotoxic and are suspected to be potential contributors to certain cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of wastewaters from two hospitals and three clinical diagnostic centers located in Jaipur (Rajasthan State), India using the prokaryotic Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames assay) and the eukaryotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiration inhibition assay. In the Ames assay, untreated wastewaters from both of the health care sectors resulted in significantly increased numbers of revertant colonies up to 1,000-4,050 as measured by the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains (with and without metabolic activation) after exposure to undiluted samples, which indicated the highly genotoxic nature of these wastewaters. Furthermore, both hospital and diagnostic samples were found to be highly cytotoxic. Effective concentrations at which 20 % (EC20) and 50 % (EC50) inhibition of the respiration rate of the cells occurred ranged between ~0.00 and 0.52 % and between 0.005 and 41.30 % (calculated with the help of the MS excel software XLSTAT 2012.1.01; Addinsoft), respectively, as determined by the S. cerevisiae assay. The results indicated that hospital

  7. Hong Kong plans new generation chemical waste plant for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J. )

    1991-02-01

    The first comprehensive chemical waste treatment facility in a Pacific Rim country is scheduled for completion in Hong Kong in early 1993. Designed to treat industrial chemical wastes generated in Hong Kong and vicinity, the plant will have an output consisting of environmentally safe materials, energy, and some recovered products. The new waste treatment facility will be located on Tsing-yi Island, which is connected to the New Territories by road, near Ha Kwai Chung. The island is close to the main harbor and western shipping channel, providing immediate access to the Pearl River and Guangzhou (Canton).

  8. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept.

  9. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for bioelectricity generation from organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, M Azizul; Omine, Kiyoshi; Yasufuku, Noriyuki; Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakata, Yukio

    2013-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gained a lot of attention recently as a mode of converting organic matter into electricity. In this study, a compost-based microbial fuel cell that generates bioelectricity by biodegradation of organic matter is developed. Grass cuttings, along with leaf mold, rice bran, oil cake (from mustard plants) and chicken droppings (waste from chickens) were used as organic waste. The electric properties of the MFC under anaerobic fermentation condition were investigated along with the influence of different types of membranes, the mixing of fly ash, and different types of electrode materials. It is observed that the maximum voltage was increased by mixing fly ash. Cellophane showed the highest value of voltage (around 350mV). Bamboo charcoal is good for anode material; however carbon fiber is better for the cathode material in terms of optimization of power generated. This developed MFC is a simple cell to generate electricity from organic waste.

  10. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  11. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. ); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. )

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  12. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.

  13. Effects of waste glass additions on quality of textile sludge-based bricks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ari; Urabe, Takeo; Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Mizuhara, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the utilization of textile sludge as a substitute for clay in brick production. The addition of textile sludge to a brick specimen enhanced its pores, thus reducing the quality of the product. However, the addition of waste glass to brick production materials improved the quality of the brick in terms of both compressive strength and water absorption. Maximum compressive strength was observed with the following composition of waste materials: 30% textile sludge, 60% clay and 10% waste glass. The melting of waste glass clogged up pores on the brick, which improved water absorption performance and compressive strength. Moreover, a leaching test on a sludge-based brick to which 10% waste glass did not detect significant heavy metal compounds in leachates, with the product being in conformance with standard regulations. The recycling of textile sludge for brick production, when combined with waste glass additions, may thus be promising in terms of both product quality and environmental aspects.

  14. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  15. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  16. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  17. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  18. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  19. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  20. Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S.; Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.

  1. Effect of vermiculite addition on compost produced from Korean food wastes.

    PubMed

    Seo, J Y; Heo, J S; Kim, T H; Joo, W H; Crohn, D M

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of vermiculite addition on composting food wastes from Korean households, food wastes were composted in three small bins to which different additives were added. The following three bins were employed: in Case I, only recycled compost was composted; in Case II, food wastes with recycled compost; and in Case III, food wastes with recycled compost and vermiculite. In the experiment performed for 30 days, it was confirmed that the supplementary addition of vermiculite to the composting mixture did not significantly improve the weight loss rate and the decomposition rate of food wastes. Due to dilution through the use of inorganic vermiculite, the vermiculite addition reduced the organic matter concentration of the composting mixtures. Vermiculite addition did not raise the pH value. Weight losses of roughly 70% were observed based on calculating moisture loss as well as dry food waste loss and not considering additives, while dry food waste loss was 29.4% and 35.8% with and without the addition of vermiculite, respectively. For these experiments, the major portion of the weight loss was the loss of water. The results indicate a need to differentiate between weight loss percentages and decomposition percentages, and a need to indicate if either of these percentages includes or excludes the mass of additives.

  2. Waste-heat steam generation is economically viable in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    McMann, F.C.; Marshall, R.W.

    1984-03-01

    Generation of electric power by turbine-driven generators serviced by waste heat boilers is not a blue sky dream. It is time-proven technology, employing time-proven equipment-equipment that is expected to run uninterrupted in fouryear cycles. This equipment and its control are made right here in the U.S. The equipment is very simple to operate and maintain. This article describes the applications of ceramics in this industry.

  3. Power generation opportunities for emerging waste conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Swanson, M.L.; Mann, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing quantities of wastes and more stringent disposal regulations combined with the public`s desire to see integrated waste management strategies have created an atmosphere of opportunity. A number of processes are being developed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) that offer solutions to the burgeoning waste problem. In the area of solid waste processing, municipal solid wastes have been carbonized and converted into a benign, high quality slurry fuel. Pelletizing and briquetting activities have produced high-quality solid fuels. Extensive efforts have been undertaken in market development for recycled materials, specializing in tertiary recycling of plastics. The issues facing systems for the conversion of opportunity fuels to energy have been addressed for both the combustion and gasification mode, using such diverse fuels as sewage sludge, wood chips, automotive shredder residue, and sunflower hulls. Conversion of biomass to direct-use fuels has also been an ongoing concern and a major focus of the EERC. The focus of this paper will be the identification of methods for converting wastes into valuable fuels or other ``products`` and how they can be used to enhance power generation options.

  4. NEXT GENERATION MELTER(S) FOR VITRIFICATION OF HANFORD WASTE STATUS AND DIRECTION

    SciTech Connect

    RAMSEY WG; GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; EDGE JA; GARRETT BG

    2011-01-13

    Vitrification technology has been selected to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site, the West Valley Demonstration Project and the Savannah River Site (SRS), and low activity waste (LAW) at Hanford. In addition, it may potentially be applied to other defense waste streams such as sodium bearing tank waste or calcine. Joule-heated melters (already in service at SRS) will initially be used at the Hanford Site's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to vitrify tank waste fractions. The glass waste content and melt/production rates at WTP are limited by the current melter technology. Significant reductions in glass volumes and mission life are only possible with advancements in melter technology coupled with new glass formulations. The Next Generation Melter (NGM) program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Environmental Management Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) to develop melters with greater production capacity (absolute glass throughput rate) and the ability to process melts with higher waste fractions. Advanced systems based on Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (JHCM) and Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technologies will be evaluated for HLW and LAW processing. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), DOE's tank waste contractor, is developing and evaluating these systems in cooperation with EM-31, national and university laboratories, and corporate partners. A primary NGM program goal is to develop the systems (and associated flowsheets) to Technology Readiness Level 6 by 2016. Design and testing are being performed to optimize waste glass process envelopes with melter and balance of plant requirements. A structured decision analysis program will be utilized to assess the performance of the competing melter technologies. Criteria selected for the decision analysis program will include physical process operations, melter performance, system compatibility and other parameters.

  5. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  6. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-07-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150{degrees}C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs.

  7. Microbiological study of methane generation from poultry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to investigate the biological potential of methane generation from two types of poultry waste: broiler chicken litter and laying hen manure. Through the systematic study, thermophilic bacterial cultures were initiated and established to produce methane at their highest rates. It was found that different kinds of waste with different chemical compositions required different operational conditions to reach the individual maximal potential. The microbiology of the methane-producing bacteria in the poultry waste-based anaerobic digester was studied. An enriched thermophilic methane-producing culture was isolated. The methanogenic culture can use acetate, ethanol, methylamine, propionate, and H/sub 2/-CO/sub 2/, but not formate and methanol, for growth and methanogenesis. The methanogenic culture was found to be a mixed culture from which a thermophilic Methanococcus sp. and an unidentified rod-shaped microorganism were isolated. The two organisms produced methane symbiotically in the acetate medium.

  8. Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt environment. One desirable mechanical characteristic of salt is that it flows plastically with time ("creeps"). The rate of salt creep is a strong function of temperature and stress differences. Higher temperatures and deviatoric stresses increase the creep rate. As the salt creeps, induced fractures may be closed and eventually healed, which then effectively seals the waste in place. With a backfill of crushed salt emplaced around the waste, the salt creep can cause the crushed salt to reconsolidate and heal to a state similar to intact salt, serving as an efficient seal. Experiments in the WIPP were conducted to investigate the effects of heat generation on the important phenomena and processes in and around the repository (Munson et al. 1987; 1990; 1992a; 1992b). Brine migration towards the heaters was induced from the thermal gradient, while salt creep rates showed an exponential dependence on temperature. The project "Backfill and Material Behavior in Underground Salt Repositories, Phase II" (BAMBUS II) studied the crushed salt backfill and material behavior with heat generation at the Asse mine located near Remlingen, Germany (Bechthold et al. 2004). Increased salt creep rates and significant reconsolidation of the crushed salt were observed at the termination of the experiment. Using the data provided from both projects, exploratory modeling of the thermal-mechanical response of salt has been conducted with varying thermal loading and waste spacing. Increased thermal loading and decreased waste spacing drive the system to higher temperatures, while both factors are desired to

  9. A Method to Evaluate Additional Waste Forms to Optimize Performance of the HLW Repository

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gombert; L. Lauerhass

    2006-02-01

    The DOE high-level waste (HLW) disposal system is based on decisions made in the 1970s. The de facto Yucca Mountain WAC for HLW, contained in the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD), and the DOE-EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification for Vitrified High Level Waste Forms (WAPS) tentatively describes waste forms to be interred in the repository, and limits them to borosilicate glass (BSG). It is known that many developed waste forms are as durable as or better than environmental assessment or “EA”-glass. Among them are the salt-ceramic and metallic waste forms developed at ANL-W. Also, iron phosphate glasses developed at University of Missouri show promise in stabilizing the most refractory materials in Hanford HLW. However, for any of this science to contribute, the current Total System Performance Assessment model must be able to evaluate the additional waste form to determine potential impacts on repository performance. The results can then support the technical bases required in the repository license application. A methodology is proposed to use existing analysis models to evaluate potential additional waste forms for disposal without gathering costly material specific degradation data. The concept is to analyze the potential impacts of waste form chemical makeup on repository performance assuming instantaneous waste matrix dissolution. This assumption obviates the need for material specific degradation models and is based on the relatively modest fractional contribution DOE HLW makes to the repository radionuclide and hazardous metals inventory. The existing analysis models, with appropriate data modifications, are used to evaluate geochemical interactions and material transport through the repository. This methodology would support early screening of proposed waste forms through simplified evaluation of disposal performance, and would provide preliminary guidance for repository license amendment in the future.

  10. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Phinney, David M; Frelka, John C; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schwartz, Steven J; Heldman, Dennis R

    2017-01-15

    Lycopene is a high value nutraceutical and its isolation from waste streams is often desirable to maximize profits. This research investigated solvent addition order and composition on lycopene extraction efficiency from a commercial tomato waste stream (pH 12.5, solids ∼5%) that was neutralized using membrane filtration. Constant volume dilution (CVD) was used to desalinate the caustic salt to neutralize the waste. Acetone, ethanol and hexane were used as direct or blended additions. Extraction efficiency was defined as the amount of lycopene extracted divided by the total lycopene in the sample. The CVD operation reduced the active alkali of the waste from 0.66 to <0.01M and the moisture content of the pulp increased from 93% to 97% (wet basis), showing the removal of caustic salts from the waste. Extraction efficiency varied from 32.5% to 94.5%. This study demonstrates a lab scale feasibility to extract lycopene efficiently from tomato processing byproducts.

  11. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of... small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity generator in a... small quantity generator's hazardous wastes are not subject to regulation under parts 262 through...

  12. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of... small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity generator in a... small quantity generator's hazardous wastes are not subject to regulation under parts 262 through...

  13. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of... small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity generator in a... small quantity generator's hazardous wastes are not subject to regulation under parts 262 through...

  14. Small-quantity generator's handbook for managing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Pesticide application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This RCRA Handbook was developed for pesticide applicators to provide assistance in complying with pertinent sections of the RCRA requirements. Section 2 summarizes operations of pesticide users and describes potential waste types that could be generated from these operations. Section 3 provides a guide for determining if a particular pesticide waste is subject to these regulations. Section 4 discusses the RCRA generator requirements, while Section 5 describes waste-management strategies for minimizing the amount of hazardous waste generated by the pesticide applicators. Appendix A lists hazardous wastes. Appendix B summarizes RCRA characteristic wastes. Appendix C contains a list of references and contacts for obtaining more information about hazardous wastes and their regulation.

  15. Car companies look to generate power from waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirber, Michael

    2008-04-01

    You might think that the steam engine is an outdated technology that had its heyday centuries ago, but in fact steam is once again a hot topic with vehicle manufacturers. Indeed, the next generation of hybrid cars and trucks may incorporate some form of steam power. Honda, for example, has just released details of a new prototype hybrid car that recharges its battery using a steam engine that exploits waste heat from the exhaust pipe.

  16. Future trends in computer waste generation in India.

    PubMed

    Dwivedy, Maheshwar; Mittal, R K

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the future projection of computer waste in India and to subsequently analyze their flow at the end of their useful phase. For this purpose, the study utilizes the logistic model-based approach proposed by Yang and Williams to forecast future trends in computer waste. The model estimates future projection of computer penetration rate utilizing their first lifespan distribution and historical sales data. A bounding analysis on the future carrying capacity was simulated using the three parameter logistic curve. The observed obsolete generation quantities from the extrapolated penetration rates are then used to model the disposal phase. The results of the bounding analysis indicate that in the year 2020, around 41-152 million units of computers will become obsolete. The obsolete computer generation quantities are then used to estimate the End-of-Life outflows by utilizing a time-series multiple lifespan model. Even a conservative estimate of the future recycling capacity of PCs will reach upwards of 30 million units during 2025. Apparently, more than 150 million units could be potentially recycled in the upper bound case. However, considering significant future investment in the e-waste recycling sector from all stakeholders in India, we propose a logistic growth in the recycling rate and estimate the requirement of recycling capacity between 60 and 400 million units for the lower and upper bound case during 2025. Finally, we compare the future obsolete PC generation amount of the US and India.

  17. Characterization of dolochar wastes generated by the sponge iron industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwari, Ranjan Kumar; Rao, Danda Srinivas; Swar, Akhila Kumar; Reddy, Palli Sita Ram; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-11-01

    Solid wastes generated by the metallurgical industry contribute significantly towards the enhancement of environmental pollution. The handling, utilization, and safe disposal of these solid wastes are major concerns for the world. Dolochar is such a solid waste generated by the sponge iron industry. Investigations were carried out on the physical, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics for the efficient utilization of dolochar. The detailed studies on physico-chemical properties and petrography were carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characterization studies revealed that the dolochar consists of quartz (free as well as locked), free lime, Fe particles, and Ca or Mg and/or Ca+Mg+Fe oxide phases. The washability data of -300 μm dolochar samples indicated that clean coal with 41wt% ash at 18% yield can be produced from dolochar with 78wt% ash. The studies further suggested that the liberation of the dolochar is hard to achieve for clear separation. The dolochar is observed to have high ash fusion temperature and the unburned carbon can be best utilized for power generation.

  18. Stimulation of methane generation from nonproductive coal by addition of nutrients or a microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elizabeth J P; Voytek, Mary A; Corum, Margo D; Orem, William H

    2010-11-01

    Biogenic formation of methane from coal is of great interest as an underexploited source of clean energy. The goal of some coal bed producers is to extend coal bed methane productivity and to utilize hydrocarbon wastes such as coal slurry to generate new methane. However, the process and factors controlling the process, and thus ways to stimulate it, are poorly understood. Subbituminous coal from a nonproductive well in south Texas was stimulated to produce methane in microcosms when the native population was supplemented with nutrients (biostimulation) or when nutrients and a consortium of bacteria and methanogens enriched from wetland sediment were added (bioaugmentation). The native population enriched by nutrient addition included Pseudomonas spp., Veillonellaceae, and Methanosarcina barkeri. The bioaugmented microcosm generated methane more rapidly and to a higher concentration than the biostimulated microcosm. Dissolved organics, including long-chain fatty acids, single-ring aromatics, and long-chain alkanes accumulated in the first 39 days of the bioaugmented microcosm and were then degraded, accompanied by generation of methane. The bioaugmented microcosm was dominated by Geobacter sp., and most of the methane generation was associated with growth of Methanosaeta concilii. The ability of the bioaugmentation culture to produce methane from coal intermediates was confirmed in incubations of culture with representative organic compounds. This study indicates that methane production could be stimulated at the nonproductive field site and that low microbial biomass may be limiting in situ methane generation. In addition, the microcosm study suggests that the pathway for generating methane from coal involves complex microbial partnerships.

  19. Stimulation of methane generation from nonproductive coal by addition of nutrients or a microbial consortium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Elizabeth J.P.; Voytek, Mary A.; Corum, Margo D.; Orem, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic formation of methane from coal is of great interest as an underexploited source of clean energy. The goal of some coal bed producers is to extend coal bed methane productivity and to utilize hydrocarbon wastes such as coal slurry to generate new methane. However, the process and factors controlling the process, and thus ways to stimulate it, are poorly understood. Subbituminous coal from a nonproductive well in south Texas was stimulated to produce methane in microcosms when the native population was supplemented with nutrients (biostimulation) or when nutrients and a consortium of bacteria and methanogens enriched from wetland sediment were added (bioaugmentation). The native population enriched by nutrient addition included Pseudomonas spp., Veillonellaceae, and Methanosarcina barkeri. The bioaugmented microcosm generated methane more rapidly and to a higher concentration than the biostimulated microcosm. Dissolved organics, including long-chain fatty acids, single-ring aromatics, and long-chain alkanes accumulated in the first 39 days of the bioaugmented microcosm and were then degraded, accompanied by generation of methane. The bioaugmented microcosm was dominated by Geobacter sp., and most of the methane generation was associated with growth of Methanosaeta concilii. The ability of the bioaugmentation culture to produce methane from coal intermediates was confirmed in incubations of culture with representative organic compounds. This study indicates that methane production could be stimulated at the nonproductive field site and that low microbial biomass may be limiting in situ methane generation. In addition, the microcosm study suggests that the pathway for generating methane from coal involves complex microbial partnerships.

  20. Gas Generation in Radioactive Wastes - MAGGAS Predictive Life Cycle Model

    SciTech Connect

    Streatfield, R.E.; Hebditch, D.J.; Swift, B.T.; Hoch, A.R.; Constable, M.

    2006-07-01

    Gases may form from radioactive waste in quantities posing different potential hazards throughout the waste package life cycle. The latter includes surface storage, transport, placing in an operating repository, storage in the repository prior to backfill, closure and the post-closure stage. Potentially hazardous situations involving gas include fire, flood, dropped packages, blocked package vents and disruption to a sealed repository. The MAGGAS (Magnox Gas generation) model was developed to assess gas formation for safety assessments during all stages of the waste package life cycle. This is a requirement of the U.K. regulatory authorities and Nirex and progress in this context is discussed. The processes represented in the model include: Corrosion, microbial degradation, radiolysis, solid-state diffusion, chemico-physical degradation and pressurisation. The calculation was split into three time periods. First the 'aerobic phase' is used to model the periods of surface storage, transport and repository operations including storage in the repository prior to backfill. The second and third periods were designated 'anaerobic phase 1' and 'anaerobic phase 2' and used to model the waste packages in the post-closure phase of the repository. The various significant gas production processes are modeled in each phase. MAGGAS (currently Version 8) is mounted on an Excel spreadsheet for ease of use and speed, has 22 worksheets and is operated routinely for assessing waste packages (e.g. for ventilation of stores and pressurisation of containers). Ten operational and decommissioning generic nuclear power station waste streams were defined as initial inputs, which included ion exchange materials, sludges and concentrates, fuel element debris, graphite debris, activated components, contaminated items, desiccants and catalysts. (authors)

  1. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 2000 [USDOE] [9th edition

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This ninth edition of the Annual Report of Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Progress highlights waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost savings/avoidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pollution Prevention Program for Fiscal Year 2000. This edition marks the first time that progress toward meeting the 2005 Pollution Prevention Goals, issued by the Secretary of Energy in November 1999, is being reported. In addition, the Annual Report has a new format, and now contains information on a fiscal year basis, which is consistent with other DOE reports.

  2. Waste management in Guangdong cities: the waste management literacy and waste reduction preferences of domestic waste generators.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shan-Shan; Lo, Carlos W H

    2004-05-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2002 on 1365 households in two prefectural-level cities in the Pearl River Delta, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. Three groups of issues are covered in this paper: 1) waste management literacy, concerns, and public participation; 2) waste recycling practices and the potential for waste avoidance; and 3) public environmental literacy. This study confirms findings from previous surveys and provides new information on important issues such as imposing monetary charges on waste and environmental activities, littering, source separation programs (SSPs), and public participation and expectations in local waste management. Saving up recyclable materials for redemption in waste depots is commonly practiced in mainland China regardless of the level of development of a city, although at the household level, high-income families tend to place less value on the revenues to be gained from redemption than lower income groups do. Data from the previous and the present studies indicate that such voluntary but largely economically driven waste recovery behavior diverts at least 10% of the household waste from the waste stream. Although uncompensated SSP is less appealing in the two cities than compensated SSP, it was found that when the median per capita income of a city reaches RMB2000 per month, a high participation rate for uncompensated waste recovery is more likely to occur. Education and income levels are the chief factors affecting littering behavior and the potential for waste avoidance. Contrary to general belief, the local Chinese community is active in microwaste management. The concern, however, is over the inability of the grassroots bureaucracy to deal with rising expectations for waste collection services and neighborhood cleanliness.

  3. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation.

  4. Gas generation and migration studies involving recently generated /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste for the TRU Waste Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zerwekh, A.; Warren, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    This study is part of the multicontractor TRU Waste Sampling Program. Radiolytically generated gases were vented through a filtering device to determine its effectiveness in maintaining hydrogen concentrations within acceptably safe levels. In the second part of the study measurements were made to determine the ability of these gases, particularly hydrogen, to migrate through a sealed rigid polyethylene drum liner. Void volumes in these drums were found to be generally in excess of 90%. The carbon composite filter was found to satisfactorily vent hydrogen up to moderately high levels of alpha activity in the waste substrate. The sealed 90-mil liner was found to inhibit, but not prevent, the migration of hydrogen and other radiolytically generated gases.

  5. Generation of construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    In line with the growing concern around the world about construction and demolition waste (CDW) management, an attempt has been made to quantify the amount of CDW generated in Portugal, a country where no reliable/official data exist. This is an increasingly important concern of companies, businesses and municipalities involved with CDW, in a context of rising demands and more demanding recent legislation. One methodology is presented to quantify the present generation, and another to extrapolate this generation over the next few years, up to 2020. It is concluded that at present substantially less CDW is generated than the figure usually cited for Portugal, based on Spanish estimates, although it is predicted that this value will be higher on a 10-15 year timescale, reaching over 400 kg person⁻¹ year⁻¹.

  6. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  7. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    PubMed

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  8. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL`s research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste.

  9. Reference Alloy Waste Form Fabrication and Initiation of Reducing Atmosphere and Reductive Additives Study on Alloy Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank; T.P. O'Holleran; P.A. Hahn

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the fabrication of two reference alloy waste forms, RAW-1(Re) and RAW-(Tc) using an optimized loading and heating method. The composition of the alloy materials was based on a generalized formulation to process various proposed feed streams resulting from the processing of used fuel. Waste elements are introduced into molten steel during alloy fabrication and, upon solidification, become incorporated into durable iron-based intermetallic phases of the alloy waste form. The first alloy ingot contained surrogate (non-radioactive), transition-metal fission products with rhenium acting as a surrogate for technetium. The second alloy ingot contained the same components as the first ingot, but included radioactive Tc-99 instead of rhenium. Understanding technetium behavior in the waste form is of particular importance due the longevity of Tc-99 and its mobility in the biosphere in the oxide form. RAW-1(Re) and RAW-1(Tc) are currently being used as test specimens in the comprehensive testing program investigating the corrosion and radionuclide release mechanisms of the representative alloy waste form. Also described in this report is the experimental plan to study the effects of reducing atmospheres and reducing additives to the alloy material during fabrication in an attempt to maximize the oxide content of waste streams that can be accommodated in the alloy waste form. Activities described in the experimental plan will be performed in FY12. The first aspect of the experimental plan is to study oxide formation on the alloy by introducing O2 impurities in the melt cover gas or from added oxide impurities in the feed materials. Reducing atmospheres will then be introduced to the melt cover gas in an attempt to minimize oxide formation during alloy fabrication. The second phase of the experimental plan is to investigate melting parameters associated with alloy fabrication to allow the separation of slag and alloy components of the melt.

  10. Ensilage of pineapple processing waste for methane generation.

    PubMed

    Rani, D Swaroopa; Nand, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    Pineapple peel wastes, which are seasonal, comprise of peels and rags. Their disposal poses a serious environmental pollution problem. Since pineapple peel is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose and other carbohydrates it was found to be a potential substrate for methane generation by anaerobic digestion. Ensilaging of pineapple peel resulted in the conversion of 55% carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids. The ensilage of pineapple processing wastes reduced the biological oxygen demand by 91%. Biogas digester fed with ensilaged pineapple peel resulted in the biogas yield of 0.67 m3/kg volatile solids (VS) added with methane content of 65% whereas fresh and dried pineapple peels gave biogas yields of 0.55% and 0.41 m3/kg VS added and methane content of 51% and 41% respectively.

  11. Thermoelectric Power Generation System Using Waste Heat from Biomass Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneewan, S.; Chindaruksa, S.

    2009-07-01

    This paper looks at thermoelectric power generation from waste heat from a biomass drier. In this study, the researchers selected four thermoelectric modules: two thermoelectric cooling modules (Model A: MT2-1,6-127 and Model B: TEC1-12708) and two thermoelectric power generation modules (Model C: TEP1-1264-3.4 and Model D: TEG1-1260-5.1) for testing at temperatures between 25°C and 230°C. Test results indicated that the thermoelectric TEC1-12708 could generate a maximum power output of 1 W/module and TEP1-1264-3.4, TEG1-1260-5.1, and MT2-1,6-127 could generate 1.07 W/module, 0.88 W/module, and 0.76 W/module, respectively. Therefore, the thermoelectric cooling of TEC1-12708 was appropriate to use for thermoelectric power generation from waste heat. The experiments used four ventilation fans (6 W, 2.50 m3/s) and 12 thermoelectric modules which were installed in the back of a charcoal brazier. The experiments were conducted and tested in conditions of recycling 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% of outlet air. Testing results identified that the temperatures of the drying room were 81°C, 76°C, 70°C, and 64°C, respectively. The power generation system could generate about 22.4 W (14 V, 1.6 A) with an air flow of 9.62 m3/s. The thermoelectric module can convert 4.08% of the heat energy to electrical energy.

  12. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  13. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  14. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  15. Food waste generation and potential interventions at Rhodes University, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Painter, Kathleen; Thondhlana, Gladman; Kua, Harn Wei

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of food waste generation represents the first step when considering efforts to reduce waste generation and monitor food waste reduction against set targets. This study reports on an estimation of food waste generated in university dining halls at Rhodes University, South Africa. Daily food waste generation was estimated at about 555g per student or 2tonnes across all sample dining halls, translating to about 450tonnes per year. The results show that food waste is influenced by an array of contextual factors, including distance to dining hall, gender composition of hall and meal times and meal options. It is estimated that the university could save up to US$ 80000 annually for every 10% reduction in the current rate of food waste generation. Possible educational, technical and administrative interventions for food waste reduction are discussed.

  16. Construction and demolition waste generation rates for high-rise buildings in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mah, Chooi Mei; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Ho, Chin Siong

    2016-12-01

    Construction and demolition waste continues to sharply increase in step with the economic growth of less developed countries. Though the construction industry is large, it is composed of small firms with individual waste management practices, often leading to the deleterious environmental outcomes. Quantifying construction and demolition waste generation allows policy makers and stakeholders to understand the true internal and external costs of construction, providing a necessary foundation for waste management planning that may overcome deleterious environmental outcomes and may be both economically and environmentally optimal. This study offers a theoretical method for estimating the construction and demolition project waste generation rate by utilising available data, including waste disposal truck size and number, and waste volume and composition. This method is proposed as a less burdensome and more broadly applicable alternative, in contrast to waste estimation by on-site hand sorting and weighing. The developed method is applied to 11 projects across Malaysia as the case study. This study quantifies waste generation rate and illustrates the construction method in influencing the waste generation rate, estimating that the conventional construction method has a waste generation rate of 9.88 t 100 m(-2), the mixed-construction method has a waste generation rate of 3.29 t 100 m(-2), and demolition projects have a waste generation rate of 104.28 t 100 m(-2).

  17. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  18. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  19. Evaluating leachate recirculation with cellulase addition to enhance waste biostabilisation and landfill gas production.

    PubMed

    Frank, R R; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2016-09-01

    The effect of leachate recirculation with cellulase augmentation on municipal solid waste (MSW) biostabilisation and landfill gas production was investigated using batch bioreactors to determine the optimal conditions of moisture content, temperature and nutrients. Experimentation was thereafter scaled-up in 7L bioreactors. Three conditions were tested including (1) leachate recirculation only, (2) leachate recirculation with enzyme augmentation and (3) no leachate recirculation (control). Cumulative biogas production of the batch tests indicated that there was little difference between the leachate and control test conditions, producing on average 0.043m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste. However the addition of cellulase at 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste doubled the biogas production (0.074m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). Similar trend was observed with the bioreactors. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest COD reduction in both the waste and the leachate samples (47% and 42% COD reduction, respectively). In both cases, the quantity of biogas produced was closer to the lower value of theoretical and data-based biogas prediction indicators (0.05-0.4m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). This was likely due to a high concentration of heavy metals present in the leachate, in particular Cr and Mn, which are known to be toxic to methanogens. The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) based on the settings of the study (cellulase concentration of 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste) showed that leachate bioaugmentation using cellulase is economically viable, with a net benefit of approximately €12.1million on a 5Mt mixed waste landfill.

  20. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using prognostic tools and regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghinea, Cristina; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Comăniţă, Elena-Diana; Gavrilescu, Marius; Câmpean, Teofil; Curteanu, Silvia; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-11-01

    For an adequate planning of waste management systems the accurate forecast of waste generation is an essential step, since various factors can affect waste trends. The application of predictive and prognosis models are useful tools, as reliable support for decision making processes. In this paper some indicators such as: number of residents, population age, urban life expectancy, total municipal solid waste were used as input variables in prognostic models in order to predict the amount of solid waste fractions. We applied Waste Prognostic Tool, regression analysis and time series analysis to forecast municipal solid waste generation and composition by considering the Iasi Romania case study. Regression equations were determined for six solid waste fractions (paper, plastic, metal, glass, biodegradable and other waste). Accuracy Measures were calculated and the results showed that S-curve trend model is the most suitable for municipal solid waste (MSW) prediction.

  1. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    All transuranic (TRU) waste generators are required by US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A to package their TRU waste to comply with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Transuranic Waste Certification Plan was developed to ensure that TRU newly waste generated at WHC meets the WIPP-WAC and/or. The methods used at WHC to package TRU waste are described in sufficient detail to meet WIPP certification or the regulations. This document is organized to provide a brief overview of waste generation operations at WHC, along with details on data management for TRU waste. The methods used to implement this plan are discussed briefly along with the responsibilities and authorities of applicable organizations. This certification plan describes how WHC complies with all applicable regulations and requirements set forth in the latest approved revision of WIPP-DOE-069.

  2. Developing models for the prediction of hospital healthcare waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Tesfahun, Esubalew; Kumie, Abera; Beyene, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of health institutions, along with frequent use of disposable medical products, has contributed to the increase of healthcare waste generation rate. For proper handling of healthcare waste, it is crucial to predict the amount of waste generation beforehand. Predictive models can help to optimise healthcare waste management systems, set guidelines and evaluate the prevailing strategies for healthcare waste handling and disposal. However, there is no mathematical model developed for Ethiopian hospitals to predict healthcare waste generation rate. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop models for the prediction of a healthcare waste generation rate. A longitudinal study design was used to generate long-term data on solid healthcare waste composition, generation rate and develop predictive models. The results revealed that the healthcare waste generation rate has a strong linear correlation with the number of inpatients (R(2) = 0.965), and a weak one with the number of outpatients (R(2) = 0.424). Statistical analysis was carried out to develop models for the prediction of the quantity of waste generated at each hospital (public, teaching and private). In these models, the number of inpatients and outpatients were revealed to be significant factors on the quantity of waste generated. The influence of the number of inpatients and outpatients treated varies at different hospitals. Therefore, different models were developed based on the types of hospitals.

  3. Integrated management of hazardous waste generated from community sources in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Yodnane, P.; Spaeder, D.J.

    1999-07-01

    A system for the collection, transport, disposal and recycling of hazardous waste was developed as part of an overall master plan for the management of hazardous waste generated from community sources in Thailand. Results of a waste generation survey conducted as part of the study indicated that over 300 million kilograms per year of hazardous waste is generated from non-industrial, community sources such as automotive repair shops, gas stations, hospitals, farms, and households in Thailand. Hazardous waste from community sources consists primarily of used oils, lead-acid and dry cell batteries, cleaning chemicals, pesticides, medical wastes, solvents and fuels. Most of this waste was found to be mismanaged by codisposing with municipal waste in burning, unlined dumps, dumping directly to land or water courses, dumping into sewers, or recycling improperly, all of which pose serious threats to human health and the environment. The survey data on waste generation quantities and data from a reconnaissance survey of the conditions and operations of 86 existing waste disposal facilities was incorporated into a nationwide Geographic Information System (GIS) database. Based on this data, problems associated with hazardous waste were identified and needs for waste management systems were tabulated. A system was developed for ranking geographic regions according to hazardous waste management problems and needs, in order to prioritize implementation of waste management programs. The data were also used in developing solutions for hazardous waste management, which addressed methods for storing, collecting, transporting, disposing, and recycling the waste. It was recommended that centralized waste management facilities be utilized which included hazardous waste and medical waste incinerators, waste stabilization units, and secure landfills.

