Science.gov

Sample records for additions method hpsam

  1. H-point curve isolation method for determination of catechol in complex unknown mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Masoumeh; Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the combination of H-point curve isolation method (HPCIM) and H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) was used for determination of catechol in the presence of phenolic interferents. Spectrophotometric multivariate calibration data constructed by successive standard additions of an analyte in an unknown matrix was used by the method. A cumulative spectrum for interferents in sample was extracted by HPCIM and then HPSAM is used for determination of the catechol concentration by obtained cumulative interferents spectrum. The method was tested with simulated data set. The spectrum obtained from applying HPCIM to the simulated data well agrees with the cumulative spectra of the interferents. The method was applied to the determination of catechol in the presence of highly overlapping interferents in synthetic ternary mixtures using spectrophotometric data. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully used for determination of catechol in real complicated matrices of tea and urine samples. Percent recoveries were between 95.4 and 113.6.

  2. H-point curve isolation method for determination of catechol in complex unknown mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Masoumeh; Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the combination of H-point curve isolation method (HPCIM) and H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) was used for determination of catechol in the presence of phenolic interferents. Spectrophotometric multivariate calibration data constructed by successive standard additions of an analyte in an unknown matrix was used by the method. A cumulative spectrum for interferents in sample was extracted by HPCIM and then HPSAM is used for determination of the catechol concentration by obtained cumulative interferents spectrum. The method was tested with simulated data set. The spectrum obtained from applying HPCIM to the simulated data well agrees with the cumulative spectra of the interferents. The method was applied to the determination of catechol in the presence of highly overlapping interferents in synthetic ternary mixtures using spectrophotometric data. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully used for determination of catechol in real complicated matrices of tea and urine samples. Percent recoveries were between 95.4 and 113.6.

  3. Simultaneous determination of nickel and copper by H-point standard addition method-first-order derivative spectrophotometry in plant samples after separation and preconcentration on modified natural clinoptilolite as a new sorbent.

    PubMed

    Roohparvar, Rasool; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Mohadesi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    For the simultaneous determination of nickel(ll) and copper(ll) in plant samples, a rapid and accurate method was developed. In this method, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and first-order derivative spectrophotometry (FDS) are combined, and the result is coupled with the H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). Compared with normal spectrophotometry, derivative spectrophotometry offers the advantages of increased selectivity and sensitivity. As there is no need for carrying out any pretreatment of the sample, the spectrophotometry method is easy, but because of a high detection limit, it is not so practical. In order to decrease the detection limit, it is suggested to combine spectrophotometry with a preconcentration method such as SPE. In the present work, after separation and preconcentration of Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) on modified clinoptilolite zeolite that is loaded with 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-sulforphenyl)-3-phenyl-5-formaza-no]-benzoic acid monosodium salt (zincon) as a selective chromogenic reagent, FDS-HPSAM, which is a simple and selective spectrophotometric method, has been applied for simultaneous determination of these ions. With optimum conditions, the detection limit in original solutions is 0.7 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively, for nickel and copper. The linear concentration ranges in the proposed method for nickel and copper ions in original solutions are 1.1 to 3.0 x 10(3) and 0.9 to 2.0 x 10(3) ng/mL, respectively. The recommended procedure is applied to successful determination of Cu(ll) and Ni(ll) in standard and real samples.

  4. Kinetic spectrophotometric H-point standard addition method for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole in binary mixtures and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R'afat Mahmoud; Abu Shanab, Alaa Mohamed; Shaat, Nahed Talab

    2013-10-01

    Simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole using H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). The method is based on the oxidation rate difference of diloxanide and metronidazole by potassium permanganate in basic medium. A green color has been developed and measured at 610 nm. Different experimental parameters were carefully optimized. The limiting logarithmic and the initial-rate methods were adopted for the construction of the calibration curve of each individual reaction with potassium permanganate. Under the optimum conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20.0 and 5.0-25.0 μg ml(-1) for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The detection limits were 0.22 μg ml(-1) for diloxanide furoate and 0.83 μg ml(-1) for metronidazole. Correlation coefficients of the regression equations were greater than 0.9970 in all cases. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the maximum value of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.06% (n=5). The accuracy, expressed as recovery was between 99.4% and 101.4% with relative error of 0.12 and 0.14 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human urine samples and compared with alternative HPLC method.

  5. Kinetic spectrophotometric H-point standard addition method for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole in binary mixtures and biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R.'afat Mahmoud; Shanab, Alaa Mohamed Abu; Shaat, Nahed Talab

    2013-10-01

    Simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole using H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). The method is based on the oxidation rate difference of diloxanide and metronidazole by potassium permanganate in basic medium. A green color has been developed and measured at 610 nm. Different experimental parameters were carefully optimized. The limiting logarithmic and the initial-rate methods were adopted for the construction of the calibration curve of each individual reaction with potassium permanganate. Under the optimum conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20.0 and 5.0-25.0 μg ml-1 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The detection limits were 0.22 μg ml-1 for diloxanide furoate and 0.83 μg ml-1 for metronidazole. Correlation coefficients of the regression equations were greater than 0.9970 in all cases. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the maximum value of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.06% (n = 5). The accuracy, expressed as recovery was between 99.4% and 101.4% with relative error of 0.12 and 0.14 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human urine samples and compared with alternative HPLC method.

  6. Novel spectroscopic methods for determination of Cromolyn sodium and Oxymetazoline hydrochloride in binary mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A. M.; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.

    2014-10-01

    New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include ‘H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5 nm and 274.9 nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0 nm and 216.0-229.0 nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0 nm, using Δλ = 145.0 nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference.

  7. Novel spectroscopic methods for determination of Cromolyn sodium and Oxymetazoline hydrochloride in binary mixture.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A M; Magdy, N; El Zahar, N M

    2014-10-15

    New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include 'H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5nm and 274.9nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0nm and 216.0-229.0nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0nm, using Δλ=145.0nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference.

  8. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf

    1999-04-01

    In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.

  9. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C.F.; Allendorf, M.D.

    2000-03-23

    New bond additivity correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid density functional theory (DFT) Moller-Plesset (MP)2 method, BAC-hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-hybrid method is expected to scale well for large molecules. The BAC-hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 predictions as an indication of the method's accuracy, whereas the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to accomplish this. A statistical analysis of the error in each of the methods is presented on the basis of calculations performed for large sets (more than 120) of molecules.

  10. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  11. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  12. METHOD OF OBTAINING AN ADDITIVE FOR LUBRICATING OILS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The method of obtaining an additive to lubricating oils , consisting of treating boron trifluoride with alkylphenol and alkylamine, is known. In this...case, (aminotrifluoralkyl)phenoxyborate is obtained which may be used as an antiwear additive for lubricating oils . The proposed method differs from

  13. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Additive manufacturing method for SRF components of various geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, Robert; Frigola, Pedro E; Murokh, Alex Y

    2015-05-05

    An additive manufacturing method for forming nearly monolithic SRF niobium cavities and end group components of arbitrary shape with features such as optimized wall thickness and integral stiffeners, greatly reducing the cost and technical variability of conventional cavity construction. The additive manufacturing method for forming an SRF cavity, includes atomizing niobium to form a niobium powder, feeding the niobium powder into an electron beam melter under a vacuum, melting the niobium powder under a vacuum in the electron beam melter to form an SRF cavity; and polishing the inside surface of the SRF cavity.

  16. 10 CFR 2.705 - Discovery-additional methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discovery-additional methods. 2.705 Section 2.705 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... 147 and 181 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the presiding officer may issue an...

  17. 10 CFR 2.705 - Discovery-additional methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discovery-additional methods. 2.705 Section 2.705 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2... 147 and 181 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the presiding officer may issue an...

  18. 10 CFR 2.705 - Discovery-additional methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discovery-additional methods. 2.705 Section 2.705 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... 147 and 181 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the presiding officer may issue an...

  19. 10 CFR 2.705 - Discovery-additional methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discovery-additional methods. 2.705 Section 2.705 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2... 147 and 181 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the presiding officer may issue an...

  20. Bivariate versus multivariate smart spectrophotometric calibration methods for the simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of mosapride, pantoprazole and their degradation products.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, M A; Yehia, A M; Moustafa, A A

    2013-05-01

    The ability of bivariate and multivariate spectrophotometric methods was demonstrated in the resolution of a quaternary mixture of mosapride, pantoprazole and their degradation products. The bivariate calibrations include bivariate spectrophotometric method (BSM) and H-point standard addition method (HPSAM), which were able to determine the two drugs, simultaneously, but not in the presence of their degradation products, the results showed that simultaneous determinations could be performed in the concentration ranges of 5.0-50.0 microg/ml for mosapride and 10.0-40.0 microg/ml for pantoprazole by bivariate spectrophotometric method and in the concentration ranges of 5.0-45.0 microg/ml for both drugs by H-point standard addition method. Moreover, the applied multivariate calibration methods were able for the determination of mosapride, pantoprazole and their degradation products using concentration residuals augmented classical least squares (CRACLS) and partial least squares (PLS). The proposed multivariate methods were applied to 17 synthetic samples in the concentration ranges of 3.0-12.0 microg/ml mosapride, 8.0-32.0 microg/ml pantoprazole, 1.5-6.0 microg/ml mosapride degradation products and 2.0-8.0 microg/ml pantoprazole degradation products. The proposed bivariate and multivariate calibration methods were successfully applied to the determination of mosapride and pantoprazole in their pharmaceutical preparations.

  1. Methods for the additive manufacturing of semiconductor and crystal materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Speight, Douglas

    2016-11-22

    A method for the additive manufacturing of inorganic crystalline materials, including: physically combining a plurality of starting materials that are used to form an inorganic crystalline compound to be used as one or more of a semiconductor, scintillator, laser crystal, and optical filter; heating or melting successive regions of the combined starting materials using a directed heat source having a predetermined energy characteristic, thereby facilitating the reaction of the combined starting materials; and allowing each region of the combined starting materials to cool in a controlled manner, such that the desired inorganic crystalline compound results. The method also includes, prior to heating or melting the successive regions of the combined starting materials using the directed heat source, heating the combined starting materials to facilitate initial reaction of the combined starting materials. The method further includes translating the combined starting materials and/or the directed heat source between successive locations. The method still further includes controlling the mechanical, electrical, photonic, and/or optical properties of the inorganic crystalline compound.

  2. Solid form additives and method of forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Schuettenberg, A.D.; Gragson, J.T.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a solid form additive comprising: a normally liquid fuel additive selected from carburetor detergent additives, antiknock additives, deposit-control additives, and mixtures thereof, suitable for use in fuel comprising gasoline for internal combustion engines; and a structural agent for containing the fuel additive and for providing dimensional stability to the solid form additive, the structural agent being soluble and dispersible in the fuel; wherein the fuel additive comprises between about 25% and about 75% by weight of the solid form additive; and wherein the solid form additive is a pellet having structural agent and fuel additive essentially homogeneously dispersed throughout the solid form additive; and wherein the pellet is coated with a sealing agent.

  3. Fuzzy Filtering Method for Color Videos Corrupted by Additive Noise

    PubMed Central

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Nino-de-Rivera, Luis

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for the denoising of color videos corrupted by additive noise is presented in this paper. The proposed technique consists of three principal filtering steps: spatial, spatiotemporal, and spatial postprocessing. In contrast to other state-of-the-art algorithms, during the first spatial step, the eight gradient values in different directions for pixels located in the vicinity of a central pixel as well as the R, G, and B channel correlation between the analogous pixels in different color bands are taken into account. These gradient values give the information about the level of contamination then the designed fuzzy rules are used to preserve the image features (textures, edges, sharpness, chromatic properties, etc.). In the second step, two neighboring video frames are processed together. Possible local motions between neighboring frames are estimated using block matching procedure in eight directions to perform interframe filtering. In the final step, the edges and smoothed regions in a current frame are distinguished for final postprocessing filtering. Numerous simulation results confirm that this novel 3D fuzzy method performs better than other state-of-the-art techniques in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD, and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via the human vision system in the different color videos. PMID:24688428

  4. Methods for detecting additional genes underlying Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, P.A.; Haines, J.L.; Ter-Minassian, M.

    1994-09-01

    Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is a complex inherited disorder with proven genetic heterogeneity. To date, genes on chromosome 21 (APP) and 14 (not yet identified) are associated with early-onset familial AD, while the APOE gene on chromosome 19 is associated with both late onset familial and sporadic AD and early onset sporadic AD. Although these genes likely account for the majority of AD, many familial cases cannot be traced to any of these genes. From a set of 127 late-onset multiplex families screened for APOE, 43 (34%) families have at least one affected individual with no APOE-4 allele, suggesting an alternative genetic etiology. Simulation studies indicated that additional loci could be identified through a genomic screen with a 10 cM sieve on a subset of 21 well documented, non-APOE-4 families. Given the uncertainties in the mode of inheritance, reliance on a single analytical method could result in a missed linkage. Therefore, we have developed a strategy of using multiple overlapping yet complementary methods to detect linkage. These include sib-pair analysis and affected-pedigree-member analysis, neither of which makes assumptions about mode of inheritance, and lod score analysis (using two predefined genetic models). In order for a marker to qualify for follow-up, it must fit at least two of three criteria. These are nominal P values of 0.05 or less for the non-parametric methods, and/or a lod score greater than 1.0. Adjacent markers each fulfilling a single criterion also warrant follow-up. To date, we have screened 61 markers on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 18, 19, 21, and 22. One marker, D2S163, generated a lod score of 1.06 ({theta} = 0.15) and an APMT statistic of 3.68 (P < 0.001). This region is currently being investigated in more detail. Updated results of this region plus additional screening data will be presented.