  4. Calcination of Fluorinel-sodium waste blends using sugar as a feed additive (formerly WINCO-11879)

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, B.J.; Thomson, T.D.; O`Brien, B.H.

    1992-06-01

    Methods were studied for using sugar as a feed additive for converting the sodium-bearing wastes stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant into granular, free flowing solids by fluidized-bed calcination at 500{degrees}C. All methods studied blended sodium-bearing wastes with Fluorinel wastes but differed in the types of sugar (sucrose or dextrose) that were added to the blend. The most promising sugar additive was determined to be sucrose, since it is converted more completely to inorganic carbon than is dextrose. The effect of the feed aluminum-to-alkali metal mole ratio on calcination of these blends with sugar was also investigated. Increasing the aluminum-to-alkali metal ratio from 0.6 to 1.0 decreased the calcine product-to-fines ratio from 3.0 to 1.0 and the attrition index from 80 to 15%. Further increasing the ratio to 1.25 had no effect.

  5. Municipal solid waste flow and waste generation characteristics in an urban--rural fringe area in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Ai; Hara, Yuji; Sekiyama, Makiko; Honda, Ryo; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2009-12-01

    In the urban-rural fringe of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, rapid urbanization is creating a land-use mixture of agricultural fields and residential areas. To develop appropriate policies to enhance recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW), current MSW management was investigated in the oboto (local administrative district) of Bang Maenang in Nonthaburi Province, adjoining Bangkok. The authors conducted a structural interview survey with waste-related organizations and local residents, analysed household waste generation, and performed global positioning system (GPS) tracking of municipal garbage trucks. It was found that MSW was collected and treated by local government, private-sector entities, and the local community separately. Lack of integrated management of these entities complicated waste flow in the study area, and some residences were not served by MSW collection. Organic waste, such as kitchen garbage and yard waste, accounted for a large proportion of waste generation but was underutilized. Through GPS/GIS analysis, the waste collection rate of the generated waste amount was estimated to be 45.5- 51.1% of total generation.

  6. Stimulation of Methane Generation from Nonproductive Coal by Addition of Nutrients or a Microbial Consortium▿

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Elizabeth J. P.; Voytek, Mary A.; Corum, Margo D.; Orem, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic formation of methane from coal is of great interest as an underexploited source of clean energy. The goal of some coal bed producers is to extend coal bed methane productivity and to utilize hydrocarbon wastes such as coal slurry to generate new methane. However, the process and factors controlling the process, and thus ways to stimulate it, are poorly understood. Subbituminous coal from a nonproductive well in south Texas was stimulated to produce methane in microcosms when the native population was supplemented with nutrients (biostimulation) or when nutrients and a consortium of bacteria and methanogens enriched from wetland sediment were added (bioaugmentation). The native population enriched by nutrient addition included Pseudomonas spp., Veillonellaceae, and Methanosarcina barkeri. The bioaugmented microcosm generated methane more rapidly and to a higher concentration than the biostimulated microcosm. Dissolved organics, including long-chain fatty acids, single-ring aromatics, and long-chain alkanes accumulated in the first 39 days of the bioaugmented microcosm and were then degraded, accompanied by generation of methane. The bioaugmented microcosm was dominated by Geobacter sp., and most of the methane generation was associated with growth of Methanosaeta concilii. The ability of the bioaugmentation culture to produce methane from coal intermediates was confirmed in incubations of culture with representative organic compounds. This study indicates that methane production could be stimulated at the nonproductive field site and that low microbial biomass may be limiting in situ methane generation. In addition, the microcosm study suggests that the pathway for generating methane from coal involves complex microbial partnerships. PMID:20817801

  7. Estimation of centerline temperature of the waste form for the rare earth waste generated from pyrochemical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Lee, Ki-Rak; Han, Seung-Youb; Jeon, Min-Ku; Park, Hwan-Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of centerline temperature of nuclear glass waste form for each waste stream is very essential in the period of storage because the centerline temperature being over its glass transition temperature results in the increase of leaching rate of radioactive nuclides due to the devitrification of glass waste form. Here, to verify the effects of waste form diameter and transuranic element content in the rare earth waste on the centerline temperature of the waste form, the surrogate rare earth glass waste generated from pyrochemical process was immobilized with SiO2sbnd Al2O3sbnd B2O3 glass frit system, and thermal properties of the rare earth glass waste form were determined by thermomechanical analysis and thermal conductivity analysis. The estimation of centerline temperature was carried out using the experimental thermal data and steady-state conduction equation in a long and solid cylinder type waste form. It was revealed that thermal stability of waste form in case of 0.3 m diameter was not affected by the TRU content even in the case of 80% TRU recovery ratio in the electrowinning process, meaning that the waste form of 0.3 m diameter is thermally stable due to the low centerline temperature relative to its glass transition temperature of the rare earth glass waste form.

  8. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  9. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  10. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  11. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  12. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  13. The impact of tourism on municipal solid waste generation: the case of Menorca Island (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mateu-Sbert, Josep; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Cabeza-Irigoyen, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Tourism can sustain high levels of employment and income, but the sector is a source of environmental and health impacts. One of the most important is the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, there is a lack of studies which quantify how much the tourist population engages in total MSW and separately collected recyclables. The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of the tourist population on MSW, both total and separately collected, for the period 1998-2010, for the Mediterranean island of Menorca (Spain). We use dynamic regressions models, including data for monthly stocks of tourists. The results show that, on average, a 1% increase in the tourist population in Menorca causes an overall MSW increase of 0.282% and one more tourist in Menorca generates 1.31 kg day(-1) (while one more resident generates 1.48 kg day(-1)). This result could be useful to better estimate the seasonal population of different regions, since intrannual fluctuation of MSW is used as a proxy measure of actual population (the sum of residents and tourists). Moreover, an increase of 1% in the tourist population causes an increase of 0.232% in separately collected recyclables and an additional tourist generates 0.160 kg day(-1). One resident selectively collects on average 47.3% more than one tourist. These results can help in the planning of waste infrastructure and waste collection services in tourist areas.

  14. Consequence analysis of an unmitigated NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-21

    Toxicological consequences were calculated for a postulated maximum caustic soda (NaOH) solution spray leak during addition to a waste tank to adjust tank pH. Although onsite risk guidelines were exceeded for the unmitigated release, site boundary consequences were below the level of concern. Means of mitigating the release so as to greatly reduce the onsite consequences were recommended.

  15. Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Top, Y

    2015-01-01

    The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the types of waste generated and the recycling methods adopted in micro-sized enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture. An assessment was also made of whether the characteristics of the enterprise had any effect on the waste recycling methods that were practised. A survey was conducted of 31 enterprises in the furniture industry in Gumushane province, Turkey, which is considered a developing economy. Surveys were undertaken via face-to-face interviews. It was found that medium-density fibreboard (MDF), and to a lesser extent, chipboard, were used in the manufacture of furniture, and two major types of waste in the form of fine dust and small fragments of board are generated during the cutting of these boards. Of the resulting composite board waste, 96.9% was used for heating homes and workplaces, where it was burnt under conditions of incomplete combustion. Enterprises were found to have adopted other methods to utilise their wastes in addition to using them as fuel. Such enterprises include those operating from a basement or first floor of a building in the cities, those continuing production throughout the year, those in need for capital and those enterprises not operating a dust-collection system.

  16. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-01

    After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8×10(3) times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ.

  17. Hanford waste-form release and sediment interaction: A status report with rationale and recommendations for additional studies

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J. ); Wood, M.I. )

    1990-05-01

    This report documents the currently available geochemical data base for release and retardation for actual Hanford Site materials (wastes and/or sediments). The report also recommends specific laboratory tests and presents the rationale for the recommendations. The purpose of this document is threefold: to summarize currently available information, to provide a strategy for generating additional data, and to provide recommendations on specific data collection methods and tests matrices. This report outlines a data collection approach that relies on feedback from performance analyses to ascertain when adequate data have been collected. The data collection scheme emphasizes laboratory testing based on empiricism. 196 refs., 4 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between

  19. Evaluation of on-line chelant addition to PWR steam generators. Steam generator cleaning project

    SciTech Connect

    Tvedt, T.J.; Wallace, S.L.; Griffin, F. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    The investigation of chelating agents for continuous water treatment of secondary loops of PWR steam generators were conducted in two general areas: the study of the chemistry of chelating agents and the study of materials compatability with chelating agents. The thermostability of both EDTA and HEDTA metal chelates in All Volatile Treatment (AVT) water chemistry were shown to be greater than or equal to the thermostability of EDTA metal chelates in phosphate-sulfite water chemistry. HEDTA metal chelates were shown to have a much greater stability than EDTA metal chelates. Using samples taken from the EDTA metal chelate thermostability study and from the Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) model steam generators (MSG), EDTA decomposition products were determined. Active metal surfaces were shown to become passivated when exposed to EDTA and HEDTA concentrations as high as 0.1% w/w in AVT. Trace amounts of iron in the water were found to increase the rate of passivation. Material balance and visual inspection data from CRC model steam generators showed that metal was transported through and cleaned from the MSG's. The Inconel 600 tubes of the salt water fouled model steam generators experienced pitting corrosion. Results of this study demonstrates the feasibility of EDTA as an on-line water treatment additive to maintain nuclear steam generators in a clean condition.

  20. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites.

    PubMed

    González Pericot, N; Villoria Sáez, P; Del Río Merino, M; Liébana Carrasco, O

    2014-11-01

    The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  1. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  2. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  3. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  4. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    SciTech Connect

    González Pericot, N.; Villoria Sáez, P.; Del Río Merino, M.; Liébana Carrasco, O.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  5. A Guidance Manual: Waste Analysis at Facilities that Generate, Treat, Store, and Dispose of Hazardous Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Discusses how a person can perform waste analyses and develop waste analysis plans (WAPs) in accordance with the federal hazardous waste regulations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

  6. Generation, storage, collection and transportation of municipal solid waste - A case study in the city of Kathmandu, capital of Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, R. Chowdhury, M.A.I.; Hasan, G.M.J.; Karanjit, B.; Shrestha, L.R.

    2008-07-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) services have consistently failed to keep up with the vast amount of solid waste produced in urban areas. There is not currently an efficient system in place for the management, storage, collection, and transportation of solid waste. Kathmandu City, an important urban center of South Asia, is no exception. In Kathmandu Metropolitan City, solid waste generation is predicted to be 1091 m{sup 3}/d (245 tons/day) and 1155 m{sup 3}/d (260 tons/day) for the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. The majority (89%) of households in Kathmandu Metropolitan City are willing to segregate the organic and non-organic portions of their waste. Overall collection efficiency was 94% in 2003. An increase in waste collection occurred due to private sector involvement, the shutdown of the second transfer station near the airport due to local protest, a lack of funding to maintain trucks/equipment, a huge increase in plastic waste, and the willingness of people to separate their waste into separate bins. Despite a substantial increase in total expenditure, no additional investments were made to the existing development plan to introduce a modern disposal system due to insufficient funding. Due to the lack of a proper lining, raw solid waste from the existing dumping site comes in contact with river water directly, causing severe river contamination and deteriorating the quality of the water.

  7. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

  8. Detoxification and generation of useful products from coal combustion wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-21

    Electric utilities are on the brink of a new era in waste disposal problems. This research project addresses the issue of how to effectively dispose of flyash, bottom ash, desulfurization sludge through the generation of chemically-hardened material that could potentially be used as a cement or as a synthetic aggregate. The specific goals of this study were: (1) to study the hardness of mixtures of flyash, bottom ash, and DSG treated with lime and other hardening agents; (2) to determine the optimum solids content, setting time, moisture content, and post setting treatments that will yield the greatest strength and hardness out of these mixtures; and (3) to determine the leachability of the synthetic material as a measure of its ability to retain absorbed and/or entrained toxic metals. 50 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China: a multiple statistical analysis study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Xin-wu

    2011-04-01

    A relationship between the waste production and socio-economic factors is essential in waste management. In the present study, the factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China were investigated by multiple statistical analysis. Twelve items were chosen for investigation: GDP, per capita GDP, urban population, the proportion of urban population, the area of urban construction, the area of paved roads, the area of urban gardens and green areas, the number of the large cities, annual per capita disposable income of urban households, annual per capita consumption expenditure of urban households, total energy consumption and annual per capital consumption for households. Two methodologies from multiple statistical analysis were selected; specifically principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Three new dimensions were identified by PCA: component 1: economy and urban development; component 2: energy consumption; and component 3: urban scale. The three components together accounted for 99.1% of the initial variance. The results show that economy and urban development are important items influencing MSW generation. The proportion of urban population and urban population had the highest loadings in all factors. The relationship between growth of gross domestic product (GDP) and production of MSW was not as clear-cut as often assumed in China, a situation that is more likely to apply to developed countries. Energy consumption was another factor considered in our study of MSW generation. In addition, the annual MSW quantity variation was investigated by cluster analysis.

  10. Survey of composition and generation rate of household wastes in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiao-yan; Li, Zhen-shan; Xie, Xin-yuan; Sui, Yu-mei; Yang, Lei; Chen, You

    2009-10-01

    It is recognized that information on both quantity and composition of residential waste is important for the effective planning of household waste handling infrastructure. In this paper, we present the results of a survey on household waste generation and composition in Beijing, China. Sample communities were selected by the integration of five indices including family population, income, age, and education. Wastes were sampled on a daily basis from 113 households in six different districts of Beijing City for ten days. The results showed that the generation rate of household wastes was 0.23 kg/pers/day. The bulk density was approximately 221 kg/m(3), and the moisture content was approximately 50%. Household waste consisted of kitchen waste, paper/cardboard, plastics, textiles, metals, glass and other wastes, the proportion of each waste was approximately 69.3%, 10.3%, 9.8%, 1.3%, 0.8%, 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively. An evaluation of the relationship between daily per capita generation of household waste and socio-economic factors indicated that household size and income both showed a negative relationship with household waste generation (kg/pers/day). As for the effect of education, families with a secondary educational level produced fewer household wastes (kg/pers/day) than those with a primary or advanced educational level.

  11. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  12. Thermal and radiolytic gas generation from Tank 241-S-102 waste

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic rate parameters for flammable gas generation in Hanford single-shell tank wastes based on the results of laboratory tests using actual waste from Tank 241-S-102 (S-102). Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) and its Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) under subcontract to PNNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company) using actual wastes. The results of gas generation from Tank S-102 waste under thermal and radiolytic conditions are described in this report. The accurate measurement of gas generation rates in actual waste from highly radioactive waste tanks is needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the waste tanks. This report addresses the gas generation capacity of the waste from Tank S-102, a waste tank listed as high priority by the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for flammable gas accumulation above the flammability limit.

  13. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM

  14. Conceptual framework for the study of food waste generation and prevention in the hospitality sector.

    PubMed

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Wright, Nigel; Lozano, Rodrigo; Steinberger, Julia; Padfield, Rory; Ujang, Zaini

    2016-03-01

    Food waste has significant detrimental economic, environmental and social impacts. The magnitude and complexity of the global food waste problem has brought it to the forefront of the environmental agenda; however, there has been little research on the patterns and drivers of food waste generation, especially outside the household. This is partially due to weaknesses in the methodological approaches used to understand such a complex problem. This paper proposes a novel conceptual framework to identify and explain the patterns and drivers of food waste generation in the hospitality sector, with the aim of identifying food waste prevention measures. This conceptual framework integrates data collection and analysis methods from ethnography and grounded theory, complemented with concepts and tools from industrial ecology for the analysis of quantitative data. A case study of food waste generation at a hotel restaurant in Malaysia is used as an example to illustrate how this conceptual framework can be applied. The conceptual framework links the biophysical and economic flows of food provisioning and waste generation, with the social and cultural practices associated with food preparation and consumption. The case study demonstrates that food waste is intrinsically linked to the way we provision and consume food, the material and socio-cultural context of food consumption and food waste generation. Food provisioning, food consumption and food waste generation should be studied together in order to fully understand how, where and most importantly why food waste is generated. This understanding will then enable to draw detailed, case specific food waste prevention plans addressing the material and socio-economic aspects of food waste generation.

  15. Release protocol to address DOE moratorium on shipments of waste generated in radiologically controlled areas

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, L A; Boothe, G F

    1992-10-01

    On May 17, 1991 the US DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a moratorium on the shipment of hazardous waste from radiologically contaminated or potentially contaminated areas on DOE sites to offsite facilities not licensed for radiological material. This document describes a release protocol generated by Westinghouse Hanford submitted for US DOE approval. Topics considered include designating Radiological Materials Management Areas (RMMAs), classification of wastes, handling of mixed wastes, detection limits.

  16. The determination of waste generation and composition as an essential tool to improve the waste management plan of a university.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Edo-Alcón, N; Carlos, M; Renau, M

    2016-07-01

    When many people work in organized institutions or enterprises, those institutions or enterprises become big meeting places that also have energy, water and resources necessities. One of these necessities is the correct management of the waste that is daily produced by these communities. Universities are a good example of institution where every day a great amount of people go to work or to study. But independently of their task, they use the different services at the University such as cafeterias, canteens, and photocopy and as a result of their activity a cleaning service is also needed. All these activities generate an environmental impact. Nowadays, many Universities have accepted the challenge to minimize this impact applying several measures. One of the impacts to be reduced is the waste generation. The first step to implement measures to implement a waste management plan at a University is to know the composition, the amount and the distribution of the waste generated in its facilities. As the waste composition and generation depend among other things on the climate, these variables should be analysed over one year. This research work estimates the waste generation and composition of a Spanish University, the Universitat Jaume I, during a school year. To achieve this challenge, all the waste streams generated at the University have been identified and quantified emphasizing on those which are not controlled. Furthermore, several statistical analyses have been carried out to know if the season of the year or the day of the week affect waste generation and composition. All this information will allow the University authorities to propose a set of minimization measures to enhance the current management.

  17. Wastes are dominant energy source for new steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1987-11-01

    The tabulation given in this article which provides a significant sample of boilers ordered last year, shows just how important wastes are becoming to the production of steam and electricity in smokestack America. Refinery gas, landfill gas, municipal refuse, biomass, and anthracite culm will fire 32 boilers in 21 of the 32 fuel-burning projects listed (one project has two heat-recovery boilers operating on gas-turbine exhaust). Refinery gas will be burned in the largest steam generator listed, an 800,000-lb/hr unit purchased by Gulf States Utilities Co; landfill gas will be fired in four others. Municipal refuse powers eight projects (15 boilers), with mass-burn combustion (six projects, 10 boilers) preferred over refuse-derived fuel by a two-to-one margin in units. Biomass, primarily woodwaste, is burned in 10 boilers serving nine projects. Circulating fluidized-bed boilers, ranging in size from 170,000 to 355,000 lb/hr captured the majority of orders for coal-fired steam generators.

  18. Forecasting medical waste generation using short and extra short datasets: Case study of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Ruzgas, Tomas; Denafas, Gintaras

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of various mathematical modelling methods, while forecasting medical waste generation using Lithuania's annual medical waste data. Only recently has a hazardous waste collection system that includes medical waste been created and therefore the study access to gain large sets of relevant data for its research has been somewhat limited. According to data that was managed to be obtained, it was decided to develop three short and extra short datasets with 20, 10 and 6 observations. Spearman's correlation calculation showed that the influence of independent variables, such as visits at hospitals and other medical institutions, number of children in the region, number of beds in hospital and other medical institutions, average life expectancy and doctor's visits in that region are the most consistent and common in all three datasets. Tests on the performance of artificial neural networks, multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines and four non-parametric regression methods were conducted on the collected datasets. The best and most promising results were demonstrated by generalised additive (R(2) = 0.90455) in the regional data case, smoothing splines models (R(2) = 0.98584) in the long annual data case and multilayer feedforward artificial neural networks in the short annual data case (R(2) = 0.61103).

  19. Generation of 3-D surface maps in waste storage silos using a structured light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, B. L.; Rowe, J. C.; Dinkins, M. A.; Christensen, B.; Selleck, C.; Jacoboski, D.; Markus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface contours inside the large waste storage tanks typical of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are, in general, highly irregular. In addition to pipes and other pieces of equipment in the tanks, the surfaces may have features such as mounds, fissures, crystalline structures, and mixed solid and liquid forms. Prior to remediation activities, it will be necessary to characterize the waste to determine the most effective remediation approaches. Surface contour data will be required both prior to and during remediation. The use is described of a structured light source to generate 3-D surface contour maps of the interior of waste storage silos at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, OH. The landscape inside these large waste storage tanks bears a strong resemblance to some of the landscapes that might be encountered during lunar or planetary exploration. Hence, these terrestrial 3-D mapping techniques may be directly applicable to extraterrestrial exploration. In further development, it will be demonstrated that these 3-D data can be used for robotic task planning just as 3-D surface contour data of a satellite could be used to plan maintenance tasks for a space-based servicing robot.

  20. Development of new peat based growing media by addition of pruning waste and biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; Gascó, Gabriel; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Plaza, César; Fernández, José Manuel; Méndez, Ana

    2015-04-01

    In the last years, several researches have been performed to find high quality and low cost substrates from different organic wastes in order to decrease peat consumption since the indiscriminate exploitation of peat lands is exhausting this non-renewable useful resource and destroying endangered wetland ecosystems worldwide. The use of organic wastes as soil amendments or possible peat substitute could be improved by pyrolysis treatment, leading to biochar, a carbon-rich material that has attached important attention. Our research group has been worked in the formulation of new based-growing media by peat substitution in 50 and 75 vol% of pruning waste (PW), commercial charcoal (CC), biochar from PW at 300°C (B300) and 500°C (B500). Growing media show adequate physicochemical and hydrophysical properties. Experiments performed with lettuce germination show that PW addition in a 75vol% reduces germination index probably due to their high content on phenolic compounds. Lettuce growing experiments were performed during 5 weeks and show that addition of PW and CC to peat decreases biomass production whereas; B300 and specially, B500 addition significantly increases the lettuce biomass.

  1. Patterns of waste generation: A gradient boosting model for short-term waste prediction in New York City.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas E; Ianiuk, Olga; Cazap, Daniel; Liu, Linglan; Starobin, Daniel; Dobler, Gregory; Ghandehari, Masoud

    2017-02-15

    Historical municipal solid waste (MSW) collection data supplied by the New York City Department of Sanitation (DSNY) was used in conjunction with other datasets related to New York City to forecast municipal solid waste generation across the city. Spatiotemporal tonnage data from the DSNY was combined with external data sets, including the Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics data, the American Community Survey, the New York City Department of Finance's Primary Land Use and Tax Lot Output data, and historical weather data to build a Gradient Boosting Regression Model. The model was trained on historical data from 2005 to 2011 and validation was performed both temporally and spatially. With this model, we are able to accurately (R2>0.88) forecast weekly MSW generation tonnages for each of the 232 geographic sections in NYC across three waste streams of refuse, paper and metal/glass/plastic. Importantly, the model identifies regularity of urban waste generation and is also able to capture very short timescale fluctuations associated to holidays, special events, seasonal variations, and weather related events. This research shows New York City's waste generation trends and the importance of comprehensive data collection (especially weather patterns) in order to accurately predict waste generation.

  2. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  3. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  4. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  5. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  6. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  7. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  8. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  9. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  10. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  11. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  12. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  13. Benzene Generation Testing for Tank 48H Waste Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T

    2005-05-13

    In support for the Aggregation option1, researchers performed a series of tests using actual Tank 48H slurries. The tests were designed to examine potential benzene generation issues if the Tank 48H slurry is disposed to Saltstone. Personnel used the archived Tank 48H sample (HTF-E-03-127, collected September 17, 2003) for the experiments. The tests included a series of three experiments (Tests A, B, and F) performed in duplicate, giving a total of six experiments. Test A used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}20:1 with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H. Test B used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}2.7:1 with DWPF Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H, while Test F used Tank 48H slurry as-is. Tests A and B occurred at 45 C, while Test F occurred at 55 C. Over a period of 8 weeks, personnel collected samples for analysis, once per week. Each sample was tested with the in-cell gamma counter. The researchers noted a decline in the cesium activity in solution which is attributed to temperature dependence of the complex slurry equilibrium. Selected samples were sent to ADS for potassium, boron, and cesium analysis. The benzene generation rate was inferred from the TPB destruction which is indirectly measured by the in-growth of cesium, potassium or boron. The results of all the analyses reveal no discernible in-growth of radiocesium, potassium or boron, indicating no significant tetraphenylborate (TPB) decomposition in any of the experiments. From boron measurements, the inferred rate of TPB destruction remained less than 0.332 mg/(L-h) implying a maximum benzene generation rate of <0.325 mg/(L-h).

  14. Utilization of Navy-Generated Waste Oils as Boiler Fuel-Economic Analysis and Laboratory Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    01M i AI . 5 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER CLABORATORY TESTS 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS, 1 1. CONTROLLING OF FICE N AME AND ADDRESS...generated waste oils is reported. Estimates show that between 5 % and 1 3% of the Navy boiler fuel requirements (excluding coal) may be met by...Waste Oils 2. Combustion I. Z0838-01-002 I Feasibility of utilizing Navy-generated waste oils is reported. Estimates show that between 5 % and 13% of

  15. An Integrated Facility for Municipal Solid Waste Disposal, Electrical Generation, and Desalination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for a facility that uses municipal solid waste as file for generating electricity and cogeneration steam for a... municipal solid waste will provide nearly 2% of per capita electrical power needs and 7% of fresh water requirements. This thesis proposes a new arrangement... Municipal Solid Waste . Developing new power plant sources for electrical generation now requires searching for scarce energy resources and regularly

  16. Waste activated sludge hydrolysis and acidification: A comparison between sodium hydroxide and steel slag addition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Chaojie; Zhang, Xuan; Feng, Leiyu; Li, Yongmei; Zhou, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Alkaline treatment with steel slag and NaOH addition were investigated under different pH conditions for the fermentation of waste activated sludge. Better performance was achieved in steel slag addition scenarios for both sludge hydrolysis and acidification. More solubilization of organic matters and much production of higher VFA (volatile fatty acid) in a shorter time can be achieved at pH10 when adjusted by steel slag. Higher enzyme activities were also observed in steel slag addition scenarios under the same pH conditions. Phosphorus concentration in the supernatant increased with fermentation time and pH in NaOH addition scenarios, while in contrast most phosphorus was released and captured by steel slag simultaneously in steel slag addition scenarios. These results suggest that steel slag can be used as a substitute for NaOH in sludge alkaline treatment.

  17. Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP`s mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP`s LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility.

  18. Methodology for quantification of waste generated in Spanish railway construction works

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman Baez, Ana de; Garcia Navarro, Justo

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two equations for C and D waste estimation in railway construction works are developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mixed C and D waste is the most generated category during railway construction works. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunnel construction is essential to quantify the waste generated during the works. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a relationship between C and D waste generated and railway functional units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The methodology proposed can be used to obtain new constants for other areas. - Abstract: In the last years, the European Union (EU) has been focused on the reduction of construction and demolition (C and D) waste. Specifically, in 2006, Spain generated roughly 47 million tons of C and D waste, of which only 13.6% was recycled. This situation has lead to the drawing up of many regulations on C and D waste during the past years forcing EU countries to include new measures for waste prevention and recycling. Among these measures, the mandatory obligation to quantify the C and D waste expected to be originated during a construction project is mandated. However, limited data is available on civil engineering projects. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to improve C and D waste management in railway projects, by developing a model for C and D waste quantification. For this purpose, we develop two equations which estimate in advance the amount, both in weight and volume, of the C and D waste likely to be generated in railway construction projects, including the category of C and D waste generated for the entire project.

  19. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weisheng; Yuan, Hongping; Li, Jingru; Hao, Jane J L; Mi, Xuming; Ding, Zhikun

    2011-04-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C&D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m(2) and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C&D waste management in China.

  20. Mapping out the solid waste generation and collection models: The case of Kampala City.

    PubMed

    Kinobe, Joel R; Niwagaba, Charles B; Gebresenbet, Girma; Komakech, Allan J; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a mapping of the waste collection systems in Kampala city, using geographical information system (GIS) ArcGIS mapping software. It discusses the existing models of waste collection to the final disposal destinations. It was found that food and yard wastes constitute 92.7% of the waste generated in Kampala. Recyclables and other special wastes constitute only 7.3% of the total waste, mainly because of the increased level of reuse and recycling activities. The generation rate of solid wastes was on average, 582, 169, 105, and 90 tons/day from poor areas, upscale wealthier areas, business centers, and market areas respectively. This tonnage of waste was collected, transported, and disposed of at the city landfill. The study found that in total, residential areas of poor people generate more waste than other categories stated earlier, mainly because of their large populations. In total, there were 133 unofficial temporary storage sites acknowledged by Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) but not formally designated, 59 illegal dump sites, and 35 officially recognized temporary waste storage locations. This paper presents large-scale data that can help with understanding the collection models and their influence on solid waste management in Kampala city, which could be used for similar cities in developing countries.

  1. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Weisheng; Yuan Hongping; Li Jingru; Hao, Jane J.L.; Mi Xuming; Ding Zhikun

    2011-04-15

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C and D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m{sup 2} and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C and D waste management in China.

  2. Quantitative assessment of medical waste generation in the capital city of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Patwary, Masum A; O'Hare, William Thomas; Street, Graham; Maudood Elahi, K; Hossain, Syed Shahadat; Sarker, Mosharraf H

    2009-08-01

    There is a concern that mismanagement of medical waste in developing countries may be a significant risk factor for disease transmission. Quantitative estimation of medical waste generation is needed to estimate the potential risk and as a basis for any waste management plan. Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh, is an example of a major city in a developing country where there has been no rigorous estimation of medical waste generation based upon a thorough scientific study. These estimates were obtained by stringent weighing of waste in a carefully chosen, representative, sample of HCEs, including non-residential diagnostic centres. This study used a statistically designed sampling of waste generation in a broad range of Health Care Establishments (HCEs) to indicate that the amount of waste produced in Dhaka can be estimated to be 37+/-5 ton per day. The proportion of this waste that would be classified as hazardous waste by World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines was found to be approximately 21%. The amount of waste, and the proportion of hazardous waste, was found to vary significantly with the size and type of HCE.

  3. Quantitative assessment of medical waste generation in the capital city of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Patwary, Masum A. O'Hare, William Thomas Street, Graham Maudood Elahi, K. Hossain, Syed Shahadat Sarker, Mosharraf H.

    2009-08-15

    There is a concern that mismanagement of medical waste in developing countries may be a significant risk factor for disease transmission. Quantitative estimation of medical waste generation is needed to estimate the potential risk and as a basis for any waste management plan. Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh, is an example of a major city in a developing country where there has been no rigorous estimation of medical waste generation based upon a thorough scientific study. These estimates were obtained by stringent weighing of waste in a carefully chosen, representative, sample of HCEs, including non-residential diagnostic centres. This study used a statistically designed sampling of waste generation in a broad range of Health Care Establishments (HCEs) to indicate that the amount of waste produced in Dhaka can be estimated to be 37 {+-} 5 ton per day. The proportion of this waste that would be classified as hazardous waste by World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines was found to be approximately 21%. The amount of waste, and the proportion of hazardous waste, was found to vary significantly with the size and type of HCE.

  4. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust.

  5. Decomposition analysis of the waste generation and management in 30 European countries.

    PubMed

    Korica, Predrag; Cirman, Andreja; Žgajnar Gotvajn, Andreja

    2016-11-01

    An often suggested method for waste prevention is substitution of currently-used materials with materials which are less bulky, contain less hazardous components or are easier to recycle. For policy makers it is important to have tools available that provide information on the impact of this substitution on the changes in total amounts of waste generated and managed. The purpose of this paper is to see how much changes in the mix of 15 waste streams generated in eight economic sectors from 30 European countries have influenced the amounts of waste generated and managed in the period 2004-2012. In order to determine these impacts, two variations of the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) analysis model were developed and applied. The results show that the changes in the mix of waste streams in most cases did not have a considerable influence on the changes in the amounts of generated waste. In the analyses of waste sent for landfill, incineration without energy recovery, incineration with energy recovery and recovery other than energy recovery, the results also show that the changes in the mix of waste streams in most cases did not have the expected/desired influence on the changes in the amounts of managed waste. This paper provides an example on the possibilities of applying the LMDI analysis as a tool for quantifying the potential of effects which implemented or planned measures could have on the changes in waste management systems.

  6. Anaerobic Codigestion of Sludge: Addition of Butcher's Fat Waste as a Cosubstrate for Increasing Biogas Production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E J; Gil, M V; Fernandez, C; Rosas, J G; Gómez, X

    2016-01-01

    Fat waste discarded from butcheries was used as a cosubstrate in the anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge (SS). The process was evaluated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The codigestion was successfully attained despite some inhibitory stages initially present that had their origin in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and adsorption of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The addition of a fat waste improved digestion stability and increased biogas yields thanks to the higher organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the reactors. However, thermophilic digestion was characterized by an effluent of poor quality and high VFA content. Results from spectroscopic analysis suggested the adsorption of lipid components onto the anaerobic biomass, thus disturbing the complete degradation of substrate during the treatment. The formation of fatty aggregates in the thermophilic reactor prevented process failure by avoiding the exposure of biomass to the toxic effect of high LCFA concentrations.

  7. Development and testing of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) system for Fernald wastes. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, S.S.; Matlack, K.S.; Mohr, R.K.; Brandys, M. Hojaji, H.; Bennett, S.; Ruller, J.; Pegg, I.L.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents results of a treatability study for the evaluation of the MAWS process for wastes stored at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. Wastes included in the study were FEMP Pit 5 sludges, soil-wash fractions, and ion exchange media from a water treatment system supporting a soil washing system. MAWS offers potential for treating a variety of waste streams to produce a more leach resistant waste form at a lower cost than, say, cement stabilization.

  8. Parametric Optimization of Thermoelectric Generators for Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shouyuan; Xu, Xianfan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a methodology for design optimization of thermoelectric-based waste heat recovery systems called thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The aim is to maximize the power output from thermoelectrics which are used as add-on modules to an existing gas-phase heat exchanger, without negative impacts, e.g., maintaining a minimum heat dissipation rate from the hot side. A numerical model is proposed for TEG coupled heat transfer and electrical power output. This finite-volume-based model simulates different types of heat exchangers, i.e., counter-flow and cross-flow, for TEGs. Multiple-filled skutterudites and bismuth-telluride-based thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are applied, respectively, in higher and lower temperature regions. The response surface methodology is implemented to determine the optimized TEG size along and across the flow direction and the height of thermoelectric couple legs, and to analyze their covariance and relative sensitivity. A genetic algorithm is employed to verify the globality of the optimum. The presented method will be generally useful for optimizing heat-exchanger-based TEG performance.

  9. Evaluating the methane generation rate constant (k value) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The methane (CH4) generation rate constant (k value, yr(-1)) is an essential parameter when using first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate CH4 generation from landfills. Four categories of waste (street cleansing, mixed bulky, shredder, and sludge waste) with a low-organic content, as well as temporarily stored combustible waste, were sampled from four Danish landfills. Anaerobic degradation experiments were set up in duplicate for all waste samples and incubated for 405 days, while the cumulative CH4 generation was continuously monitored. Applying FOD equations to the experimental results, half-life time values (t½, yr) and k values of various waste categories were determined. In general, similar waste categories obtained from different Danish landfills showed similar results. Sludge waste had the highest k values, which were in the range 0.156-0.189 yr(-1). The combustible and street cleansing waste showed k values of 0.023-0.027 yr(-1) and 0.073-0.083 yr(-1), respectively. The lowest k values were obtained for mixed bulky and shredder wastes ranging from 0.013 to 0.017 yr(-1). Most low-organic waste samples showed lower k values in comparison to the default numeric values in current FOD models (e.g., IPCC, LandGEM, and Afvalzorg). Compared with the k values reported in the literature, this research determined low-organic waste for the first time via reliable large-scale and long-term experiments. The degradation parameters provided in this study are valuable when using FOD LFG generation models to estimate CH4 generation from modern landfills that receive only low-organic waste.

  10. 1995 Annual report on waste generation and waste mainization progress as required by DOE order 5400.1, Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Betsch, M.D.

    1996-09-24

    While waste generation numbers are important, the true measure of success is waste minimized. Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition as pollution prevention, as they have become part of a culture of best management practices. As an example, the success of the excess and reuse program, both informal and formal, documents the Wmin/P2 culture that exists in the pollution prevention representatives and employees at the facilities.

  11. Waste generated in high-rise buildings construction: a quantification model based on statistical multiple regression.

    PubMed

    Parisi Kern, Andrea; Ferreira Dias, Michele; Piva Kulakowski, Marlova; Paulo Gomes, Luciana

    2015-05-01

    Reducing construction waste is becoming a key environmental issue in the construction industry. The quantification of waste generation rates in the construction sector is an invaluable management tool in supporting mitigation actions. However, the quantification of waste can be a difficult process because of the specific characteristics and the wide range of materials used in different construction projects. Large variations are observed in the methods used to predict the amount of waste generated because of the range of variables involved in construction processes and the different contexts in which these methods are employed. This paper proposes a statistical model to determine the amount of waste generated in the construction of high-rise buildings by assessing the influence of design process and production system, often mentioned as the major culprits behind the generation of waste in construction. Multiple regression was used to conduct a case study based on multiple sources of data of eighteen residential buildings. The resulting statistical model produced dependent (i.e. amount of waste generated) and independent variables associated with the design and the production system used. The best regression model obtained from the sample data resulted in an adjusted R(2) value of 0.694, which means that it predicts approximately 69% of the factors involved in the generation of waste in similar constructions. Most independent variables showed a low determination coefficient when assessed in isolation, which emphasizes the importance of assessing their joint influence on the response (dependent) variable.

  12. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite's tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  13. Effect of lipase addition on hydrolysis and biomethane production of Chinese food waste.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying; Li, Sang; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

    2015-03-01

    The lipase obtained from Aspergillums niger was applied to promote the hydrolysis of food waste for achieving high biomethane production. Two strategies of lipase additions were investigated. One (Group A) was to pre-treat food waste to pre-decompose lipid to fatty acids before anaerobic digestion, and another one (Group B) was to add lipase to anaerobic digester directly to degrade lipid inside digester. The lipase was used at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0% (w/v). The results showed that Group A achieved higher biomethane production, TS and VS reductions than those of Group B. At 0.5% lipase concentration, Group A obtained experimental biomethane yield of 500.1 mL/g VS(added), 4.97-26.50% higher than that of Group B. The maximum Bd of 73.8% was also achieved in Group A. Therefore, lipase pre-treatment strategy is recommended. This might provide one of alternatives for efficient biomethane production from food waste and mitigating environmental impact associated.

  14. Immobilization of antimony in waste-to-energy bottom ash by addition of calcium and iron containing additives.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Verbinnen, Bram; Cornelis, Geert; de Wijs, Joost; Mulder, Rob; Billen, Pieter; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The leaching of Sb from waste-to-energy (WtE) bottom ash (BA) often exceeds the Dutch limit value of 0.32mgkg(-1) for recycling of BA in open construction applications. From the immobilization mechanisms described in the literature, it could be concluded that both Ca and Fe play an important role in the immobilization of Sb in WtE BA. Therefore, Ca and Fe containing compounds were added to the samples of the sand fraction of WtE BA, which in contrast to the granulate fraction is not recyclable to date, and the effect on the Sb leaching was studied by means of batch leaching tests. Results showed that addition of 0.5 and 2.5% CaO, 5% CaCl2, 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 and 1% FeCl3 decreased the Sb leaching from 0.62±0.02mgkgDM(-1) to 0.20±0.02, 0.083±0.044, 0.25±0.01, 0.27±0.002 and 0.29±0.02mgkgDM(-1), respectively. Due to the increase in pH from 11.41 to 12.53 when 2.5% CaO was added, Pb and Zn leaching increased and exceeded the respective leaching limits. Addition of 5% CaCO3 had almost no effect on the Sb leaching, as evidenced by the resulting 0.53mgkgDM(-1) leaching concentration. This paper shows a complementary enhancement of the effect of Ca and Fe, by comparing the aforementioned Sb leaching results with those of WtE BA with combined addition of 2.5% CaO or 5% CaCl2 with 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 or 1% FeCl3. These lab scale results suggest that formation of romeites with a high Ca content and formation of iron antimonate (tripuhyite) with a very low solubility are the main immobilization mechanisms of Sb in WtE BA. Besides the pure compounds and their mixtures, also addition of 10% of two Ca and Fe containing residues of the steel industry, hereafter referred to as R1 and R2, was effective in decreasing the Sb leaching from WtE BA below the Dutch limit value for reuse in open construction applications. To evaluate the long term effect of the additives, pilot plots of WtE BA with 10% of R1 and 5% and 10% of R2 were built and samples were submitted to leaching tests at

  15. The effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna Walery, Maria

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.

  16. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  17. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed. PMID:24790975

  18. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  19. 40 CFR 271.10 - Requirements for generators of hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for generators of... for Final Authorization § 271.10 Requirements for generators of hazardous wastes. (a) The State program must cover all generators covered by 40 CFR part 262. States must require new generators...

  20. 40 CFR 271.10 - Requirements for generators of hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for generators of... for Final Authorization § 271.10 Requirements for generators of hazardous wastes. (a) The State program must cover all generators covered by 40 CFR part 262. States must require new generators...

  1. 40 CFR 271.10 - Requirements for generators of hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for generators of... for Final Authorization § 271.10 Requirements for generators of hazardous wastes. (a) The State program must cover all generators covered by 40 CFR part 262. States must require new generators...

  2. 40 CFR 271.10 - Requirements for generators of hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for generators of... for Final Authorization § 271.10 Requirements for generators of hazardous wastes. (a) The State program must cover all generators covered by 40 CFR part 262. States must require new generators...

  3. 40 CFR 271.10 - Requirements for generators of hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for generators of... for Final Authorization § 271.10 Requirements for generators of hazardous wastes. (a) The State program must cover all generators covered by 40 CFR part 262. States must require new generators...

  4. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are well suited for waste-heat energy harvesting applications as opposed to primary energy generation. Commercially available thermoelectric modules are flat, inflexible and have limited sizes available. State-of-art manufacturing of TEG devices relies on assembling prefabricated parts with soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping. Furthermore, efforts to incorporate them onto curved surfaces such as exhaust pipes, pump housings, steam lines, mixing containers, reaction chambers, etc. require custom-built heat exchangers. This is costly and labor-intensive, in addition to presenting challenges in terms of space, thermal coupling, added weight and long-term reliability. Additive manufacturing technologies are beginning to address many of these issues by reducing part count in complex designs and the elimination of sub-assembly requirements. This work investigates the feasibility of utilizing such novel manufacturing routes for improving the manufacturing process of thermoelectric devices. Much of the research in thermoelectricity is primarily focused on improving thermoelectric material properties by developing of novel materials or finding ways to improve existing ones. Secondary to material development is improving the manufacturing process of TEGs to provide significant cost benefits. To improve the device fabrication process, this work explores additive manufacturing technologies to provide an integrated and scalable approach for TE device manufacturing directly onto engineering component surfaces. Additive manufacturing techniques like thermal spray and ink-dispenser printing are developed with the aim of improving the manufacturing process of TEGs. Subtractive manufacturing techniques like laser micromachining are also studied in detail. This includes the laser processing parameters for cutting the thermal spray materials efficiently by

  5. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    PubMed

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  6. Generation rates and chemical compositions of waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, Theodore; Golub, Morton A.

    1990-01-01

    A judicious compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste feed streams in a typical crewed space habitat was made in connection with the waste-management aspect of NASA's Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Program. Waste composition definitions are needed for the design of waste-processing technologies involved in closing major life support functions in future long-duration human space missions. Tables of data for the constituents and chemical formulas of the following waste streams are presented and discussed: human urine, feces, hygiene (laundry and shower) water, cleansing agents, trash, humidity condensate, dried sweat, and trace contaminants. Tables of data on dust generation and pH values of the different waste streams are also presented and discussed.

  7. Evaluation of Synroc-C as a second-generation waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1986-08-01

    The durability of a crystalline titanate waste form, Synroc-C, was evaluated as a second-generation waste form by leach testing. Tests using both monolith and high surface area powdered samples were used with silicate water and brines at 90/sup 0/C and 150/sup 0/C for up to 90 days. In addition, low surface area-to-volume ratio, 1-day leach tests were conducted between 90/sup 0/C and 250/sup 0/C to determine forward-direction leach rates and activation energies. Dissolution rates of Cs, Mo, Ba, and U indicated that Synroc-C generally performed about an order of magntidue better than uranium-doped 76-68 glass. The release of Cs and Mo from Synroc-C, at least initially, may be primarily from intergranular regions of the material. The activation energy for the release of these elements from glass was about 9 kcal/mol but less than 3 kcal/mol for Synroc-C. In long-term tests, uranium dissolution may be controlled more by the formation of uranium alteration products than by release from the waste form.

  8. Assessing the environmental impact of energy production from hydrochar generated via hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Berge, Nicole D; Li, Liang; Flora, Joseph R V; Ro, Kyoung S

    2015-09-01

    Although there are numerous studies suggesting hydrothermal carbonization is an environmentally advantageous process for transformation of wastes to value-added products, a systems level evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion has not been conducted. The specific objectives of this work are to use a life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the HTC of food wastes and the subsequent combustion of the generated solid product (hydrochar) for energy production, and to understand how parameters and/or components associated with food waste carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion influence system environmental impact. Results from this analysis indicate that HTC process water emissions and hydrochar combustion most significantly influence system environmental impact, with a net negative GWP impact resulting for all evaluated substituted energy-sources except biomass. These results illustrate the importance of electricity production from hydrochar particularly when it is used to offset coal-based energy sources. HTC process water emissions result in a net impact to the environment, indicating a need for developing appropriate management strategies. Results from this analysis also highlight a need for additional exploration of liquid and gas-phase composition, a better understanding of how changes in carbonization conditions (e.g., reaction time and temperature) influence metal and nutrient fate, and the exploration of liquid-phase treatment.

  9. Gas Generation Rates as an Indicator for the Long Term Stability of Radioactive Waste Products

    SciTech Connect

    Steyer, S.; Brennecke, P.; Bandt, G.; Kroger, H.

    2007-07-01

    Pursuant to the 'Act on the Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards' (Atomic Energy Act) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) is legally responsible for the construction and operation of federal facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. Within the scope of this responsibility, particular due to par. 74(1) Ordinance on Radiation Protection, BfS defines all safety-related requirements on waste packages envisaged for disposal, establishes guidelines for the conditioning of radioactive waste and approves the fulfillment of the waste acceptance requirements within the radioactive waste quality control system. BfS also provides criteria to enable the assessment of methods for the treatment and packaging of radioactive waste to produce waste packages suitable for disposal according to par. 74(2) Ordinance on Radiation Protection. Due to the present non-availability of a repository in Germany, quality control measures for all types of radioactive waste products are carried out prior to interim storage with respect to the future disposal. As a result BfS approves the demonstrated properties of the radioactive waste packages and confirms the fulfillment of the respective requirements. After several years of storage the properties of waste packages might have changed. By proving, that such changes have no significant impact on the quality of the waste product, the effort of requalification could be minimized. Therefore, data on the long-term behavior of radioactive waste products need to be acquired and indicators to prove the long-term stability have to be quantified. Preferably, such indicators can be determined easily with non-destructive methods, even for legacy waste packages. A promising parameter is the gas generation rate. The relationship between gas generation rate and long term stability is presented as first result of an ongoing study on behalf of BfS. Permissible gas

  10. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a discussion of proposed

  11. Methodology for quantification of waste generated in Spanish railway construction works.

    PubMed

    de Guzmán Báez, Ana; Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; García Navarro, Justo

    2012-05-01

    In the last years, the European Union (EU) has been focused on the reduction of construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Specifically, in 2006, Spain generated roughly 47million tons of C&D waste, of which only 13.6% was recycled. This situation has lead to the drawing up of many regulations on C&D waste during the past years forcing EU countries to include new measures for waste prevention and recycling. Among these measures, the mandatory obligation to quantify the C&D waste expected to be originated during a construction project is mandated. However, limited data is available on civil engineering projects. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to improve C&D waste management in railway projects, by developing a model for C&D waste quantification. For this purpose, we develop two equations which estimate in advance the amount, both in weight and volume, of the C&D waste likely to be generated in railway construction projects, including the category of C&D waste generated for the entire project.

  12. Solid waste generation from oil and gas industries in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Walid; Alkamali, Abdulqader

    2005-04-11

    Solid wastes generated from oil and gas industrial activities are very diverse in their characteristics, large in their amounts and many of which are hazardous in nature. Thus, quantifying and characterizing the generated amounts in association with their types, classes, sources, industrial activities, and their chemical and biological characteristics is an obvious mandate when evaluating the possible management practices. This paper discusses the types, amounts, generation units, and the factors related to solid waste generation from a major oil and gas field in the United Arab Emirates (Asab Field). The generated amounts are calculated based on a 1-year data collection survey and using a database software specially developed and customized for the current study. The average annual amount of total solid waste generated in the studied field is estimated at 4061 t. Such amount is found equivalent to 650 kg/capita, 0.37 kg/barrel oil, and 1.6 kg/m3 of extracted gas. The average annual amount of hazardous solid waste is estimated at 55 t and most of which (73%) is found to be generated from gas extraction-related activities. The majority of other industrial non-hazardous solid waste is generated from oil production-related activities (41%), The present analysis does also provide the estimated generation amounts per waste type and class, amounts of combustible, recyclable, and compostable wastes, and the amounts dumped in uncontrolled way as well as disposed into special hazardous landfill facilities. The results should help the decision makers in evaluating the best alternatives available to manage the solid wastes generated from the oil and gas industries.

  13. Health Care Waste generation rates and patterns: The case of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Maamari, Olivia; Brandam, Cedric; Lteif, Roger; Salameh, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze Infectious Health Care Waste generation rates and patterns in Lebanon. Therefore, the quantities generated during five years by 57 hospitals from a total of 163 in the country have been analyzed. The seasonal evolution of Infectious Health Care Waste production and the evolution of the evaluation of the trends over years have been studied. Besides, the generation per capita have been estimated and compared to other countries. The variance between categories and the correlation between number of beds and Infectious Health Care Waste generation have been analyzed. The obtained results showed that the large private hospitals (over 200 beds) are characterized by their high generation rate: an average of 2.45kg per occupied bed(-1)day(-1), whereas the average generation rate for other categories is 0.94kg per occupied bed(-1)day(-1). The weighted mean is 1.14 per occupied kgbed(-1)day(-1). Small public hospitals (i.e. less than 100 beds) have the smallest standard deviation: 0.13, whereas large private hospitals (i.e. over than 200 beds) have the highest standard deviation: 0.40. Infectious Health Care Waste generation has been estimated to 1.42kg/capita/year. The correlation between the numbers of hospitals beds in hospitals and the generation rate per bed is weak. The correlation between Infectious Health Care Waste generation per day and beds number is stronger. The total quantity produced by hospitals has increased over the five past years. These results suggest that the quantities of medical waste are not well controlled, and that hospitals have a defective monitoring management system of their waste. Annual peaks are observed in June, July, and December. Thus, this study, for the first time in Lebanon, has provided information on the infectious waste generation, allowing benchmarking between hospitals and between countries.

  14. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  15. Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of wastes from electricity generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, C. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente Smith, G.M.; Linsley, G.; Hossain, S.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes an outline methodology for assessing and comparing the environmental impact arising from management of the wastes from nuclear and other electricity generation systems. The assessment framework is applicable to wastes from all generation systems, including nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel systems, and can also be applied to the management of mixed hazardous waste. The major energy technologies in terms of waste production can be classified according to three major categories of fuels: fossil, nuclear and renewable. The emphasis in this description is on nuclear utility low-level and mixed wastes and waste streams. The methodology may be used to support the project on Data Bases and Methodologies for Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources for Electricity Generation (DECADES project, (2)) which is being developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with other international agencies. The DECADES project has the overall objective to improve the abilities for comparative assessment of energy chains for electricity generation. The objective of a methodology such as that described here is to ensure that waste management aspects are included effectively in comparative assessments of energy systems. This paper discusses the waste strams arising from nuclear power plants.

  16. The S-curve for forecasting waste generation in construction projects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weisheng; Peng, Yi; Chen, Xi; Skitmore, Martin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-10-01

    Forecasting construction waste generation is the yardstick of any effort by policy-makers, researchers, practitioners and the like to manage construction and demolition (C&D) waste. This paper develops and tests an S-curve model to indicate accumulative waste generation as a project progresses. Using 37,148 disposal records generated from 138 building projects in Hong Kong in four consecutive years from January 2011 to June 2015, a wide range of potential S-curve models are examined, and as a result, the formula that best fits the historical data set is found. The S-curve model is then further linked to project characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs) so that it can be used to forecast waste generation in future construction projects. It was found that, among the S-curve models, cumulative logistic distribution is the best formula to fit the historical data. Meanwhile, contract sum, location, public-private nature, and duration can be used to forecast construction waste generation. The study provides contractors with not only an S-curve model to forecast overall waste generation before a project commences, but also with a detailed baseline to benchmark and manage waste during the course of construction. The major contribution of this paper is to the body of knowledge in the field of construction waste generation forecasting. By examining it with an S-curve model, the study elevates construction waste management to a level equivalent to project cost management where the model has already been readily accepted as a standard tool.

  17. Review, mapping and analysis of the agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Briassoulis, Demetres; Babou, Epifania; Hiskakis, Miltiadis; Scarascia, Giacomo; Picuno, Pietro; Guarde, Dorleta; Dejean, Cyril

    2013-12-01

    A review of agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe is presented. A detailed geographical mapping of the agricultural plastic use and waste generation in Europe was conducted focusing on areas of high concentration of agricultural plastics. Quantitative data and analysis of the agricultural plastic waste generation by category, geographical distribution and compositional range, and physical characteristics of the agricultural plastic waste per use and the temporal distribution of the waste generation are presented. Data were collected and cross-checked from a variety of sources, including European, national and regional services and organizations, local agronomists, retailers and farmers, importers and converters. Missing data were estimated indirectly based on the recorded cultivated areas and the characteristics of the agricultural plastics commonly used in the particular regions. The temporal distribution, the composition and physical characteristics of the agricultural plastic waste streams were mapped by category and by application. This study represents the first systematic effort to map and analyse agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe.

  18. Is It Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation of electricity through renewables has increased 5% since 2002. Although considerably less prominent than solar and wind, the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity represents roughly 14 percent of U.S. non-hydro renewable electricity generation....

  19. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    PubMed

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant.

  20. The regulatory compliance plan for the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Akgunduz, N.K.; Gimpel, R.F.; Finger, S.M.

    1993-01-27

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has initiated the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program to demonstrate and evaluate integrated treatment of the FEMP site`s Operable Unit 1 contaminated soils and sludges. The demonstration will require on-site operation of an integrated treatment system consisting of soil washing, water treatment by ion exchange, and vitrification of all contaminated solid wastes at a rate of 300 kg per day. Compliance with all relevant environmental regulations is a major priority of this program. Relevant regulatory requirements come under the jurisdiction of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). The plethora of potentially applicable regulations were reviewed and an efficient regulatory compliance strategy developed. This strategy was documented in the MAWS Regulatory Compliance Plan which was presented to the regulatory agencies as a reasonable working plan. The FEMP has found the development of a comprehensive, organized regulatory plan to be critical to the successful implementation of integrated demonstration projects such as the MAWS Program. This paper discusses the approaches used in the MAWS Regulatory Compliance Plan and highlights which could prove useful for others that want to approach the DOE and/or EPA with technology demonstrations.

  1. Enhancement of hydrocarbon waste biodegradation by addition of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis O9.

    PubMed

    Morán, A C; Olivera, N; Commendatore, M; Esteves, J L; Siñeriz, F

    2000-01-01

    A non-sterile biosurfactant preparation (surfactin) was obtained from a 24-h culture of Bacillus subtilis O9 grown on sucrose and used to study its effect on the biodegradation of hydrocarbon wastes by an indigenous microbial community at the Erlenmeyer-flask scale. Crude biosurfactant was added to the cultures to obtain concentrations above and below the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Lower concentration affected neither biodegradation nor microbial growth. Higher concentration gave higher cell concentrations. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons increased from 20.9 to 35.5% and in the case of aromatic hydrocarbons from nil to 41%, compared to the culture without biosurfactant. The enhancement effect of biosurfactant addition was more noticeable in the case of long chain alkanes. Pristane and phytane isoprenoids were degraded to the same extent as n-C17 and n-C18 alkanes and, consequently, no decrease in the ratios n-C17/pri and n-C18/phy was observed. Rapid production of surfactin crude preparation could make it practical for bioremediation of ship bilge wastes.

  2. IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

    2012-06-05

    During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

  3. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T.

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  4. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact -- handled transuranic waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.M.; Backlund, E.G.

    1995-09-01

    All transuranic (TRU) waste generators are required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A to package their TRU waste in order to comply wit the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) -- Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) or keep non-certifiable containers segregated. The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Transuranic Waste Certification Plan was developed to ensure that TRU newly generated waste at WHC meets the DOE Order 5820.2A and the WHC-WAC which includes the State of Washington Department of Ecology -- Washington Administrative Code (DOE-WAC). The metho used at WHC to package TRU waste are described in sufficient detail to meet the regulations. This document is organized to provide a brief overview of waste generation operations at WHC. The methods used to implement this plan are discussed briefly along with the responsibilities and authorities of applicable organizations. This plan describes how WHC complies with all applicable regulations and requirements set forth in the latest approved revision of WHC-EP-0063-4.

  5. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    PubMed

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield.

  6. Hydrothermal solidification behavior of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash without any additives.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhenzi; Fan, Xinwei; Zhou, Lei; Fan, Junjie; Zhang, Yi; Pan, Xiaohui; Ishida, Emile Hideki

    2013-05-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash could be solidified with and without slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) addition by a hydrothermal method under steam pressure of 1.56 MPa at 200 °C for up to 72 h. Experimental results showed that CSH gel or tobermorite exerted a main influence on strength development, and without any additives CSH gel was easy to form, while slaked lime addition favored to form tobermorite. Tobermorite seemed to exert a larger effect on the strength development than CSH gel. Leaching results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals dissolved from the solidified specimens were effectively reduced after hydrothermal processing. The immobilization was mainly due to the tobermorite or CSH gel formation, and Pb2+ and Zn2+ seemed to be fixed more readily than Cr6+, which might be the reason that the structural Ca2+ within tobermorite or CSH gel was exchanged by Pb2+ and Zn2+ more easily than Cr6+. In addition, there existed a close relationship between leaching concentration and strength enhancement, and a higher strength seemed to exert a larger effect on immobilization of heavy metals.

  7. Status and integration of studies of gas generation in Hanford wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to review recent progress in determining the mechanism, kinetics, and stoichiometry of gas generation in Hanford waste tanks. Information has been gathered from the results of (1) laboratory studies with simulated wastes; (2) laboratory studies with actual waste core samples (Tanks SY-101 and SY-103); (3) studies of thermal and radiolytic reactions in the gas phase; (4) gas solubility evaluations; and (5) in-tank gas composition data. The results of laboratory studies using simulated wastes, which were aimed at determining chemical mechanisms responsible for gas generation, are summarized in Section 2. Emphasized are findings from work performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), which was conducted under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and completed in FY 1996. Thermally activated pathways for the decomposition of hydroxyethylethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA, trisodium salt) in simulated wastes were established by this work, among other accomplishments.

  8. A model for estimation of potential generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marcelo Guimarães; Magrini, Alessandra; Mahler, Cláudio Fernando; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Sales of electrical and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of electrical and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the "boom" in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years.

  9. Position paper on gas generation in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H.

    1994-11-15

    Gas generation by transuranic (TRU) waste is a significant issue because gas will, if produced in significant quantities, affect the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with respect to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for the long-term isolation of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. If significant gas production occurs, it will also affect, and will be affected by, other processes and parameters in WIPP disposal rooms. The processes that will produce gas in WIPP disposal rooms are corrosion, microbial activity and radiolysis. This position paper describes these processes and the models, assumptions and data used to predict gas generation in WIPP disposal rooms.

  10. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  11. A study of waste liquid crystal display generation in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifeng; Xu, Zeying; Huang, Haihong; Li, Bingbing

    2016-01-01

    The generation of liquid crystal display waste is becoming a serious social problem. Predicting liquid crystal display waste status is the foundation for establishing a recycling network; however, the difficulty in predicting liquid crystal display waste quantity lies in data mining. In order to determine the quantity and the distribution of liquid crystal display waste in China, the four top-selling liquid crystal display products (liquid crystal display TVs, desktop PCs, notebook PCs, and mobile phones) were selected as study objects. Then, the extended logistic model and market supply A method was used to predict the quantity of liquid crystal display waste products. Moreover, the distribution of liquid crystal display waste products in different regions was evaluated by examining the consumption levels of household equipment. The results revealed that the quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would increase rapidly in the next decade. In particular, the predicted quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would rise to approximately 4.262 × 10(9) pieces in 2020, and the total display area (i.e. the surface area of liquid crystal display panels) of waste liquid crystal displays would reach 5.539 × 10(7) m(2). The prediction on the display area of waste liquid crystal display TVs showed that it would account for 71.5% of the total display area by 2020. Meanwhile, the quantity of waste mobile phones would significantly grow, increasing 5.8 times from 2012 to 2020. In terms of distribution, Guangdong is the top waste liquid crystal display-generating province in China, followed by Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Zhejiang, and Sichuan. Considering its regional characteristics, Guangdong has been proposed to be the most important location of the recycling network.

  12. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  13. A Basic Accounting of Variation in Municipal Solid-Waste Generation at the County Level in Texas, 2006: Groundwork for Applying Metabolic-Rift Theory to Waste Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Matthew Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Environmental social scientists debate whether or not modern development reduces society's impact on the biosphere. The empirical research informing the discussion has not yet adequately examined the social determinants of municipal solid-waste (MSW) generation, an increasingly relevant issue, both ecologically and sociologically. A primary…

  14. Rethinking Timber: Investigation into the Use of Waste Macadamia Nut Shells for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdis, Jordan; Gaudion, Lauren; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Löschke, Sandra; Dong, Andy

    2017-03-01

    In this article, the feasibility of turning macadamia nutshells, a waste product from the forestry and agricultural industries, into a three-dimensional (3D) printed, innovative, microtimber product is examined by composing a wood plastic feed stock for fusion deposition modeling. Different ratios of micro-ground macadamia nutshells and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics were mixed with a binding agent to extrude a range of filaments. By using a commercial 3D printer, these filaments helped to fabricate specimens that were tested in tension and compression. The results show that printed samples of macadamia-nutshell—ABS composites offer a viable alternative to commercially available wood polymer composite filaments. Although they possess similar mechanical properties, they have a lower density, making them suitable for a range of lightweight product applications. The research demonstrates that there are new opportunities for the use of macadamia nutshell filament in additive manufacturing as a result of its enhanced properties compared with traditional wood filaments.

  15. Rethinking Timber: Investigation into the Use of Waste Macadamia Nut Shells for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdis, Jordan; Gaudion, Lauren; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Löschke, Sandra; Dong, Andy

    2016-12-01

    In this article, the feasibility of turning macadamia nutshells, a waste product from the forestry and agricultural industries, into a three-dimensional (3D) printed, innovative, microtimber product is examined by composing a wood plastic feed stock for fusion deposition modeling. Different ratios of micro-ground macadamia nutshells and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics were mixed with a binding agent to extrude a range of filaments. By using a commercial 3D printer, these filaments helped to fabricate specimens that were tested in tension and compression. The results show that printed samples of macadamia-nutshell—ABS composites offer a viable alternative to commercially available wood polymer composite filaments. Although they possess similar mechanical properties, they have a lower density, making them suitable for a range of lightweight product applications. The research demonstrates that there are new opportunities for the use of macadamia nutshell filament in additive manufacturing as a result of its enhanced properties compared with traditional wood filaments.

  16. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  18. Hazardous medical waste generation in Greece: case studies from medical facilities in Attica and from a small insular hospital.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Katsafaros, Nikolaos; Vassilopoulos, Panagiotis

    2011-08-01

    The accurate calculation of the unit generation rates and composition of medical waste generated from medical facilities is necessary in order to design medical waste treatment systems. In this work, the unit medical waste generation rates of 95 public and private medical facilities in the Attica region were calculated based on daily weight records from a central medical waste incineration facility. The calculated medical waste generation rates (in kg bed(-1) day( -1)) varied widely with average values at 0.27 ± 113% and 0.24 ± 121%, for public and private medical facilities, respectively. The hazardous medical waste generation was measured, at the source, in the 40 bed hospital of the island of Ikaria for a period of 42 days during a 6 month period. The average hazardous medical waste generation rate was 1.204 kg occupied bed(-1) day(-1) or 0.33 kg (official) bed( -1) day(-1). From the above amounts, 54% resulted from the patients' room (solid and liquid wastes combined), 24% from the emergency department (solid waste), 17% from the clinical pathology lab and 6% from the X-ray lab. In average, 17% of the total hazardous medical waste was solely infectious. Conclusively, no correlation among the number of beds and the unit medical waste generation rate could be established. Each hospital should be studied separately, since medical waste generation and composition depends on the number and type of departments/laboratories at each hospital, number of external patients and number of occupied beds.

  19. Evaluation of bioactive components and antioxidant and anticancer properties of citrus wastes generated during bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Im, Soon Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Min Young

    2014-04-01

    In the bioethanol production process employing citrus peels, a large amount of enzymatic hydrolyzed residues is generated as waste material. The bioactive compounds, and antioxidant and anticancer activities of these residues were investigated in the present study. Hydrolyzed citrus residues exhibited similar antioxidant activity as the unhydrolyzed control, which was positively correlated to the contents of total phenols, flavonoids and total carotenoid. Some flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, hesperetin and neohesperidin) and two high value co-products (D-limonene and galacturonic acid) were detected only in hydrolyzed residues. In addition, hydrolyzed residues showed antiproliferative activity and sub-G1 arrest in human melanoma A375 and colon cancer HCT116 cells. These results provide an alternative use for hydrolyzed citrus residues in the functional food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. ISO 14001 adoption and industrial waste generation: the case of Swedish manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Zobel, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) based on ISO 14001 has constituted one of the most important developments in sustainable industry management in recent years. Previous research on the impact of EMSs has relied heavily on corporate representatives' subjective perception of benefits. Moreover, studies tend to focus on the systems' impact on firms' overall environmental performance, not distinguishing between the differences in different environmental aspects. This study aims to contribute knowledge about the influence of certified EMSs on industrial waste generation based on objective industrial waste data derived from mandatory annual environmental reports. The study focuses on changes in waste generation over a period of 12 years and includes both ISO 14001-certified firms (66 firms) and non-certified firms (50 firms). Consideration is given to the improvement efforts in the firms before EMS adoption. Analysis has been carried out using statistical methods for three different industrial waste parameters: hazardous waste, waste to landfill and the total amounts of waste. The results indicate that the certified EMSs have no statistically significant effect on any of the three waste parameters.

  1. Generation and collection of restaurant waste: Characterization and evaluation at a case study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tatàno, Fabio; Caramiello, Cristina; Paolini, Tonino; Tripolone, Luca

    2017-03-01

    Because restaurants (as a division of the hospitality sector) contribute to the generation of commercial and institutional waste, thus representing both a challenge and an opportunity, the objective of the present study was to deepen the knowledge of restaurant waste in terms of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste generation and the performance achievable by the implementation of a separate collection scheme. In this study, the generated waste was characterized and the implemented separate collection was evaluated at a relevant case study restaurant in a coastal tourist area of Central Italy (Marche Region, Adriatic Sea side). The qualitative (compositional) characterization of the generated total restaurant waste showed considerable incidences of, in decreasing order, food (28.2%), glass (22.6%), paper/cardboard (19.1%), and plastic (17.1%). The quantitative (parametric) characterization of the generated restaurant waste determined the unit generation values of total waste and individual fractions based on the traditional employee and area parameters and the peculiar meal parameter. In particular, the obtained representative values per meal were: 0.72kgmeal(-1) for total waste, and ranging, for individual fractions, from 0.20 (for food) to 0.008kgmeal(-1) (for textile). Based on the critical evaluation of some of the resulting unit waste generation values, possible influences of restaurant practices, conditions, or characteristics were pointed out. In particular, food waste generation per meal can likely be limited by: promoting and using local, fresh, and quality food; standardizing and limiting daily menu items; basing food recipes on consolidated cooking knowledge and experience; and limiting plate sizes. The evaluation of the monthly variation of the monitored separate collection, ranging from an higher level of 52.7% to a lower level of 41.4%, indicated the following: a reduction in the separate collection level can be expected at times

  2. Heat generating and recycling system for utilizing waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Yuji; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Takashima, Takumi

    1999-07-01

    The authors proposed an efficient utilization system of low temperature waste heat. It converts the low temperature thermal energy below 573 K into electric energy by using chemical heat pump systems and thermoelectric devices. They named this system a heat regenerating and recycling system. In this system, low temperature heat is recovered and its temperature is raised by the heat pump systems. They conducted the system analysis to clarify its performance. Two kinds of thermoelectric devices and two kinds of chemical heat pump systems are arranged in their analytical model. The authors examined how the efficiency of the chemical heat pumps, that of the thermoelectric devices, and heat flow influenced the efficiency of the system. By using the chemical heat pump system, the efficiency of the system not only is improved but also it is possible to store thermal energy as chemical energy. The authors show that the heat regenerating and recycling system contributes to use low temperature waste heat effectively.