  5. Method for controlling a laser additive process using intrinsic illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Robert; Cai, Guoshuang; Azer, Magdi; Chen, Xiaobin; Liu, Yong; Harding, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    One form of additive manufacturing is to use a laser to generate a melt pool from powdered metal that is sprayed from a nozzle. The laser net-shape machining system builds the part a layer at a time by following a predetermined path. However, because the path may need to take many turns, maintaining a constant melt pool may not be easy. A straight section may require one speed and power while a sharp bend would over melt the metal at the same settings. This paper describes a process monitoring method that uses the intrinsic IR radiation from the melt pool along with a process model configured to establish target values for the parameters associated with the manufacture or repair. This model is based upon known properties of the metal being used as well as the properties of the laser beam. An adaptive control technique is then employed to control process parameters of the machining system based upon the real-time weld pool measurement. Since the system uses the heat radiant from the melt pool, other previously deposited metal does not confuse the system as only the melted material is seen by the camera.

  6. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Jr., Earle Dendy; Christiansen, Richard Lee; Lederhos, Joseph P.; Long, Jin Ping; Panchalingam, Vaithilingam; Du, Yahe; Sum, Amadeu Kun Wan

    1997-01-01

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hinderance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  7. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, E.D. Jr.; Christiansen, R.L.; Lederhos, J.P.; Long, J.P.; Panchalingam, V.; Du, Y.; Sum, A.K.W.

    1997-06-17

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hindrance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  8. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Test Methods Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Supporting documents on the Direct Final Rule that allows refiners and laboratories to use more current and improved fuel testing procedures for twelve American Society for Testing and Materials analytical test methods.

  9. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2016-04-12

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  10. Addition and Subtraction. Mathematics-Methods Program Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, John F.; And Others

    This unit is 1 of 12 developed for the university classroom portion of the Mathematics-Methods Program (MMP), created by the Indiana University Mathematics Education Development Center (MEDC) as an innovative program for the mathematics training of prospective elementary school teachers (PSTs). Each unit is written in an activity format that…

  11. Monitoring Method of Cutting Force by Using Additional Spindle Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhan, Ahmed Aly Diaa; Matsubara, Atsushi; Sugihara, Motoyuki; Saraie, Hidenori; Ibaraki, Soichi; Kakino, Yoshiaki

    This paper describes a monitoring method of cutting forces for end milling process by using displacement sensors. Four eddy-current displacement sensors are installed on the spindle housing of a machining center so that they can detect the radial motion of the rotating spindle. Thermocouples are also attached to the spindle structure in order to examine the thermal effect in the displacement sensing. The change in the spindle stiffness due to the spindle temperature and the speed is investigated as well. Finally, the estimation performance of cutting forces using the spindle displacement sensors is experimentally investigated by machining tests on carbon steel in end milling operations under different cutting conditions. It is found that the monitoring errors are attributable to the thermal displacement of the spindle, the time lag of the sensing system, and the modeling error of the spindle stiffness. It is also shown that the root mean square errors between estimated and measured amplitudes of cutting forces are reduced to be less than 20N with proper selection of the linear stiffness.

  12. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AP17 Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for... correlated to the fuel parameter's respective EPA designated test method. These alternative test methods are... sections 114(a) and 301(a) of the CAA. Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method...

  13. Additive Methods for Prediction of Thermochemical Properties. The Laidler Method Revisited. 1. Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Joa˜O. Paulo

    2006-03-01

    A new parameterization of the Laidler method for estimation of atomization enthalpies and standard enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K for several families of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, polyenes, poly-ynes, alkyl radicals, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, benzene derivatives, and polyaromatics) is presented. A total of 200 compounds (164 for liquid phase) are used for the calculation of the parameters. Comparison between the experimental values and those calculated using the group additive scheme led to an average difference of 1.28 kJṡmol-1 for the gas phase enthalpy of formation (excluding the polyaromatic compounds) and of 1.38 kJṡmol-1 for the liquid phase enthalpy of formation. The data base used appears to be essentially error free, but for some compounds (e.g., 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane, with the highest deviation among all compounds except the polyaromatic ones) the experimental values might need a reevaluation. An Excel worksheet is provided to simplify the calculation of enthalpies of formation and atomization enthalpies based on the Laidler terms defined in this paper.

  14. 40 CFR 80.8 - Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel additives, and renewable fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fuel, fuel additives, and renewable fuels. 80.8 Section 80.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Provisions § 80.8 Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel additives, and renewable fuels. The..., blendstocks, fuel additives and renewable fuels for purposes of determining compliance with the...

  15. NDE of additively manufactured components with embedded defects (reference standards) using conventional and advanced ultrasonic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, L.; Roberts, R. A.; Barnard, D. J.; Chakrapani, S.; Singh, S.; Hogan, R.; Bond, L. J.

    2017-02-01

    Additive manufacturing provides a unique opportunity to embed defects of known size and shape to produce reference samples for inspection and quality control purposes. This paper reports defect detectability studies with cylindrical additively manufactured cobalt-chromium alloy specimens which contain defects of known sizes and distributions. The specimens were characterized using immersion, synthetic aperture focusing (SAFT), phased array, and nonlinear ultrasonic techniques. Results include detectability, signal to noise ratios, and comparison of results between the methods and what is believed to be the first determination of a non-linearity (beta) parameter for an additively manufactured material. The results indicate that additive manufacturing provides a valuable method to produce reference samples, though additional work is required to validate the shape and morphology of the defects specified.

  16. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AP17 Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for... alternative test method for olefin content in gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the... environmental benefits achieved from our fuels programs. ] DATES: This rule is effective November 21,...

  17. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  18. A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Yosif A; Khalil, Rabah A

    2006-10-01

    A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method has been introduced. Three general nitrogen-15 NMR chemical shift additivity parameters with physical significance for aliphatic amines in methanol and cyclohexane and their hydrochlorides in methanol have been derived. A characteristic feature of these additivity parameters is the individual equation can be applied to both open-chain and rigid systems. The factors that influence the (15)N chemical shift of these substances have been determined. A new method for evaluating conformational equilibria at nitrogen in these compounds using the derived additivity parameters has been developed. Conformational analyses of these substances have been worked out. In general, the results indicate that there are four factors affecting the (15)N chemical shift of aliphatic amines; paramagnetic term (p-character), lone pair-proton interactions, proton-proton interactions, symmetry of alkyl substituents and molecular association.

  19. Comparison of prosthetic models produced by traditional and additive manufacturing methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to verify the clinical-feasibility of additive manufacturing by comparing the accuracy of four different manufacturing methods for metal coping: the conventional lost wax technique (CLWT); subtractive methods with wax blank milling (WBM); and two additive methods, multi jet modeling (MJM), and micro-stereolithography (Micro-SLA). MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty study models were created using an acrylic model with the maxillary upper right canine, first premolar, and first molar teeth. Based on the scan files from a non-contact blue light scanner (Identica; Medit Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea), thirty cores were produced using the WBM, MJM, and Micro-SLA methods, respectively, and another thirty frameworks were produced using the CLWT method. To measure the marginal and internal gap, the silicone replica method was adopted, and the silicone images obtained were evaluated using a digital microscope (KH-7700; Hirox, Tokyo, Japan) at 140X magnification. Analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS The mean marginal gaps and internal gaps showed significant differences according to tooth type (P<.001 and P<.001, respectively) and manufacturing method (P<.037 and P<.001, respectively). Micro-SLA did not show any significant difference from CLWT regarding mean marginal gap compared to the WBM and MJM methods. CONCLUSION The mean values of gaps resulting from the four different manufacturing methods were within a clinically allowable range, and, thus, the clinical use of additive manufacturing methods is acceptable as an alternative to the traditional lost wax-technique and subtractive manufacturing. PMID:26330976

  20. The Capacity Profile: A Method to Classify Additional Care Needs in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meester-Delver, Anke; Beelen, Anita; Hennekam, Raoul; Nollet, Frans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability and stability over time of the Capacity Profile (CAP). The CAP is a standardized method for classifying additional care needs indicated by current impairments in five domains of body functions: physical health, neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related, sensory, mental, and voice…

  1. A Modified Time-Delay Addition Method to Extract Resistive Leakage Current of MOSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodsuz, Masume; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Metal oxide surge arresters are one of the most important equipment for power system protection against switching and lightning over-voltages. High-energy stresses and environmental features are the main factors which degrade surge arresters. In order to verify surge arresters good condition, their monitoring is necessary. The majority of surge arrester monitoring techniques is based on total leakage current decomposition of their capacitive and resistive components. This paper introduces a new approach based on time-delay addition method to extract the resistive current from the total leakage current without measuring voltage signal. Surge arrester model for calculating leakage current has been performed in ATP-EMTP. In addition, the signal processing has been done using MATLAB software. To show the accuracy of the proposed method, experimental tests have been performed to extract resistive leakage current by the proposed method.

  2. Reducing the matrix effects in chemical analysis: fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris

    2016-04-01

    The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.

  3. Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products

    DOEpatents

    Mo, Weijian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-08

    A method for producing a crude product is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce one or more crude products. At least one of the crude products has a boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. as determined by ASTM Method D5307. The crude product having the boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. is catalytically cracked to produce one or more additional crude products. At least one of the additional crude products is a second gas stream. The second gas stream has a boiling point of at most 38.degree. C. at 0.101 MPa.

  4. The method of manufacture of nylon dental partially removable prosthesis using additive technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, R. N.; Korobkina, A. I.; Platonov, E. V.; Saleeva, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    The article is devoted to the topic of creating new methods of dental prosthesis. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of using additive technology to create nylon prosthesis. As a result of experimental studies, was made a sample of nylon partially removable prosthesis using 3D printing has allowed to simplify, accelerate and reduce the coat of manufacturing high-precision nylon dentures.

  5. Hybrid Residual Flexibility/Mass-Additive Method for Structural Dynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    A large fixture was designed and constructed for modal vibration testing of International Space Station elements. This fixed-base test fixture, which weighs thousands of pounds and is anchored to a massive concrete floor, initially utilized spherical bearings and pendulum mechanisms to simulate Shuttle orbiter boundary constraints for launch of the hardware. Many difficulties were encountered during a checkout test of the common module prototype structure, mainly due to undesirable friction and excessive clearances in the test-article-to-fixture interface bearings. Measured mode shapes and frequencies were not representative of orbiter-constrained modes due to the friction and clearance effects in the bearings. As a result, a major redesign effort for the interface mechanisms was undertaken. The total cost of the fixture design, construction and checkout, and redesign was over $2 million. Because of the problems experienced with fixed-base testing, alternative free-suspension methods were studied, including the residual flexibility and mass-additive approaches. Free-suspension structural dynamics test methods utilize soft elastic bungee cords and overhead frame suspension systems that are less complex and much less expensive than fixed-base systems. The cost of free-suspension fixturing is on the order of tens of thousands of dollars as opposed to millions, for large fixed-base fixturing. In addition, free-suspension test configurations are portable, allowing modal tests to be done at sites without modal test facilities. For example, a mass-additive modal test of the ASTRO-1 Shuttle payload was done at the Kennedy Space Center launch site. In this Technical Memorandum, the mass-additive and residual flexibility test methods are described in detail. A discussion of a hybrid approach that combines the best characteristics of each method follows and is the focus of the study.

  6. [Bootstrap method-based estimation on the confidence interval for additive interaction in cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jin-ren; Chen, Kun

    2010-07-01

    Interaction assessment is an important step in epidemiological analysis. When etiological study is carried out, the logarithmic models such as logistic model or Cox proportional hazard model are commonly used to estimate the independent effects of the risk factors. However, estimating interaction between risk factors by the regression coefficient of the product term is on multiplicative scale, and for public-health purposes, it is supposed to be on additive scale or departure from additivity. This paper illustrates with a example of cohort study by fitting Cox proportional hazard model to estimate three measures for additive interaction which presented by Rothman. Adopting the S-Plus application with a built-in Bootstrap function, it is convenient to estimate the confidence interval for additive interaction. Furthermore, this method can avoid the exaggerated estimation by using ORs in a cohort study to gain better precision. When using the complex combination models between additive interaction and multiplicative interaction, it is reasonable to choose the former one when the result is inconsistent.

  7. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  8. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components.