  3. Generation of and control measures for, e-waste in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shan-shan; Lau, Ka-yan; Zhang, Chan

    2011-03-01

    While accurately estimating electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) generation is important for building appropriate infrastructure for its collection and recycling, making reliable estimates of this kind is difficult in Hong Kong owing to the fact that neither accurate trade statistics nor sales data of relevant products are available. In view of this, data of e-products consumption at household level was collected by a tailor-made questionnaire survey from the public for obtaining a reasonable e-waste generation estimate. It was estimated that on average no more than 80,443 tones (11.5 kg/capita) of waste is generated from non-plasma and non-liquid crystal display televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners and personal computers each year by Hong Kong households. However, not more than 17% of this is disposed as waste despite a producer responsibility scheme (PRS) not being in place because of the existence of a vibrant e-waste trading sector. The form of PRS control that can possibly win most public support is one that would involve the current e-waste traders as a major party in providing the reverse logistics with a visible recycling charge levied at the point of importation. This reverse logistic service should be convenient, reliable and highly accessible to the consumers.

  4. Generation of and control measures for, e-waste in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Chung Shanshan; Lau Kayan; Zhang Chan

    2011-03-15

    While accurately estimating electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) generation is important for building appropriate infrastructure for its collection and recycling, making reliable estimates of this kind is difficult in Hong Kong owing to the fact that neither accurate trade statistics nor sales data of relevant products are available. In view of this, data of e-products consumption at household level was collected by a tailor-made questionnaire survey from the public for obtaining a reasonable e-waste generation estimate. It was estimated that on average no more than 80,443 tonnes (11.5 kg/capita) of waste is generated from non-plasma and non-liquid crystal display televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners and personal computers each year by Hong Kong households. However, not more than 17% of this is disposed as waste despite a producer responsibility scheme (PRS) not being in place because of the existence of a vibrant e-waste trading sector. The form of PRS control that can possibly win most public support is one that would involve the current e-waste traders as a major party in providing the reverse logistics with a visible recycling charge levied at the point of importation. This reverse logistic service should be convenient, reliable and highly accessible to the consumers.

  5. Solid radioactive waste management facility design for managing CANDU{sup R} 600 MW nuclear generating station re-tube/refurbishment Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pontikakis, N.; Hopkins, J.; Scott, D.; Bajaj, V.; Nosella, L.

    2007-07-01

    The main design features of the re-tube canisters, waste handling equipment and waste containers designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL{sup R}) and implemented in support of the re-tube/refurbishment activities for Candu 600 MW nuclear generating stations are described in this paper. The re-tube/refurbishment waste characterization and the waste management principles, which form the basis of the design activities, are also briefly outlined. (authors)

  6. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains appendices of supplementary data on waste management systems, geologic disposal, radiological standards, radiation dose calculation models, related health effects, baseline ecology, socio-economic conditions, hazard indices, comparison of defense and commercial wastes, design considerations, and wastes from thorium-based fuel cycle alternatives. (DMC)

  7. RESULTS OF CESIUM MASS TRANSFER TESTING FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT WITH HANFORD WASTE SIMULANT AP-101

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-27

    SRNL has performed an Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) test using the next generation solvent and AP-101 Hanford Waste simulant. The results indicate that the next generation solvent (MG solvent) has adequate extraction behavior even in the face of a massive excess of potassium. The stripping results indicate poorer behavior, but this may be due to inadequate method detection limits. SRNL recommends further testing using hot tank waste or spiked simulant to provide for better detection limits. Furthermore, strong consideration should be given to performing an actual waste, or spiked waste demonstration using the 2cm contactor bank. The Savannah River Site currently utilizes a solvent extraction technology to selectively remove cesium from tank waste at the Multi-Component Solvent Extraction unit (MCU). This solvent consists of four components: the extractant - BoBCalixC6, a modifier - Cs-7B, a suppressor - trioctylamine, and a diluent, Isopar L{trademark}. This solvent has been used to successfully decontaminate over 2 million gallons of tank waste. However, recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a basis to implement an improved solvent blend. This new solvent blend - referred to as Next Generation Solvent (NGS) - is similar to the current solvent, and also contains four components: the extractant - MAXCalix, a modifier - Cs-7B, a suppressor - LIX-79{trademark} guanidine, and a diluent, Isopar L{trademark}. Testing to date has shown that this 'Next Generation' solvent promises to provide far superior cesium removal efficiencies, and furthermore, is theorized to perform adequately even in waste with high potassium concentrations such that it could be used for processing Hanford wastes. SRNL has performed a cesium mass transfer test in to confirm this behavior, using a simulant designed to simulate Hanford AP-101 waste.

  8. Seasonal analysis of the generation and composition of solid waste: potential use--a case study.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Virgen, Quetzalli; Taboada-González, Paul; Ojeda-Benítez, Sara

    2013-06-01

    Ensenada health officials lack pertinent information on the sustainable management of solid waste, as do health officials from other developing countries. The aims of this research are: (a) to quantify and analyze the household solid wastes generated in the city of Ensenada, Mexico, and (b) to project biogas production and estimate generation of electrical energy. The characterization study was conducted by socioeconomic stratification in two seasonal periods, and the biogas and electrical energy projections were performed using the version 2.0 Mexico Biogas Model. Per capita solid waste generation was 0.779 ± 0.019 kg per person per day within a 98 % confidence interval. Waste composition is composed mainly of food scraps at 36.25 %, followed by paper and cardboard at 21.85 %, plastic at 12.30 %, disposable diapers at 6.26 %, and textiles at 6.28 %. The maximum capacity for power generation is projected to be 1.90 MW in 2019. Waste generated could be used as an intermediate in different processes such as recycling (41.04 %) and energy recovery (46.63 %). The electrical energy that could be obtained using the biogas generated at the Ensenada sanitary landfill would provide roughly 60 % of the energy needed for street lighting.

  9. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates.

  10. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun city

    SciTech Connect

    Hefa Cheng; Yanguo Zhang; Aihong Meng; Qinghai Li

    2007-11-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization in China, many cities face the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. With the lack of space for new landfills, waste-to-energy incineration is playing an increasingly important role in waste management. Incineration of MSW from Chinese cities presents some unique challenges because of its low calorific value (3000-6700 kJ/kg) and high water content (about 50%). This study reports a novel waste-to-energy incineration technology based on co-firing of MSW with coal in a grate-circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, which was implemented in the Changchun MSW power plant. In 2006, two 260 ton/day incinerators incinerated 137,325 tons, or approximately one/sixth of the MSW generated in Changchun, saving more than 0.2 million m{sup 3} landfill space. A total of 46.2 million kWh electricity was generated (38,473 tons lignite was also burned as supplementary fuel), with an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 14.6%. Emission of air pollutants including particulate matters, acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins was low and met the emission standards for incinerators. As compared to imported incineration systems, this new technology has much lower capital and operating costs and is expected to play a role in meeting China's demands for MSW disposal and alternative energy. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun City.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Zhang, Yanguo; Meng, Aihong; Li, Qinghai

    2007-11-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization in China, many cities face the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. With the lack of space for new landfills, waste-to-energy incineration is playing an increasingly important role in waste management. Incineration of MSW from Chinese cities presents some unique challenges because of its low calorific value (3000-6700 kJ/kg) and high water content (approximately 50%). This study reports a novel waste-to-energy incineration technology based on co-firing of MSW with coal in a grate-circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, which was implemented in the Changchun MSW power plant. In 2006, two 260 ton/day incinerators incinerated 137,325 tons, or approximately one/sixth of the MSW generated in Changchun, saving more than 0.2 million m3 landfill space. A total of 46.2 million kWh electricity was generated (38,473 tons lignite was also burned as supplementary fuel), with an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 14.6%. Emission of air pollutants including particulate matters, acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins was low and met the emission standards for incinerators. As compared to imported incineration systems, this new technology has much lower capital and operating costs and is expected to play a role in meeting China's demands for MSW disposal and alternative energy.

  12. Contribution of rheological characteristics of pavement structure with addition of brick waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senisna, Zoubida; Bentebba, Med Tahar

    2017-02-01

    The construction and demolition waste at the end of the cycle are often a threat for the environment due to their congestion and biodegradability. The presented research work aims to develop these wastes such as the waste of pavements structure brick. It refers to the behavior of modified asphalt mixture (bituminous grave) by adding the waste of the grinding yellow brick, which is used in the construction of buildings. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate and compare the physical and mechanical performance roadway structure (modified bituminous Gravel (GB 0/20)) by replacing natural sand partly mix (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% or completely by brick waste sand) and determine the optimal composition. Mechanical and rheological performance give the best results. The results show that the use of brick waste sand leads to a reduction of the physical and mechanical properties of GB 0/20.

  13. Declassification of radioactive liquid wastes generated in radio immune assay [corrected] (RIA) laboratories.

    PubMed

    Sancho, M; Arnal, J M; Villaescusa, J I; Campayo, J M; Verdú, G

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes of low-medium activity level are generated in radio immune assay (RIA) laboratories, which are also potentially infectious because of the pathogens from patient blood. The most common way of managing these wastes consists of a temporal storage, for partial radioactivity decay, followed by management by an authorised company. The object of this work is to study the viability of treating radioactive liquid wastes coming from RIA using membrane techniques in order to reduce their volume, which would mean an improvement from the radiological point of view and a decrease in management costs. This paper describes the results of some experiments carried out with RIA real wastes, by means of processes such as ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. It has been proved that waste volume can be significantly reduced, obtaining a treated liquid that is free of pathogens and organic matter and with an activity level around the environmental background.

  14. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    PubMed

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  15. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Dyson, Brian; Chang, N.-B. . E-mail: nchang@even.tamuk.edu

    2005-07-01

    Both planning and design of municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. Yet achieving the anticipated prediction accuracy with regard to the generation trends facing many fast-growing regions is quite challenging. The lack of complete historical records of solid waste quantity and quality due to insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity has resulted in a situation that makes the long-term system planning and/or short-term expansion programs intangible. To effectively handle these problems based on limited data samples, a new analytical approach capable of addressing socioeconomic and environmental situations must be developed and applied for fulfilling the prediction analysis of solid waste generation with reasonable accuracy. This study presents a new approach - system dynamics modeling - for the prediction of solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban area based on a set of limited samples. To address the impact on sustainable development city wide, the practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the city of San Antonio, Texas (USA). This area is becoming one of the fastest-growing regions in North America due to the economic impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The analysis presents various trends of solid waste generation associated with five different solid waste generation models using a system dynamics simulation tool - Stella[reg]. Research findings clearly indicate that such a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties down when traditional statistical least-squares regression methods are unable to handle such issues.

  16. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Brian; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2005-01-01

    Both planning and design of municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. Yet achieving the anticipated prediction accuracy with regard to the generation trends facing many fast-growing regions is quite challenging. The lack of complete historical records of solid waste quantity and quality due to insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity has resulted in a situation that makes the long-term system planning and/or short-term expansion programs intangible. To effectively handle these problems based on limited data samples, a new analytical approach capable of addressing socioeconomic and environmental situations must be developed and applied for fulfilling the prediction analysis of solid waste generation with reasonable accuracy. This study presents a new approach--system dynamics modeling--for the prediction of solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban area based on a set of limited samples. To address the impact on sustainable development city wide, the practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the city of San Antonio, Texas (USA). This area is becoming one of the fastest-growing regions in North America due to the economic impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The analysis presents various trends of solid waste generation associated with five different solid waste generation models using a system dynamics simulation tool--Stella. Research findings clearly indicate that such a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties down when traditional statistical least-squares regression methods are unable to handle such issues.

  17. Systematic evaluation of options to avoid generation of noncertifiable transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, J.M.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Triay, I.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.

    1998-03-01

    At present, >35% of the volume of newly generated transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory is not certifiable for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Noncertifiable waste would constitute 900--1,000 m{sup 3} of the 2,600 m{sup 3} of waste projected during the period of the Environmental Management (EM) Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006 plan (DOE, 1997). Volume expansion of this waste to meet thermal limits would increase the shipped volume to {approximately}5,400 m{sup 3}. This paper presents the results of efforts to define which TRU waste streams are noncertifiable at Los Alamos, and to prioritize site-specific options to reduce the volume of certifiable waste over the period of the EM Accelerated Cleanup Plan. A team of Los Alamos TRU waste generators and waste managers reviewed historic generation rates and thermal loads and current practices to estimate the projected volume and thermal load of TRU waste streams for Fiscal Years 1999--2006. These data defined four major problem TRU waste streams. Estimates were also made of the volume expansion that would be required to meet the permissible wattages for all waste. The four waste streams defined were: (1) {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste from production of Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) with {sup 238}Pu activity which exceeds allowable shipping limits by 10--100X. (2) {sup 241}Am-contaminated cement waste from plutonium recovery processes (nitric and hydrochloric acid recovery) are estimated to exceed thermal limits by {approximately}3X. (3) {sup 239}Pu-contaminated combustible waste, mainly organic waste materials contaminated with {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am, is estimated to exceed thermal load requirements by a factor of {approximately}2X. (4) Oversized metal waste objects, (especially gloveboxes), cannot be shipped as is to WIPP because they will not fit in a standard waste box or drum.

  18. Hazardous Wastes and the Consumer Connection. A Guide for Educators and Citizens Concerned with the Role of Consumers in the Generation of Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaff, Edith

    Many consumers do not see a strong connection between our lifestyles and buying decisions, and the amount of hazardous wastes generated in the United States. This guide was developed to be used by educators and citizens concerned with the role of consumers in the generation of hazardous wastes. It examines several products in terms of their…

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  20. Direct and indirect generation of waste in the Spanish paper industry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Peñalver, Soraya María; Rodríguez Molina, Mercedes; Camacho Ballesta, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The paper industry has a relatively high degree of reliance on suppliers when compared to other industries. Exploring the role of the paper industry in terms of consumption of intermediate inputs from other industries may help to understand how the production of paper does not only generate waste by itself but also affects the amount of waste generated by other industries. The product Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful analytical tool to examine and assess environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of a product "from cradle to grave" but it is costly and time intensive. In contrast, Economic Input Output Life Cycle Assessment Models (IO-LCA) that combine LCA with Input-Output analysis (IO) are more accurate and less expensive, as they employ publicly available data. This paper represents one of the first Spanish studies aimed at estimating the waste generated in the production of paper by applying IO-LCA. One of the major benefits is the derivation of the contribution of direct and indirect suppliers to the paper industry. The results obtained show that there was no direct relationship between the impact on output and the impact on waste generation exerted by the paper industry. The major contributors to waste generation were the mining industry and the forestry industry.

  1. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    SciTech Connect

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  2. Appraisal of domestic solid waste generation, components, and the feasibility of recycling in Erbil, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Shuokr Qarani Aziz; Hamidi Abdul Aziz; Mohammed Jk Bashir; Mohd Suffian Yusoff

    2011-08-01

    Solid waste collection and disposal are among the most vital services provided to about 700 770 residents of the city of Erbil in northern Iraq. As such, proper waste management systems that consider both the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste are strongly required to address the increasing amount of solid waste. Unfortunately, these essential data are not easily available. The present study sought to gather data on the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste collected from different quarters in Erbil, and the feasibility of recycling these wastes. The solid waste generation rate (GR), uncompacted density, and weight percentages of combustible and incombustible materials were determined based on the collected materials (i.e., food, plastic, paper, metal, glass and cloth). The results show that the average GR and uncompacted density were 0.654 kg capita(-1) day(-1) and 175.72 kg m(-3), respectively. The weight percentages of food, plastic, paper, metal, glass, and cloth as components of domestic solid waste were 79.34, 6.28, 5.9, 3.6, 3.42 and 1.45%, respectively.

  3. Estimation of municipal solid waste generation and landfill area in Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Anupam; Yamamoto, Yugo; Morioka, Tohru

    2010-09-01

    In developing Asian countries, the municipal cooperations are unable to handle the increasing amount of municipal solid waste, which into the uncollected waste being spread on roads and in other public areas leading to tremendous pollution and destruction of land and negative impact on human health. Generation of municipal solid waste increases with the rapid urbanization and accelerated economic development with in the rapidly growing advanced technological societies. The nature of municipal solid waste is a term usually applied to a heterogeneous collection group of waste produced in urban areas, the nature of which varies from region to region. The common problem faced by all developing Asian countries, is the disposal of municipal solid waste and availability of land fill site area. Present study explains the correlation analysis of among different factors of municipal solid waste and the objective is to assess the future municipal solid waste stream in Asian developing countries. The other goal of this study was to calculate the future land area that would be required for landfill site disposal in Asian developing countries.

  4. Assessment of municipal solid waste generation and recyclable materials potential in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohamed Osman; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Mujeebu, M Abdul

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a forecasting study of municipal solid waste generation (MSWG) rate and potential of its recyclable components in Kuala Lumpur (KL), the capital city of Malaysia. The generation rates and composition of solid wastes of various classes such as street cleansing, landscape and garden, industrial and constructional, institutional, residential and commercial are analyzed. The past and present trends are studied and extrapolated for the coming years using Microsoft office 2003 Excel spreadsheet assuming a linear behavior. The study shows that increased solid waste generation of KL is alarming. For instance, the amount of daily residential SWG is found to be about 1.62 kg/capita; with the national average at 0.8-0.9 kg/capita and is expected to be increasing linearly, reaching to 2.23 kg/capita by 2024. This figure seems reasonable for an urban developing area like KL city. It is also found that, food (organic) waste is the major recyclable component followed by mix paper and mix plastics. Along with estimated population growth and their business activities, it has been observed that the city is still lacking in terms of efficient waste treatment technology, sufficient fund, public awareness, maintaining the established norms of industrial waste treatment etc. Hence it is recommended that the concerned authority (DBKL) shall view this issue seriously.

  5. Potential for energy generation from anaerobic digestion of food waste in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xian Fang; Nair, Jaya; Ho, Goen

    2013-03-01

    Published national and state reports have revealed that Australia deposits an average of 16 million Mg of solid waste into landfills yearly, of which approximately 12.6% is comprised of food. Being highly biodegradable and possessing high energy content, anaerobic digestion offers an attractive treatment option alternative to landfilling. The present study attempted to identify the theoretical maximum benefit of food waste digestion in Australia with regard to energy recovery and waste diversion from landfills. The study also assessed the scope for anaerobic process to utilize waste for energy projects through various case study scenarios. Results indicated anaerobic digestion of total food waste generated across multiple sites in Australia could generate 558 453 dam(3) of methane which translated to 20.3 PJ of heating potential or 1915 GWe in electricity generation annually. This would contribute to 3.5% of total current energy supply from renewable sources. Energy contribution from anaerobic digestion of food waste to the total energy requirement in Australia remains low, partially due to the high energy consumption of the country. However its appropriateness in low density regions, which are prevalent in Australia, may allow digesters to have a niche application in the country.

  6. Hazardous medical waste generation rates of different categories of health-care facilities.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Fouki, Anastassia; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-07-01

    Goal of this work was to calculate the hazardous medical waste unit generation rates (HMWUGR), in kg bed(-1)d(-1), using data from 132 health-care facilities in Greece. The calculations were based on the weights of the hazardous medical wastes that were regularly transferred to the sole medical waste incinerator in Athens over a 22-month period during years 2009 and 2010. The 132 health-care facilities were grouped into public and private ones, and, also, into seven sub-categories, namely: birth, cancer treatment, general, military, pediatric, psychiatric and university hospitals. Results showed that there is a large variability in the HMWUGR, even among hospitals of the same category. Average total HMWUGR varied from 0.012 kg bed(-1)d(-1), for the public psychiatric hospitals, to up to 0.72 kg bed(-1)d(-1), for the public university hospitals. Within the private hospitals, average HMWUGR ranged from 0.0012 kg bed(-1)d(-1), for the psychiatric clinics, to up to 0.49 kg bed(-1)d(-1), for the birth clinics. Based on non-parametric statistics, HMWUGR were statistically similar for the birth and general hospitals, in both the public and private sector. The private birth and general hospitals generated statistically more wastes compared to the corresponding public hospitals. The infectious/toxic and toxic medical wastes appear to be 10% and 50% of the total hazardous medical wastes generated by the public cancer treatment and university hospitals, respectively.

  7. Guidelines for generators to meet HWHF acceptance requirements for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at Berkeley Lab. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.

    1996-06-01

    This document provides performance standards that one, as a generator of hazardous chemical, radioactive, or mixed wastes at the Berkeley Lab, must meet to manage their waste to protect Berkeley Lab staff and the environment, comply with waste regulations and ensure the continued safe operation of the workplace, have the waste transferred to the correct Waste Handling Facility, and enable the Environment, Health and Safety (EH and S) Division to properly pick up, manage, and ultimately send the waste off site for recycling, treatment, or disposal. If one uses and generates any of these wastes, one must establish a Satellite Accumulation Area and follow the guidelines in the appropriate section of this document. Topics include minimization of wastes, characterization of the wastes, containers, segregation, labeling, empty containers, and spill cleanup and reporting.

  8. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  9. A Planning Tool for Estimating Waste Generated by a Radiological Incident and Subsequent Decontamination Efforts - 13569

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Timothy; Lemieux, Paul; Schultheisz, Daniel; Peake, Tom; Hayes, Colin

    2013-07-01

    Management of debris and waste from a wide-area radiological incident would probably constitute a significant percentage of the total remediation cost and effort. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Estimation Support Tool (WEST) is a unique planning tool for estimating the potential volume and radioactivity levels of waste generated by a radiological incident and subsequent decontamination efforts. The WEST was developed to support planners and decision makers by generating a first-order estimate of the quantity and characteristics of waste resulting from a radiological incident. The tool then allows the user to evaluate the impact of various decontamination/demolition strategies on the waste types and volumes generated. WEST consists of a suite of standalone applications and Esri{sup R} ArcGIS{sup R} scripts for rapidly estimating waste inventories and levels of radioactivity generated from a radiological contamination incident as a function of user-defined decontamination and demolition approaches. WEST accepts Geographic Information System (GIS) shape-files defining contaminated areas and extent of contamination. Building stock information, including square footage, building counts, and building composition estimates are then generated using the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Hazus{sup R}-MH software. WEST then identifies outdoor surfaces based on the application of pattern recognition to overhead aerial imagery. The results from the GIS calculations are then fed into a Microsoft Excel{sup R} 2007 spreadsheet with a custom graphical user interface where the user can examine the impact of various decontamination/demolition scenarios on the quantity, characteristics, and residual radioactivity of the resulting waste streams. (authors)

  10. Using porphyritic andesite as a new additive for improving hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Cheng, Fan; Li, Baoming; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    The effects of porphyritic andesite on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic wastes were investigated by batch and continuous experiments using a rotational drum fermentation system. The results of the batch experiment show that if porphyritic andesite (1%, 3%, and 5% reactants) is added initially, the pH level increases and hydrolysis and acidogenesis are accelerated. The highest surface based hydrolysis constant (26.4x10(-3) kgm(-2) d(-1)) and volatile solid degradation ratio (43.3%) were obtained at a 1% porphyritic andesite addition. In the continuous experiment, porphyritic andesite elevated the first order hydrolysis constant from 13.10x10(-3) d(-1) to 18.82x10(-3) d(-1). A particle mean diameter reduction rate of 33.05 microm/d and a volatile solid degradation rate of 3.53 g/L d(-1) were obtained under the hydraulic retention time of 4, 8, 12 and 16 d.

  11. Enhancement of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) thermal and processing stability using a bio-waste derived additive.

    PubMed

    Persico, Paola; Ambrogi, Veronica; Baroni, Antonio; Santagata, Gabriella; Carfagna, Cosimo; Malinconico, Mario; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco

    2012-12-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer, whose applicability is limited by its brittleness and narrow processing window. In this study a pomace extract (EP), from the bio-waste of winery industry, was used as thermal and processing stabilizer for PHB, aimed to engineer a totally bio-based system. The results showed that EP enhanced the thermal stability of PHB, which maintained high molecular weights after processing. This evidence was in agreement with the slower decrease in viscosity over time observed by rheological tests. EP also affected the melt crystallization kinetics and the overall crystallinity extent. Finally, dynamic mechanical and tensile tests showed that EP slightly improved the polymer ductility. The results are intriguing, in view of the development of sustainable alternatives to synthetic polymer additives, thus increasing the applicability of bio-based materials. Moreover, the reported results demonstrated the feasibility of the conversion of an agro-food by-product into a bio-resource in an environmentally friendly and cost-effective way.

  12. Improvement of dairy manufacture effluent anaerobic digestion with biological waste addition using a Chinese dome digester.

    PubMed

    Jihen, Toumi; Hassib, Bouallagui; Moktar, Hamdi; Said, Nouira

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manufacture effluent (DME) and biological waste (BW) was investigated at various DME/BW ratios using laboratory batch digesters. The biogas yield ranged 0.34-0.88l biogas g(-1) volatile solids (VS) removed. The highest VS reductions of 58% and 62% were obtained for DME/BW ratios of 60:40% and 80:20%, respectively. Results were used to operate a pilot-scale digester of 5m(3). The highest biogas yield of 0.48lg(-1) VS removed was obtained at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.64gVSl(-1)d(-1) corresponding to a DME/BW ratio of 80:20%. This could be mainly attributed to the higher biodegradability of DME and the correction of the C:N ratio by the addition of the BW. The N, P and K contents were increased significantly in the TS of the digestate to be around 6.8%, 0.64% and 1.26%, respectively.

  13. A Short History of Hanford Waste Generation, Storage, and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2003-10-01

    Nine nuclear reactors and four reprocessing plants at Hanford produced nearly two-thirds of the plutonium used in the United States for government purposes . These site operations also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste. Some contaminants were released into the environment, exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Other contaminants were stored. The last reactor was shut down in 1987, and the last reprocessing plant closed in 1990. Most of the human-made radioactivity and about half of the chemicals remaining onsite are kept in underground tanks and surface facilities. The rest exists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Hanford contains about 40% of all the radioactivity that exists across the nuclear weapons complex. Today, environmental restoration activities are under way.

  14. Next Generation Waste Tracking: Linking Legacy Systems with Modern Networking Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Resseguie, David R.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hill, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes results from a preliminary analysis to satisfy the Department of Energy (DOE) objective to ensure the safe, secure, efficient packaging and transportation of materials both hazardous and non hazardous [1, 2]. The DOE Office of Environmental Management (OEM) through Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has embarked on a project to further this objective. OEM and ORNL have agreed to develop, demonstrate and make available modern day cost effective technologies for characterization, identification, tracking, monitoring and disposal of radioactive waste when transported by, or between, motor, air, rail, and water modes. During the past 8 years ORNL has investigated and deployed Web 2.0 compliant sensors into the transportation segment of the supply chain. ORNL has recently demonstrated operational experience with DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) and others in national test beds and applications within this domain of the supply chain. Furthermore, in addition to DOE, these hazardous materials supply chain partners included Federal and State enforcement agencies, international ports, and commercial sector shipping operations in a hazardous/radioactive materials tracking and monitoring program called IntelligentFreight. IntelligentFreight is an ORNL initiative encompassing 5 years of research effort associated with the supply chain. The ongoing ORNL SmartFreight programs include RadSTraM [3], GRadSTraM , Trusted Corridors, SensorPedia [4], SensorNet, Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP) and Trade Data Exchange [5]. The integration of multiple technologies aimed at safer more secure conveyance has been investigated with the core research question being focused on testing distinctly different distributed supply chain information sharing systems. ORNL with support from ORO have demonstrated capabilities when transporting Environmental Management (EM) waste materials for disposal over an onsite haul road. ORNL has unified the

  15. Systematic characterization of generation and management of e-waste in China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huabo; Hu, Jiukun; Tan, Quanyin; Liu, Lili; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been much effort to promote the management of e-waste in China. Policies have been affected to prohibit imports and to control pollution. Research has been conducted in laboratories and on large-scale industrial operations. A subsidy system to support sound e-waste recycling has been put in place. However, the handling of e-waste is still a concern in China and the issue remains unresolved. There has been relatively little work to follow up this issue or to interpret continuing problems from the perspective of sustainable development. This paper first provides a brief overview of conventional and emerging environmental pollution in Chinese "famous" e-waste dismantling areas, including Guiyu in Guangdong and Wenling in Zhejiang. Environmentalists have repeatedly proven that these areas are significantly polluted. Importing and backyard recycling are decreasing but are ongoing. Most importantly, no work is being done to treat or remediate the contaminated environmental media. The situation is exacerbated by the rising tide of e-waste generated by domestic update of various electronics. This study, therefore, employs a Sales Obsolescence Model approach to predict the generation of e-waste. When accounting for weight, approximately 8 million tons of e-waste will be generated domestically in 2015, of which around 50% is ferrous metals, followed by miscellaneous plastic (30%), copper metal and cables (8%), aluminum (5%), and others (7%). Of this, 3.6% will come from scrap PCBs and 0.2% from lead CRT glass. While more and more end-of-life electronics have been collected and treated by formal or licensed recyclers in China in terms of our analysis, many of them only have dismantling and separation activities. Hazardous e-wastes, including those from PCBs, CRT glass, and brominated flame retardant (BFR) plastics, have become problematic and probably flow to small or backyard recyclers without environmentally sound management. Traditional

  16. Management of various organic fractions of municipal solid waste via recourse to VFA and biogas generation.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, Anshuman Arun; Wang, Jing Yuan; Ng, Wun Jern; Purohit, Hemant J

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system was used for anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) consisting of mixed food + fruit waste and vegetable waste. Hydrolysis and acidogenesis potential of the above wastes were evaluated with the aim of producing value-added products in the form of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas recovery. Efficient hydrolysis and acidogenesis of mixed food + fruit waste was observed at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1-3 d with a five-fold increase in soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) followed by VFA production consisting of 50-75% acetic acid. Longer time was required for hydrolysis of vegetable waste with optimum hydrolysis and SCOD generation at 9 d HRT followed by VFA synthesis consisting of 45% acetic acid. Higher inoculum:substrate ratios resulted in improved hydrolysis and acidogenesis rates for vegetable waste in shorter time of 6 d with higher VFA production and increase in acetic acid content to 70%. When acidogenic leachate was fed into methanogenic reactors, detectable biogas production was observed after 25 d with 37-53% SCOD removal from leachate from mixed food + fruit waste and methane production of 0.066-0.1 L g(-1) SCOD removed and methane content of 38%. Though biogas yield from acidogenic leachate from vegetable waste was lower, nearly 94% volatile solids (VS) removal was observed in the reactors thereby providing methane yield of 0.13-0.21 L g(-1) VS consumed. Thus, the study provided a method for generation of value-added products from an otherwise misplaced resource in the form of OFMSW.

  17. Waste Minimization Measurement and Progress Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.A.

    1995-02-13

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company is implementing productivity improvement concepts into the Waste Minimization Program by focusing on the positive initiatives taken to reduce waste generation at the Savannah River Site. Previous performance measures, based only on waste generation rates, proved to be an ineffective metric for measuring performance and promoting continuous improvements within the Program. Impacts of mission changes and non-routine operations impeded development of baseline waste generation rates and often negated waste generation trending reports. A system was developed to quantify, document and track innovative activities that impact waste volume and radioactivity/toxicity reductions. This system coupled with Management-driven waste disposal avoidance goals is proving to be a powerful tool to promote waste minimization awareness and the implementation of waste reduction initiatives. Measurement of waste not generated, in addition to waste generated, increases the credibility of the Waste Minimization Program, improves sharing of success stories, and supports development of regulatory and management reports

  18. Environmental justice implications of industrial hazardous waste generation in India: a national scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-12-01

    While rising air and water pollution have become issues of widespread public concern in India, the relationship between spatial distribution of environmental pollution and social disadvantage has received less attention. This lack of attention becomes particularly relevant in the context of industrial pollution, as India continues to pursue industrial development policies without sufficient regard to its adverse social impacts. This letter examines industrial pollution in India from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective by presenting a national scale study of social inequities in the distribution of industrial hazardous waste generation. Our analysis connects district-level data from the 2009 National Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Industries with variables representing urbanization, social disadvantage, and socioeconomic status from the 2011 Census of India. Our results indicate that more urbanized and densely populated districts with a higher proportion of socially and economically disadvantaged residents are significantly more likely to generate hazardous waste. The quantity of hazardous waste generated is significantly higher in more urbanized but sparsely populated districts with a higher proportion of economically disadvantaged households, after accounting for other relevant explanatory factors such as literacy and social disadvantage. These findings underscore the growing need to incorporate EJ considerations in future industrial development and waste management in India.

  19. Use of additive and pretreatment to control odors in municipal kitchen waste during aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Zhiye; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai; Zhang, Difang

    2015-11-01

    The effects of adding a bulking agent and chemically pretreating municipal kitchen waste before aerobic composting were studied using a laboratory-scale system. The system used 20-L reactors and each test lasted 28days. The objective was to decrease NH3 and H2S emissions during composting. The bulking agent, dry cornstalks, was mixed with the kitchen waste to give a mixture containing 15% (wet weight) bulking agent. A combined treatment was also conducted, in which kitchen waste mixed with the bulking agent was pretreated with ferric chloride (FeCl3). Less leachate was produced by the composted kitchen waste mixed with bulking agent than by the kitchen waste alone, when the materials had reached the required maturity. The presence of cornstalks also caused less H2S to be emitted, but had little impact on the amount of NH3 emitted. The FeCl3 was found to act as an effective chemical flocculant, and its presence significantly decreased the amounts of NH3 and H2S emitted. Kitchen waste mixed with cornstalks and treated with FeCl3 emitted 42% less NH3 and 76% less H2S during composting than did pure kitchen waste.

  20. A novel approach for phosphorus recovery and no wasted sludge in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process with external COD addition.