    PubMed

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L; Cowin, James P; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P; Kinney, Patrick L; Chillrud, Steven N

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM(2.5) filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R(2) = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  9. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM 2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  10. A Preferable Method for the Formation of Vesicles from Lamellar Liquid Crystals Using Chemical Additives.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Yasutaka; Imai, Yoko; Tajima, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for vesicle formation from lamellar liquid crystals (LCs) using a cationic amphiphilic substance, namely 2-hydroxyethyl di(alkanol)oxyethyl methylammonium methylsulfate (DEAE). Vesicle formation from the DEAE lamellar dispersion occurred via a two-step chemical addition. This method required neither additional mechanical energy nor the use of special solvents. The transition was solubilized using an organic substance (e.g., limonene) in the lamellar DEAE LC, after which, a small amount of inorganic salt was added to the solubilized lamellar LC dispersion with gentle stirring. The viscosity of the DEAE dispersion following salt addition decreased sharply from 10(5) mPa·s to 10(2) mPa·s, and the DEAE dispersion was converted into a high fluidity liquid. Several organic substances were examined as potential solubilizates to initiate the lamellar-vesicle transition. Inorganic salts were also examined as transition triggers using various types of electrolytes; only neutral salts were effective as trigger additives. Dissociation of inorganic salts yielded anions, which inserted between the DEAE bilayer membranes and induced OH(-) ion exchange. In addition, a number of cations simultaneously formed ion pairs with the DEAE counter ions (CH3SO4(-) ions). However, as the amount of solubilized organic substances in the DEAE bilayer membrane decreased over time, the vesicles were transformed into lamellar LCs once again. The DEAE states in each step were measured by monitoring the zeta potential, pH, viscosity, and by examination of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. A possible molecular mechanism for the lamellar-vesicle transition of DEAE was proposed.

  11. Comparison of simple additive weighting (SAW) and composite performance index (CPI) methods in employee remuneration determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlitasari, L.; Suhartini, D.; Benny

    2017-01-01

    The process of determining the employee remuneration for PT Sepatu Mas Idaman currently are still using Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet where in the spreadsheet there is the value of criterias that must be calculated for every employee. This can give the effect of doubt during the assesment process, therefore resulting in the process to take much longer time. The process of employee remuneration determination is conducted by the assesment team based on some criterias that have been predetermined. The criteria used in the assessment process are namely the ability to work, human relations, job responsibility, discipline, creativity, work, achievement of targets, and absence. To ease the determination of employee remuneration to be more efficient and effective, the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method is used. SAW method can help in decision making for a certain case, and the calculation that generates the greatest value will be chosen as the best alternative. Other than SAW, also by using another method was the CPI method which is one of the calculating method in decision making based on performance index. Where SAW method was more faster by 89-93% compared to CPI method. Therefore it is expected that this application can be an evaluation material for the need of training and development for employee performances to be more optimal.

  12. Statistical addition method for external noise sources affecting HF-MF-LF systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudegg, David

    2001-01-01

    The current statistical method for the addition of external component noise sources in the LF, MF, and lower HF band (100 kHz to 3 MHz) produces total median noise levels that may be less than the largest-component median in some cases. Several case studies illustrate this anomaly. Methods used to sum the components rely on their power (decibels) distributions being represented as normal by the statistical parameters. The atmospheric noise component is not correctly represented by its decile values when it is assumed to have a normal distribution, causing anomalies in the noise summation when components are similar in magnitude. A revised component summation method is proposed, and the way it provides a more physically realistic total noise median for LF, MF, and lower HF frequencies is illustrated.

  13. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (p<0.05) by 12% during the whole experimental period and 15% during the first 7days. The treatments had no significant effect on the pH and chemical oxygen demand value of the digesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  14. Compensation and additivity of anthropogenic mortality: life-history effects and review of methods.

    PubMed

    Péron, Guillaume

    2013-03-01

    Demographic compensation, the increase in average individual performance following a perturbation that reduces population size, and, its opposite, demographic overadditivity (or superadditivity) are central processes in both population ecology and wildlife management. A continuum of population responses to changes in cause-specific mortality exists, of which additivity and complete compensation constitute particular points. The position of a population on that continuum influences its ability to sustain exploitation and predation. Here I describe a method for quantifying where a population is on the continuum. Based on variance-covariance formulae, I describe a simple metric for the rate of compensation-additivity. I synthesize the results from 10 wildlife capture-recapture monitoring programmes from the literature and online databases, reviewing current statistical methods and the treatment of common sources of bias. These results are used to test hypotheses regarding the effects of life-history strategy, population density, average cause-specific mortality and age class on the rate of compensation-additivity. This comparative analysis highlights that long-lived species compensate less than short-lived species and that populations below their carrying capacity compensate less than those above.

  15. The methods of receiving coal water suspension and its use as the modifying additive in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyantuyev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.; Kondratenko, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of the coal water suspension (CWS) from a cake received in the electrodigit ways in the fluid environment and gas are given in article and also the possibilities of its use as the modifying additive in concrete are considered. Use of a coal cake is perspective as it is a withdrawal of the coal and concentrating enterprises and has extremely low cost. Methods of receiving CWS and possibility of formation of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) are given in their structure. Research and the analysis of a microstructure of a surface of exemplars before electrodigit processing, their element structure, dependence of durability of a cement stone on a look and quantity of an additive of CWS is conducted. For modification of cement the carbon nanomaterials received from the following exemplars of water coal suspensions were used: foams from a cake from a scrubber of the plasma modular reactor, coal water suspension from a cake from electrodigit installation. The product which can find further application for a power engineering as fuel for combustion, and also in structural materials science, in particular, as the modifying additive in concrete allows to receive these methods.

  16. The Wavelet Element Method. Part 2; Realization and Additional Features in 2D and 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, Claudio; Tabacco, Anita; Urban, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    The Wavelet Element Method (WEM) provides a construction of multiresolution systems and biorthogonal wavelets on fairly general domains. These are split into subdomains that are mapped to a single reference hypercube. Tensor products of scaling functions and wavelets defined on the unit interval are used on the reference domain. By introducing appropriate matching conditions across the interelement boundaries, a globally continuous biorthogonal wavelet basis on the general domain is obtained. This construction does not uniquely define the basis functions but rather leaves some freedom for fulfilling additional features. In this paper we detail the general construction principle of the WEM to the 1D, 2D and 3D cases. We address additional features such as symmetry, vanishing moments and minimal support of the wavelet functions in each particular dimension. The construction is illustrated by using biorthogonal spline wavelets on the interval.

  17. Standard addition method for laser ablation ICPMS using a spinning platform.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Fanny; Malherbe, Julien; Bier, Naomi; Molloy, John L; Long, Stephen E

    2013-04-02

    A method has been developed for the fast and easy determination of Pb, Sr, Ba, Ni, Cu, and Zn, which are of geological and environmental interest, in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) using a spinning sample platform. The platform, containing a sample and a standard, is spun during the ablation, allowing the quasi-simultaneous ablation of both materials. The aerosols resulting from the ablation of sample and standard were mixed in the ablation cell allowing quantification of analytes by standard additions. The proportion of standard versus sample of the mixing can be increased by performing the ablation further from the axis of rotation. The ablated masses have been determined using a new strategy based on isotope dilution analysis. This spinning laser ablation method has been applied to the Allende meteorite and four powdered standard reference materials (SRMs) fused in lithium borate glasses: two sediments as well as a soil and a rock material. SRM 612 (Trace Elements in Glass) was also analyzed despite having a matrix slightly different from the glass standard obtained by lithium borate fusion. The deviation from the certified values was found to be less than 15% for most of the mass fractions for all the elements and samples studied, with an average precision of 10%. These results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method for the direct and fast analysis of solid samples of different matrixes by standard additions, using a single standard sample.

  18. Effect of different oxytetracycline addition methods on its degradation behavior in soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Xiu; He, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liang, Juan-Boo; Liao, Xin-Di; Wu, Yin-Bao

    2014-05-01

    The degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotics in soil is commonly studied using the following methods of adding antibiotics to the soil: (i) adding manure collected from animals fed with a diet containing antibiotics, (ii) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics and (iii) directly adding antibiotics. No research simultaneously comparing different antibiotic addition methods was found. Oxytetracycline (OTC) was used as a model antibiotic to compare the effect of the three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on OTC degradation behavior in soil. The three treatment methods have similar trends, though OTC degradation half-lives show the following significant differences (P<0.05): manure from swine fed OTC (treatment A)method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in soil may be to use manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than by adding it directly to the soil.

  19. A simple method for the addition of rotenone in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    PubMed Central

    Maliandi, María V; Rius, Sebastián P; Busi, María V; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves with rotenone is presented. Rosette leaves were incubated with rotenone and Triton X-100 for at least 15 h. Treated leaves showed increased expression of COX19 and BCS1a, 2 genes known to be induced in Arabidopsis cell cultures after rotenone treatment. Moreover, rotenone/Triton X-100 incubated leaves presented an inhibition of oxygen uptake. The simplicity of the procedure shows this methodology is useful for studying the effect of the addition of rotenone to a photosynthetic tissue in situ. PMID:26357865

  20. A simple method for the addition of rotenone in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Maliandi, María V; Rius, Sebastián P; Busi, María V; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves with rotenone is presented. Rosette leaves were incubated with rotenone and Triton X-100 for at least 15 h. Treated leaves showed increased expression of COX19 and BCS1a, 2 genes known to be induced in Arabidopsis cell cultures after rotenone treatment. Moreover, rotenone/Triton X-100 incubated leaves presented an inhibition of oxygen uptake. The simplicity of the procedure shows this methodology is useful for studying the effect of the addition of rotenone to a photosynthetic tissue in situ.

  1. Goodness-of-fit methods for additive-risk models in tumorigenicity experiments.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashis

    2003-09-01

    In tumorigenicity experiments, a complication is that the time to event is generally not observed, so that the time to tumor is subject to interval censoring. One of the goals in these studies is to properly model the effect of dose on risk. Thus, it is important to have goodness of fit procedures available for assessing the model fit. While several estimation procedures have been developed for current-status data, relatively little work has been done on model-checking techniques. In this article, we propose numerical and graphical methods for the analysis of current-status data using the additive-risk model, primarily focusing on the situation where the monitoring times are dependent. The finite-sample properties of the proposed methodology are examined through numerical studies. The methods are then illustrated with data from a tumorigenicity experiment.

  2. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  3. Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff), which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score) provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science. PMID:21816107

  4. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E W

    1982-06-01

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Hg/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 ..mu..moles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy can be judged from the agreement of the Nernst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5%. The report includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which the method was evolved. Also included is a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure.

  5. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  6. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    An analytical method for determination of free acidity in all SRP process solutions has been developed. Free acidity was successfully determined in solutions of nitric acid and the nitrates of aluminum, chromium(III), iron(III), mercury(II), nickel(II), thorium, and uranium(VI), at metal-to-acid ratios <2.5. Sample requirements, instrumentation, and mode of operation are similar to those currently used in the Laboratories Department free acid procedures. The simple procedure would be suitable for automation and microprocessor control. The method consists of two additions of known increments of acid into a solution containing the sample aliquot (10 ..mu..moles free acid) and 10 mL 1M potassium thiocyanate. The potential is determined in the initial solution and after each addition with a glass electrode and pH meter. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. Two programs for this iterative computation are available: one written for the PDP-15 computer and another for a Hewlett-Packard 67 (or 97) programmable calculator. The accuracy of the result is verified by a slope that approximates the theoretical Nernst value. The relative standard deviation is <2.5%. This memorandum includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which this particular system and technique logically evolved. The appendix includes a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure. The final step for completion of this RTA is training and consultation at the convenience of the Laboratories Department for demonstration of the method with process samples.

  7. Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering, and reconstitution

    DOEpatents

    Wen, Wu-Wey; Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

  8. Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering and reconstitution

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Wu-Wey; Gray, M.L.; Champagne, K.J.

    1993-11-09

    A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

  9. Simulation of Powder Layer Deposition in Additive Manufacturing Processes Using the Discrete Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    Herbold, E. B.; Walton, O.; Homel, M. A.

    2015-10-26

    This document serves as a final report to a small effort where several improvements were added to a LLNL code GEODYN-­L to develop Discrete Element Method (DEM) algorithms coupled to Lagrangian Finite Element (FE) solvers to investigate powder-­bed formation problems for additive manufacturing. The results from these simulations will be assessed for inclusion as the initial conditions for Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) simulations performed with ALE3D. The algorithms were written and performed on parallel computing platforms at LLNL. The total funding level was 3-­4 weeks of an FTE split amongst two staff scientists and one post-­doc. The DEM simulations emulated, as much as was feasible, the physical process of depositing a new layer of powder over a bed of existing powder. The DEM simulations utilized truncated size distributions spanning realistic size ranges with a size distribution profile consistent with realistic sample set. A minimum simulation sample size on the order of 40-­particles square by 10-­particles deep was utilized in these scoping studies in order to evaluate the potential effects of size segregation variation with distance displaced in front of a screed blade. A reasonable method for evaluating the problem was developed and validated. Several simulations were performed to show the viability of the approach. Future investigations will focus on running various simulations investigating powder particle sizing and screen geometries.

  10. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  11. Determination of robotic trajectory best distance using simple additive weighting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohman, Muchamad Zainul

    2017-02-01

    Determination of the best distance, namely the closest distance and in the shortest time to reach a destination appropriately, has been applied in daily life. The determination of the best distance can be applied on robot trajectory so that robot can reach its destination quickly and appropriately without taking much time in robot contest, such as Indonesian Smart Robot Contest (KRCI). The difficulties to determine the closest distance occur due to the existing trajectory alternatives. In this aspect the reliability of a robot is tested and contested. Every year there are many robot contests either local, national, or international scale. Robot trajectory is a place or points passed by moving objects. This study used Simple Additive Method (SAW) method to find the closest distance by finding the value of alternative tracks existing on the trajectory. Determination of the closest distance on robot trajectory gives facility for the users to find the closest distance of a robot trajectory so as to input the correct algorithm in robot to reach the destination quickly and appropriately.

  12. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  13. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  14. An efficient enantioselective method for asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongcan; Li, Pengfei; Liang, Xinmiao; Zhang, Tony Y; Ye, Jinxing

    2008-03-14

    The addition of nitroalkanes to alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes under the catalysis of (S)-2-(diphenyl(trimethylsilyloxy)methyl)pyrrolidine and lithium acetate as additive afforded gamma-nitroaldehydes in good yield and up to 97% ee.

  15. Numerical Method for the Design of Healing Chamber in Additive-Manufactured Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Chien; Tsai, Pei-I; Huang, Chih-Chieh; Chen, San-Yuan; Chao, Chuen-Guang; Tsou, Nien-Ti

    2017-01-01

    The inclusion of a healing chamber in dental implants has been shown to promote biological healing. In this paper, a novel numerical approach to the design of the healing chamber for additive-manufactured dental implants is proposed. This study developed an algorithm for the modeling of bone growth and employed finite element method in ANSYS to facilitate the design of healing chambers with a highly complex configuration. The model was then applied to the design of dental implants for insertion into the posterior maxillary bones. Two types of ITI® solid cylindrical screwed implant with extra rectangular-shaped healing chamber as an initial design are adopted, with which to evaluate the proposed system. This resulted in several configurations for the healing chamber, which were then evaluated based on the corresponding volume fraction of healthy surrounding bone. The best of these implants resulted in a healing chamber surrounded by around 9.2% more healthy bone than that obtained from the original design. The optimal design increased the contact area between the bone and implant by around 52.9%, which is expected to have a significant effect on osseointegration. The proposed approach is highly efficient which typically completes the optimization of each implant within 3-5 days on an ordinary personal computer. It is also sufficiently general to permit extension to various loading conditions.

  16. Numerical Method for the Design of Healing Chamber in Additive-Manufactured Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiao-Chien; Tsai, Pei-I; Huang, Chih-Chieh; Chen, San-Yuan; Chao, Chuen-Guang

    2017-01-01

    The inclusion of a healing chamber in dental implants has been shown to promote biological healing. In this paper, a novel numerical approach to the design of the healing chamber for additive-manufactured dental implants is proposed. This study developed an algorithm for the modeling of bone growth and employed finite element method in ANSYS to facilitate the design of healing chambers with a highly complex configuration. The model was then applied to the design of dental implants for insertion into the posterior maxillary bones. Two types of ITI® solid cylindrical screwed implant with extra rectangular-shaped healing chamber as an initial design are adopted, with which to evaluate the proposed system. This resulted in several configurations for the healing chamber, which were then evaluated based on the corresponding volume fraction of healthy surrounding bone. The best of these implants resulted in a healing chamber surrounded by around 9.2% more healthy bone than that obtained from the original design. The optimal design increased the contact area between the bone and implant by around 52.9%, which is expected to have a significant effect on osseointegration. The proposed approach is highly efficient which typically completes the optimization of each implant within 3–5 days on an ordinary personal computer. It is also sufficiently general to permit extension to various loading conditions. PMID:28293628

  17. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Gonzalez Perez, Maria Eliette; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  18. Nonlinearity measurements of solar cells with an LED-based combinatorial flux addition method

    PubMed Central

    Hamadani, Behrang H.; Shore, Andrew; Roller, John; Yoon, Howard W; Campanelli, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a light emitting diode (LED)-based system utilizing a combinatorial flux addition method to investigate the nonlinear relationship in solar cells between the output current of the cell and the incident irradiance level. The magnitude of the light flux is controlled by the supplied currents to two LEDs (or two sets of them) in a combinatorial fashion. The signals measured from the cell are arranged within a related overdetermined linear system of equations derived from an appropriately chosen Nth degree polynomial representing the relationship between the measured signals and the incident fluxes. The flux values and the polynomial coefficients are then solved for by linear least squares to obtain the best fit. The technique can be applied to any solar cell, under either monochromatic or broadband spectrum. For the unscaled solution, no reference detectors or prior calibrations of the light flux are required. However, if at least one calibrated irradiance value is known, then the entire curve can be scaled to an appropriate spectral responsivity value. Using this technique, a large number of data points can be obtained in a relatively short time scale over a large signal range. PMID:27524837

  19. Nonlinearity measurements of solar cells with an LED-based combinatorial flux addition method.

    PubMed

    Hamadani, Behrang H; Shore, Andrew; Roller, John; Yoon, Howard W; Campanelli, Mark

    2016-02-01

    We present a light emitting diode (LED)-based system utilizing a combinatorial flux addition method to investigate the nonlinear relationship in solar cells between the output current of the cell and the incident irradiance level. The magnitude of the light flux is controlled by the supplied currents to two LEDs (or two sets of them) in a combinatorial fashion. The signals measured from the cell are arranged within a related overdetermined linear system of equations derived from an appropriately chosen N(th) degree polynomial representing the relationship between the measured signals and the incident fluxes. The flux values and the polynomial coefficients are then solved for by linear least squares to obtain the best fit. The technique can be applied to any solar cell, under either monochromatic or broadband spectrum. For the unscaled solution, no reference detectors or prior calibrations of the light flux are required. However, if at least one calibrated irradiance value is known, then the entire curve can be scaled to an appropriate spectral responsivity value. Using this technique, a large number of data points can be obtained in a relatively short time scale over a large signal range.

  20. Stable solidification of cesium with an allophane additive by a pressing/sintering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Yan; Wei, Yuezhou; Mimura, Hitoshi; Matsukura, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    Pyrolysis of AMP/SiO2 adsorbed Cs (AMP-Cs/SiO2) occurred at > 400 °C sintering temperature, and Cs immobilisation decreased from 100% to 40% after sintering at 1200 °C. To safely dispose radioactive Cs, allophane was immobilized with AMP-Cs/SiO2 to prepare a stable form by using a pressing/sintering method. The structure of AMP-Cs/SiO2 collapsed, and cesium aluminosilicate formed more easily under conditions of higher sintering temperature (>800 °C) or increasing mixing ratio of allophane (mass ratio = 1:3 AMP-Cs/SiO2-allophane). The decomposition products of AMP-Cs/SiO2 were Cs2O, MoO3 and P2O5 at 1200 °C. Cs2O volatilisation was depressed by allophane addition, and a stable immobilisation phase of Cs4Al4Si20O48 formed. An immobilisation ratio of Cs of approximately 100% was maintained. The leachability of Cs for AMP-Cs/SiO2-allophane (1:3, 1200 °C) in distilled water at 25 °C and 90 °C for 15 days was estimated as 0.174% and 1.55%, respectively.

  1. A habitat suitability model for Chinese sturgeon determined using the generalized additive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese sturgeon is a type of large anadromous fish that migrates between the ocean and rivers. Because of the construction of dams, this sturgeon's migration path has been cut off, and this species currently is on the verge of extinction. Simulating suitable environmental conditions for spawning followed by repairing or rebuilding its spawning grounds are effective ways to protect this species. Various habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge have been used to evaluate the suitability of spawning habitat. In this study, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation is used to inform a habitat suitability model based on the generalized additive method (GAM). The GAM is based on real data. The values of water depth and velocity are calculated first via the hydrodynamic model and later applied in the GAM. The final habitat suitability model is validated using the catch per unit effort (CPUEd) data of 1999 and 2003. The model results show that a velocity of 1.06-1.56 m/s and a depth of 13.33-20.33 m are highly suitable ranges for the Chinese sturgeon to spawn. The hydraulic habitat suitability indexes (HHSI) for seven discharges (4000; 9000; 12,000; 16,000; 20,000; 30,000; and 40,000 m3/s) are calculated to evaluate integrated habitat suitability. The results show that the integrated habitat suitability reaches its highest value at a discharge of 16,000 m3/s. This study is the first to apply a GAM to evaluate the suitability of spawning grounds for the Chinese sturgeon. The study provides a reference for the identification of potential spawning grounds in the entire basin.

  2. Possibilities of CT Scanning as Analysis Method in Laser Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karme, Aleksis; Kallonen, Aki; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing is an established and constantly developing technique. Structural assessment should be a key component to ensure directed evolution towards higher level of manufacturing. The macroscopic properties of metallic structures are determined by their internal microscopic features, which are difficult to assess using conventional surface measuring methodologies. X-ray microtomography (CT) is a promising technique for three-dimensional non-destructive probing of internal composition and build of various materials. Aim of this study is to define the possibilities of using CT scanning as quality control method in LAM fabricated parts. Since the parts fabricated with LAM are very often used in high quality and accuracy demanding applications in various industries such as medical and aerospace, it is important to be able to define the accuracy of the build parts. The tubular stainless steel test specimens were 3D modelled, manufactured with a modified research AM equipment and imaged after manufacturing with a high-power, high-resolution CT scanner. 3D properties, such as surface texture and the amount and distribution of internal pores, were also evaluated in this study. Surface roughness was higher on the interior wall of the tube, and deviation from the model was systematically directed towards the central axis. Pore distribution showed clear organization and divided into two populations; one following the polygon model seams along both rims, and the other being associated with the concentric and equidistant movement path of the laser. Assessment of samples can enhance the fabrication by guiding the improvement of both modelling and manufacturing process.

  3. Analysis methods for the determination of anthropogenic additions of P to agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus additions and measurement in soil is of concern on lands where biosolids have been applied. Colorimetric analysis for plant-available P may be inadequate for the accurate assessment of soil P. Phosphate additions in a regulatory environment need to be accurately assessed as the reported...

  4. First-Grade Methods of Single-Digit Addition with Two or More Addends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Shannon M.; Palomaa, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to further understand connections between children's proficiency and development with single- and multidigit addition, this study investigated the conceptualizations and solution strategies of 26 first-graders presented with several single-digit, multiple addend addition problems. The changes in students' solution strategies over the…

  5. Bifurcated method and apparatus for floating point addition with decreased latency time

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  6. Generalized net analyte signal standard addition as a novel method for simultaneous determination: application in spectrophotometric determination of some pesticides.

    PubMed

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Saeb, Elhameh; Vallipour, Javad; Bamorowat, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of three neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) by a novel method named generalized net analyte signal standard addition method (GNASSAM) in some binary and ternary synthetic mixtures was investigated. For this purpose, standard addition was performed using a single standard solution consisting of a mixture of standards of all analytes. Savings in time and amount of used materials are some of the advantages of this method. All determinations showed appropriate applicability of this method with less than 5% error. This method may be applied for linearly dependent data in the presence of known interferents. The GNASSAM combines the advantages of both the generalized standard addition method and net analyte signal; therefore, it may be a proper alternative for some other multivariate methods.

  7. Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

    2010-01-01

    In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…

  8. An Inventory of Methods for the Assessment of Additive Increased Addictiveness of Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Kienhuis, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco contain the addictive drug nicotine. Other components, either naturally occurring in tobacco or additives that are intentionally added during the manufacturing process, may add to the addictiveness of tobacco products. As such, these components can make cigarette smokers more easily and heavily dependent. Efforts to regulate tobacco product dependence are emerging globally. Additives that increase tobacco dependence will be prohibited under the new European Tobacco Product Directive. Objective: This article provides guidelines and recommendations for developing a regulatory strategy for assessment of increase in tobacco dependence due to additives. Relevant scientific literature is summarized and criteria and experimental studies that can define increased dependence of tobacco products are described. Conclusions: Natural tobacco smoke is a very complex matrix of components, therefore analysis of the contribution of an additive or a combination of additives to the level of dependence on this product is challenging. We propose to combine different type of studies analyzing overall tobacco product dependence potential and the functioning of additives in relation to nicotine. By using a combination of techniques, changes associated with nicotine dependence such as behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations can be examined to provide sufficient information. Research needs and knowledge gaps will be discussed and recommendations will be made to translate current knowledge into legislation. As such, this article aids in implementation of the Tobacco Product Directive, as well as help enable regulators and researchers worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products. Implications: This article provides an overall view on how to assess tobacco product constituents for their potential contribution to use and dependence. It provides guidelines that help enable regulators worldwide to

  9. Thermodynamic method of calculating the effect of alloying additives on interphase interaction in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuchinsky, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of alloying additives to the matrix of a composite on the high temperature solubility rate of a single component fiber was analyzed thermodynamically. With an example of binary Ni alloys, with Group IV-VI transition metals reinforced with W fibers, agreement between the calculated and experimental data was demonstrated.

  10. Methods of Measuring Vapor Pressures of Lubricants With Their Additives Using TGA and/or Microbalances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Miller, Michael K.; Montoya, Alex F.

    1996-01-01

    The life of a space system may be critically dependent on the lubrication of some of its moving parts. The vapor pressure, the quantity of the available lubricant, the temperature and the exhaust venting conductance passage are important considerations in the selection and application of a lubricant. In addition, the oil additives employed to provide certain properties of low friction, surface tension, antioxidant and load bearing characteristics, are also very important and need to be known with regard to their amounts and vapor pressures. This paper reports on the measurements and analyses carried out to obtain those parameters for two often employed lubricants, the Apiezon(TM)-C and the Krytox(TM) AB. The measurements were made employing an electronic microbalance and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) modified to operate in a vacuum. The results have been compared to other data on these oils when available. The identification of the mass fractions of the additives in the oil and their vapor pressures as a function of the temperature were carried out. These may be used to estimate the lubricant life given its quantity and the system vent exhaust conductance. It was found that the Apiezon(TM)-C has three main components with different rates of evaporation while the Krytox(TM) did not indicate any measurable additive.