    PubMed

    Xia, Cheng-Wang; Ma, Yun-Jie; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    In enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, phosphorus (P) in wastewater is removed via wasted sludge without actual recovery. A novel approach to realize phosphorus recovery with special external chemical oxygen demand (COD) addition in EBPR process was proposed. During the new operating approach period, it was found that (1) no phosphorus was detected in the effluent; (2) with an external addition of 10 % of influent COD amount, 79 % phosphorus in the wastewater influent was recovered; (3) without wasted sludge, the MLVSS concentration in the system increased from 2,010 to 3,400 mg/L and kept stable after day 11 during 24-day operating period. This demonstrates that the novel approach is feasible to realize phosphorus recovery with no wasted sludge discharge in EBPR process. Furthermore, this approach decouples P removal and sludge age, which may enhance the application of membrane bioreactor for P removal.

  1. Generation of a Complete Set of Additive Shape-Invariant Potentials from an Euler Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bougie, Jonathan; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Mallow, Jeffry V.

    2010-11-19

    In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariance is a sufficient condition for solvability. We show that all conventional additive shape-invariant superpotentials that are independent of ({h_bar}/2{pi}) can be generated from two partial differential equations. One of these is equivalent to the one-dimensional Euler equation expressing momentum conservation for inviscid fluid flow, and it is closed by the other. We solve these equations, generate the set of all conventional shape-invariant superpotentials, and show that there are no others in this category. We then develop an algorithm for generating all additive shape-invariant superpotentials including those that depend on ({h_bar}/2{pi}) explicitly.

  2. Generation of a complete set of additive shape-invariant potentials from an Euler equation.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Jonathan; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Mallow, Jeffry V

    2010-11-19

    In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariance is a sufficient condition for solvability. We show that all conventional additive shape-invariant superpotentials that are independent of ℏ can be generated from two partial differential equations. One of these is equivalent to the one-dimensional Euler equation expressing momentum conservation for inviscid fluid flow, and it is closed by the other. We solve these equations, generate the set of all conventional shape-invariant superpotentials, and show that there are no others in this category. We then develop an algorithm for generating all additive shape-invariant superpotentials including those that depend on ℏ explicitly.

  3. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  5. Direct power generation from waste coffee grounds in a biomass fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hansaem; Ocon, Joey D.; Lee, Seunghwa; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of direct power generation from waste coffee grounds (WCG) via high-temperature carbon fuel cell technology. At 900 °C, the WCG-powered fuel cell exhibits a maximum power density that is twice than carbon black. Our results suggest that the heteroatoms and hydrogen contained in WCG are crucial in providing good cell performance due to its in-situ gasification, without any need for pre-reforming. As a first report on the use of coffee as a carbon-neutral fuel, this study shows the potential of waste biomass (e.g. WCG) in sustainable electricity generation in fuel cells.

  6. An Indicator of Solid Waste Generation Potential for Illinois Using Principal Components Analysis and Geographic Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dallas, M D; Kerzee, R G; Bing-Canar, J; Mensah, E K; Oroke, K G; Swager, R R

    1996-05-01

    An indicator of solid waste generation potential (SWGP) is proposed as a versatile means to assist the development of integrated solid waste (SW) management plans. The proposed indicator is based on key sodoeconomic variables for the State of Illinois which were found to be highly correlated with variables describing the SW stream of the State. The proposed indicator was derived by applying the principal components analysis (PCA) technique. The technique is used to merge the rank transformed socioeconomic variables into a single variable, the SWGP indicator, while maintaining the regional information of the original variables. An innovative aspect of this indicator approach is the use of the ordinal scale for all these diverse variables. The validity of this approach was assessed and the proposed indicator was found to be directly proportional to a composite variable describing the SW stream for the State of Illinois. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to depict the spatial distribution of the SWGP will help planners visualize the expected overall refuse generation pattern and to identify critical regions. In addition, the proposed indicator could be used as an instrument to validate the solid waste generation (SWG) quantities reported by counties to state agencies.

  7. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking... appropriate for the waste or category of waste; will improve management practices for the waste or category of... waste or category of waste, will improve management practices for the waste or category of......

  8. System dynamics model for hospital waste characterization and generation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Eleyan, Derar; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Garfield, Joy

    2013-10-01

    Waste management policy makers always face the problem of how to predict the future amount and composition of medical solid waste, which, in turn, helps to determine the most appropriate treatment, recycling and disposal strategy. An accurate prediction can assist in both the planning and design of medical solid waste management systems. Insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity are the main reasons for the scarcity of medical solid waste quantities and components historical records, which are so important in long-term system planning and short-term expansion programs. This article presents a new technique, using System Dynamics modeling, to predict generated medical solid waste in a developing urban area, based on a set of limited samples from Jenin District hospitals, Palestine. The findings of the model present the trend of medical solid waste generation together with its different components and indicate that a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties when traditional statistical least-squared regression methods are unable to handle such issues.

  9. Site-Specific Tandem Knoevenagel Condensation-Michael Addition To Generate Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kudirka, Romas A; Barfield, Robyn M; McFarland, Jesse M; Drake, Penelope M; Carlson, Adam; Bañas, Stefanie; Zmolek, Wes; Garofalo, Albert W; Rabuka, David

    2016-11-10

    Expanded ligation techniques are sorely needed to generate unique linkages for the growing field of functionally enhanced proteins. To address this need, we present a unique chemical ligation that involves the double addition of a pyrazolone moiety with an aldehyde-labeled protein. This ligation occurs via a tandem Knoevenagel condensation-Michael addition. A pyrazolone reacts with an aldehyde to generate an enone, which undergoes subsequent attack by a second pyrazolone to generate a bis-pyrazolone species. This rapid and facile ligation technique is performed under mild conditions in the absence of catalyst to generate new architectures that were previously inaccessible via conventional ligation reactions. Using this unique ligation, we generated three site-specifically labeled antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) with an average of four drugs to one antibody. The in vitro and in vivo efficacies along with pharmacokinetic data of the site-specific ADCs are reported.

  10. Design/build/mockup of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant gas generation experiment glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, K.E.; Benjamin, W.W.; Knight, C.J.; Michelbacher, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    A glovebox was designed, fabricated, and mocked-up for the WIPP Gas Generation Experiments (GGE) being conducted at ANL-W. GGE will determine the gas generation rates from materials in contact handled transuranic waste at likely long term repository temperature and pressure conditions. Since the customer`s schedule did not permit time for performing R&D of the support systems, designing the glovebox, and fabricating the glovebox in a serial fashion, a parallel approach was undertaken. As R&D of the sampling system and other support systems was initiated, a specification was written concurrently for contracting a manufacturer to design and build the glovebox and support equipment. The contractor understood that the R&D being performed at ANL-W would add additional functional requirements to the glovebox design. Initially, the contractor had sufficient information to design the glovebox shell. Once the shell design was approved, ANL-W built a full scale mockup of the shell out of plywood and metal framing; support systems were mocked up and resultant information was forwarded to the glovebox contractor to incorporate into the design. This approach resulted in a glovebox being delivered to ANL-W on schedule and within budget.

  11. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    PubMed

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India.

  12. Digestion of waste bananas to generate energy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W P; Radnidge, P; Lai, T E; Jensen, P D; Hardin, M T

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from laboratory studies to measure the methane yield and rate of digestion of reject bananas. These parameters were determined in experiments that took into account the likely configuration of a full-scale plant in the banana growing region of north Queensland. The digestion was conducted in a 200-l reactor using fed-batch operation, relying entirely on the natural microbial consortia on the reject bananas to avoid reliance on external inocula such as sludge, an undesirable material around food packaging facilities. An enrichment culture was first established in a highly buffered 200-l batch digestion unit. The fed-batch digester was then started by exchanging leachate with the mature batch reactor. Under loading conditions of 0.6 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) over 70 days where the average working volume was 160 l, the digester produced 398+/-20 l CH4 kg VS(-1). Increasing the loading rate to 1.6 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) resulted in a reduced methane yield of 210 l CH4 kg VS(-1) over 23 days of operation, with a concomitant accumulation of banana waste in the digester. The leachate at the end of digestion contained over 4000 mg l(-1)K, 200 mg l(-1) N and 75 mg l(-1), levels that exceed acceptable limits for general agricultural irrigation.

  13. Hydrogen generation by metal corrosion in simulated Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Telander, M.R.; Westerman, R.E.

    1997-03-01

    The corrosion and gas-generation characteristics of four material types: low-carbon steel (the current waste packaging material for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), Cu-base and Ti-base (alternative packaging) materials, and Al-base (simulated waste) materials were determined in both the liquid and vapor phase of Brine A, a brine representative of an intergranular Salado Formation brine. Test environments consisted primarily of anoxic brine with overpressures of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2}. Limited tests of low-carbon steel were also performed in simulated-backfill environments and in brine environments with pH values ranging from 3 to 11. Low-carbon steel reacted at a slow, measurable rate with anoxic brine, liberating H{sub 2} on an equimolar basis with Fe reacted. Presence of CO{sub 2} caused the initial reaction to proceed more rapidly, but CO{sub 2}-induced passivation stopped the reaction if the CO{sub 2} were present in sufficient quantities. Addition of H{sub 2}S to a CO{sub 2}-passivated system caused reversal of the passivation. Low-carbon steel immersed in brine with H{sub 2}S showed no reaction, apparently because of passivation of the steel by formation of FeS. Addition of CO{sub 2} to an H{sub 2}S-passivated system did not reverse the passivation. Cu- and Ti-base materials showed essentially no corrosion when exposed to brine and overpressures of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S except for the rapid and complete reaction between Cu-base materials and H{sub 2}S. The Al-base materials reacted at approximately the same rate as low-carbon steel when immersed in anoxic Brine A; considerably more rapidly in the presence of CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S; and much more rapidly when iron was present in the system as a brine contaminant. High-purity Al was much more susceptible to corrosion than the 6061 alloy. No significant reaction took place on any material in any environment in the vapor-phase exposures.

  14. EPA Adds Five Hazardous Waste Sites to Superfunds National Priorities List and Proposes an Additional Seven

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is adding five hazardous waste sites that pose risks to human health and the environment to the Superfund National Priorities List (NPL). A separate action includes a proposal to ad

  15. 1994 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1995-10-16

    The Y-12 Plant serves as a key manufacturing technology center for the development and demonstration of unique materials, components, and services of importance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. This is accomplished through the reclamation and storage of nuclear materials, manufacture of nuclear materials, manufacture of components for the nation`s defense capabilities, support to national security programs, and services provided to other customers as approved by DOE. We are recognized by our people, the community, and our customers as innovative, responsive, and responsible. We are a leader in worker health and safety, environmental protection, and stewardship of our national resources. As a DOE facility, Y-12 also supports DOE`s waste minimization mission. Data contained in this report represents waste generation in Tennessee.

  16. A pilot outreach program for small quantity generators of hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Brown, M S; Kelley, B G; Gutensohn, J

    1988-10-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management initiated a pilot project to improve compliance with hazardous waste regulations and management of hazardous wastes with auto body shops around the state. The program consisted of mass mailings, a series of workshops throughout the state, a coordinated inspection program by the state regulatory agency, and technology transfer. At the start of the program in January 1986, approximately 650 of the estimated 2,350 auto body shops in the state had notified EPA of their waste generating activities; by January 1987, approximately 1,200 shops had done so. Suggestions for improving program efforts include tailoring the outreach effort to the industry, government-sponsored research and development directed at the needs of small firms, mandatory participation in hazardous waste transportation programs, and better coordination by EPA of its information collection and distribution program.

  17. Environmental-Economic Assessment Of Generation, Flow And Efficiency Of Use Of Production And Consumption Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. G.; Golofastova, N. N.; Galanina, T. V.; Koroleva, T. G.; Mikhailova, Ya S.

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of environmental and economic analysis of industrial and economic activities of an enterprise to assess the generation, flow and efficiency of production and consumption waste. The purpose of research is the analysis and the development of theoretical propositions for the functioning of the system of environmental and economic indicators for the effective management of production and consumption waste in the enterprise. The analysis of the existing systems of environmental and economic indicators taking into consideration the industry characteristics and the types of negative impacts is carried out. The main result of the study is the development of the system of environmental and economic indicators of production and consumption waste, adapted to the modern requirements. The results of the study can be recommended to support the effective management decision-making concerning waste management and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure.

  18. In situ volatile fatty acids influence biogas generation from kitchen wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiyang; Zhao, Mingxing; Miao, Hengfeng; Huang, Zhenxing; Gao, Shumei; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is considered to be an efficient way of disposing kitchen wastes, which can not only reduce waste amounts, but also produce biogas. However, the excessive accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) caused by high organic loads will inhibit anaerobic digestion intensively. Effects of the VFA composition on biogas generation and microbial community are still required for the investigation under various organic loads of kitchen wastes. Our results showed that the maximum specific methane production was 328.3 ml g TS(-1), and acetic acid was the main inhibitor in methanogenesis. With the increase of organic load, aceticlastic methanogenesis was more sensitive to acetic acid than hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Meanwhile, methanogenic microbial community changed significantly, and few species grew well under excessive organic loads. This study provides an attempt to reveal the mechanism of VFA inhibition in anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes.

  19. Extraction procedure testing of solid wastes generated at selected metal ore mines and mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, David M.; Terlecky, P. Michael

    1986-09-01

    Solid waste samples from a reconnaissance study conducted at ore mining and milling sites were subjected to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency extraction procedure (EP) leaching test Sites visited included mines and mills extracting ores of antimony (Sb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), tungsten (W), and nickel (Ni). Samples analyzed included mine wastes, treatment pond solids, tailings, low grade ore, and other solid wastes generated at these facilities Analysis of the leachate from these tests indicates that none of the samples generated leachate in which the concentration of any toxic metal parameter exceeded EPA criteria levels for those metals. By volume, tailings generally constitute the largest amount of solid wastes generated, but these data indicate that with proper management and monitoring, current EPA criteria can be met for tailings and for most solid wastes associated with mining and milling of these metal ores. Long-term studies are needed to determine if leachate characteristics change with time and to assist in development of closure plans and post closure monitoring programs.

  20. Generation, characterization and reuse of solid wastes from a biodiesel production plant.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando Jorge Santos; Santana, Daniele Dos Santos; Costa, Simone Soraya Brito; Oliveira, Lenise Diniz; Liduino, Vitor Silva; Servulo, Eliana Flávia Camporese

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize industrial solid wastes generated by a biodiesel production plant in Brazil, as well as to present strategies for the management of these materials. This plant produces every year around 100,000tons of biodiesel from vegetable oils and animal fats. The methodology of the study included technical visits, interviews with the operational and environmental management staff as well as analysis of documents, reports and computerized data systems. An approach to reduce the generation of hazardous waste was investigated. It was take into account the amount of raw material that was processed, reduction of landfill disposal, and the maximization of the their recycling and reuse. The study also identified the sources of waste generation and accordingly prepared an evaluation matrix to determine the types of waste with the higher potential for minimization. The most important residue of the process was the filter material impregnated with oil and biodiesel, requiring, therefore, measures for its minimization. The use of these residues in the production of ceramic artefacts (light bricks) was considered to be very promising, since no significant effect on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the artefacts produced was observed. Phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuva sativa (lettuce), Brassica juncea (mustard), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (daisy), Dendranthema grandiflorum (chrysanthemum) and Allium porrum (leek) were carried out. The results clearly show incorporation of the waste material into bricks did not influence relative germination and relative root elongation in comparison to control tests.

  1. Biological N removal from wastes generated from amine-based CO2 capture: case monoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Ingrid; Colaço, Ana B; Skjæran, Julie A; Einbu, Aslak; Ostgaard, Kjetill; Svendsen, Hallvard F; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2013-02-01

    Large-scale amine-based CO(2) capture will generate waste containing large amounts of ammonia, in addition to contaminants such as the actual amine as well as degradation products thereof. Monoethanolamine (MEA) has been a dominant amine applied so far in this context. This study reveals how biological N removal can be achieved even in systems heavily contaminated by MEA in post- as well as pre-denitrification treatment systems, elucidating the rate-limiting factors of nitrification as well as aerobic and denitrifying biodegradation of MEA. The hydrolysis of MEA to ammonia readily occurred both in post- and pre-denitrification treatment systems with a hydraulic retention time of 7 h. MEA removal was ≥99 ± 1 % and total nitrogen removal 77 ± 10 % in both treatment systems. This study clearly demonstrates the advantage of pre-denitrification over post-denitrification for achieving biological nitrogen removal from MEA-contaminated effluents. Besides the removal of MEA, the removal efficiency of total nitrogen as well as organic matter was high without additional carbon source supplied.

  2. Innovative Conditioning Procedures for the Generation of Radioactive Waste Products which are Stable for Intermediate Storage or Repository-Independent in Final Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, H.J.; Heimbach, H.; Odoj, R.; Pruesse, R.; Wartenberg, W.

    2006-07-01

    and inorganic additives produce volume reduced glasses. Organic polymers evaluated are polysiloxane compounds with additives like barium sulfate, lead dioxide or others, depending on the specific requirements. As a counterpart to organic polymers, mineral polymers are based on silica and alumina, exhibiting better mechanical and thermal properties, as well as higher durability, compared with concrete. Thus QSA Global uses mineral polymers for packing radioactive waste containers, if high safety requirements have to be fulfilled like the waste acceptance criteria for the KONRAD repository. (Plasma products so far generated in experiments resemble natural obsidian, a highly inert and stable volcanic glass). (authors)

  3. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Environmental Training Modules. Module 8 - Generation/Treatment/Minimization of Hazardous Waste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    facility that generates 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lbs) or more per month. The federal hazardous waste regulations also recognize other smaller categories of...training is the first step to both ensuring compliance with the hazardous waste regulations , as well as facility and worker safety. Training for the...buildings, and waste container marking and labeling requirements. Subpart D - Recordkeeping and Reporting: The hazardous waste regulations require that a

  4. Elimination Of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In Defense Waste Processing Facility Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.

    2013-01-22

    Based on lab-scale simulations of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) slurry chemistry, the addition of sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide to waste slurries at concentrations sufficient to take the aqueous phase into the alkaline region (pH > 7) with approximately 500 mg nitrite ion/kg slurry (assuming <25 wt% total solids, or equivalently 2,000 mg nitrite/kg total solids) is sufficient to effectively deactivate the noble metal catalysts at temperatures between room temperature and boiling. This is a potential strategy for eliminating catalytic hydrogen generation from the list of concerns for sludge carried over into the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) or Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). These conclusions are drawn in large part from the various phases of the DWPF catalytic hydrogen generation program conducted between 2005 and 2009. The findings could apply to various situations, including a solids carry-over from either the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) into the SMECT with subsequent transfer to the RCT, as well as a spill of formic acid into the sump system and transfer into an RCT that already contains sludge solids. There are other potential mitigating factors for the SMECT and RCT, since these vessels are typically operated at temperatures close to the minimum temperatures that catalytic hydrogen has been observed to occur in either the SRAT or SME (pure slurry case), and these vessels are also likely to be considerably more dilute in both noble metals and formate ion (the two essential components to catalytic hydrogen generation) than the two primary process vessels. Rhodium certainly, and ruthenium likely, are present as metal-ligand complexes that are favored under certain concentrations of the surrounding species. Therefore, in the SMECT or RCT, where a small volume of SRAT or SME material would be significantly diluted, conditions would be less optimal for forming or sustaining the

  5. Additive effect of waste tire on the hydrogenolysis reaction of coal liquefaction residue

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyuki Sugano; Daigorou Onda; Kiyoshi Mashimo

    2006-12-15

    A numerous amount of waste tire is landfilled or dumped all over the world, which causes environmental problems, such as destruction of natural places and the risk of fires. On the other hand, the coal liquefaction residue (CLR) is produced in 30% yield through the process supporting unit (PSU) of the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. Therefore, the investigation on an effective method for utilization of waste tire and CLR is required. In this study, the simultaneous hydrogenolysis of CLR and pulverized waste tire was carried out by using tetralin. The yields in the simultaneous hydrogenolysis were compared with algebraic sum of the yields of the individual hydrogenolyses of waste tire alone and coal alone. In the simultaneous hydrogenolysis, the synergistic effects to upgrading, such as an increase in the yield of the oil constituent and a decrease in the yield of the asphaltene constituent, occurred because of the stabilization of asphaltenic radicals from CLR with aliphatic radicals from tire. The decrease in asphaltene yield in the simultaneous hydrogenolysis was pronounced with the increase in the tire:CLR ratio because the solvent effects of liquefied tire, such as stabilization of radicals, hydrogen shuttling, and heat transfer, were enhanced. Accordingly, it is estimated that the simultaneous hydrogenolysis of CLR and waste tire is an effective method for processing both materials. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Development of cement solidification process for sodium borate waste generated from PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hirofumi Okabe; Tatsuaki Sato; Yuichi Shoji; Yoshiko Haruguchi; Masaaki Kaneko; Michitaka Saso; Masumitsu Toyohara

    2013-07-01

    A cement solidification process for treating sodium borate waste produced in pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants was studied. To obtain high volume reduction and high mechanical strength of the waste, simulated concentrated borate liquid waste with a sodium / boron (Na/B) mole ratio of 0.27 was dehydrated and powdered by using a wiped film evaporator. To investigate the effect of the Na/B mole ratio on the solidification process, a sodium tetraborate decahydrate reagent with a Na/B mole ratio of 0.5 was also used. Ordinary portland cement (OPC) and some additives were used for the solidification. Solidified cement prepared from powdered waste with a Na/B mole ratio 0.24 and having a high silica sand content (silica sand/cement>2) showed to improved uniaxial compressive strength. (authors)

  7. HIERARCHIAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF PROCESSES TO GENERATE WASTE-RECYCLED FEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hierarchical Design and Evaluation of Processes to Generate
    Waste-Recycled Feeds

    Raymond L. Smith
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    Office of Research and Development
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory
    26 W. Martin Luther King Drive
    Cincinna...

  8. 75 FR 79304 - Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    .... 262.34(j) and (k)) in order to indicate that eligible academic entities that were Performance Track... Laboratories Owned by Colleges and Universities and Other Eligible Academic Entities Formally Affiliated With... waste generator requirements known as the ``Academic Laboratories rule'' or ``Subpart K'' which...

  9. Small Generator, Large Problem: Identifying and Disposing of Hazardous Waste at Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valicenti, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite limited generation of hazardous materials, two-year colleges are required to comply with federal criteria for their identification and removal. After a random facilities inspection, the College of DuPage (Illinois) established priorities for waste removal, information dissemination, staff training, inventory, storage, and organizational…

  10. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  11. U.S. Navy Shipboard-Generated Plastic Waste Pilot Recycling Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    26 Recycling Shipboard-Generated Plastic Waste at the Manufacturers ’ Facilities...Recycling Corp .......................................... 31 Figure 27: Hammer’s Recycling Corp.-park bench manufactured from Navy plastic...Technologies, Inc.- park bench manufactured from Navy plastic ..................... 35 Figure 31: Plaque on park bench

  12. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  13. Inter-generational Decision Making for Radioactive Waste Disposal, Policy and Science: Regulatory Protection Forever?

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, E.P.; Wallo, A.

    2006-07-01

    Assumptions about this generation's duty to future generations underlie decisions on regulatory requirements for disposal of radioactive waste. Regulatory provisions related to time of compliance, dose criteria, and institutional controls, for example, continue to be topics of discussion as regulations are revised or compared. Subjective and difficult ethical issues are either explicit or implicit in these discussions. The information and criteria used must be relevant and help make good decisions that, ideally, increase the overall welfare of future generations. To what extent can or should science usefully inform such decision-making? Both the National Academies of Science and the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) have reported on this topic, albeit from different viewpoints. This paper explains and expands upon the rationale used for setting compliance time periods such as the Department of Energy's requirement for a 1,000 year time of compliance with dose limits for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It evaluates radioactive waste disposal against principles of equity recommended by NAPA. Radioactive waste disposal standards require evaluation of impacts much farther into the future than has been common for other endeavors with very long term effects. While performance assessment analyses provide much useful information, their inherent uncertainties over long time periods preclude the projection of reality. Thus, the usefulness of extremely long projections in supporting good decisions that promote the welfare of future generations is limited. Such decisions are fundamentally a question of resource allocation, equity, and fairness. (authors)

  14. Valorization of carob waste: Definition of a second-generation bioethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Bahry, Hajar; Pons, Agnès; Abdallah, Rawa; Pierre, Guillaume; Delattre, Cédric; Fayad, Nidal; Taha, Samir; Vial, Christophe

    2017-03-11

    The aim of this work was to develop a strategy for second-generation ethanol production from carob solid waste issued from Lebanese food industry. The pros and cons of submerged (SF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) using S. cerevisiae on ethanol yield and productivity were compared, including the respective roles of upstream and downstream processes, such as the size reduction, or sugar and ethanol recovery processes. The design of experiments methodology was applied. Experimental results demonstrated that SSF applied to cut carob waste from carob syrup preparation was simpler to operate and more cost-effective, maintained yield and productivity (0.458g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 4.3g/(kg waste)/h) in comparison to SF (0.450g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 5.7g/(kg waste)/h), and was able to achieve ethanol production up to 155g/(kg waste) at low water demand, while SF reached only 78g/(kg waste) due to the limitations of the sugar extraction pretreatment.

  15. Generation amount prediction and material flow analysis of electronic waste: a case study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbing; Tanaka, Masaru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2006-10-01

    The draft legislation on e-waste prepared by the Chinese national government assigns management responsibility to local governments. It is an urgent task for the municipal government to plan an effective system as soon as possible to divert the e-waste flow from the existing informal e-waste recycling processes. This paper presents a case study implemented in Beijing, the capital city of China, with the purpose of predicting the amount of obsolete equipment for five main kinds of electronic appliances from urban households and to analyse the flow after the end of their useful phase. The amount to be handled was 885,354 units in 2005 and is predicted to double by 2010. Due to consumption growth and the expansion of urbanization it is estimated that the amount will increase to approximate 2,820,000 units by 2020: 70% of the obsolete appliances will be awaiting collection for possible recycling, 7% will be stored at the owner's home for 1 year on average and 4% will be discarded directly and enter the municipal solid waste collecting system. The remaining items will be reused for about 3 years on average after the change of ownership. The results of this study will assist the waste management authorities of Beijing to plan the collecting system and facilities needed for management of e-waste generated in the near future.

  16. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  17. Generation of reactive oxygen species by interaction between antioxidants used as food additive and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yusuke; Oda, Momoko; Tsukuda, Yuri; Nagamori, Yuki; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Food additives, such as preservatives, sweeteners, coloring agents, and flavoring agents, are widely used in food manufacturing. However, their combined effects on the human body are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine whether combinations of antioxidants and metal ions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under in vitro conditions using electron spin resonance (ESR). Among the metal ions examined, only iron and copper generated ROS in the presence of antioxidants. Moreover, certain phenolic antioxidants having pro-oxidant activity induced DNA oxidation and degradation via the generation of high levels of ROS in the presence of copper ion, resulting in complete degradation of DNA in vitro.

  18. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  19. THE SECOND GENERATION OF THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM: A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    chemical process designers using simulation software generate alternative designs for one process. One criterion for evaluating these designs is their potential for adverse environmental impacts due to waste generated, energy consumed, and possibilities for fugitive emissions. Co...

  20. A modern solid waste management strategy--the generation of new by-products.

    PubMed

    Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Kulbat, Eliza; Luczkiewicz, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    To benefit the environment and society, EU legislation has introduced a 'zero waste' strategy, in which waste material should be converted to resources. Such legislation is supported by the solid waste hierarchy concept, which is a set of priorities in waste management. Under this concept, municipal solid waste plants (MSWPs) should be equipped with sorting and recycling facilities, composting/incineration units and landfill prisms for residual bulk disposal. However, each of the aforementioned facilities generates by-products that must be treated. This project focuses on the leachates from landfill prisms, including modern prism (MP) that meet EU requirements and previous prism (PP) that provide for the storage of permitted biodegradable waste as well as technological wastewaters from sorting unit (SU) and composting unit (CU), which are usually overlooked. The physico-chemical parameters of the liquid by-products collected over 38 months were supported by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) amplifications of functional genes transcripts and a metagenomic approach that describes the archaeal and bacterial community in the MP. The obtained data show that SU and especially CU generate wastewater that is rich in nutrients, organic matter and heavy metals. Through their on-site pre-treatment and recirculation via landfill prisms, the landfill waste decomposition process may be accelerated because of the introduction of organic matter and greenhouse gas emissions may be increased. These results have been confirmed by the progressive abundance of both archaeal community and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene. The resulting multivariate data set, supported by a principal component analysis, provides useful information for the design, operation and risk assessment of modern MSWPs.

  1. 40 CFR 761.64 - Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of wastes generated as a.... 761.64 Section 761.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.64 Disposal of wastes generated as a result...

  2. 40 CFR 761.64 - Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of wastes generated as a.... 761.64 Section 761.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.64 Disposal of wastes generated as a result...

  3. 40 CFR 761.64 - Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.64 Disposal of wastes generated as a result...

  4. 40 CFR 761.64 - Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.64 Disposal of wastes generated as a result...

  5. Municipal solid waste generation in growing urban areas in Africa: current practices and relation to socioeconomic factors in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getahun, T; Mengistie, E; Haddis, A; Wasie, F; Alemayehu, E; Dadi, D; Van Gerven, T; Van der Bruggen, B

    2012-10-01

    As one of cities in the developing countries, a rapid population growth and industrial activities pose many environmental challenges for Jimma city, Ethiopia. One aspect of urban growth posing a threat on sustainable development is poor solid waste management, which results in environmental pollution. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quantity, composition, sources of waste generated, their current disposal practices, and to recommend appropriate management technologies. The total waste generated daily in Jimma city was ca. 88,000 kg, and the average per capita generation rate was 0.55 ± 0.17 kg/capita/day. Eighty-seven percent of the waste was produced by households and 13% by institutions, and a negligible fraction (0.1%) was generated by street sweepings. During the rainy season, 40% more waste was generated than in the dry season because of the increased availability of agricultural food product. Further analysis showed that biodegradable organic waste constitutes 54% by weight with an average moisture content of 60% that falls within the required limits for composting. The nonbiodegradable components constitute 46% of which 30% of it was nonrecyclable material. Only 25% of the community uses municipal containers for disposal at the selected landfill site. Fifty-one percent of the households disposed their waste in individually chosen spots, whereas 22% burned their waste. Finally 2% of households use private waste collectors. The socioeconomic analysis showed that higher family income and educational status is associated more with private or municipal waste collection and less with the application of backyard or open dumping. These insights into generated waste and management practice in Jimma city allow making suggestions for improved collection, treatment, and disposal methods. A primary conclusion is that the biodegradable waste is a major fraction having suitable properties for recycling. As such an economic benefit can be obtained from

  6. Tracking the global generation and exports of e-waste. Do existing estimates add up?

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    The transport of discarded electronic and electrical appliances (e-waste) to developing regions has received considerable attention, but it is difficult to assess the significance of this issue without a quantitative understanding of the amounts involved. The main objective of this study is to track the global transport of e-wastes by compiling and constraining existing estimates of the amount of e-waste generated domestically in each country MGEN, exported from countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) MEXP, and imported in countries outside of the OECD MIMP. Reference year is 2005 and all estimates are given with an uncertainty range. Estimates of MGEN obtained by apportioning a global total of ∼ 35,000 kt (range 20,000-50,000 kt) based on a nation's gross domestic product agree well with independent estimates of MGEN for individual countries. Import estimates MIMP to the countries believed to be the major recipients of e-waste exports from the OECD globally (China, India, and five West African countries) suggests that ∼ 5,000 kt (3,600 kt-7,300 kt) may have been imported annually to these non-OECD countries alone, which represents ∼ 23% (17%-34%) of the amounts of e-waste generated domestically within the OECD. MEXP for each OECD country is then estimated by applying this fraction of 23% to its MGEN. By allocating each country's MGEN, MIMP, MEXP and MNET = MGEN + MIMP - MEXP, we can map the global generation and flows of e-waste from OECD to non-OECD countries. While significant uncertainties remain, we note that estimated import into seven non-OECD countries alone are often at the higher end of estimates of exports from OECD countries.

  7. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, S.M.; Painter, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT, as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Title 40, part 268, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 268). This technology traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not. leach into the environment. Typical contaminants that are trapped by stabilization are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity as defined by 40 CFR part 261. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. They are inexpensive, easy to use, and effective for wastes containing low concentrations of toxic materials. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  8. Improvement of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of agri-food waste by addition of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles, Jose A; Chica, Arturo F; Martin, M Angeles

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion is a promising alternative to manage agri-food waste rather than landfilling, composting or incineration. But improvement of methane yield and biodegradability is often required to optimize its economic viability. Biomethanization of agri-food solid waste presents the disadvantage of a slow hydrolytic phase, which might be enhanced by adding a readily digestible substrate such as glycerol. In this study, strawberry extrudate, fish waste and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing are mixed at a proportion of 54:5:41, in VS (VS, total volatile solids), respectively. The mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion at lab-scale of the mixture was stable at loads lower than 1.85 g VS/L, reaching a methane yield coefficient of 308 L CH4/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm) and a biodegradability of 96.7%, in VS. Moreover, the treatment capacity of strawberry and fish waste was increased 16% at adding the crude glycerol. An economic assessment was also carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed process. Even in a pessimistic scenario, the net balance was found to be positive. The glycerol adding implied a net saving in a range from 25.5 to 42.1 €/t if compared to landfill disposal.

  9. Study on analysis of waste edible oil with deterioration and removal of acid value, carbonyl value, and free fatty acid by a food additive (calcium silicate).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m(2)/g) < CAS60 (163.93 m(2)/g) < CAS90 (187.47 m(2)/g). The mean pore diameter increased in the order of CAS90 (170.59 Å) < CAS60 (211.60 Å) < CAS30 (249.70 Å). The regeneration of waste edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  10. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation study: Formation of ammonia from nitrate and nitrate in hydrogen generating systems

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Departrnent of Energy (DOE) to immobilize pretreated highly radioactive wastes in glass for permanent disposal in the HWVP, formic acid is added to the waste before vitrification to adjust glass redox and melter feed rheology. The operation of the glass melter and durability of the glass are affected by the glass oxidation state. Formation of a conductive metallic sludge in an over-reduced melt can result in a shortened melter lifetime. An over-oxidized melt may lead to foaming and loss of ruthenium as volatile RuO{sub 4}. Historically, foaming in the joule heated ceramic melter has been attributed to gas generation in the melt which is controlled by instruction of a reductant such as formic acid into the melter feed. Formic acid is also found to decrease the melter feed viscosity thereby facilitating pumping. This technical report discusses the noble metal catalyzed formic acid reduction of nitrite and/or nitrate to ammonia, a problem of considerable concern because of the generation of a potential ammonium nitrate explosion hazard in the plant ventilation system.

  11. Electricity generation from food wastes and characteristics of organic matters in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Tian, Yu; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Xiaoyue; Li, Lipin; Su, Xinying

    2016-04-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated as an alternative way to recover electricity from canteen based food waste. Characteristics of the organics in food waste before and after the MFC treatment were analyzed to investigate how the organic matters were biodegraded and transformed during the MFC treatment. A maximum power density of 5.6W/m(3) and an average output voltage of 0.51V were obtained. During the MFC operation, the hydrophilic and acidic fractions were more readily degraded, compared to the neutral fractions. Additionally, aromatic compounds in the hydrophilic fraction were more preferentially removed than non-aromatic compounds. The MFC could easily remove the tryptophan protein-like substances in all fractions and aromatic proteins in hydrophilic and hydrophobic neutral fractions. Additionally, the hydrophobic amide-1 proteins and aliphatic components were readily hydrolyzed and biodegraded in the MFC. These findings may facilitate the pretreatment and posttreatment choices for MFC system fed with food waste.

  12. Engineering Scoping Study of Thermoelectric Generator Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry; Choate, William T.

    2006-11-01

    This report evaluates thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems with the intent to: 1) examine industrial processes in order to identify and quantify industrial waste heat sources that could potentially use TEGs; 2) describe the operating environment that a TEG would encounter in selected industrial processes and quantify the anticipated TEG system performance; 3) identify cost, design and/or engineering performance requirements that will be needed for TEGs to operate in the selected industrial processes; and 4) identify the research, development and deployment needed to overcome the limitations that discourage the development and use of TEGs for recovery of industrial waste heat.

  13. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    LA Mahoney; JL Huckaby; SA Bryan; GD Johnson

    2000-07-21

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

  14. An investigation on Tehran municipal solid waste with the view of electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokouhmand, H.; Nejat, Z.; Shayegan, J.; Massoudi, M. S.; Ostadhosseini, A.

    1980-10-01

    An investigation of the physical and chemical composition of Teheran municipal waste is presented with consideration given to the incineration method of electrical conversion. Daily tonnages varied from 1600 to 3000 tons during 1977 with a composition consisting primarily of foodstuffs and paper. A total of 28,000 kWh could be generated daily from 2400 tons of waste with a 59% moisture content and an average calorific value of 1100 kCal/kg. The lack of incinerator technology in Iran coupled with the high level of pollutants found in Teheran's air render the incineration method of electrical conversion impractical at present.

  15. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  16. A computer model of gas generation and transport within TRU waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. III

    1988-06-01

    A computer model has been developed to predict radiolytic gas generation and transport within Transuranic (TRU) waste drums and surrounding enclosures. Gas generation from the radiolytic decomposition of organic material contaminated with plutonium is modeled and the concentrations of gas throughout the waste drum and enclosures are determined using a diffusional transport model. The model accurately reproduces experimentally measured gas concentrations. With polyethylene waste in unvented drums, the model predicts that the concentration of hydrogen gas can exceed 4 mole percent (lower flammable limit) with only about 5 curies of plutonium. If the drum liner is punctured and an unrestricted 0.75-in. carbon composite filter vent is installed in the drum lid, the plutonium loading can be increased to 240 Ci without generating flammable gas mixtures. Larger diameter filters can be used to increase the curie loading. The model has been used to show that shipments of 1000 Ci of plutonium-238 contaminated waste from Savannah River to the WIPP site are feasible using the TRUPACT shipping container. 10 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Life cycle assessment of ship-generated waste management of Luka Koper

    SciTech Connect

    Zuin, Stefano

    2009-12-15

    Sea ports and the related maritime activities (e.g. shipping, shipbuilding, etc.) are one of the main driver of Europe's growth, jobs, competitiveness and prosperity. The continuously growth of shipping sectors has however introduced some environmental concerns, particularly with respect to ship-generated waste management. The port of Koper, one of the major ports on the northern Adriatic Coast, is the focus of this study. In this paper, a life cycle assessment was performed to identify and quantify the environmental impacts caused by the ship-generated waste management of port of Koper. Carcinogens substance (e.g. dioxins) and inorganic emissions, especially heavy metals, resulted to be the most critical environmental issues, while the fossil fuels consumption is reduced by recovery of ship-generated oils. Moreover, the final treatment of ship waste was found to be critical phase of the management, and the landfill have a significant contribute to the overall environmental load. These results can be useful in the identification of the best practices and in the implementation of waste management plans in ports.

  18. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  1. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  3. Direct electrical power generation from urine, wastes and biomass with simultaneous photodecomposition and cleaning.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masao; Ueno, Hirohito; Ohnuki, Keita; Horikawa, Mizuki; Saito, Rie; Nemoto, Junichi

    2007-08-30

    Electric power was for the first time generated directly from urine, wastes, and biomass with simultaneous photodecomposition and cleaning by using a biophotofuel cell (BPFC) composed of a nanoporous TiO2 film semiconductor photoanode and an O2-reducing cathode. Human urine exhibited a PFC characteristics with J(sc) 0.086 mA cm(-2), Voc 0.56 V, and fill factor (FF) 0.50 under irradiation by a solar simulator with AM 1.5 G and 100 mW cm(-2) incident light intensity. Both the soluble and residual parts of waste paper partially solubilized by a H3PO4 aqueous solution were also photodecomposed with simultaneous electrical power generation. As trials of various biomass materials, Coca-Cola (to test colored sample), Japanese rice wine (to test alcohol aqueous solution), and grated radish (to test slurry state sample) also generated effectively electrical power during photodecomposition by a solar simulator.

  4. Exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by waste cooking oil biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Valente, Osmano Souza; Pasa, Vanya Márcia Duarte; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Sodré, José Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    The exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator operating with waste cooking oil biodiesel blends have been studied. Fuel blends with 25%, 50% and 75% of biodiesel concentration in diesel oil were tested, varying engine load from 0 to 25 kW. The original engine settings for diesel oil operation were kept the same during the experiments with the biodiesel blends. The main physical-chemical characteristics of the fuel blends used were measured to help with the analysis of the emission results. The results show that the addition of biodiesel to the fuel increases oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and exhaust gas opacity were also increased with the use of biodiesel. Major increase of NO(X) was observed at low loads, while CO and HC were mainly increased at high loads. Using 50% of biodiesel in diesel oil, the average increase of CO(2), CO, HC and NO(X) throughout the load range investigated was 8.5%, 20.1%, 23.5% and 4.8%, respectively.

  5. Gas generation and gas migration in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Haijtink, B.

    1996-12-31

    It is generally accepted that there will be some degree of gas generation in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. This gas generation will depend on a number of factors such as the nature of the waste, the waste container, the buffer material and the near field host rock. In an ideal situation the gas generated would all dissolve in the groundwater and/or be transported away from the deep repository by the mechanisms of advection, diffusion and dispersion. However the sought-after characteristic of a repository host medium of very low permeability, e.g. bentonite buffer material and argillaceous geological media can be problematic when considering gas migration. High gas pressures might be build-up which could lead to potential fracturing of engineered barriers in the near field and enhancing groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. Various theoretical as well as experimental research activities have been undertaken to investigate the different phenomena. Within the framework of R&D programmes on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste, conducted by the European Commission, some of the research activities are grouped together in a coordinated project named PEGASUS (Project on the Effects of GAS in an Underground Storage facility). In this project a total of about twenty research institutes and laboratories from seven different European countries are involved. This PEGASUS project will be followed up by a new project named PROGRESS (PROject of Research into Gas generation and migration in radioactive waste REpository SystemS). In this paper, an overview is given of the various research activities carried out and results obtained so far.

  6. Municipal solid waste characterization and its assessment for potential methane generation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal; De Visscher, Alex; Dahiya, R P; Chandra, A

    2006-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in India during the last few decades and its management has become a major issue because the poor waste management practices affect the health and amenity of the cities. In the present study, various physico-chemical parameters of the MSW were analyzed to characterize the waste dumped at Gazipur landfill site in Delhi, India, which shows that it contains a high fraction of degradable organic components. The decomposition of organic components produces methane, a significant contributor to global warming. Based on the waste composition, waste age and the total amount dumped, a first-order decay model (FOD) was applied to estimate the methane generation potential of the Gazipur landfill site, which yields an estimate of 15.3 Gg/year. This value accounts to about 1-3% of existing Indian landfill methane emission estimates. Based on the investigation of Gazipur landfill, we estimate Indian landfill methane emissions at 1.25 Tg/year or 1.68 Tg/year of methane generation potential. These values are within the range of existing estimates. A comparison of FOD with a recently proposed triangular model was also performed and it shows that both models can be used for the estimation of methane generation. However, the decrease of the emission after closure is more gradual in the case of the first-order model, leading to larger gas production predictions after more than 10 years of closure. The regional and global implications of national landfill methane emission are also discussed.

  7. Effects of additives on the co-pyrolysis of municipal solid waste and paper sludge by using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shiwen; Yu, Zhaosheng; Lin, Yan; Lin, Yousheng; Fan, Yunlong; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2016-06-01

    By using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the effects of different additives (MgO, Al2O3 and ZnO) on the pyrolysis characteristics and activation energy of municipal solid waste (MSW), paper sludge (PS) and their blends in N2 atmosphere had been investigated in this study. The experiments resulted that these additives were effective in reducing the initial temperature and activation energy. However, not all the additives were beneficial to reduce the residue mass and enhance the index D. For the different ratios of MSW and PS, the same additive even had the different influences. The catalytic effects of additives were not obvious and the pyrolysis became difficult with the increase of the proportion of PS. Based on all the contrast of the pyrolysis characteristics, MgO was the best additive and 70M30P was the best ratio, respectively.

  8. Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

  9. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This EIS reflects the public review of and comments offered on the draft statement. Included are descriptions of the characteristics of nuclear waste, the alternative disposal methods under consideration, and potential environmental impacts and costs of implementing these methods. Because of the programmatic nature of this document and the preliminary nature of certain design elements assumed in assessing the environmental consequences of the various alternatives, this study has been based on generic, rather than specific, systems. At such time as specific facilities are identified for particular sites, statements addressing site-specific aspects will be prepared for public review and comment.

  10. Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to

  11. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  12. Metal concentrations and distribution in paint waste generated during bridge rehabilitation in New York State.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhan; Axe, Lisa; Jahan, Kauser; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Kochersberger, Carl

    2015-09-01

    Between 1950 and 1980, lead and chromium along with other metals have been used in paint coatings to protect bridges from corrosion. In New York State with 4500 bridges in 11 Regions 2385 of the bridges have been rehabilitated and subsequently repainted after 1989 when commercial use of lead based paint was prohibited. The purpose of this research was to address the concentration and distribution of trace metals in the paint waste generated during bridge rehabilitation. Using hypothesis testing and stratified sampling theory, a representative sample size of 24 bridges from across the state was selected that resulted in 117 paint waste samples. Field portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) analysis revealed metal concentrations ranged from 5 to 168,090 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 49,367 to 799,210 mg kg(-1) for Fe, and 27 to 425,510 mg kg(-1) for Zn. Eighty percent of the samples exhibited lead concentrations greater than 5000 mg kg(-1). The elevated iron concentrations may be attributed to the application of steel grit as an abrasive blasting material routinely used by state Departments of Transportation in the paint removal process. Other metals including Ba and Cr were observed in the paint waste as well. As a result of the paint formulation, metals were found to be associated in the paint waste (Pb correlated with Cr (r=0.85)). The elevated metal concentrations observed raises concern over the potential impact of leaching from this waste stream.

  13. Hazardous medical waste generation rates of different categories of health-care facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Fouki, Anastassia; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculated hazardous medical waste generation rates (HMWGR) from 132 hospitals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on a 22-month study period, HMWGR were highly skewed to the right. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HMWGR varied from 0.00124 to 0.718 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A positive correlation existed between the HMWGR and the number of hospital beds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used non-parametric statistics to compare rates among hospital categories. - Abstract: Goal of this work was to calculate the hazardous medical waste unit generation rates (HMWUGR), in kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, using data from 132 health-care facilities in Greece. The calculations were based on the weights of the hazardous medical wastes that were regularly transferred to the sole medical waste incinerator in Athens over a 22-month period during years 2009 and 2010. The 132 health-care facilities were grouped into public and private ones, and, also, into seven sub-categories, namely: birth, cancer treatment, general, military, pediatric, psychiatric and university hospitals. Results showed that there is a large variability in the HMWUGR, even among hospitals of the same category. Average total HMWUGR varied from 0.012 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the public psychiatric hospitals, to up to 0.72 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the public university hospitals. Within the private hospitals, average HMWUGR ranged from 0.0012 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the psychiatric clinics, to up to 0.49 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the birth clinics. Based on non-parametric statistics, HMWUGR were statistically similar for the birth and general hospitals, in both the public and private sector. The private birth and general hospitals generated statistically more wastes compared to the corresponding public hospitals. The infectious/toxic and toxic medical wastes appear to be 10% and 50% of the total hazardous medical wastes

  14. Hydrogen sulfide generation in simulated construction and demolition debris landfills: impact of waste composition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kenton; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills has been associated with the biodegradation of gypsum drywall. Laboratory research was conducted to observe H2S generation when drywall was codisposed with different C&D debris constituents. Two experiments were conducted using simulated landfill columns. Experiment 1 consisted of various combinations of drywall, wood, and concrete to determine the impact of different waste constituents and combinations on H2S generation. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the effect of concrete on H2S generation and migration. The results indicate that decaying drywall, even alone, leached enough sulfate ions and organic matter for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to generate large H2S concentrations as high as 63,000 ppmv. The codisposed wastes show some effect on H2S generation. At the end of experiment 1, the wood/drywall and drywall alone columns possessed H2S concentrations > 40,000 ppmv. Conversely, H2S concentrations were < 1 ppmv in those columns containing concrete. Concrete plays a role in decreasing H2S by increasing pH out of the range for SRB growth and by reacting with H2S. This study also showed that wood lowered H2S concentrations initially by decreasing leachate pH values. Based on the results, two possible control mechanisms to mitigate H2S generation in C&D debris landfills are suggested.

  15. Potential vertical movement of large heat-generating waste packages in salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Daniel James; Martinez, Mario J.; Hardin, Ernest.

    2013-05-01

    With renewed interest in disposal of heat-generating waste in bedded or domal salt formations, scoping analyses were conducted to estimate rates of waste package vertical movement. Vertical movement is found to result from thermal expansion, from upward creep or heave of the near-field salt, and from downward buoyant forces on the waste package. A two-pronged analysis approach was used, with thermal-mechanical creep modeling, and coupled thermal-viscous flow modeling. The thermal-mechanical approach used well-studied salt constitutive models, while the thermal-viscous approach represented the salt as a highly viscous fluid. The Sierra suite of coupled simulation codes was used for both approaches. The waste package in all simulations was a right-circular cylinder with the density of steel, in horizontal orientation. A time-decaying heat generation function was used to represent commercial spent fuel with typical burnup and 50-year age. Results from the thermal-mechanical base case showed approximately 27 cm initial uplift of the package, followed by gradual relaxation closely following the calculated temperature history. A similar displacement history was obtained with the package density set equal to that of salt. The slight difference in these runs is attributable to buoyant displacement (sinking) and is on the order of 1 mm in 2,000 years. Without heat generation the displacement stabilizes at a fraction of millimeter after a few hundred years. Results from thermal-viscous model were similar, except that the rate of sinking was constant after cooldown, at approximately 0.15 mm per 1,000 yr. In summary, all calculations showed vertical movement on the order of 1 mm or less in 2,000 yr, including calculations using well-established constitutive models for temperature-dependent salt deformation. Based on this finding, displacement of waste packages in a salt repository is not a significant repository performance issue.

  16. Biodegradation of the alkaline cellulose degradation products generated during radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Rout, Simon P; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J; Humphreys, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7 × 10(-2) hr(-1) (SE ± 2.9 × 10(-3)). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility.

  17. Recovering lead from cupel waste generated in gold analysis by Pb-Fire assay.

    PubMed

    Cerceau, Cristiane Isaac; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Rabelo, Ana Carolina Silveira; Dos Santos, Cláudio Gouvea; Gonçalves, Sabrina Mayra Dias; Varejão, Eduardo Vinícius Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Because of its precision and accuracy, Pb-Fire assay is the most employed method for gold analysis in geological materials. At the second stage of the method, namely cupellation, lead is oxidized to PbO which is absorbed by the cupel, leading to metallic gold as a tiny bend at the bottom of the recipient. After cupellation, cupel becomes highly contaminated with lead, making its disposal a serious risk of environmental contamination. In the present work, a leaching process for removing lead from cupel waste is proposed, which allowed for removing 96% of PbO by weight. After a precipitation step, 92.0% of lead was recovered from leachates in the form of PbSO4. Lead in the solid wastes left by the extraction was above the limit established by Brazilian legislation and these were classified as non-hazardous. Finally, secondary effluents generated after the precipitation step presented lead content more than twenty times lower than that of leachates from cupel waste. Tons of cupel waste are annually generated from gold analysis by Pb-Fire assay. Thus, the proposed method can contribute to prevent the discharge of high amounts of lead into the environment. Also, recovery of lead can help to partially meet the industrial demand for lead compounds.

  18. Biodegradation of the Alkaline Cellulose Degradation Products Generated during Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P.; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J.; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7×10−2 hr−1 (SE±2.9×10−3). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility. PMID:25268118

  19. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-11-01

    Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

  20. Alternatives for management of wastes generated by the formerly utilized sites remedial action program and supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Vocke, R.W.; Alexander, J.K.

    1983-03-01

    Alternatives for disposal or stabilization of the wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) are identified and compared, with emphasis on the long-term aspects. These wastes consist of soil material and rubble containing trace amounts of radionuclides. A detailed pathway analysis for the dose to the maximally exposed individual is carried out using an adaptation of the natural analogue method. Comparisons of the different alternatives, based on the results of the pathway analysis and qualitative cost considerations, indicate that, if the hazard is such that the wastes must be removed and disposed of rather than stabilized in place, disposal by immediate dispersal is preferable to containment, and containment followed by slow planned dispersal is preferable to containment without dispersal. The Supplement presents refinements of work that was reported at the 1982 International Decommissioning Symposium. The new material consists of revisions of the estimates of the predicted potential dose to the maximally exposed individual and a more detailed comparative assessment of the radiological impacts of alternatives for management of wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP).

  1. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Hydrogen Generation Rate Measurement Apparatus Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M. E.; Newell, J. D.; Smith, T. E.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    The generation rate of hydrogen gas in the Hanford tank waste will be measured during the qualification of the staged tank waste for processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Based on a review of past practices in measurement of the hydrogen generation, an apparatus to perform this measurement has been designed and tested for use during waste feed qualification. The hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus (HGRMA) described in this document utilized a 100 milliliter sample in a continuously-purged, continuously-stirred vessel, with measurement of hydrogen concentration in the vent gas. The vessel and lid had a combined 220 milliliters of headspace. The vent gas system included a small condenser to prevent excessive evaporative losses from the sample during the test, as well as a demister and filter to prevent particle migration from the sample to the gas chromatography system. The gas chromatograph was an on line automated instrument with a large-volume sample-injection system to allow measurement of very low hydrogen concentrations. This instrument automatically sampled the vent gas from the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus every five minutes and performed data regression in real time. The fabrication of the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus was in accordance with twenty three (23) design requirements documented in the conceptual design package, as well as seven (7) required developmental activities documented in the task plan associated with this work scope. The HGRMA was initially tested for proof of concept with physical simulants, and a remote demonstration of the system was performed in the Savannah River National Laboratory Shielded Cells Mockup Facility. Final verification testing was performed using non-radioactive simulants of the Hanford tank waste. Three different simulants were tested to bound the expected rheological properties expected during waste feed qualification testing. These

  2. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  3. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  4. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  5. Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food manufacturing waste for renewable energy generation in New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Matthew J.

    Anaerobic digestion is a microbiological process that converts biodegradable organic material into biogas, consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic digestion technologies have been integrated into wastewater treatment facilities nationwide for many decades to increase the economic viability of the treatment process by converting a waste stream into two valuable products: biogas and fertilizer. Thus, anaerobic digestion offers potential economic and environmental benefits of organic waste diversion and renewable energy generation. The use of biogas has many applications, including cogeneration, direct combustion, upgrading for conversion to feed a fuel cell, and compression for injection into the natural gas grid or for vehicular use. The potential benefits of waste diversion and renewable energy generation are now being realized by major organic waste generators in New York State, in particular the food manufacturing and dairy industries, thus warranting an analysis of the energy generation potential for these waste products. Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food-based feedstocks reflects a cradle-to- cradle approach to organic waste management. Given both of their abundance throughout New York State, waste-to-energy processes represent promising waste management strategies. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the current technical and economic feasibility of anaerobically codigesting existing dairy manure and food manufacturing waste feedstocks in New York State to produce high quality biogas for renewable energy generation. The first element to determining the technical feasibility of anaerobic codigestion potential in New York State was to first understand the feedstock availability. A comprehensive survey of existing organic waste streams was conducted. The key objective was to identify the volume and composition of dairy manure and liquid-phase food manufacturing waste streams available in New York State to make

  6. Evaluation of sodium nitrite addition with tank 241-AY-102 waste

    SciTech Connect

    LECHELT, J.A.

    2001-10-30

    Analyses of waste samples taken from tank 241-AY-102 indicate the tank interstitial liquid is deficient in nitrite in accordance with corrosion prevention chemistry. The supernatant was within specifications. Corrosion control is a Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) level control implemented in HNF-IP-I266 (CHG 2001 b), Administrative Control (AC) 5. IS, ''Chemistry Control Program.'' Sodium hydroxide (caustic) solution was added to the tank in early 2001 to bring it into specification for hydroxide. Sodium nitrite solution will be added to the tank to bring the interstitial liquid into specification for nitrite.

  7. Olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer based additives: a novel approach for compatibilizing blends of waste polyethylene and crumb rubber.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs; Varga, Csilla; Bartha, László

    2015-04-01

    In our work processing conditions and mechanical properties of waste polyethylene (PE)/crumb rubber (CR) blends have been improved by new types of compatibilizing additives synthesized from experimental olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymers at our laboratory. Compatibilizing additives have been introduced into the PE/CR blends in 0.2 wt% while CR concentration has been varied between 10 and 50 wt%. For comparison of the effects commercially available MA-g-PO type compatibilizing additives have also been applied. Tensile and Charpy impact tests of the compression moulded samples have been carried out. Several experimental additives have enhanced properties of the PE/CR blends either from the point of view of tensile or Charpy impact strength while commercial additives have had improving effects only on one of the abovementioned mechanical properties but not for both of them simultaneously. Since good mechanical properties could be achieved by our experimental compatibilizers good adhesion in the waste PE/CR samples have been considered and was proven by SEM graphs either.

  8. SmaggIce 2.0: Additional Capabilities for Interactive Grid Generation of Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreeger, Richard E.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Vickerman, Mary B.

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Modeling and Grid Generation for Iced Airfoils (SmaggIce) software toolkit has been extended to allow interactive grid generation for multi-element iced airfoils. The essential phases of an icing effects study include geometry preparation, block creation and grid generation. SmaggIce Version 2.0 now includes these main capabilities for both single and multi-element airfoils, plus an improved flow solver interface and a variety of additional tools to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of icing effects studies. An overview of these features is given, especially the new multi-element blocking strategy using the multiple wakes method. Examples are given which illustrate the capabilities of SmaggIce for conducting an icing effects study for both single and multi-element airfoils.

  9. Plasma destruction of North Carolina`s hazardous waste based on hazardous waste generated between the years of 1989 and 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dwight LeRoi

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the applicability of the plasma waste destruction technology to North Carolina hazardous waste streams. This study outlines the current regulations, existing technologies, and innovative technologies being considered as hazardous waste treatment alternatives. From this foundation, the study proceeds to identify the superiority of the plasma waste destruction technology. Specific areas of discussion include: temperature capabilities, waste residence time requirements, destruction removal efficiencies, operational efficiencies, economic issues, safety, and maintenance. This study finds the plasma destruction technology to be fully effective and superior to conventional facilities. The technology completely destroys hydrocarbons and can reduce the volume of many other hazardous wastes on the order of one part per million. The required residence time of waste in a plasma facility for effective destruction is a fraction of a second, while the rotary kiln incinerator maintains an average residence time of approximately 5 seconds. Also mass and heat balance calculations are performed to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of this technology. It is found that one day`s average amount of hazardous waste generated in the state of North Carolina can be destroyed in approximately thirty seconds using a standard one megawatt power source. Yet, before this technology is adopted as North Carolina`s primary hazardous waste destruction technology, further study is needed so that all issues considered in this research can be conducted in great detail.

  10. Impact of milling, enzyme addition, and steam explosion on the solid waste biomethanation of an olive oil production plant.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Bravo, Andres; Ortega-Martinez, E; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a consolidated bioprocess which can be further enhanced by incorporating an upstream pretreatment unit. The olive oil production produces a large amount of solid waste which needs to be properly managed and disposed. Three different pretreatment techniques were evaluated in regard to their impact on the anaerobic biodegradability: manual milling of olive pomace (OP), enzyme maceration, direct enzyme addition, and thermal hydrolysis of two-phase olive mill waste. The Gompertz equation was used to obtain parameters for comparison purposes. A substrate/inoculum ratio 0.5 was found to be the best to be used in anaerobic batch test with olive pomace as substrate. Mechanical pretreatment of OP by milling increases the methane production rate while keeping the maximum methane yield. The enzymatic pretreatment showed different results depending on the chosen pretreatment strategies. After the enzymatic maceration pretreatment, a methane production of 274 ml CH4 g VS added (-1) was achieved, which represents an improvement of 32 and 71 % compared to the blank and control, respectively. The direct enzyme addition pretreatment showed no improvement in both the rate and the maximum methane production. Steam explosion showed no improvement on the anaerobic degradability of two-phase olive mill waste; however, thermal hydrolysis with no rapid depressurization enhanced notoriously both the maximum rate (50 %) and methane yield (70 %).

  11. Effect of olive mill waste addition on the properties of porous fired clay bricks using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Sutcu, Mucahit; Ozturk, Savas; Yalamac, Emre; Gencel, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Production of porous clay bricks lightened by adding olive mill waste as a pore making additive was investigated. Factors influencing the brick manufacturing process were analyzed by an experimental design, Taguchi method, to find out the most favorable conditions for the production of bricks. The optimum process conditions for brick preparation were investigated by studying the effects of mixture ratios (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and firing temperatures (850, 950 and 1050 °C) on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the bricks. Apparent density, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, microstructure and crystalline phase formations of the fired brick samples were measured. It was found that the use of 10% waste addition reduced the bulk density of the samples up to 1.45 g/cm(3). As the porosities increased from 30.8 to 47.0%, the compressive strengths decreased from 36.9 to 10.26 MPa at firing temperature of 950 °C. The thermal conductivities of samples fired at the same temperature showed a decrease of 31% from 0.638 to 0.436 W/mK, which is hopeful for heat insulation in the buildings. Increasing of the firing temperature also affected their mechanical and physical properties. This study showed that the olive mill waste could be used as a pore maker in brick production.

  12. Prediction of AMD generation potential in mining waste piles, in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Iran.

    PubMed

    Modabberi, Soroush; Alizadegan, Ali; Mirnejad, Hassan; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the possibility of acid mine drainage (AMD) generation in active and derelict mine waste piles in Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine produced in several decades, using static tests including acid-base accounting (ABA) and net acid-generating pH (NAGpH). In this study, 51 composite samples were taken from 11 waste heaps, and static ABA and NAGpH tests were carried out on samples. While some piles are acid producing at present and AMD is discharging from the piles, most of them do not show any indication on their AMD potential, and they were investigated to define their acid-producing potential. The analysis of data indicates that eight waste piles are potentially acid generating with net neutralization potentials (NNPs) of -56.18 to -199.3, net acid generating of 2.19-3.31, and NPRs from 0.18 to 0.44. Other waste piles exhibited either a very low sulfur, high carbonate content or excess carbonate over sulfur; hence, they are not capable of acid production or they can be considered as weak acid producers. Consistency between results of ABA and NAGpH tests using a variety of classification criteria validates these tests as powerful means for preliminary evaluation of AMD/ARD possibilities in any mining district. It is also concluded that some of the piles with very negative NNPs are capable to produce AMD naturally, and they can be used in heap leaching process for economic recovery of trace amounts of metals without applying any biostimulation methods.

  13. Sustainable Sources of Biomass for Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in Waste Water Derived from Coal-Fired Power Generation

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Richard J.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Hu, Yi; de Nys, Rocky

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals using dried algal biomass has been extensively described but rarely implemented. We contend this is because available algal biomass is a valuable product with a ready market. Therefore, we considered an alternative and practical approach to algal bioremediation in which algae were cultured directly in the waste water stream. We cultured three species of algae with and without nutrient addition in water that was contaminated with heavy metals from an Ash Dam associated with coal-fired power generation and tested metal uptake and bioremediation potential. All species achieved high concentrations of heavy metals (to 8% dry mass). Two key elements, V and As, reached concentrations in the biomass of 1543 mg.kg−1 DW and 137 mg.kg−1 DW. Growth rates were reduced by more than half in neat Ash Dam water than when nutrients were supplied in excess. Growth rate and bioconcentration were positively correlated for most elements, but some elements (e.g. Cd, Zn) were concentrated more when growth rates were lower, indicating the potential to tailor bioremediation depending on the pollutant. The cosmopolitan nature of the macroalgae studied, and their ability to grow and concentrate a suite of heavy metals from industrial wastes, highlights a clear benefit in the practical application of waste water bioremediation. PMID:22590550

  14. Gas Generation and Hold-Up in Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Process Streams Containing Anti-Foam Agent (AFA)

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, Stuart T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Stewart, Charles W.; Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2007-06-29

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify defense wastes stored at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Some of the WTP process streams are slurries that exhibit non-Newtonian rheological behavior. Such streams can accumulate hazardous quantities of thermally and radiolytically generated flammable gases. Experiments were performed in a bubble column to measure gas hold-up under various conditions to better understand flammable gas behavior in WTP processes. The two non-Newtonian slurries tested were kaolin-bentonite clay and a chemical surrogate of pretreated high-level waste (HLW) from Hanford Tank AZ-101. The addition of solutes, whether a salt or anti-foaming agent (AFA) decrease the bubble coalescence rate leading to smaller bubbles, lower bubble rise velocity and higher gas holdup. Gas holdup decreased with increasing yield stress and consistency. The impact of AFA on gas holdup in kaolin-bentonite clay was less than in simulated HLW, presumably because the AFA adsorbed onto the clay particles, rendering it unavailable to retard coalescence.

  15. Flow Distribution Control Characteristics in Marine Gas Turbine Waste- Heat Recovery Systems. Phase 2. Flow Distribution Control in Waste-Heat Steam Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    waste-heat steam generators. The applicable steam generator design concepts and general design consideration were reviewed and critical problems...a once-through forced-circulation steam generator design should be selected because of stability, reliability, compact- ness and lightweight...consists of three sections and one appendix. In Section I, the applicable steam generator design conccpts and general design * considerations are reviewed

  16. The Management of the Radioactive Waste Generated by Cernavoda NPP, Romania, an Example of International Cooperation - 13449

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2013-07-01

    The design criteria and constraints for the development of the management strategy for radioactive waste generated from operating and decommissioning of CANDU Nuclear Units from Cernavoda NPP in Romania, present many specific aspects. The main characteristics of CANDU type waste are its high concentrations of tritium and radiocarbon. Also, the existing management strategy for radioactive waste at Cernavoda NPP provides no treatment or conditioning for radioactive waste disposal. These characteristics embodied a challenging effort, in order to select a proper strategy for radioactive waste management at present, when Romania is an EU member and a signatory country of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The helping of advanced countries in radioactive waste management, directly or into the frame of the international organizations, like IAEA, become solve the aforementioned challenges at adequate level. (authors)

  17. [Electricity generation of surplus sludge microbial fuel cells enhanced by additional enzyme].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhi-Hu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Fang, Li; Huang, Hua-Jun; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the feasibility of enhanced electricity generation of microbial fuel cell fed surplus sludge by additional enzymes (neutral protease and alpha-amylase) was discussed. The effect of dosage of additional enzyme on characteristics of electricity generation of the surplus sludge microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) and the reduction of surplus sludge were investigated. The results indicated that the maximum output power destiny of the group of experiment was higher than that of control under the same condition. Moreover, the maximum output power density, coulomb efficiency, efficiency of reducing TCOD, efficiency of reducing TSS and efficiency of reducing VSS reached up to 507 W x m(-2) (700 mW x m(-2)), 3.98% (5.11%), 88.31% (94.09%), 83.18% (98.02%) and 89.03% (98.80%) respectively for protease (alpha-amylase) at the dosage of 10 mg x g(-1). This study demonstrated that additional enzyme greatly enhanced the electricity generation of MFC with simultaneous accomplishments of sludge treatment, providing a novel approach for the practical application of microbial fuel cell.

  18. Microbial gas generation under expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.; Giles, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository was investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosics (various types of paper) and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, neoprene, hypalon, and leaded hypalon) was examined. The rate of gas production from cellulose biodegradation in inundated samples incubated for 1,228 days at 30 C was biphasic, with an initial rapid rate up to approximately 600 days incubation, followed by a slower rate. The rate of total gas production in anaerobic samples containing mixed inoculum was as follows: 0.002 mL/g cellulose/day without nutrients; 0.004 mL/g cellulose/day with nutrients; and 0.01 mL/g cellulose/day in the presence of excess nitrate. Carbon dioxide production proceeded at a rate of 0.009 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples without nutrients, 0.05 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the presence of nutrients, and 0.2 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day with excess nitrate. Adding nutrients and excess nitrate stimulated denitrification, as evidenced by the accumulation of N{sub 2}O in the headspace (200 {micro}mol/g cellulose). The addition of the potential backfill bentonite increased the rate of CO{sub 2} production to 0.3 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples with excess nitrate. Analysis of the solution showed that lactic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids were produced due to cellulose degradation. Samples incubated under anaerobic humid conditions for 415 days produced CO{sub 2} at a rate of 0.2 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the absence of nutrients, and 1 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the presence of bentonite and nutrients. There was no evidence of biodegradation of electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber.