  11. Implantation of additional defibrillation lead into the coronary sinus: an effective method of decreasing defibrillation threshold.

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Rajmund; Swiątkowski, Maciej; Czepiel, Aleksandra; Sterliński, Maciej; Makowska, Ewa; Kułakowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of successful implantation of an additional defibrillation lead into the coronary sinus due to high defibrillation threshold (DFT) in a seriously ill patient with a history of extensive myocardial infarction referred for implantable cardioverter- defibrillator implantation after an episode of unstable ventricular tachycardia. All previous attempts to reduce DFT, including subcutaneous electrode implantation, had been unsuccessful.

  12. Activity Approach to the Formation of the Method of Addition and Subtraction in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maksimov, L. K.; Maksimova, L. V.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main tasks in teaching mathematics to elementary students is to form calculating methods and techniques. The efforts of teachers and methodologists are aimed at solving this problem. Educational and psychological research is devoted to it. At the same time school teaching experience demonstrates some difficulties in learning methods of…

  13. MAGNETOMETRY, SELF-POTENTIAL, AND SEISMIC - ADDITIONAL GEOPHYSICAL METHODS HAVING POTENTIALLY SIGNIFICANT FUTURE UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods can provide important information in agricultural settings, and the use of these techniques are becoming more and more widespread. Magnetrometry, self-potential, and seismic are three geophysical methods, all of which have the potential for substantial future use in agriculture, ...

  14. Effect of method of heterogenization of ephedrine and reaction conditions on the enantioselectivity of Michael additions

    SciTech Connect

    Krotov, V.V.; Staroverov, S.M.; Nesterenko, P.N.; Lisichkin. G.V.

    1987-11-10

    A series of heterogeneous catalysts for asymmetric Michael additions was synthesized based on ephedrine chemically bound to the surface of silica. The length of the hydrocarbon chain binding the active center to the support surface affects the sign of rotation of the reaction product from the asymmetric addition of thiophenol to benzylideneacetophenone. Grafting ephedrine to the silica surface via a short hydrocarbon chain results in a change in the configuration of the reaction product. Silanol groups on the silica surface are involved in the transition state, as evidenced by data obtained using silica which has been exhaustively treated with trimethylchlorosilane. The absolute specific rotation of 1,3-diphenyl-3-thiophenylpropan-1-one has been established.

  15. Field Method for Detection of Metal Deactivator Additive in Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    sulphonic acid on the silica support. The SCX stationary phase is a silica gel with propylbenzenesulfonyl groups bound to the silica, Figure 6. S O O O...They can be grouped into three main categories based on the property of the additive they are detecting. The categories are the; a. Dispersant...was less prominent when lower concentrations of MDA were used. The elution properties of the copper and nickel MDA complexes was examined in a range

  16. Efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood quantum state from measurements with additive Gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Smolin, John A; Gambetta, Jay M; Smith, Graeme

    2012-02-17

    We provide an efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood mixed quantum state (with density matrix ρ) given a set of measurement outcomes in a complete orthonormal operator basis subject to Gaussian noise. Our method works by first changing basis yielding a candidate density matrix μ which may have nonphysical (negative) eigenvalues, and then finding the nearest physical state under the 2-norm. Our algorithm takes at worst O(d(4)) for the basis change plus O(d(3)) for finding ρ where d is the dimension of the quantum state. In the special case where the measurement basis is strings of Pauli operators, the basis change takes only O(d(3)) as well. The workhorse of the algorithm is a new linear-time method for finding the closest probability distribution (in Euclidean distance) to a set of real numbers summing to one.

  17. Effects of Al additives on growth of GaN polycrystals by the Na flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imabayashi, Hiroki; Murakami, Kosuke; Matsuo, Daisuke; Honjo, Masatomo; Imanishi, Masayuki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the growth of GaN polycrystals using the Al-added Na flux method. We studied the effects of Al on accelerating the nucleation and purity of GaN polycrystals. The yields of GaN crystals grown in Al-added Na flux were dramatically increased from those in Al-free Na flux, and the polycrystals grown by the Al-added Na flux method were highly transparent. As observed in secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, the Al content of the polycrystals was below the detection limit of 3 × 1016 atoms/cm3. From these results, the Al-added Na flux method is found to be appropriate for fabricating a large amount of GaN polycrystals without deteriorating the crystal quality.

  18. 76 FR 76035 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Additional Method of Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...Wire), or Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), payable to the... United States and SWIFT is the messaging service used by financial institutions worldwide to issue international transfers for foreign accounts. Payment methods (i.e., ACH, FedWire, and SWIFT) are dependent...

  19. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOEpatents

    Romine, Robert A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber.

  20. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOEpatents

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.

    1997-01-28

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber. 8 figs.

  1. Investigating Arsenic Contents in Surface and Drinking Water by Voltammetry and the Method of Standard Additions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Anran; Tyne, Rebecca; Kwok, Yu Ting; Rees, Louis; Craig, Lorraine; Lapinee, Chaipat; D'Arcy, Mitch; Weiss, Dominik J.; Salau¨n, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Testing water samples for arsenic contamination has become an important water quality issue worldwide. Arsenic usually occurs in very small concentrations, and a sensitive analytical method is needed. We present here a 1-day laboratory module developed to introduce Earth Sciences and/or Chemistry student undergraduates to key aspects of this…

  2. Evaluation of SHM System Produced by Additive Manufacturing via Acoustic Emission and Other NDT Methods

    PubMed Central

    Strantza, Maria; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; de Baere, Dieter; Guillaume, Patrick; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are used in order to detect damage in structures. We have developed a novel structural health monitoring approach, the so-called “effective structural health monitoring” (eSHM) system. The current SHM system is incorporated into a metallic structure by means of additive manufacturing (AM) and has the possibility to advance life safety and reduce direct operative costs. It operates based on a network of capillaries that are integrated into an AM structure. The internal pressure of the capillaries is continuously monitored by a pressure sensor. When a crack nucleates and reaches the capillary, the internal pressure changes signifying the existence of the flaw. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the crack detection capacity of the eSHM system and crack location accuracy by means of various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. During this study, detailed acoustic emission (AE) analysis was applied in AM materials for the first time in order to investigate if phenomena like the Kaiser effect and waveform parameters used in conventional metals can offer valuable insight into the damage accumulation of the AM structure as well. Liquid penetrant inspection, eddy current and radiography were also used in order to confirm the fatigue damage and indicate the damage location on un-notched four-point bending AM metallic specimens with an integrated eSHM system. It is shown that the eSHM system in combination with NDT can provide correct information on the damage condition of additive manufactured metals. PMID:26506349

  3. Evaluation of SHM system produced by additive manufacturing via acoustic emission and other NDT methods.

    PubMed

    Strantza, Maria; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; de Baere, Dieter; Guillaume, Patrick; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-10-21

    During the last decades, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are used in order to detect damage in structures. We have developed a novel structural health monitoring approach, the so-called "effective structural health monitoring" (eSHM) system. The current SHM system is incorporated into a metallic structure by means of additive manufacturing (AM) and has the possibility to advance life safety and reduce direct operative costs. It operates based on a network of capillaries that are integrated into an AM structure. The internal pressure of the capillaries is continuously monitored by a pressure sensor. When a crack nucleates and reaches the capillary, the internal pressure changes signifying the existence of the flaw. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the crack detection capacity of the eSHM system and crack location accuracy by means of various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. During this study, detailed acoustic emission (AE) analysis was applied in AM materials for the first time in order to investigate if phenomena like the Kaiser effect and waveform parameters used in conventional metals can offer valuable insight into the damage accumulation of the AM structure as well. Liquid penetrant inspection, eddy current and radiography were also used in order to confirm the fatigue damage and indicate the damage location on un-notched four-point bending AM metallic specimens with an integrated eSHM system. It is shown that the eSHM system in combination with NDT can provide correct information on the damage condition of additive manufactured metals.

  4. A Method to Evaluate Additional Waste Forms to Optimize Performance of the HLW Repository

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gombert; L. Lauerhass

    2006-02-01

    The DOE high-level waste (HLW) disposal system is based on decisions made in the 1970s. The de facto Yucca Mountain WAC for HLW, contained in the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD), and the DOE-EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification for Vitrified High Level Waste Forms (WAPS) tentatively describes waste forms to be interred in the repository, and limits them to borosilicate glass (BSG). It is known that many developed waste forms are as durable as or better than environmental assessment or “EA”-glass. Among them are the salt-ceramic and metallic waste forms developed at ANL-W. Also, iron phosphate glasses developed at University of Missouri show promise in stabilizing the most refractory materials in Hanford HLW. However, for any of this science to contribute, the current Total System Performance Assessment model must be able to evaluate the additional waste form to determine potential impacts on repository performance. The results can then support the technical bases required in the repository license application. A methodology is proposed to use existing analysis models to evaluate potential additional waste forms for disposal without gathering costly material specific degradation data. The concept is to analyze the potential impacts of waste form chemical makeup on repository performance assuming instantaneous waste matrix dissolution. This assumption obviates the need for material specific degradation models and is based on the relatively modest fractional contribution DOE HLW makes to the repository radionuclide and hazardous metals inventory. The existing analysis models, with appropriate data modifications, are used to evaluate geochemical interactions and material transport through the repository. This methodology would support early screening of proposed waste forms through simplified evaluation of disposal performance, and would provide preliminary guidance for repository license amendment in the future.

  5. Method for characterizing the coking tendencies of baseoils and additive-treated oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G.B.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a method of characterizing the coking tendency of baseoil. The method consists the steps of: (a) subjecting the baseoil to conditions which accelerate asphaltene coke precursor formation in the baseoil, and (b) characterizing the coking tendency of the baseoil by determining (i) the onset and progression of asphaltene coke precursor formation as a function of time or (ii) the progression of asphaltene coke precursor formation as a function of time, wherein a faster onset of asphaltene coke precursor formation and a higher rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation or a higher rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation indicates a higher coking tendency of the baseoil than a slower onset of asphaltene coke precursor formation and a lower rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation or a lower rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation.

  6. [High Throughput Screening Analysis of Preservatives and Sweeteners in Carbonated Beverages Based on Improved Standard Addition Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-fang; Liu, Yun; Gong, Li-hua; Dong, Chun-hong; Fu, De-xue; Wang, Guo-qing

    2016-02-01

    Simulated water samples of 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweeteners were formulated by using orthogonal design. Kernel independent component analysis (KICA) was used to process the UV spectra of the simulated water samples and the beverages added different amounts of the additive standards, then the independent components (ICs), i. e. the UV spectral profiles of the additives, and the ICs' coefficient matrices were used to establish UV-KICA-SVR prediction model of the simulated preservatives and sweeteners solutions using support vector regression (SVR) analysis. The standards added beverages samples were obtained by adding different amounts level of additives in carbonated beverages, their UV spectra were processed by KICA, then IC information represented to the additives and other sample matrix were obtained, and the sample background can be deducted by removing the corresponding IC, other ICs' coefficient matrices were used to estimate the amounts of the additives in the standard added beverage samples based on the UV-KICA-SVR model, while the intercept of linear regression equation of predicted amounts and the added amounts in the standard added samples is the additive content in the raw beverage sample. By utilization of chemometric "blind source separation" method for extracting IC information of the tested additives in the beverage and other sample matrix, and using SVR regression modeling to improve the traditional standard addition method, a new method was proposed for the screening of the preservatives and sweeteners in carbonated beverages. The proposed UV-KICA-SVR method can be used to determine 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweetener in the carbonate beverages with the limit of detection (LOD) are located with the range 0.2-1.0 mg · L⁻¹, which are comparable to that of the traditional high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method.

  7. Solution of Some Additional Electromagnetic Problems by the Discrete Convolution Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    dimensional DCM . However, it cannot be solved using the block Toeplitz method since the field on the phantom Table I. Results for some helical...It is apparent from the discussions of other one dimensional problems that both problems can be solved using the one dimensional DCM technique. For...the helix with gaps all we need is to insert phantom elements as shown in Fig. 2. Table 1 gives the number of iterations needed to get the required

  8. A New Method for Finding Optical Aberrations on the Basis of Analysis of the Object Hologram Without Additional Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkivsky, V. A.; Moiseev, A. A.; Shilyagin, P. A.; Shabanov, D. V.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Gelikonov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new method of compensating for the wavefront aberrations during the image processing. The method employs the digital-holography potential. The developed algorithms allow one to find the wavefront distortions caused by the optical-path nonuniformities during the interference recording of images without additional measurements (i.e., without using the reference point source and measuring the wavefront distortions). The possibility of decreasing the wavefront aberrations from tens to several radians using digital methods is demonstrated.

  9. Investigation in the use of plasma arc welding and alternative feedstock delivery method in additive manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhuzaim, Abdullah F.