  19. Anaerobic Codigestion of Sludge: Addition of Butcher’s Fat Waste as a Cosubstrate for Increasing Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, E. J.; Gil, M. V.; Fernandez, C.; Rosas, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Fat waste discarded from butcheries was used as a cosubstrate in the anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge (SS). The process was evaluated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The codigestion was successfully attained despite some inhibitory stages initially present that had their origin in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and adsorption of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The addition of a fat waste improved digestion stability and increased biogas yields thanks to the higher organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the reactors. However, thermophilic digestion was characterized by an effluent of poor quality and high VFA content. Results from spectroscopic analysis suggested the adsorption of lipid components onto the anaerobic biomass, thus disturbing the complete degradation of substrate during the treatment. The formation of fatty aggregates in the thermophilic reactor prevented process failure by avoiding the exposure of biomass to the toxic effect of high LCFA concentrations. PMID:27071074

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of peat with additions of oil-slime and polymeric waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, E.; Kosivtsov, Yu.; Sulman, M.; Alfyorov, V.; Lugovoy, Yu.; Chalov, K.; Misnikov, O.; Afanasjev, A.; Kumar, N.; Murzin, D.

    2012-09-01

    In this work the influence of natural and synthetic aluminosilicates, metal chlorides of iron subgroup on the peat low-temperature pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of peat with oil-slime and polymeric waste was studied in variety of conditions (t = 350-650δC, catalyst loading: from 1 up to 30 % (wt.)). The use of bentonite clay (30 % (wt.)) at 460δC as a catalyst in peat pyrolysis resulted in increase of weight of gaseous and liquid products from 23 up to 30 % (wt.) and from 32 up to 45 % (wt.), respectively. Co-pyrolysis of peat and oil-slime in the presence of bentonite clay resulted in increase of gaseous product weight from 18 up to 26 % (wt.) and liquid fraction yield - from 45 up to 55 % (wt.) in comparison with precalculated value. The use of metal chlorides of iron subgroup (2 % (wt.) concentration) at 500 δC in the co-pyrolysis of peat and polymeric waste led to optimal conversion of substrate in desired products, 15 % increase of total weight of gaseous and liquid products formed during the pyrolysis process and simultaneous decrease of char formation.

  1. Additional paper waste in pulping sludge for biohydrogen production by heat-shocked sludge.

    PubMed

    Chairattanamanokorn, Prapaipid; Tapananont, Supachok; Detjaroen, Siriporn; Sangkhatim, Juthatip; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Sirirote, Pramote

    2012-01-01

    Dark anaerobic fermentation is an interesting alternative method for producing biohydrogen (H(2)) as a renewable fuel because of its low cost and various usable organic substrates. Pulping sludge from wastewater treatment containing plentiful cellulosic substrate could be feasibly utilized for H(2) production by dark fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal proportion of pulping sludge to paper waste, the optimal initial pH, and the optimal ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N) for H(2) production by anaerobic seed sludge pretreated with heat. The pulping sludge was pretreated with NaOH solution at high temperature and further hydrolyzed with crude cellulase. Pretreatment of the pulping sludge with 3% NaOH solution under autoclave at 121 °C for 2 h, hydrolysis with 5 FPU crude cellulase at 50 °C, and pH 4.8 for 24 h provided the highest reducing sugar production yield (229.68 ± 2.09 mg/g(TVS)). An initial pH of 6 and a C/N ratio of 40 were optimal conditions for H(2) production. Moreover, the supplement of paper waste in the pulping sludge enhanced the cumulative H(2) production yield. The continuous hydrogen production was further conducted in a glass reactor with nylon pieces as supporting media and the maximum hydrogen production yield was 151.70 ml/g(TVS).

  2. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay.

    PubMed

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-01

    The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  3. Implementation of flowsheet change to minimize hydrogen and ammonia generation during chemical processing of high level waste in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Dan P.; Woodham, Wesley H.; Williams, Matthew S.; Newell, J. David; Luther, Michelle C.; Brandenburg, Clayton H.

    2016-09-27

    Testing was completed to develop a chemical processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), designed to vitrify and stabilize high level radioactive waste. DWPF processing uses a reducing acid (formic acid) and an oxidizing acid (nitric acid) to rheologically thin the slurry and complete the necessary acid base and reduction reactions (primarily mercury and manganese). Formic acid reduces mercuric oxide to elemental mercury, allowing the mercury to be removed during the boiling phase of processing through steam stripping. In runs with active catalysts, formic acid can decompose to hydrogen and nitrate can be reduced to ammonia, both flammable gases, due to rhodium and ruthenium catalysis. Replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid eliminates the generation of rhodium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen and ammonia. In addition, mercury reduction is still effective with glycolic acid. Hydrogen, ammonia and mercury are discussed in the body of the report. Ten abbreviated tests were completed to develop the operating window for implementation of the flowsheet and determine the impact of changes in acid stoichiometry and the blend of nitric and glycolic acid as it impacts various processing variables over a wide processing region. Three full-length 4-L lab-scale simulations demonstrated the viability of the flowsheet under planned operating conditions. The flowsheet is planned for implementation in early 2017.

  4. Generation and composition of medical wastes from private medical microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Makroleivaditis, Nikolaos; Nikolakopoulou, Eftychia

    2017-03-01

    A study on the generation rate and the composition of solid medical wastes (MW) produced by private medical microbiology laboratories (PMML) was conducted in Greece. The novelty of the work is that no such information exists in the literature for this type of laboratories worldwide. Seven laboratories were selected with capacities that ranged from 8 to 88 examinees per day. The study lasted 6months and daily recording of MW weights was done over 30days during that period. The rates were correlated to the number of examinees, examinations and personnel. Results indicated that on average 35% of the total MW was hazardous (infectious) medical wastes (IFMW). The IFMW generation rates ranged from 11.5 to 32.5g examinee(-1) d(-1) while an average value from all 7 labs was 19.6±9.6g examinee(-1) d(-1) or 2.27±1.11g examination(-1) d(-1). The average urban type medical waste generation rate was 44.2±32.5g examinee(-1) d(-1). Using basic regression modeling, it was shown that the number of examinees and examinations can be predictors of the IFMW generation, but not of the urban type MW generation. The number of examinations was a better predictor of the MW amounts than the number of examinees. Statistical comparison of the means of the 7PMML was done with standard ANOVA techniques after checking the normality of the data and after doing the appropriate transformations. Based on the results of this work, it is approximated that 580 tonnes of infectious MW are generated annually by the PMML in Greece.

  5. Use of municipal solid waste in combination with coal for power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Priya Ranjan

    1998-12-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) poses a great concern in all metropolitan societies around the globe, as MSW threatens public health. About 50% of MSW constitutes an excellent renewable energy source which could be recovered and used profitably. Producing fuel from waste accomplishes two essential tasks: it reduces environmentally hazardous situations and increases the supply of energy produced from indigenous resources. During the past two decades, about 25% of MSW has been recycled, while the remaining has gone to waste-to-energy facilities or landfills. The MSW used at waste-to-energy plants either as refuse derived fuel (RDF) or as directly fired (mass-burning) indicate RDF can be a suitable source for combustion with coal. One approach to using RDF is to co-fire the waste with coal in a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC). The application of PFBC technology can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity together with profitable waste management. In order to use the PFBC efficiently, in this thesis a Braytron cycle was coupled with a Rankine cycle and the combined cycle was examined for maximum output. A gas turbine together with a steam reheating cycle is proposed for power generation with the combustion air preheated by restoring heat from exit flue gases and used as input heat to the furnace. The use of 50% RDF together with coal is examined in this thesis for steady output. Specifically, this study demonstrates the use for RDF upto 50% of the fuel. This will be more than double the present RDF input rate. If the firing rate of RDF can be increased, it will contribute to the energy needs with environmental benefits in the twenty-first century.

  6. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT. This technology traps toxic contaminants in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. The concentration in the leachate is approximately ten times higher for the STLC procedure than the TCLP. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  7. Novel carbon-rich additives preparation by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes for coke-making.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianqing; Li, Xian; Xiao, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Tong, Shan; Wu, Chao; Ashida, Ryuichi; Liu, Wenqiang; Miura, Kouichi; Yao, Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, two extracts (Soluble and Deposit) were produced by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes from 250 to 350°C. The feasibilities of using Soluble and Deposit as additives for coke-making were investigated for the first time. The Soluble and Deposit, having significantly higher carbon content, lower oxygen content and extremely lower ash content than raw biomasses. All Solubles and most of Deposits can melt completely at the temperature ranged from 80 to 120°C and 140 to 180°C, respectively. The additions of Soluble or Deposit into the coke-making coal significantly improved their thermoplastic properties with as high as 9°C increase of the plastic range. Furthermore, the addition of Deposit or Soluble also markedly enhanced the coke quality through increasing coke strength after reaction (CSR) and reducing coke reactivity index (CRI). Therefore, the Soluble and Deposit were proved to be good additives for coke-making.

  8. Effects of waste activated sludge and surfactant addition on primary sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhouying; Chen, Guanlan; Chen, Yinguang

    2010-05-01

    This paper focused on the effects of waste activated sludge (WAS) and surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) addition on primary sludge (PS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) accumulation in fermentation. The results showed that sludge hydrolysis, SCFA accumulation, NH(4)(+)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P release, and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction were increased by WAS addition to PS, which were further increased by the addition of SDBS to the mixture of PS and WAS. Acetic, propionic and valeric acids were the top three SCFA in all experiments. Also, the fermentation liquids of PS, PS+WAS, and PS+WAS+SDBS were added, respectively, to municipal wastewater to examine their effects on biological municipal wastewater treatment, and the enhancement of both wastewater nitrogen and phosphorus removals was observed compared with no fermentation liquid addition.

  9. Effect of modifying additions on the physicomechanical properties of composites based on polyethylene and wastes from linen yarn production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayaks, Ya. A.; Bulmanis, V. N.; Reikhmane, S. A.; Tsiprin, M. G.

    1997-07-01

    This article examines the feasibility of using coupling agents to alleviate the shortcomings characteristics of materials that contain natural fibers: low water resistance and a high degree of heterogeneity. A determination is made of the effect of additions of polyisocyanate and stearic acid on the fluidity of the melts and the strainstrength properties and water resistance of polyethylene composites containing mixtures of wastes from linen yarn production. It is shown that an addition of stearic acid significantly improves the dispersion of fibers in the composites, which in turn leads to a reduction in melt fluidity and an increase in elastic modulus in the high-filler-content region compared to composites that do not have additions of stearic acid. Additions of polyisocyanate appreciably increase the strength and water resistance of the given composites.

  10. Process for recycling waste aluminum with generation of high-pressure hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Takehito; Yamauchi, Satoru; Iida, Masayasu; Uesugi, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2007-06-15

    An innovative environmently friendly hydrolysis process for recycling waste aluminum with the generation of high-pressure hydrogen has been proposed and experimentally validated. The effect of the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution on hydrogen generation rate was the main focus of the study. In the experiments, distilled water and aluminum powder were placed in the pressure-resistance reactor made of Hastelloy, and was compressed to a desired constant water pressure using a liquid pump. The sodium hydroxide solution was supplied by liquid pump with different concentrations (from 1.0 to 5.0 mol/dm3) at a constant flow rate into the reactor by replacing the distilled water, and the rate of hydrogen generated was measured simultaneously. The liquid temperature in the reactor increased due to the exothermic reaction given by Al + OH(-) + 3H2O = 1.5H2 + Al(OH)4(-) + 415.6 kJ. Therefore, a high-pressure hydrogen was generated at room temperature by mixing waste aluminum and sodium hydroxide solution. As the hydrogen compressor used in this process consumes less energy than the conventional one, the generation of hydrogen having a pressure of almost 30 MPa was experimentally validated together with Al(OH)3, a useful byproduct.

  11. Mitigation/remediation concepts for Hanford Site flammable gas generating waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H.; Deichman, J.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Lemon, D.K.; Strachan, D.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents a preliminary assessment of concepts for the mitigation and/or remediation of the hydrogen gas generation, storage, and periodic release in Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) and 22 other tanks. The 22 other tanks exhibit much less hydrogen generation (volume and concentration of released flammable gases) than Tank 101-SY and have not had the focus nor attention that has been given to Tank 101-SY. These tanks have been listed as potential hydrogen gas-generating tanks from analysis of tank performance and data from flowsheets and Track Radioactive Constituents Reports (TRAC). These lesser hydrogen-generating tanks will also need to be revisited and revalidated. Of the 23 hydrogen class tanks, 5 are double-shell tanks (DST) and 18 are single-shell tanks (SST). Options for mitigation or remediation are different for the two types of tanks because of age, configuration, and waste form. While this document principally focuses on Tank 101-SY, the information presented has been useful to address other tanks containing hydrogen-generating waste.

  12. Potential of Hazardous Waste Encapsulation in Concrete Compound Combination with Coal Ash and Quarry Fine Additives.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Roy Nir; Anker, Yaakov; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Mastai, Yitzhak; Knop, Yaniv; Cohen, Haim

    2015-12-15

    Coal power plants are producing huge amounts of coal ash that may be applied to a variety of secondary uses. Class F fly ash may act as an excellent scrubber and fixation reagent for highly acidic wastes, which might also contain several toxic trace elements. This paper evaluates the potential of using Class F fly ashes (<20% CaO), in combination with excessive fines from the limestone quarry industry as a fixation reagent. The analysis included leaching experiments (EN12457-2) and several analytical techniques (ICP, SEM, XRD, etc.), which were used in order to investigate the fixation procedure. The fine sludge is used as a partial substitute in concrete that can be used in civil engineering projects, as it an environmentally safe product.

  13. Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste -- Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-23

    This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems.

  14. Fluid Transport Driven by Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste in Bedded Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A.; Harp, D. R.; Stauffer, P. H.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Labyed, Y.; Boukhalfa, H.; Lu, Z.; Person, M. A.; Robinson, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The question of where to safely dispose high-level nuclear waste (HLW) provides ample motivation for scientific research on deep geologic disposal options. The goal of this study is to model the dominant heat and mass transport processes that would be driven by heat generating nuclear waste buried in bedded salt. The interaction between liquid brine flow towards the heat source, establishment of a heat pipe in the mine-run salt backfill, boiling, and vapor condensation leads to changes in porosity, permeability, saturation, thermal conductivity, and rheology of the salt surrounding potential waste canisters. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) was used to simulate these highly coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes. The numerical model has been tested against recent and historical experimental data to develop and improve the salt material model. We used the validated numerical model to make predictions of temperature gradients, porosity changes, and tracer behavior that will be testable in a future 2-year field-scale heater experiment to be carried out in an experimental test bed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, NM.

  15. Hydrous mineral dehydration around heat-generating nuclear waste in bedded salt formations.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie A; Robinson, Bruce A; Stauffer, Philip H

    2015-06-02

    Heat-generating nuclear waste disposal in bedded salt during the first two years after waste emplacement is explored using numerical simulations tied to experiments of hydrous mineral dehydration. Heating impure salt samples to temperatures of 265 °C can release over 20% by mass of hydrous minerals as water. Three steps in a series of dehydration reactions are measured (65, 110, and 265 °C), and water loss associated with each step is averaged from experimental data into a water source model. Simulations using this dehydration model are used to predict temperature, moisture, and porosity after heating by 750-W waste canisters, assuming hydrous mineral mass fractions from 0 to 10%. The formation of a three-phase heat pipe (with counter-circulation of vapor and brine) occurs as water vapor is driven away from the heat source, condenses, and flows back toward the heat source, leading to changes in porosity, permeability, temperature, saturation, and thermal conductivity of the backfill salt surrounding the waste canisters. Heat pipe formation depends on temperature, moisture availability, and mobility. In certain cases, dehydration of hydrous minerals provides sufficient extra moisture to push the system into a sustained heat pipe, where simulations neglecting this process do not.

  16. Generation of copper rich metallic phases from waste printed circuit boards

    SciTech Connect

    Cayumil, R.; Khanna, R.; Ikram-Ul-Haq, M.; Rajarao, R.; Hill, A.; Sahajwalla, V.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Recycling and material recovery from waste printed circuit boards is very complex. • Thermoset polymers, ceramics and metals are present simultaneously in waste PCBs. • Heat treatment of PCBs was carried out at 1150 °C under inert conditions. • Various metallic phases could be segregated out as copper based metallic droplets. • Carbon and ceramics residues can be further recycled in a range of applications. - Abstract: The rapid consumption and obsolescence of electronics have resulted in e-waste being one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are among the most complex e-waste, containing significant quantities of hazardous and toxic materials leading to high levels of pollution if landfilled or processed inappropriately. However, PCBs are also an important resource of metals including copper, tin, lead and precious metals; their recycling is appealing especially as the concentration of these metals in PCBs is considerably higher than in their ores. This article is focused on a novel approach to recover copper rich phases from waste PCBs. Crushed PCBs were heat treated at 1150 °C under argon gas flowing at 1 L/min into a horizontal tube furnace. Samples were placed into an alumina crucible and positioned in the cold zone of the furnace for 5 min to avoid thermal shock, and then pushed into the hot zone, with specimens exposed to high temperatures for 10 and 20 min. After treatment, residues were pulled back to the cold zone and kept there for 5 min to avoid thermal cracking and re-oxidation. This process resulted in the generation of a metallic phase in the form of droplets and a carbonaceous residue. The metallic phase was formed of copper-rich red droplets and tin-rich white droplets along with the presence of several precious metals. The carbonaceous residue was found to consist of slag and ∼30% carbon. The process conditions led to the segregation of hazardous lead and tin clusters in the

  17. Governing Long-Term Risks in Radioactive Waste Management: Reversibility and Knowledge Transfer Across Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Safe management of the long-lived and high-level radioactive waste originating primarily from nuclear power stations requires isolating and confining the waste for periods up to 100 000 years. Disposal in deep geological formations is currently the solution advocated by international organisations (e.g. the IAEA and the OECD-NEA) and governments, but nowhere in the world is such repository for civilian nuclear waste in operation yet. Concerns about the governance of the involved risks and uncertainties for such long periods lie at the heart of the controversies that have slowed down the identification of a solution. In order to draw lessons potentially relevant for the governance of long-term climate risks, this paper examines the ways in which two interrelated aspects have been addressed in nuclear waste management in France, the US, and the Nordic countries. The first issue concerns "reversibility" - i.e. the possibility on one hand to retrieve the waste once it has been disposed of in a repository, and on the other to return at any point in time along the decision-making process to the previous decision-making phase. Reversibility constitutes today a fundamental, legally binding requirement in French radioactive waste policy. A strategy for managing risk and uncertainty as such, reversibility nevertheless also poses significant safety challenges of its own. The second topic goes beyond the timescales (max. 300 years) in which reversibility is usually considered applicable, addressing the question of intergenerational knowledge transfer, comparing the Nordic and the American approaches to the issue. The key challenge here is ensuring the transfer to the future generations - for periods up to 100 000 years - of sufficient knowledge concerning the siting, characteristics and management of the waste deposited in a repository. Even more fundamentally, instead of knowledge transfer, should we rather aim at "active forgetting", in order to prevent the curious in the

  18. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  19. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  20. Tourism and solid waste generation in Europe: A panel data assessment of the Environmental Kuznets Curve.

    PubMed

    Arbulú, Italo; Lozano, Javier; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between tourism growth and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been, until now, the subject of little research. This is puzzling since the tourism sector is an important MSW generator and, at the same time, is willing to avoid negative impacts from MSW mismanagement. This paper aims to provide tools for tourism and MSW management by assessing the effects of tourism volume, tourism quality and tourism specialization on MSW generation in the UE. This is done using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) framework. The study considers a panel data for 32 European economies in the 1997-2010 periods. Empirical results support the EKC hypothesis for MSW and shows that northern countries tend to have lower income elasticity than less developed countries; furthermore, results confirm a non-linear and significant effect of tourism arrivals, expenditure per tourist and tourism specialization on MSW generation.

  1. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, A. Carlos, M. Peris, M. Colomer, F.J.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • To draw a waste generation and composition map of a town a lot of factors must be taken into account. • The methodology proposed offers two different depending on the available data combined with geographical information systems. • The methodology has been applied to a Spanish city with success. • The methodology will be a useful tool to organize the municipal solid waste management. - Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consist in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the

  2. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  3. Sufficient conditions for the additivity of stall forces generated by multiple filaments or motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bameta, Tripti; Das, Dipjyoti; Das, Dibyendu; Padinhateeri, Ranjith; Inamdar, Mandar M.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments work collectively most of the time under opposing forces. This opposing force may be due to cargo carried by motors or resistance coming from the cell membrane pressing against the cytoskeletal filaments. Some recent studies have shown that the collective maximum force (stall force) generated by multiple cytoskeletal filaments or molecular motors may not always be just a simple sum of the stall forces of the individual filaments or motors. To understand this excess or deficit in the collective force, we study a broad class of models of both cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. We argue that the stall force generated by a group of filaments or motors is additive, that is, the stall force of N number of filaments (motors) is N times the stall force of one filament (motor), when the system is reversible at stall. Conversely, we show that this additive property typically does not hold true when the system is irreversible at stall. We thus present a novel and unified understanding of the existing models exhibiting such non-addivity, and generalise our arguments by developing new models that demonstrate this phenomena. We also propose a quantity similar to thermodynamic efficiency to easily predict this deviation from stall-force additivity for filament and motor collectives.

  4. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas. PMID:26690056

  5. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  6. Municipal solid waste generation rates and its management at Yusmarg forest ecosystem, a tourist resort in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rouf Ahmad; Nazir, Rumisa; Ashraf, Samia; Ali, Mudasir; Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N

    2014-02-01

    The present study was carried out at Yusmarg, a forest ecosystem and tourist resort, in the Kashmir valley during 2012 with the objectives of determining the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates per capita and on a daily basis, and assessing the existing MSW system. It was estimated that daily generation of MSW at Yusmarg by tourists, as well as residents, was 107.74 kg; on average, the MSW generated at each site was about 36.48 kg/day. The per capita generation of MSW was highest (0.97 kg/person/day) at site 1 followed by 0.288 kg/person/day at site 2 and 0.201 kg/person/day at site 3, with an average per capita MSW generation rate of 0.484 kg/person/day. Manual segregation of the collected wastes showed that it comprised some recyclable, combustible, compostable and inert materials. Among the different waste categories, 56% of waste was recyclable materials, 29% was compostable wastes, 9% was combustible wastes and 6% was inert materials. The present study infers that MSW management in Yusmarg was inappropriate, and infrastructure, skilled manpower and a proper scientific disposal mechanism is lacking in the area. In order to conserve the forest wealth of the area there is a great need to focus on the solid waste problem of the tourist resort.

  7. Waste Generator Instructions: Key to Successful Implementation of the US DOE's 435.1 for Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions (LA-UR-12-24155) - 13218

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hayes, Timothy A.; Pope, Howard L.; Enriquez, Alejandro E.; Carson, Peter H.

    2013-07-01

    In times of continuing fiscal constraints, a management and operation tool that is straightforward to implement, works as advertised, and virtually ensures compliant waste packaging should be carefully considered and employed wherever practicable. In the near future, the Department of Energy (DOE) will issue the first major update to DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This update will contain a requirement for sites that do not have a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste certification program to use two newly developed technical standards: Contact-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions and Remote-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions. The technical standards are being developed from the DOE O 435.1 Notice, Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Packaging, approved August 2011. The packaging instructions will provide detailed information and instruction for packaging almost every conceivable type of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal at WIPP. While providing specificity, the packaging instructions leave to each site's own discretion the actual mechanics of how those Instructions will be functionally implemented at the floor level. While the Technical Standards are designed to provide precise information for compliant packaging, the density of the information in the packaging instructions necessitates a type of Rosetta Stone that translates the requirements into concise, clear, easy to use and operationally practical recipes that are waste stream and facility specific for use by both first line management and hands-on operations personnel. The Waste Generator Instructions provide the operator with step-by-step instructions that will integrate the sites' various operational requirements (e.g., health and safety limits, radiological limits or dose limits) and result in a WIPP certifiable waste and package that can be transported to and emplaced at WIPP. These little known but widely productive Waste

  8. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.; Maitino, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    Stabilization traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. Typical contaminants are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP-the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC-the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens). The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  9. A new process for NOx reduction in combustion systems for the generation of energy from waste.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Oliver; Weber, Toralf; Seguin, Philippe; Laborel, Yann

    2010-07-01

    In the EU, emissions from energy from waste plants are largely reduced by applying the Waste Incineration Directive with its limit of 200 mg/m3(s) for NO(x) emissions. The need for further improvement is reflected by new German legislation effective as of 27 January 2009, requiring 100 mg/m3(s). Other countries are expected to follow this example due to the national emission ceilings of the Gothenburg protocol and the concluding EU directive 2001/81/EC. On the other hand, an increase in energy efficiency will be encouraged by the EU Waste Framework Directive. This is why there is a need for new technologies that make it possible to reconcile both requirements: reduced emissions and increased energy efficiency. A new process combining the internal recirculation of flue gas with ammonia or urea injection in order to achieve less then 80 mg/m3(s) of NO(x) is described. Important additional features of the process are an R1 efficiency above the required 0.65 of the EU Waste Framework Directive even with standard steam parameters of 40 bar/380 degrees C as well as low ammonia slip in the flue gas at the boiler outlet of below 10 mg/m3(s).

  10. A preliminary study on zero solid waste generation from pulverised coal combustion (PCC).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlong; Luo, Zhongyang; Shi, Zhenglun; Cen, Kefa

    2003-06-01

    How to completely utilise the solid residues from pulverised coal combustion (PCC) has been a hard problem so far. On the basis of a first feasibility analysis and a preliminary experimental research, this study creates an innovative idea how to realise zero generation of solid waste from PCC. By adding some quick lime as well as some other mineralisers to the coal and grinding together before combustion, the mineral composition and property of ashes could be changed significantly. The formation of some cement minerals, such as Belite, would convert the ashes from solid waste into a kind of product that is similar to cement clinker. And this technology would have great effect on energy utilisation as well as environmental protection.

  11. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  12. Electricity generation from food wastes and microbial community structure in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jianna; Tang, Yu; Liu, Bingfeng; Wu, Di; Ren, Nanqi; Xing, Defeng

    2013-09-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) was studied as an alternate and a novel way to dispose food wastes (FWs) in a waste-to-energy form. Different organic loading rate obviously affected the performance of MFCs fed with FWs. The maximum power density of ~18 W/m(3) (~556 mW/m(2)) was obtained at COD of 3200±400 mg/L and the maximum coulombic efficiency (CE) was ~27.0% at COD of 4900±350 mg/L. The maximum removals of COD, total carbohydrate (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) were ~86.4%, ~95.9% and ~16.1%, respectively. Microbial community analysis using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene demonstrated the combination of the dominant genera of the exoelectrogenic Geobacter and fermentative Bacteroides effectively drove highly efficient and reliable MFC systems with functions of organic matters degradation and electricity generation.

  13. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge digestion by the addition of zero valent iron.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yinghong; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Suo

    2014-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is promising technology to recover energy from waste activated sludge. However, the sludge digestion is limited by its low efficiency of hydrolysis-acidification. Zero valent iron (ZVI) as a reducing material is expected to enhance anaerobic process including the hydrolysis-acidification process. Considering that, ZVI was added into an anaerobic sludge digestion system to accelerate the sludge digestion in this study. The results indicated that ZVI effectively enhanced the decomposition of protein and cellulose, the two main components of the sludge. Compared to the control test without ZVI, the degradation of protein increased 21.9% and the volatile fatty acids production increased 37.3% with adding ZVI. More acetate and less propionate are found during the hydrolysis-acidification with ZVI. The activities of several key enzymes in the hydrolysis and acidification increased 0.6-1 time. ZVI made the methane production raise 43.5% and sludge reduction ratio increase 12.2 percent points. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundances of hydrogen-consuming microorganisms including homoacetogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens with ZVI were higher than the control, which reduced the H2 accumulation to create a beneficial condition for the sludge digestion in thermodynamics.

  14. Assessing the variables affecting on the rate of solid waste generation and recycling: An empirical analysis in Prespa Park.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2016-02-01

    Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. Comprehensive study of the variables influencing household solid waste production and recycling rate is crucial and fundamental for exploring the generation mechanism and forecasting future dynamics of household solid waste. The present study is employed in the case study of Prespa Park. A model, based on the interrelationships of economic, demographic, housing structure and waste management policy variables influencing the rate of solid waste generation and recycling is developed and employed. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a field questionnaire survey conducted in Prespa Park villages for the year 2014. Another feature of this study is to test whether a household's waste generation can be decoupled from its population growth. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis and F-tests are used to know the relationship between variables. One-way and two-way fixed effects models data analysis techniques are used to identify variables that determine the effectiveness of waste generation and recycling at household level in the study area. The results reveal that households with heterogeneous characteristics, such as education level, mean building age and income, present different challenges of waste reduction goals. Numerically, an increase of 1% in education level of population corresponds to a waste reduction of 3kg on the annual per capita basis. A village with older buildings, in the case of one year older of the median building age, corresponds to a waste generation increase of 12kg. Other economic and policy incentives such as the mean household income, pay-as-you-throw, percentage of population with access to curbside recycling, the number of drop-off recycling facilities available per 1000 persons and cumulative expenditures on recycling education per capita are also found to be effective

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-08-14

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303.

  16. Composition, preparation, and gas generation results from simulated wastes of Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-08-01

    This document reviews the preparation and composition of simulants that have been developed to mimic the wastes temporarily stored in Tank 241-SY-101 at Hanford. The kinetics and stoichiometry of gases that are generated using these simulants are also compared, considering the roles of hydroxide, chloride, and transition metal ions; the identities of organic constituents; and the effects of dilution, radiation, and temperature. Work described in this report was conducted for the Flammable Gas Safety Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, (a) whose purpose is to develop information that is necessary to mitigate potential safety hazards associated with waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The goal of this research and of related efforts at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is to determine the thermal and thermal/radiolytic mechanisms by which flammable and other gases are produced in Hanford wastes, emphasizing those stored in Tank 241-SY-101. A variety of Tank 241-SY-101 simulants have been developed to date. The use of simulants in laboratory testing activities provides a number of advantages, including elimination of radiological risks to researchers, lower costs associated with experimentation, and the ability to systematically alter simulant compositions to study the chemical mechanisms of reactions responsible for gas generation. The earliest simulants contained the principal inorganic components of the actual waste and generally a single complexant such as N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) or ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA). Both homogeneous and heterogeneous compositional forms were developed. Aggressive core sampling and analysis activities conducted during Windows C and E provided information that was used to design new simulants that more accurately reflected major and minor inorganic components.

  17. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Carlos, M; Peris, M; Colomer, F J

    2014-11-01

    The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consist in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the selective collection. To verify the methodology it has been successfully applied to a Spanish town.

  18. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Carlos, M; Peris, M; Colomer, F J

    2015-02-01

    The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consists in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the selective collection. To verify the methodology it has been successfully applied to a Spanish town.

  19. Recycling of chemicals from alkaline waste generated during preparation of UO 3 microspheres by sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Vittal Rao, T. V.; Mukerjee, S. K.; Vaidya, V. N.

    2006-05-01

    Internal gelation process, one of the sol-gel processes for nuclear fuel fabrication, offers many advantages over conventional powder pellet route. However, one of the limitation of the process is generation of large volume of alkaline liquid waste containing hexamethylenetetramine, urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium hydroxide etc. Presence of ammonium nitrate with hexamethylenetetramine and urea presents a fire hazard which prevents direct disposal of the waste as well as its recycle by evaporation. The paper describes the studies carried out to suitably process the waste. Nitrate was removed from the waste by passing through Dowex 1 × 4 anion exchange resin in OH - form. 1.0 M NaOH was used to regenerate the resin. The nitrate-free waste was further treated to recover and recycle hexamethylenetetramine, urea and ammonium hydroxide for preparation of UO 3 microspheres. The quality of the microspheres obtained was satisfactory. An optimized flow sheet for processing of the waste solution has been suggested.

  20. Enhanced methane generation during theromophilic co-digestion of confectionary waste and grease-trap fats and oils with municipal wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Gough, Heidi L; Nelsen, Diane; Muller, Christopher; Ferguson, John

    2013-02-01

    Recent interest in carbon-neutral biofuels has revived interest in co-digestion for methane generation. At wastewater treatment facilities, organic wastes may be co-digested with sludge using established anaerobic digesters. However, changes to organic loadings may induce digester instability, particularly for thermophilic digesters. To examine this problem, thermophilic (55 degrees C) co-digestion was studied for two food-industry wastes in semi-continuous laboratory digesters; in addition, the wastes' biochemical methane potentials were tested. Wastes with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) content were selected as feedstocks allowing increased input of potential energy to reactors without substantially altering volumetric loadings. Methane generation increased while reactor pH and volatile solids remained stable. Lag periods observed prior to methane stimulation suggested that acclimation of the microbial community may be critical to performance during co-digestion. Chemical oxygen demand mass balances in the experimental and control reactors indicated that all of the food industry waste COD was converted to methane.

  1. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues.

    PubMed

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng, Huan; Yu, Danlin

    2010-11-01

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  2. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng Huan; Yu Danlin

    2010-11-15

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  3. The effect of additives on migration and transformation of gaseous pollutants in the vacuum pyrolysis process of waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yibiao; Sun, Shuiyu; Liu, Jingyong; Lin, Weixiong; Chen, Nanwei; Ye, Maoyou

    2017-02-01

    The effect of six additives (CaCO3, HZSM-5, CaO, Al2O3, FeOOH and Ca(OH)2) on the generation, migration, transformation and escaping behaviours of typical gaseous pollutants in the pyrolysis process were studied by vacuum pyrolysis experiments on epoxy resin powder from waste printed circuit boards with tube furnace. The results show that the additives Al2O3, CaO, Ca(OH) 2 and FeOOH could reduce the yield of the gas phase. The removal rates of pollutants, such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, phenol, p-xylene, HBr, NO2 and SO2 in the gaseous products, has changed variously with the increasing percentage of the above additives. Judging from the control of gas-phase pollutant discharge, the calcium-base additives are superior to the others. Ca(OH)2 has the best inhibition effect among them. The increase of the pyrolysis temperature and vacuum degree enhanced the volatility of organic pollutants and weakened the Ca(OH)2 inhibition effect on organic pollutants, while it improved the removal rate of SO2. Under the condition of 500 °C pyrolysis temperature and 0.09 MPa vacuum degree, when the additive proportion of Ca(OH)2 was one-fifth, the average removal rate of pollutants in gas phase is up to 66.4%.