    The work conducted for this thesis was to investigate the use of plasma arc welding (PAW) and steel shot as a means of additive manufacturing. A robotic PAW system and automatic shot feeder were used to manufacture linear walls approximately 100 mm long by 7 mm wide and 20 mm tall. The walls were built, layer-by-layer, on plain carbon steel substrate by adding individual 2.5 mm diameter plain carbon steel shot. Each layer was built, shot-by-shot, using a pulse of arc current to form a molten pool on the deposit into which each shot was deposited and melted. The deposition rate, a measure of productivity, was approximately 50 g/hour. Three walls were built using the same conditions except for the deposit preheat temperature prior to adding each new layer. The deposit preheat temperature was controlled by allowing the deposit to cool after each layer for an amount of time called the inter-layer wait time. The walls were sectioned and grain size and hardness distribution were measured as a function of wall height. The results indicated that, for all specimens, deposit grain size increased and hardness decreased as wall height increased. Furthermore, average grain size decreased and hardness increased as interlayer wait time increased. An analytical heat flow model was developed to study the influence of interlayer wait time on deposit temperature and therefore grain size and hardness. The results of the model indicated that as wall height increased, the rate of deposit heat removal by conduction to the substrate decreased leading to a higher preheat temperature after a fixed interlayer wait time causing grain size to increase as wall height increased. However, the model results also show that as wall height increased, the deposit surface area from which heat energy is lost via convection and radiation increased. The model also demonstrated that the use of a means of forced convection to rapidly remove heat from the deposit could be an effective way to boost

  10. Features of the Ti-40Nb alloy prototype formation by 3D additive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Kovalevskaya, Zh. G.; Khimich, M. A.; Eroshenko, A. Yu.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Glukhov, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    The structure of Ti-40Nb alloy prototype obtained by selective laser melting (SLM) on "VARISKAF 100MV" installation was considered by the methods of optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the most of the specimens' surface is uniform flowed surface with typical banded structure formed by laying-on molten pools. The process of the individual layer formation was followed by drop formation. This leads to the porosity formation on the specimen's surface. The structure of entire specimen is not homogeneous throughout the transverse section. The porosity of three kinds is observed. They are cavities of not full contact and melting of the layers, drawholes, gas pores. The porosity optimization requires more careful SLM modes selection. The alloy has a grain structure with anisotropy from small (2-8 µm) to medium (8-20 µm) grain size. The anisotropy of the specimen is formed in each layer and is retained during building of the specimen. The grains of microstructure are formed by the main β-phase with precipitations of nonequilibrium α″-martensite on the boundaries and within the grains.

  11. Preservation of physical properties of stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise via stochastic multi-symplectic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuchu Hong, Jialin Zhang, Liying

    2016-02-01

    Stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise are a system of stochastic Hamiltonian partial differential equations intrinsically, possessing the stochastic multi-symplectic conservation law. It is shown that the averaged energy increases linearly with respect to the evolution of time and the flow of stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise preserves the divergence in the sense of expectation. Moreover, we propose three novel stochastic multi-symplectic methods to discretize stochastic Maxwell equations in order to investigate the preservation of these properties numerically. We make theoretical discussions and comparisons on all of the three methods to observe that all of them preserve the corresponding discrete version of the averaged divergence. Meanwhile, we obtain the corresponding dissipative property of the discrete averaged energy satisfied by each method. Especially, the evolution rates of the averaged energies for all of the three methods are derived which are in accordance with the continuous case. Numerical experiments are performed to verify our theoretical results.

  12. New method of DNA isolation from two food additives suitable for authentication in polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Urdiaín, Mercedes; Doménech-Sánchez, Antonio; Albertí, Sebastián; Benedí, V Javier; Rosselló, Josep A

    2005-05-04

    Locust bean gum and guar gum are galactomannans used as additives (E 410 and E 412, respectively) in the food industry as stabilizing agents. Analytical discrimination between the two additives in gums and foods is now feasible by molecular techniques. However, only complex and time-consuming DNA isolation protocols are available to date. We have developed simple improved protocols to obtain enough DNA suitable for PCR amplification from a few milligrams of commercial E 410 and E 412 additives (containing more than 75% polysaccharides). The suspension of additives in water or 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.5, efficiently recovers DNA suitable for authentication in PCR assays. However, the Tris method was much more efficient for the extraction of DNA from E 410 than for E 412 additives. Conversely, the water method was the most suitable for detecting DNA extracted from E 412 or from E 410/E 412 mixtures. Combined with the use of the two specific ribosomal primer pairs previously designed, our methods are well-suited for a fast and simple high-throughput sample treatment of commercial gums for molecular certification.

  13. Rotational self-diffusion in suspensions of charged particles: simulations and revised Beenakker-Mazur and pairwise additivity methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, Karol; Heinen, Marco; Abade, Gustavo Coelho; Nägele, Gerhard

    To the present day, the Beenakker-Mazur (BM) method is the most comprehensive statistical physics approach to the calculation of short-time transport properties of colloidal suspensions. A revised version of the BM method with an improved treatment of hydrodynamic interactions is presented and evaluated regarding the rotational short-time self-diffusion coefficient, $D^r$ , of suspensions of charged particles interacting by a hard-sphere plus screened Coulomb (Yukawa) pair potential. To assess the accuracy of the method, elaborate simulations of $D^r$ have been performed, covering a broad range of interaction parameters and particle concentrations. The revised BM method is compared in addition with results by a simplifying pairwise additivity (PA) method in which the hydrodynamic interactions are treated on a two-body level. The static pair correlation functions re- quired as input to both theoretical methods are calculated using the Rogers-Young integral equation scheme. While the revised BM method reproduces the general trends of the simulation results, it systematically and significantly underestimates the rotational diffusion coefficient. The PA method agrees well with the simulation data at lower volume fractions, but at higher concentrations $D^r$ is likewise underestimated. For a fixed value of the pair potential at mean particle distance comparable to the thermal energy, $D^r$ increases strongly with increasing Yukawa potential screening parameter.

  14. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  15. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of chromium(VI) and iron (III) by H-point standard addition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionova, E. V.; Bulygina, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work the possibility of simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of chromium (VI) and iron (III) in alloys with help of the mixed organic reagent (diphenylcarbazide and 1,10-phenanthroline) is studied. We have applied H-point standard addition method to determine concentrations of chromium (VI) and iron (III) from the mixture. The pure signals of complexes of chromium (VI) with diphenylcarbazide and iron (III) with the 1,10-phenanthroline and their calibration plots are previously carried out. We established the possibility of simultaneous determination of chromium (VI) and iron (III) in the different concentration ranges by H-point standard addition method. Correctness of determination of concentration by means of the offered technique is proved by "added-found" method for a series of mixtures with different ratios of concentration of chromium (VI) and iron (III). It is founded that the error of determination of concentration doesn't exceed 33%.

  16. [Denoising and assessing method of additive noise in the ultraviolet spectrum of SO2 in flue gas].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Sun, Chang-Ku; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Yu-Mei

    2009-11-01

    The problem of denoising and assessing method of the spectrum of SO2 in flue gas was studied based on DOAS. The denoising procedure of the additive noise in the spectrum was divided into two parts: reducing the additive noise and enhancing the useful signal. When obtaining the absorption feature of measured gas, a multi-resolution preprocessing method of original spectrum was adopted for denoising by DWT (discrete wavelet transform). The signal energy operators in different scales were used to choose the denoising threshold and separate the useful signal from the noise. On the other hand, because there was no sudden change in the spectra of flue gas in time series, the useful signal component was enhanced according to the signal time dependence. And the standard absorption cross section was used to build the ideal absorption spectrum with the measured gas temperature and pressure. This ideal spectrum was used as the desired signal instead of the original spectrum in the assessing method to modify the SNR (signal-noise ratio). There were two different environments to do the proof test-in the lab and at the scene. In the lab, SO2 was measured several times with the system using this method mentioned above. The average deviation was less than 1.5%, while the repeatability was less than 1%. And the short range experiment data were better than the large range. In the scene of a power plant whose concentration of flue gas had a large variation range, the maximum deviation of this method was 2.31% in the 18 groups of contrast data. The experimental results show that the denoising effect of the scene spectrum was better than that of the lab spectrum. This means that this method can improve the SNR of the spectrum effectively, which is seriously polluted by additive noise.

  17. Quantifying uncertainty of determination by standard additions and serial dilutions methods taking into account standard uncertainties in both axes.

    PubMed

    Hyk, Wojciech; Stojek, Zbigniew

    2013-06-18

    The analytical expressions for the calculation of the standard uncertainty of the predictor variable either extrapolated or interpolated from a calibration line that takes into account uncertainties in both axes have been derived and successfully verified using the Monte Carlo modeling. These expressions are essential additions to the process of the analyte quantification realized with either the method of standard additions (SAM) or the method of serial dilutions (MSD). The latter one has been proposed as an alternative approach to the SAM procedure. In the MSD approach instead of the sequence of standard additions, the sequence of solvent additions to the spiked sample is performed. The comparison of the calculation results based on the expressions derived to their equivalents obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation, applied to real experimental data sets, confirmed that these expressions are valid in real analytical practice. The estimation of the standard uncertainty of the analyte concentration, quantified via either SAM or MSD or simply a calibration curve, is of great importance for the construction of the uncertainty budget of an analytical procedure. The correct estimation of the standard uncertainty of the analyte concentration is a key issue in the quality assurance in the instrumental analysis.

  18. Application of the standard addition method for the absolute quantification of neutral lipids in microalgae using Nile red.

    PubMed

    Bertozzini, Elena; Galluzzi, Luca; Penna, Antonella; Magnani, Mauro

    2011-10-01

    Microalgae are considered one of the best candidates for biofuel production due to their high content in neutral lipids, therefore, an accurate quantification of these lipids in microalgae is fundamental for the identification of the better candidates as biodiesel source. Nile red is a fluorescent dye widely employed for the quantification of neutral lipids in microalgae. Usually, the fluorescence intensity of the stained samples is correlated to the neutral lipid content determined with standard methods, in order to draw a standard curve and deduce the neutral lipids concentration of the unknown samples positioning their fluorescence intensity values on the curve. Standard methods used for the neutral lipids determination are laborious and often implying solvent extraction and/or other transformation (i.e. saponification or transesterification) of the sample. These methods are also time consuming and may give rise to an underestimation of the lipid content due to variable extraction yields. The approach described in this paper combines the standard addition method and the fluorometric staining using Nile red, avoiding the association of traditional neutral lipids quantification methods to the fluorometric determination. After optimization of instrument parameters and staining conditions, a linear correlation between the fluorescence intensity of each sample stained with the Nile red and its neutral lipids content deduced with the standard addition method was identified. The obtained curve allowed the direct determination of neutral lipids content maintaining a linearity range from 0.12 to 12 μg of neutral lipids per ml of sample, without need of pre-concentration. This curve was then used in the quantification of the neutral lipids content in culture of Skeletonema marinoi (Bacillariophyceae) at different days from the inoculum. This method was also successfully applied on Chaetoceros socialis (Bacillariophyceae) and Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae).

  19. An Internet compendium of analytical methods and spectroscopic information for monomers and additives used in food packaging plastics.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Simoneau, C; Cote, D; Boenke, A

    2000-10-01

    An internet website (http:¿cpf.jrc.it/smt/) has been produced as a means of dissemination of methods of analysis and supporting spectroscopic information on monomers and additives used for food contact materials (principally packaging). The site which is aimed primarily at assisting food control laboratories in the European Union contains analytical information on monomers, starting substances and additives used in the manufacture of plastics materials. A searchable index is provided giving PM and CAS numbers for each of 255 substances. For each substance a data sheet gives regulatory information, chemical structures, physico-chemical information and background information on the use of the substance in particular plastics, and the food packaging applications. For monomers and starting substances (155 compounds) the infra-red and mass spectra are provided, and for additives (100 compounds); additionally proton NMR are available for about 50% of the entries. Where analytical methods have been developed for determining these substances as residual amounts in plastics or as trace amounts in food simulants these methods are also on the website. All information is provided in portable document file (PDF) format which means that high quality copies can be readily printed, using freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader software. The website will in future be maintained and up-dated by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) as new substances are authorized for use by the European Commission (DG-ENTR formerly DGIII). Where analytical laboratories (food control or other) require reference substances these can be obtained free-of-charge from a reference collection housed at the JRC and maintained in conjunction with this website compendium.

  20. Standard addition method applied to solid-state stripping voltammetry: determination of zirconium in minerals and ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Carbó, A; Moya-Moreno, M; Doménech-Carbó, M T

    2004-09-01

    An application of the standard addition method to stripping voltammetry of solid materials immobilized in inert electrodes is described. The method allows the determination of the mass fraction of a depositable metal M in a material on addition of known amounts of a standard material containing M to a mixture of that material and a reference compound of a second depositable metal, R. After a reductive deposition step, voltammograms recorded for those modified electrodes immersed in a suitable electrolyte produce stripping peaks for the oxidation of the deposits of M and R. If no intermetallic effects appear the quotients between the peak areas and the peak currents for the stripping oxidation of M and R vary linearly with the mass ratio of the added standard and the reference compound, thus providing an electrochemical method for determining the amount of M in the sample. The method has been applied to the determination of Zr in minerals, ceramic frits, and pigments, using ZnO as reference material and ZrO(2) as the standard.

  1. Net analyte signal standard addition method for simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk and veterinary medicines.

    PubMed

    Hajian, Reza; Mousavi, Esmat; Shams, Nafiseh

    2013-06-01

    Net analyte signal standard addition method has been used for the simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim by spectrophotometry in some bovine milk and veterinary medicines. The method combines the advantages of standard addition method with the net analyte signal concept which enables the extraction of information concerning a certain analyte from spectra of multi-component mixtures. This method has some advantages such as the use of a full spectrum realisation, therefore it does not require calibration and prediction step and only a few measurements require for the determination. Cloud point extraction based on the phenomenon of solubilisation used for extraction of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk. It is based on the induction of micellar organised media by using Triton X-100 as an extraction solvent. At the optimum conditions, the norm of NAS vectors increased linearly with concentrations in the range of 1.0-150.0 μmolL(-1) for both sulphadiazine and trimethoprim. The limits of detection (LOD) for sulphadiazine and trimethoprim were 0.86 and 0.92 μmolL(-1), respectively.

  2. Novel real function based method to construct heterogeneous porous scaffolds and additive manufacturing for use in medical engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Tian, Yanling; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-11-01

    Heterogeneous porous scaffolds have important applications in biomedical engineering, as they can mimic the structures of natural tissues to achieve the corresponding properties. Here, we introduce a new and easy to implement real function based method for constructing complex, heterogeneous porous structures, including hybrid structures, stochastic structures, functionally gradient structures, and multi-scale structures, or their combinations (e.g., hybrid multi-scale structures). Based on micro-CT data, a femur-mimetic structure with gradient morphology was constructed using our method and fabricated using stereolithography. Results showed that our method could generate gradient porosity or gradient specific surfaces and be sufficiently flexible for use with micro-CT data and additive manufacturing (AM) techniques.

  3. Rotational self-diffusion in suspensions of charged particles: simulations and revised Beenakker-Mazur and pairwise additivity methods.

    PubMed

    Makuch, Karol; Heinen, Marco; Abade, Gustavo Coelho; Nägele, Gerhard

    2015-07-14

    We present a comprehensive joint theory-simulation study of rotational self-diffusion in suspensions of charged particles whose interactions are modeled by the generic hard-sphere plus repulsive Yukawa (HSY) pair potential. Elaborate, high-precision simulation results for the short-time rotational self-diffusion coefficient, D(r), are discussed covering a broad range of fluid-phase state points in the HSY model phase diagram. The salient trends in the behavior of D(r) as a function of reduced potential strength and range, and particle concentration, are systematically explored and physically explained. The simulation results are further used to assess the performance of two semi-analytic theoretical methods for calculating D(r). The first theoretical method is a revised version of the classical Beenakker-Mazur method (BM) adapted to rotational diffusion which includes a highly improved treatment of the salient many-particle hydrodynamic interactions. The second method is an easy-to-implement pairwise additivity (PA) method in which the hydrodynamic interactions are treated on a full two-body level with lubrication corrections included. The static pair correlation functions required as the only input to both theoretical methods are calculated using the accurate Rogers-Young integral equation scheme. While the revised BM method reproduces the general trends of the simulation results, it significantly underestimates D(r). In contrast, the PA method agrees well with the simulation results for D(r) even for intermediately concentrated systems. A simple improvement of the PA method is presented which is applicable for large concentrations.

  4. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah's coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-01

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  5. Effect of Ag nanowire addition into nanoparticle paste on the conductivity of Ag patterns printed by gravure offset method.

    PubMed

    Ok, Ki-Hun; Lee, Chan-Jae; Kwak, Min-Gi; Choi, Duck-Kyun; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Jung, Seung-Boo; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of Ag nanowire addition into a commercial Ag nanopaste and the printability evaluation of the mixed paste by the gravure offset printing methodology. Ag nanowires were synthesized by a modified polyol method, and a small amount of them was added into a commercial metallic paste based on Ag nanoparticles of 50 nm in diameter. Two annealing temperatures were selected for comparison, and electrical conductivity was measured by four point probe method. As a result, the hybrid mixture could be printed by the gravure offset method for patterning fine lines up to 15 μm width with sharp edges and scarce spreading. The addition of the Ag nanowires was significantly efficient for enhancement of electrical conductivity of the printed lines annealed at a low temperature (150 degrees C), while the effect was somewhat diluted in case of high temperature annealing (200 degrees C). The experimental results were discussed with the conduction mechanism in the printed conductive circuits with a schematic description of the electron flows in the printed lines.

  6. The effect of three different methods of adding O2 additive on O concentration of atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Y.; Xian, Y.; Pei, X.; Lu, X.

    2016-12-01

    In order to maximize the O concentration generated by the atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs), several different methods of adding O2 additive to working gas have been proposed. However, it is not clear, which method is capable of generating the highest concentration of O atom. In this paper, the concentration of O atoms in an APPJs by adding O2 to (1) the working gas, to (2) the downstream inside the tube, and (3) to the shielding gas is investigated by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectrometry. The results clearly demonstrate that the highest O density is achieved when 1.5% of O2 is added to the working gas rather than the other two methods. In other words, the most effective way to generate O atoms is by premixing O2 with the working gas. Further investigation suggests that O atoms are mainly generated around the electrode region, where the electric field is highest. In addition, when O2 is added to the working gas, if in the meantime extra O2 is added to the downstream inside the tube, a significant decrease of O density is observed.

  7. [Analysis of lead in unknown samples based on the standard addition method using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Zhao, Nan-jing; Meng, De-shuo; Yuan, Jing; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yin; Yu, Yang; Ma, Ming-jun; Hu, Li; Zhang, Da-hai; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jian-guo; Liu, Wen-qing

    2015-01-01

    The standard addition method with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to analyze an unknown sample taken from a lead battery factory. the matrix influence on the results was effectively avoided when the external or internal standard method was used, and the pretreatment of samples was simple and quick. The Nd ' YAG pulse laser with wavelength 1 064 nm was used as the excitation source. The echelle spectroscopy with high resolution and wide spectral range was used as the spectral separation device, and the intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) as the spectral detection device in the experiment. The characteristic line at 405. 78 nrn was chosen as the analysis line to measure Pb concentration. Fe I : 404. 58 line was chosen as the internal standard. Pre-experiment was carried out to confirm the appropriate condition. Under the laser energy of 128. 5 mJ, the delay time of 2. 5 tps, and the gate width of 3 ps, it was determined that with the addition of Pb to the sample in the range of 0 and 25 000 mg . kg-1, there wasn't self-absorption. There was a good linear relationship between the intensity of the spectral line of 405. 78 nm and the addition of Pb. The appropriate concentration of Pb added into the sample for analysis was determined by this series of samples. On this basis, four samples were prepared with three parallel samples for each sample in order to verify the repeatability and reliability of the method, i. e. 5 000, 10 000, 15 000, 20 000 mg . kg-1 Pb was added into the original sample. The results were compared with the result of ICP-MS. The twelve samples' relative errors were between -24. 6% and 17. 6%. The average result was 43 069 mg . kg-1 with the relative error -2. 44%.

  8. Developing porous ceramics on the base of zirconia oxide with thin and permeable pores by crystallization of organic additive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamyshnaya, K. S.; Khabas, T. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper porous ceramics on the base of ZrO2 nanopowders and micropowders has been developed by freeze-casting method. A zirconia/carbamide slurry was frozen in mold and dehydrated in CaCl2 at room temperature. This simple process enabled the formation of porous ceramics with highly aligned pores as a replica of the carbamide crystals. The samples showed higher porosity of 47.9%. In addition, these materials could be used as membrane for air cleaning.

  9. Net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) as a novel spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric technique for simultaneous determination, application to assay of melatonin and pyridoxine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Bastami, Mohammad

    2010-02-01

    In this work a new modification of the standard addition method called "net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM)" is presented for the simultaneous spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric analysis. The proposed method combines the advantages of standard addition method with those of net analyte signal concept. The method can be applied for the determination of analyte in the presence of known interferents. The accuracy of the predictions against H-point standard addition method is not dependent on the shape of the analyte and interferent spectra. The method was successfully applied to simultaneous spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination of pyridoxine (PY) and melatonin (MT) in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  10. Effects on nutrient digestion of wheat processing and methods of tallow addition to the diets of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Espindola, M S; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G; Zinn, R A; Perez-Monti, H

    1997-06-01

    Five multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation that were fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 3 x 5 incomplete Latin square. The objective of this study was to examine the effects on nutrient digestion of wheat processing and method of tallow addition to the diets of lactating dairy cows. Diets consisted of 45% forage and 55% concentrate, and each diet contained 20% wheat and 2% tallow (as-fed basis). Treatments were dry-rolled wheat with tallow added to the concentrate, steam-rolled wheat with tallow added to the concentrate, and steam-rolled wheat with tallow added first to the wheat. The dry matter intake; digestion of starch, fiber, and fatty acids; ammonia N concentration; and molar proportions of volatile fatty acids in ruminal fluid were not affected by treatments. The apparent digestibility in the total tract of organic matter and nitrogenous compounds was significantly higher for the steam-rolled treatment with tallow added first to the wheat. Mean ruminal fluid pH was similar across treatments; however, cows fed the diet containing steam-rolled wheat with tallow added first to the wheat had the smallest pH change from 0 to 2 h postfeeding. Milk yield did not differ, regardless of cow diet. Method of tallow addition had marked effects on the apparent digestibility of organic matter and N in the total tract of lactating dairy cows.

  11. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of dipeptides in protein hydrolysate by a TNBS derivatization-aided standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Hanh, Vu Thi; Kobayashi, Yutaro; Maebuchi, Motohiro; Nakamori, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish, through a standard addition method, a convenient quantification assay for dipeptides (GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY) in soybean hydrolysate using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) derivatization-aided LC-TOF-MS. Soybean hydrolysate samples (25.0 mg mL(-1)) spiked with target standards were subjected to TNBS derivatization. Under the optimal LC-MS conditions, five target dipeptides derivatized with TNBS were successfully detected. Examination of the standard addition curves, with a correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.979, provided a reliable quantification of the target dipeptides, GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY, in soybean hydrolysate to be 424 ± 20, 184 ± 9, 2188 ± 199, 327 ± 16, and 2211 ± 133 μg g(-1) of hydrolysate, respectively. The proposed LC-MS assay is a reliable and convenient assay method, with no interference from matrix effects in hydrolysate, and with no requirement for the use of an isotope labeled internal standard.

  12. A method of analyzing nonstationary ionic channel current fluctuations in the presence of an additive measurement noise.

    PubMed

    Mino, H

    1993-03-01

    A method of estimating the parameters of nonstationary ionic channel current fluctuations (NST-ICF's) in the presence of an additive measurement noise is proposed. The case is considered in which the sample records of NST-ICT's corrupted by the measurement noise are available for estimation, where the experiment can be repeated many times to calculate the statistics of noisy NST-ICF's. The conventional second-order regression model expressed in terms of the mean and variance of noisy NST-ICF's is derived theoretically, assuming that NST-ICF's are binomially distributed. Since the coefficients of the regression model are explicitly related to not only the parameters of NST-ICF's but also the measurement noise component, the parameters of NST-ICF's that are of interest can be estimated without interference from the additive measurement noise by identifying the regression coefficients. Furthermore, the accuracy of the parameter estimates is theoretically evaluated using the error-covariance matrix of the regression coefficients. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated in a Monte Carlo simulation in which a fundamental kinetic scheme of Na+ channels is treated as a specific example.

  13. Standard addition method for the determination of pharmaceutical residues in drinking water by SPE-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cimetiere, Nicolas; Soutrel, Isabelle; Lemasle, Marguerite; Laplanche, Alain; Crocq, André

    2013-01-01

    The study of the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical compounds in drinking or waste water processes has become very popular in recent years. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool often used to determine pharmaceutical residues at trace level in water. However, many steps may disrupt the analytical procedure and bias the results. A list of 27 environmentally relevant molecules, including various therapeutic classes and (cardiovascular, veterinary and human antibiotics, neuroleptics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hormones and other miscellaneous pharmaceutical compounds), was selected. In this work, a method was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and solid-phase extraction to determine the concentration of the 27 targeted pharmaceutical compounds at the nanogram per litre level. The matrix effect was evaluated from water sampled at different treatment stages. Conventional methods with external calibration and internal standard correction were compared with the standard addition method (SAM). An accurate determination of pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water was obtained by the SAM associated with UPLC-MS/MS. The developed method was used to evaluate the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical compounds in some drinking water treatment plants in the west of France.