  4. Payment Of the New Mexico Environment Department- Hazardous Waste Bureau Annual Business and Generation Fees Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Catherine L.

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this letter is to transmit to the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB), the Los alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Annual Business and Generation Fees for calendar year 2011. These fees are required pursuant to the provisions of New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act, Chapter 74, Article 4, NMSA (as amended). The Laboratory's Fenton Hill Facility did not generate any hazardous waste during the entire year, and is not required to pay a fee for calendar year 2011. The enclosed fee represents the amount for a single facility owned by the Department of Energy and co-operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS).

  5. Optimal Number of Thermoelectric Couples in a Heat Pipe Assisted Thermoelectric Generator for Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tongjun; Wang, Tongcai; Luan, Weiling; Cao, Qimin

    2017-01-01

    Waste heat recovery through thermoelectric generators is a promising way to improve energy conversion efficiency. This paper proposes a type of heat pipe assisted thermoelectric generator (HP-TEG) system. The expandable evaporator and condenser surface of the heat pipe facilitates the intensive assembly of thermoelectric (TE) modules to compose a compact device. Compared with a conventional layer structure thermoelectric generator, this system is feasible for the installment of more TE couples, thus increasing power output. To investigate the performance of the HP-TEG and the optimal number of TE couples, a theoretical model was presented and verified by experiment results. Further theoretical analysis results showed the performance of the HP-TEG could be further improved by optimizing the parameters, including the inlet air temperature, the thermal resistance of the heating section, and thermal resistance of the cooling structure. Moreover, applying a proper number of TE couples is important to acquire the best power output performance.

  6. Optimization of the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure, agriculture waste and inorganic additive through specific methanogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J; Cisneros-Ortiz, M E; Guardia-Puebla, Y; Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Noyola, A

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of three wastes (manure, rice straw and clay residue, an inorganic additive) at different concentration levels and their interactive effects on methanogenic activity were investigated in this work at thermophilic conditions in order to enhance hydrolytic activity and methane production. A central composite design and the response surface methodology were applied for the optimization of specific methanogenic activity (SMA) by assessing their interaction effects with a reduced number of experiments. The results showed a significant interaction among the wastes on the SMA and confirmed that co-digestion enhances methane production. Rice straw apparently did not supply a significant amount of substrate to make a difference in SMA or methane yield. On the other hand, clay residue had a positive effect as an inorganic additive for stimulating the anaerobic process, based on its mineral content and its adsorbent properties for ammonia. Finally, the optimal conditions for achieving a thermophilic SMA value close to 1.4 g CH4-COD/g VSS · d(-1) were 20.3 gVSS/L of manure, 9.8 gVSS/L of rice straw and 3.3 gTSS/L of clay.

  7. Effect of temperature, anaerobiosis, stirring and salt addition on natural fermentation silage of sardine and sardine wastes in sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Zahar, M; Benkerroum, N; Guerouali, A; Laraki, Y; El Yakoubi, K

    2002-04-01

    Conditions for a natural fermentation during ensilage of sardines or their waste in sugarcane molasses (60:40 w/w) were evaluated regarding the effect of temperature (15, 25 and 35 degrees C), anaerobiosis (closed vs. open jars), daily stirring of the mixture, and salt addition to the initial mix at 5% (w/w) level. Successful natural fermentation took place in sardine silages incubated at 25 or 35 degrees C in open jars to reach a pH of 4.4 in about 2 and 1 weeks, respectively. For samples kept at 15 degrees C, the pH decline was very slow and pH did not decrease below 5.5 after one month of incubation. At 25 degrees C, the most favorable conditions for silage of sardine waste in cane molasses, as evidenced by the fastest decline in pH to a stable value of about 4.4, were achieved in closed jars and with daily stirring of the mix. The pH 4.4 was reached in one week with an advance of at least 3 days compared to the other conditions (open jars and closed jars without daily stirring). Addition of salt at 5% (w/w) in the mix before incubation inhibited the fermentation process.

  8. Quantification of parameters influencing methane generation due to biodegradation of municipal solid waste in landfills and laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2016-09-01

    The energy conversion potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposed of in landfills remains largely untapped because of the slow and variable rate of biogas generation, delayed and inefficient biogas collection, leakage of biogas, and landfill practices and infrastructure that are not geared toward energy recovery. A database consisting of methane (CH4) generation data, the major constituent of biogas, from 49 laboratory experiments and field monitoring data from 57 landfills was developed. Three CH4 generation parameters, i.e., waste decay rate (k), CH4 generation potential (L0), and time until maximum CH4 generation rate (tmax), were calculated for each dataset using U.S. EPA's Landfill Gas Emission Model (LandGEM). Factors influencing the derived parameters in laboratory experiments and landfills were investigated using multi-linear regression analysis. Total weight of waste (W) was correlated with biodegradation conditions through a ranked classification scheme. k increased with increasing percentage of readily biodegradable waste (Br0 (%)) and waste temperature, and reduced with increasing W, an indicator of less favorable biodegradation conditions. The values of k obtained in the laboratory were commonly significantly higher than those in landfills and those recommended by LandGEM. The mean value of L0 was 98 and 88L CH4/kg waste for laboratory and field studies, respectively, but was significantly affected by waste composition with ranges from 10 to 300L CH4/kg. tmax increased with increasing percentage of biodegradable waste (B0) and W. The values of tmax in landfills were higher than those in laboratory experiments or those based on LandGEM's recommended parameters. Enhancing biodegradation conditions in landfill cells has a greater impact on improving k and tmax than increasing B0. Optimizing the B0 and Br0 values of landfilled waste increases L0 and reduces tmax.

  9. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-15

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO{sub 4}) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO{sub 4} the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO{sub 4} increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO{sub 4}. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO{sub 4} concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO{sub 4} promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO{sub 4} adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  10. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; ...

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermalmore » instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.« less

  11. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO4) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO4 the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO4 increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO4. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO4 concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO4 promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO4 adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  12. A methodology for evaluating the toxicity of radioactive waste and its application to the radioactive waste generated in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, W.P.

    1995-08-01

    Communicating with the public on the risks of low-level radioactive waste disposal is difficult due to the lack of comparisons that are understandable to the public. This paper presents a methodology for analyzing the intrinsic toxicity of radionuclides in waste and comparing it to that for soil or other wastes that may contain naturally-occurring radionuclides. The intrinsic toxicity of each radionuclide is normalized by dividing its specific activity in the waste by an appropriate ingestion risk standard, such as the U.S. EPA proposed drinking water limits. To illustrate the usefulness of this method, it was used to analyze Pennsylvania`s commercial low-level radioactive waste inventory. The results are presented along with an indication of the usefulness of this method for screening purposes to analyze and identify problematic constituents in various waste streams. 15 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Evaluation of electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Chiasson, A.D.; Yavuzturk, C.; Walrath, D.E.

    2007-06-15

    A temperature response factors model of vertical thermal energy extraction boreholes is presented to evaluate electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks. Sensitivity and life-cycle cost analyses are conducted to assess the impact of system parameters on the production of 1 MW of electrical power using a theoretical binary-cycle power plant. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the average underground temperature has the greatest impact on the exiting fluid temperatures from the ground followed by fluid flow rate and ground thermal conductivity. System simulations show that a binary-cycle power plant may be economically feasible at ground temperatures as low as 190 {sup o}C.

  14. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation and Topological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-06-01

    A comprehensive numerical model has been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details of the model and results from the analysis of General Motors' prototype TEG were described in part I of the study. In part II of this study, parametric evaluations are considered to assess the influence of heat exchanger, geometry, and thermoelectric module configurations to achieve optimization of the baseline model. The computational tool is also adapted to model other topologies such as transverse and circular configurations (hexagonal and cylindrical) maintaining the same volume as the baseline TEG. Performance analysis of these different topologies and parameters is presented and compared with the baseline design.

  15. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  16. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  17. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  18. Dry additives-reduction catalysts for flue waste gases originating from the combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Hard coal is the basic energy generating raw material in Poland. In 1990, 60% of electricity and thermal energy was totally obtained from it. It means that 100 million tons of coal were burned. The second position is held by lignite - generating 38% of electricity and heat (67.3 million tons). It is to be underlined that coal combustion is particularly noxious to the environment. The coal composition appreciably influences the volume of pollution emitted in the air. The contents of incombustible mineral parts - ashes - oscillates from 2 to 30%; only 0.02 comes from plants that had once originated coal and cannot be separated in any way. All the rest, viz. the so-called external mineral substance enters the fuel while being won. The most indesirable hard coal ingredient is sulfur whose level depends on coal sorts and its origin. The worse the fuel quality, the more sulfur it contains. In the utilization process of this fuel, its combustible part is burnt: therefore, sulfur dioxide is produced. At the present coal consumption, the SO{sub 2} emission reaches the level of 3.2 million per year. The intensifies the pressure on working out new coal utilization technologies, improving old and developing of pollution limiting methods. Research is also directed towards such an adaptation of technologies in order that individual users may also make use thereof (household furnaces) as their share in the pollution emission is considerable.

  19. Recovery of Escherichia coli from Soil after Addition of Sterile Organic Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Unc, Adrian; Gardner, Julie; Springthorpe, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory batch tests indicate that addition of sterile municipal sewage biosolids to clay soil from four depths increases the numbers of Escherichia coli isolates recoverable in EC-MUG broth (EC broth with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-glucuronide). This effect was most marked for the deeper soil layers, with increases of about 2.6 orders of magnitude in E. coli most probable number. PMID:16517690

  20. REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, N.

    2010-11-05

    Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste

  1. Generation of copper rich metallic phases from waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Cayumil, R; Khanna, R; Ikram-Ul-Haq, M; Rajarao, R; Hill, A; Sahajwalla, V

    2014-10-01

    The rapid consumption and obsolescence of electronics have resulted in e-waste being one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are among the most complex e-waste, containing significant quantities of hazardous and toxic materials leading to high levels of pollution if landfilled or processed inappropriately. However, PCBs are also an important resource of metals including copper, tin, lead and precious metals; their recycling is appealing especially as the concentration of these metals in PCBs is considerably higher than in their ores. This article is focused on a novel approach to recover copper rich phases from waste PCBs. Crushed PCBs were heat treated at 1150°C under argon gas flowing at 1L/min into a horizontal tube furnace. Samples were placed into an alumina crucible and positioned in the cold zone of the furnace for 5 min to avoid thermal shock, and then pushed into the hot zone, with specimens exposed to high temperatures for 10 and 20 min. After treatment, residues were pulled back to the cold zone and kept there for 5 min to avoid thermal cracking and re-oxidation. This process resulted in the generation of a metallic phase in the form of droplets and a carbonaceous residue. The metallic phase was formed of copper-rich red droplets and tin-rich white droplets along with the presence of several precious metals. The carbonaceous residue was found to consist of slag and ∼30% carbon. The process conditions led to the segregation of hazardous lead and tin clusters in the metallic phase. The heat treatment temperature was chosen to be above the melting point of copper; molten copper helped to concentrate metallic constituents and their separation from the carbonaceous residue and the slag. Inert atmosphere prevented the re-oxidation of metals and the loss of carbon in the gaseous fraction. Recycling e-waste is expected to lead to enhanced metal recovery, conserving natural resources and providing an environmentally

  2. Influence of commercial and residual sorbents and silicates as additives on the stabilisation/solidification of organic and inorganic industrial waste.

    PubMed

    Coz, A; Andrés, A; Soriano, S; Viguri, J R; Ruiz, M C; Irabien, J A

    2009-05-30

    An environmental problem of the foundry activities is the management of industrial waste generated in different processes. The foundry sludge from gas wet cleaning treatment that contains organic and inorganic compounds and a high content of water is an interesting example. Due to their characteristics, they can be managed using different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies prior to land disposal. The purpose of this work is to study S/S formulations in order to improve the control of the mobility of the pollutants and the ecotoxicity of the samples. Different mixtures of cement or lime as binders and additives (foundry sand, silica fume, sodium silicate, silicic acid, activated carbon and black carbon) have been used in order to reduce the mobility of the chemical and ecotoxicological regulated parameters and to compare the results for commercial and residual additives. The best results have been obtained with sorbents (activated carbon and black carbon) or sodium silicate. The results of the foundry sand ash as additive can conclude that it can be used as replacement in the cement products. However, silica fume in the samples with lime and siliceous resin sand as additives gives products that do not fulfil the regulated limits. Finally, some linear expressions between the chemical parameters and the quantity of material used in the samples have been obtained.

  3. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  4. Variation in some chemical parameters and organic matter in soils regenerated by the addition of municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Carlos; Hernandez, Teresa; Costa, Francisco

    1992-11-01

    The organic fraction of a municipal solid waste was added in different doses to an eroded soil formed of loam and with no vegetal cover. After three years, the changes in macronutrient content and the chemical-structural composition of its organic matter were studied. The addition of the organic fraction from a municipal solid waste had a positive effect on soil regeneration, the treated soils being covered with spontaneous vegetation from 1 yr onwards. An increase in electrical conductivity and a fall in pH were noted in the treated soils as were increases in macronutrients, particularly N and available P and the different carbon fractions. Optical density measurements of the organic matter extracted with sodium pyrophosphate showed that the treated soils contained an organic matter with less condensed compounds and with a greater tendency to evolve than the control. A pyrolysis-gas chromatography study of the organic matter extracted with pyrophosphate showed large quantities of benzene both in the treated soils and control; pyrrole was also relatively abundant, although this fragment decreased as the dose rose. Xylenes and pyridine were present in greater quantities in the control and furfural in the treated soils. Three years after addition to the soil, the organic matter had a higher proportion of fragments derived from aromatic compounds and a smaller proportion derived from hydrocarbons. Similarity indices showed that, although the added and newly formed organic matter 3 yr after addition continued to differ from that of the original soil and to be more mineralizable, the transformations it has undergone made it more similar to the original organic matter of the soil than it was at the moment of being added.

  5. Tattoo inks contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that additionally generate deleterious singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Regensburger, Johannes; Lehner, Karin; Maisch, Tim; Vasold, Rudolf; Santarelli, Francesco; Engel, Eva; Gollmer, Anita; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    In the past years, tattoos have become very popular worldwide, and millions of people have tattoos with mainly black colours. Black tattoo inks are usually based on soot, are not regulated and may contain hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Part of PAHs possibly stay lifelong in skin, absorb UV radiation and generate singlet oxygen, which may affect skin integrity. Therefore, we analysed 19 commercially available tattoo inks using HPLC and mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of PAHs in the different inks ranged from 0.14 to 201 microg/g tattoo ink. Benz(a)pyrene was found in four ink samples at a mean concentration of 0.3 +/- 0.2 microg/g. We also found high concentrations of phenol ranging from 0.2 to 385 microg/g tattoo ink. PAHs partly show high quantum yields of singlet oxygen (Phi(Delta)) in the range from 0.18 to 0.85. We incubated keratinocytes with extracts of different inks. Subsequent UVA irradiation decreased the mitochondrial activity of cells when the extracts contained PAHs, which sufficiently absorb UVA and show simultaneously high Phi(Delta) value. Tattooing with black inks entails an injection of substantial amounts of phenol and PAHs into skin. Most of these PAHs are carcinogenic and may additionally generate deleterious singlet oxygen inside the dermis when skin is exposed to UVA (e.g. solar radiation).

  6. Environmental assessment of energy generation from agricultural and farm waste through anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Nayal, Figen Sisman; Mammadov, Aydin; Ciliz, Nilgun

    2016-12-15

    While Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of agricultural goods, it is also, at the same time a net importer of energy carriers. This dichotomy offers a strong incentive to generate energy from agricultural and farming waste; something which could provide energy security for rural areas. Combined with the enhanced energy security for farming areas, the production of energy in this manner could conceivably contribute to the overall national effort to reduce the Turkey's carbon footprint. This study explores the environmental benefits and burdens of one such option, that is, biogas production from a mixture of agricultural and animal waste through anaerobic digestion (AD), and its subsequent use for electricity and heat generation. A life-cycle assessment methodology was used, to measure the potential environmental impact of this option, in terms of global warming and total weighed impact, and to contrast it with the impact of producing the same amount of energy via an integrated gasification combined cycle process and a hard coal power plant. This study concentrates on an AD and cogeneration pilot plant, built in the Kocaeli province of Turkey and attempts to evaluate its potential environmental impacts. The study uses laboratory-scale studies, as well as literature and LCI databases to derive the operational parameters, yield and emissions of the plant. The potential impacts were calculated with EDIP 2003 methodology, using GaBi 5 LCA software. The results indicate that N2O emissions, resulting from the application of liquid and solid portions of digestate (a by-product of AD), as an organic fertilizer, are by far the largest contributors to global warming among all the life cycle stages. They constitute 68% of the total, whereas ammonia losses from the same process are the leading cause of terrestrial eutrophication. The photochemical ozone formation potential is significantly higher for the cogeneration phase, compared to other life cycle

  7. Reclamation of acidic mine residues by creation of technosoils with the addition of biochar and marble waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Acosta, José; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raul

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the short-term effect of biochar and marble waste addition for the reclamation of acidic mine residues. A lab incubation was carried out for 90 days. Biochars derived from pig manure (PM), crop residues (CR) and municipal solid waste (MSW) were added to the soil at a rate of 20 g kg-1. The marble waste (MW) was added at a rate of 200 g kg-1. Bochars and MW were applied independently and combined. A control soil was used without application of amendments. The evolution of different physical, chemical and biochemical properties and availability of heavy metals was periodically monitored. Results showed that original pH (2.8) was increased with all amendments, those samples containing MW being the ones with the highest pH (~8.0). The electrical conductivity (EC) decreased from 6.6 to 3.0-4.5 mS cm-1 in all the treatments receiving MW. Soil organic C (SOC) increased in all samples receiving biochar up to 18-20 g kg-1, with no shifts during the 90 d incubation, indicating the high stability of the C supplied. Recalcitrant organic C accounted for ~90-98% of the SOC. No significant effect of amendment addition was observed for carbohydrates, soluble C, microbial biomass C and β-glucosidase activity. However, arylesterase activity increased with amendments, highly related to pH. The availability of heavy metals decreased up to 90-95% owing to the addition of amendments, mainly in samples containing MW. The MW provided conditions to increase pH and decrease EC and metals mobility. Biochar was an effective strategy to increase SOC, recalcitrant C and AS, essential to create soil structure. However, a labile source of organic matter should be added together with the proposed amendments to promote the activation of microbial communities. Acknowledgement : This work has been funded by Fundación Séneca (Agency of Science and Technology of the Region of Murcia, Spain) by the project 18920/JLI/13

  8. Information on Disposal Practices of Generators of Small Quantities of Hazardous Wastes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-28

    reviewed the States’ solid and hazardous waste regulations , policies, and procedures. We contacted solid or hazardous waste officials in 46 other States...exempts from hazardous waste regulations mixtures of domestic sewage and other wastes that pass through a sewer system to a publicly owned sewage...such wastes under hazardous waste regulations is necessary. An assistant to the EPA Assistant Administrator for Water said that EPA recognizes that a

  9. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Joule-Heated Ceramic-Lined Melter to Vitrify Liquid Radioactive Wastes Containing Am241 Generated From MOX Fuel Fabrication in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E C; Bowan II, B W; Pegg, I; Jardine, L J

    2004-11-16

    americium it contains. Silver is widely used as an additive in glass making. However, its solubility is known to be limited in borosilicate glasses. Further, silver, which is present as a nitrate salt in the waste, can be easily reduced to molten silver in the melting process. Molten silver, if formed, would be difficult to reintroduce into the glass matrix and could pose operating difficulties for the glass melter. This will place a limitation on the waste loading of the melter feed material to prevent the separation of silver from the waste within the melter. If the silver were recovered in the MOx fabrication process, which is currently under consideration, the composition of the glass would likely be limited only by the thermal heat load from the incorporated {sup 241}Am. The resulting mass of glass used to encapsulate the waste could then be reduced by a factor of approximately three. The vitrification process used to treat the waste stream is proposed to center on a joule-heated ceramic lined slurry fed melter. Glass furnaces of this type are used in the United States to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the: Defense Waste Processing Facility, West Valley Demonstration Project, and to process the Hanford tank waste. The waste will initially be blended with glass-forming chemicals, which are primarily sand and boric acid. The resulting slurry is pumped to the melter for conversion to glass. The melter is a ceramic lined metal box that contains a molten glass pool heated by passing electric current through the glass. Molten glass from the melter is poured into canisters to cool and solidify. They are then sealed and decontaminated to form the final waste disposal package. Emissions generated in the melter from the vitrification process are treated by an off-gas system to remove radioactive contamination and destroy nitrogen oxides (NOx).

  11. The effects of socioeconomic parameters on household solid-waste generation and composition in developing countries (a case study: Ahvaz, Iran).

    PubMed

    Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Omrani, Ghasem Ali; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Raof, Farzaneh Fakheri

    2012-04-01

    Environment problems associated with the generation of waste are part of societal changes where households play an important role. These societal changes influence the size, structure and characteristic of given households. For the effective planning of solid-waste handling infrastructure, it is essential to know the quantity of waste generation and its composition. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in an urban municipal area in Iran to determine the household solid-waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socioeconomic parameters. The dependent variables were waste generation and composition, and independent variables were family size, family employment, age, number of room and education. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology and from five different socioeconomic groups. Waste collected from all groups of households were segregated and weighted. Waste generation rate was 5.4 kg/household/day. Household solid waste comprised of ten categories of wastes and with the largest component (76.9%). The generation and composition of household solid waste were correlated with family size, education level and households income. This paper adequately suggests new insights concerning the role of socioeconomic parameters in affecting the generation of household waste.

  12. Nano-porous pottery using calcined waste sediment from tap water production as an additive.

    PubMed

    Sangsuk, Supin; Khunthon, Srichalai; Nilpairach, Siriphan

    2010-10-01

    A suspension of sediment from a lagoon in a tap water production plant was collected for this experiment. The suspension was spray dried and calcined at 700 °C for 1 h. After calcining, 30 wt.% of the sediment were mixed with pottery clay. Samples with and without calcined sediment were sintered at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C. The results show that calcined sediment can be used as an additive in pottery clay. The samples with calcined sediment show higher porosity, water absorption and flexural strength, especially for 900 and 1000 °C. At 900 °C, samples with calcined sediment show a porosity of 50% with an average pore size of 68 nm, water absorption of 31% and flexural strength of 12.61 MPa.

  13. IMPACT OF NOBLE METALS AND MERCURY ON HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING HIGH LEVEL WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Tommy Edwards, T; David Koopman, D

    2009-03-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The pretreatment process in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) consists of two process tanks, the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) as well as a melter feed tank. During SRAT processing, nitric and formic acids are added to the sludge to lower pH, destroy nitrite and carbonate ions, and reduce mercury and manganese. During the SME cycle, glass formers are added, and the batch is concentrated to the final solids target prior to vitrification. During these processes, hydrogen can be produced by catalytic decomposition of excess formic acid. The waste contains silver, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, and mercury, but silver and palladium have been shown to be insignificant factors in catalytic hydrogen generation during the DWPF process. A full factorial experimental design was developed to ensure that the existence of statistically significant two-way interactions could be determined without confounding of the main effects with the two-way interaction effects. Rh ranged from 0.0026-0.013% and Ru ranged from 0.010-0.050% in the dried sludge solids, while initial Hg ranged from 0.5-2.5 wt%, as shown in Table 1. The nominal matrix design consisted of twelve SRAT cycles. Testing included: a three factor (Rh, Ru, and Hg) study at two levels per factor (eight runs), three duplicate midpoint runs, and one additional replicate run to assess reproducibility away from the midpoint. Midpoint testing was used to identify potential quadratic effects from the three factors. A single sludge

  14. 40 CFR 80.1466 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs... Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1466 What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs have been generated by...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1466 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs... Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1466 What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs have been generated by...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1466 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs... Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1466 What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs have been generated by...

  17. 40 CFR 80.1466 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs... Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1466 What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs have been generated by...

  18. Thermoelectric Power Generation from Lanthanum Strontium Titanium Oxide at Room Temperature through the Addition of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue; Norman, Colin; Srivastava, Deepanshu; Azough, Feridoon; Wang, Li; Robbins, Mark; Simpson, Kevin; Freer, Robert; Kinloch, Ian A

    2015-07-29

    The applications of strontium titanium oxide based thermoelectric materials are currently limited by their high operating temperatures of >700 °C. Herein, we show that the thermal operating window of lanthanum strontium titanium oxide (LSTO) can be reduced to room temperature by the addition of a small amount of graphene. This increase in operating performance will enable future applications such as generators in vehicles and other sectors. The LSTO composites incorporated one percent or less of graphene and were sintered under an argon/hydrogen atmosphere. The resultant materials were reduced and possessed a multiphase structure with nanosized grains. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites decreased upon the addition of graphene, whereas the electrical conductivity and power factor both increased significantly. These factors, together with a moderate Seebeck coefficient, meant that a high power factor of ∼2500 μWm(-1)K(-2) was reached at room temperature at a loading of 0.6 wt % graphene. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) was achieved when 0.6 wt % graphene was added (ZT = 0.42 at room temperature and 0.36 at 750 °C), with >280% enhancement compared to that of pure LSTO. A preliminary 7-couple device was produced using bismuth strontium cobalt oxide/graphene-LSTO pucks. This device had a Seebeck coefficient of ∼1500 μV/K and an open voltage of 600 mV at a mean temperature of 219 °C.

  19. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  20. Research and Development for Thermoelectric Generation Technology Using Waste Heat from Steelmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Takashi; Murai, Ryota; Makino, Kazuya; Nagano, Kouji; Kajihara, Takeshi; Kaibe, Hiromasa; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Matsuno, Hidetoshi

    2015-06-01

    In Japan, integrated steelworks have greatly lowered their energy use over the past few decades through investment in energy-efficient processes and facilities, maintaining the highest energy efficiency in the world. However, in view of energy security, the steelmaking industry is strongly required to develop new technologies for further energy saving. Waste heat recovery can be one of the key technologies to meet this requirement. To recover waste heat, particularly radiant heat from steel products which has not been used efficiently yet, thermoelectric generation (TEG) is one of the most effective technologies, being able to convert heat directly into electric power. JFE Steel Corporation (JFE) implemented a 10-kW-class grid-connected TEG system for JFE's continuous casting line with KELK Ltd. (KELK), and started verification tests to generate electric power using radiant heat from continuous casting slab at the end of fiscal year 2012. The TEG system has 56 TEG units, each containing 16 TEG modules. This paper describes the performance and durability of the TEG system, which has been investigated under various operating conditions at the continuous casting line.

  1. Heat Pipe-Assisted Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology for Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Ju-Chan; Chi, Ri-Guang; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Lee, Wook-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Currently, large amounts of thermal energy dissipated from automobiles are emitted through hot exhaust pipes. This has resulted in the need for a new efficient recycling method to recover energy from waste hot exhaust gas. The present experimental study investigated how to improve the power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system assisted by a wickless loop heat pipe (loop thermosyphon) under the limited space of the exhaust gas pipeline. The present study shows a novel loop-type heat pipe-assisted TEG concept to be applied to hybrid vehicles. The operating temperature of a TEG's hot side surface should be as high as possible to maximize the Seebeck effect. The present study shows a novel TEG concept of transferring heat from the source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any local place with a loop-type heat pipe. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate an electromotive force power of around 1.3 V in the case of 170°C hot exhaust gas. Two thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for a conductive block model and four Bi2Te3 TEMs with a heat pipe-assisted model were installed in the condenser section. Heat flows to the condenser section from the evaporator section connected to the exhaust pipe. This novel TEG system with a heat pipe can be placed in any location on an automobile.

  2. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control

  3. 40 CFR 80.1155 - What are the additional requirements for a producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for a producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol? 80.1155 Section 80.1155... producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol? (a) A producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol (hereinafter referred to as “ethanol producer” under this section)...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1155 - What are the additional requirements for a producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol? 80.1155 Section 80.1155... producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol? (a) A producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol (hereinafter referred to as “ethanol producer” under this section)...

  5. 40 CFR 80.1155 - What are the additional requirements for a producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for a producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol? 80.1155 Section 80.1155... producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol? (a) A producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol (hereinafter referred to as “ethanol producer” under this section)...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1155 - What are the additional requirements for a producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol? 80.1155 Section 80.1155... producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol? (a) A producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol (hereinafter referred to as “ethanol producer” under this section)...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1155 - What are the additional requirements for a producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for a producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol? 80.1155 Section 80.1155... producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol? (a) A producer of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol (hereinafter referred to as “ethanol producer” under this section)...

  8. [The possibility of using the mycelial wastes from the production of antifungal antibiotics as additives to lubricating oils].

    PubMed

    Belakhov, V V; Shenin, Iu D

    1997-01-01

    Antiwear and antitear properties of mycelial waste from production of antifungal antibiotics i.e. levorin, nystatin, mycoheptin, amphotericin B and griseofulvin were studied. It was shown that the waste mycelium from griseofulvin production had the best antiwear and antitear characteristics due to a higher percentage of phosphorus and sulphur in it as compared to the mycelial waste from production of the other antibiotics.

  9. Citrus waste stream utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waste streams, generated during fruit processing, consist of solid fruit residues in addition to liquid waste streams from washing operations which must be handled in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unsound fruit from packing houses are usually sent off to be processed for juice and the solid ...

  10. Oral bioaccessibility of inorganic contaminants in waste dusts generated by laterite Ni ore smelting.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Polák, Ladislav; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ratié, Gildas; Garnier, Jérémie; Quantin, Cécile

    2016-09-14

    The laterite Ni ore smelting operations in Niquelândia and Barro Alto (Goiás State, Brazil) have produced large amounts of fine-grained smelting wastes, which have been stockpiled on dumps and in settling ponds. We investigated granulated slag dusts (n = 5) and fly ash samples (n = 4) with a special focus on their leaching behaviour in deionised water and on the in vitro bioaccessibility in a simulated gastric fluid, to assess the potential exposure risk for humans. Bulk chemical analyses indicated that both wastes contained significant amounts of contaminants: up to 2.6 wt% Ni, 7580 mg/kg Cr, and 508 mg/kg Co. In only one fly ash sample, after 24 h of leaching in deionised water, the concentrations of leached Ni exceeded the limit for hazardous waste according to EU legislation, whereas the other dusts were classified as inert wastes. Bioaccessible fractions (BAF) of the major contaminants (Ni, Co, and Cr) were quite low for the slag dusts and accounted for less than 2 % of total concentrations. In contrast, BAF values were significantly higher for fly ash materials, which reached 13 % for Ni and 19 % for Co. Daily intakes via oral exposure, calculated for an adult (70 kg, dust ingestion rate of 50 mg/day), exceeded neither the tolerable daily intake (TDI) nor the background exposure limits for all of the studied contaminants. Only if a higher ingestion rate is assumed (e.g. 100 mg dust per day for workers in the smelter), the TDI limit for Ni recently defined by European Food Safety Authority (196 µg/day) was exceeded (324 µg/day) for one fly ash sample. Our data indicate that there is only a limited risk to human health related to the ingestion of dust materials generated by laterite Ni ore smelting operations if appropriate safety measures are adopted at the waste disposal sites and within the smelter facility.

  11. Analysis of solid waste from ships and modeling of its generation on the river Danube in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ulniković, Vladanka Presburger; Vukić, Marija; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2013-06-01

    This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and, particularly, in ports on the river Danube's flow through Serbia. The ports of Apatin, Bezdan, Backa Palanka, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Smederevo, Veliko Gradiste, Prahovo and Kladovo were analyzed. The input data (number of watercrafts, passengers and crew members) were obtained from harbor authorities for the period 2005-2009. The quantities of solid waste generated on both cruise and cargo ships are considered in this article. As there is no strategy for waste treatment in the ports in Serbia, these data are extremely valuable for further design of equipment for waste treatment and collection. Trends in data were analyzed and regression models were used to predict the waste quantities in each port in next 3 years. The obtained trends could be utilized as the basis for the calculation of the equipment capacities for waste selection, collection, storage and treatment. The results presented in this study establish the need for an organized management system for this type of waste, as well as suggest where the terminals for collection, storage and treatment of solid waste from ships should be located.

  12. Hazardous Waste: EPA’s Generation and Management Data Need Further Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 form the foundation for this...Superfund) EPA Environmental Protection Agency GAO General Accounting Office HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments , 1984 NGA National Governors...to final disposition. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HswA) strengthened RCRA by further encouraging waste

  13. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  14. The extent of food waste generation across EU-27: different calculation methods and the reliability of their results.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Klaus-Rainer; Jörissen, Juliane; Priefer, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    The reduction of food waste is seen as an important societal issue with considerable ethical, ecological and economic implications. The European Commission aims at cutting down food waste to one-half by 2020. However, implementing effective prevention measures requires knowledge of the reasons and the scale of food waste generation along the food supply chain. The available data basis for Europe is very heterogeneous and doubts about its reliability are legitimate. This mini-review gives an overview of available data on food waste generation in EU-27 and discusses their reliability against the results of own model calculations. These calculations are based on a methodology developed on behalf of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and provide data on food waste generation for each of the EU-27 member states, broken down to the individual stages of the food chain and differentiated by product groups. The analysis shows that the results differ significantly, depending on the data sources chosen and the assumptions made. Further research is much needed in order to improve the data stock, which builds the basis for the monitoring and management of food waste.

  15. Non-additive increases in sediment stability are generated by macroinvertebrate species interactions in laboratory streams.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Lindsey K; Cardinale, Bradley J; Sklar, Leonard S

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport. However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species. Here we ask whether multiple, coexisting species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae have different impacts on sediment mobility compared to single-species systems due to competitive interactions and niche differences. We manipulated the presence of two common species of net-spinning caddisfly (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in laboratory mesocosms and measured how their silk filtration nets influence the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment grain motion when they were in monoculture versus polyculture. We found that critical shear stress increases non-additively in polycultures where species were allowed to interact. Critical shear stress was 26% higher in multi-species assemblages compared to the average single-species monoculture, and 21% greater than levels of stability achieved by the species having the largest impact on sediment motion in monoculture. Supplementary behavioral experiments suggest the non-additive increase in critical shear stress may have occurred as competition among species led to shifts in the spatial distribution of the two populations and complementary habitat use. To explore the implications of these results for field conditions, we used results from the laboratory study to parameterize a common model of sediment transport. We then used this model