  14. Simultaneously Enhanced Efficiency and Stability of Polymer Solar Cells by Employing Solvent Additive and Upside-down Drying Method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Fujun; An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Miao; Ma, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jian

    2017-03-15

    The morphology of active layer plays an important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs), which strongly depend on the dynamic drying process of active layer. In this work, an efficient and universal method was developed to let active layer undergo upside-down drying process in a covered glass Petri dish. For the PSCs based on PTB7-Th:PC71BM, the champion PCEs were improved from 8.58% to 9.64% by mixing 3 vol % 1,8-di-iodooctane and further to 10.30% by employing upside-down drying method. The enhanced PCEs of PSCs with active layers undergoing upside-down drying process are mainly attributed to the optimized vertical phase separation, the more ordered and tightly packed π-π stacking of polymer molecules. Meanwhile, PC71BM molecules can be frozen in more ordered and tightly packed π-π stacking polymer network, which lead to the enhanced stability of PSCs. The universality of upside-down drying method can be solidly confirmed from PSCs with PTB7:PC71BM, PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM, or PBDT-TS1:PC71BM as active layers, respectively. The molecular packing and phase separation of blend films with different solvent additives and drying methods were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  15. A handheld mid-infrared methane sensor using a dual-step differential method for additive/multiplicative noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yue; Dang, Peipei; Zheng, Chuantao; Ye, Weilin; Wang, Yiding

    2016-11-01

    A miniature mid-infrared (mid-IR) methane (CH4) sensor system was developed by employing a wide-band wire-source and a semi-ellipsoid multi-pass gas cell. A dual-step differential method instead of the traditional one-step differential method was adopted by this sensor to tune measuring range/zero point and to suppress the additive/multiplicative noise. This method included a first subtraction operation between the two output signals (including a detection signal and a reference signal) from the dual-channel detector and a second subtraction operation on the amplitudes of the first-subtraction signal and the reference signal, followed by a ratio operation between the amplitude of the second-subtraction signal and the reference signal. Detailed experiments were performed to assess the performance of the sensor system. The detection range is 0-50 k ppm, and as the concentration gets larger than 12 k ppm, the relative detection error falls into the range of -3% to +3%. The Allan deviation is about 4.65 ppm with an averaging time of 1 s, and such value can be further improved to 0.45 ppm with an averaging time of 124 s. Due to the cost-effective incandescence wire-source, the small-size ellipsoid multi-pass gas cell and the miniature structure of the sensor, the developed standalone device shows potential applications of CH4 detection under coal-mine environment.

  16. A mathematical approach to optimal selection of dose values in the additive dose method of ERP dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.B.; Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Additive dose methods commonly used in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry are time consuming and labor intensive. We have developed a mathematical approach for determining optimal spacing of applied doses and the number of spectra which should be taken at each dose level. Expected uncertainitites in the data points are assumed to be normally distributed with a fixed standard deviation and linearity of dose response is also assumed. The optimum spacing and number of points necessary for the minimal error can be estimated, as can the likely error in the resulting estimate. When low doses are being estimated for tooth enamel samples the optimal spacing is shown to be a concentration of points near the zero dose value with fewer spectra taken at a single high dose value within the range of known linearity. Optimization of the analytical process results in increased accuracy and sample throughput.

  17. An optimized regulating method for composting phosphorus fractions transformation based on biochar addition and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Cao, Zhenyu; Cui, Hongyang; Zhu, Longji; Wei, Zimin

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the influence of biochar and/or phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculants on microbial biomass, bacterial community composition and phosphorus (P) fractions during kitchen waste composting amended with rock phosphate (RP). There were distinct differences in the physic-chemical parameters, the proportion of P fractions and bacterial diversity in different treatments. The contribution of available P fractions increased during composting especially in the treatment with the addition of PSB and biochar. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial compositions were significantly influenced by P content, inoculation and biochar. Variance partitioning further showed that synergy of inoculated PSB and indigenous bacterial communities and the joint effect between biochar and bacteria explained the largest two proportion of the variation in P fractions. Therefore, the combined application of PSB and biochar to improve the inoculation effect and an optimized regulating method were suggested based on the distribution of P fractions.

  18. Effect of olive mill waste addition on the properties of porous fired clay bricks using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Sutcu, Mucahit; Ozturk, Savas; Yalamac, Emre; Gencel, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Production of porous clay bricks lightened by adding olive mill waste as a pore making additive was investigated. Factors influencing the brick manufacturing process were analyzed by an experimental design, Taguchi method, to find out the most favorable conditions for the production of bricks. The optimum process conditions for brick preparation were investigated by studying the effects of mixture ratios (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and firing temperatures (850, 950 and 1050 °C) on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the bricks. Apparent density, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, microstructure and crystalline phase formations of the fired brick samples were measured. It was found that the use of 10% waste addition reduced the bulk density of the samples up to 1.45 g/cm(3). As the porosities increased from 30.8 to 47.0%, the compressive strengths decreased from 36.9 to 10.26 MPa at firing temperature of 950 °C. The thermal conductivities of samples fired at the same temperature showed a decrease of 31% from 0.638 to 0.436 W/mK, which is hopeful for heat insulation in the buildings. Increasing of the firing temperature also affected their mechanical and physical properties. This study showed that the olive mill waste could be used as a pore maker in brick production.

  19. Investigation of plasma arc welding as a method for the additive manufacturing of titanium-(6)aluminum-(4)vanadium alloy components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinoha, Joe N.

    The process of producing near net-shape components by material deposition is known as additive manufacturing. All additive manufacturing processes are based on the addition of material with the main driving forces being cost reduction and flexibility in both manufacturing and product design. With wire metal deposition, metal is deposited as beads side-by-side and layer-by-layer in a desired pattern to build a complete component or add features on a part. There are minimal waste products, low consumables, and an efficient use of energy and feedstock associated with additive manufacturing processes. Titanium and titanium alloys are useful engineering materials that possess an extraordinary combination of properties. Some of the properties that make titanium advantageous for structural applications are its high strength-to-weight ratio, low density, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and good corrosion resistance. The most commonly used titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, is typically used in aerospace applications, pressure vessels, aircraft gas turbine disks, cases and compressor blades, and surgical implants. Because of the high material prices associated with titanium alloys, the production of near net-shape components by additive manufacturing is an attractive option for the manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy components. In this thesis, the manufacturing of cylindrical Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens by wire metal deposition utilizing the plasma arc welding process was demonstrated. Plasma arc welding is a cost effective additive manufacturing technique when compared to other current additive manufacturing methods such as laser beam welding and electron beam welding. Plasma arc welding is considered a high-energy-density welding processes which is desirable for the successful welding of titanium. Metal deposition was performed using a constant current plasma arc welding power supply, flow-purged welding chamber, argon shielding and orifice gas, ERTi-5 filler metal, and Ti-6Al

  20. A square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric method for the determination of Amaranth, a food additive dye.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Ahmad H

    2005-01-01

    Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) determinations of trace concentrations of the azo coloring agent Amaranth are described. The analytical methodology used was based on the adsorptive preconcentration of the dye on the hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by initiation of a negative sweep. In a pH 10 carbonate supporting electrolyte, Amaranth gave a well-defined and sensitive AdSV peak at -518 mV. The electroanalytical determination of this azo dye was found to be optimal in carbonate buffer (pH 10) under the following experimental conditions: accumulation time, 120 s; accumulation potential, 0.0 V; scan rate, 600 mV/s; pulse amplitude, 90 mV; and frequency, 50 Hz. Under these optimized conditions the AdSV peak current was proportional over the concentration range 1 x 10(-8)-1.1 x 10(-7) mol/L (r = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-9) mol/L (1.03 ppb). This analytical approach possessed enhanced sensitivity, compared with conventional liquid chromatography or spectrophotometry and it was simple and fast. The precision of the method, expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 0.23%, whereas the accuracy, expressed as the mean recovery, was 104%. Possible interferences by several substances usually present as food additive azo dyes (E110, E102), gelatin, natural and artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and antioxidants were also investigated. The developed electroanalyticals method was applied to the determination of Amaranth in soft drink samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by a reference spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) of these data showed that the results of the 2 methods compared favorably.

  1. Aerosol based direct-write micro-additive fabrication method for sub-mm 3D metal-dielectric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Taibur; Renaud, Luke; Heo, Deuk; Renn, Michael; Panat, Rahul

    2015-10-01

    The fabrication of 3D metal-dielectric structures at sub-mm length scale is highly important in order to realize low-loss passives and GHz wavelength antennas with applications in wearable and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. The inherent 2D nature of lithographic processes severely limits the available manufacturing routes to fabricate 3D structures. Further, the lithographic processes are subtractive and require the use of environmentally harmful chemicals. In this letter, we demonstrate an additive manufacturing method to fabricate 3D metal-dielectric structures at sub-mm length scale. A UV curable dielectric is dispensed from an Aerosol Jet system at 10-100 µm length scale and instantaneously cured to build complex 3D shapes at a length scale  <1 mm. A metal nanoparticle ink is then dispensed over the 3D dielectric using a combination of jetting action and tilted dispense head, also using the Aerosol Jet technique and at a length scale 10-100 µm, followed by the nanoparticle sintering. Simulation studies are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of using such structures as mm-wave antennas. The manufacturing method described in this letter opens up the possibility of fabricating an entirely new class of custom-shaped 3D structures at a sub-mm length scale with potential applications in 3D antennas and passives.

  2. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0-7.0), flow rate (1.0-1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85-95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r (2) > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10-0.19 μg/mL and 0.33-0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  3. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0), flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r2 > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks. PMID:26989415

  4. LV wall segmentation using the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for oedema quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, K.; Gao, H.; Payne, A.; Soraghan, J.; Berry, C.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper an automatic algorithm for the left ventricle (LV) wall segmentation and oedema quantification from T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented. The extent of myocardial oedema delineates the ischaemic area-at-risk (AAR) after myocardial infarction (MI). Since AAR can be used to estimate the amount of salvageable myocardial post-MI, oedema imaging has potential clinical utility in the management of acute MI patients. This paper presents a new scheme based on the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for the segmentation of T2-weighted CMR image. In our approach, shape information of the myocardial wall is utilized to introduce a shape feature of the myocardial wall into the variational level set formulation. The performance of the method is tested using real CMR images (12 patients) and the results of the automatic system are compared to manual segmentation. The mean perpendicular distances between the automatic and manual LV wall boundaries are in the range of 1-2 mm. Bland-Altman analysis on LV wall area indicates there is no consistent bias as a function of LV wall area, with a mean bias of -121 mm2 between individual investigator one (IV1) and LSM, and -122 mm2 between individual investigator two (IV2) and LSM when compared to two investigators. Furthermore, the oedema quantification demonstrates good correlation when compared to an expert with an average error of 9.3% for 69 slices of short axis CMR image from 12 patients.

  5. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaidi, Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions oncontrolling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods(AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as asalt precursor and performed at the oilbath temperature of 140 °C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorodswere characterized using UV-VIS, XRD, SEM and TEM. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorodsdecreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  6. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaidi, Yunus, Muhammad; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  7. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  8. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  9. A carbonate controlled-addition method for amorphous calcium carbonate spheres stabilized by poly(acrylic acid)s.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Chen; Naka, Kensuke; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2007-11-20

    Stable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) composite particle with a size-controlled monodispersed sphere was obtained by a new simple carbonate controlled-addition method by using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (Mw = 5000), in which an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution was added into an aqueous solution of PAA and CaCl2 with a different time period. The obtained ACC composite products consist of about 50 wt % of ACC, 30 wt % of PAA, and H2O. Average particle sizes of the ACC spheres increased from (1.8 +/- 0.4) x 102 to (5.5 +/- 1.2) x 102 nm with an increase of the complexation time of the PAA-CaCl2 solution from 3 min to 24 h, respectively. The ACC formed from the complexation time for 3 min was stable for 10 days with gentle stirring as well as 3 months under a quiescent condition in the aqueous solution. Moreover, the ACC was also stable at 400 degrees C. Stability of the amorphous phase decreased with an increase of the complexation time of the PAA-CaCl2 solution. No ACC was obtained when the lower molar mass PAAs (Mw = 1200 and 2100) were used. In the higher molar mass case (Mw = 25 000), a mixture of the amorphous phase and vaterite and calcite crystalline product was produced. The present results demonstrate that the interaction and the reaction kinetics of the PAA-Ca2+-H2O complex play an important role in the mineralization of CaCO3.

  10. An electrical conductivity method for measuring the effects of additives on effective diffusivities in Portland cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kyi, A.A. ); Batchelor, B. . Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Effective diffusivities are important in describing corrosion and leaching of contaminants in cementitious systems. An electrical conductivity procedure has been used to measure the effective diffusivities of compounds in cementitious systems containing the additives fly ash, silica fume, sodium silicate and bentonite. Silica fume was the most effective additive in reducing the effective diffusivity, but fly ash was the most cost effective. Diffusivities that have been measured with techniques that rely on flux of a compound through the solid were generally lower than those measured with the electrical conductivity procedure. Porosity and bulk density are not well correlated with effective diffusivity in systems containing additives.

  11. Study of Two Graphic Symbol-Teaching Methods for Individuals with Physical Disabilities and Additional Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emms, Laila; Gardner, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether contrasting teaching methods had an effect on performance accuracy in the recall of graphic symbols. The secondary purpose was to establish whether the iconicity of symbols had an effect on performance accuracy. A direct symbol-teaching method and a contextual symbol-teaching method were…

  12. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  13. A conservative method of testing whether combination analgesics produce additive or synergistic effects using evidence from acute pain and migraine.

    PubMed

    Moore, R A; Derry, C J; Derry, S; Straube, S; McQuay, H J

    2012-04-01

    Fixed-dose combination analgesics are used widely, and available both on prescription and over-the-counter. Combination drugs should provide more analgesia than with any single drug in the combination, but there is no evidence in humans about whether oral combinations have just additive effects, or are synergistic or even subadditive. We suggest that the measured result for the combination would be the summation of the absolute benefit increase (effect of active drug minus effect of placebo) of each component of a combination if effects were (merely) additive, and greater than the sum of the absolute benefits if they were synergistic. We tested measured effects of combination analgesics against the sum of the absolute benefits in acute pain and migraine using meta-analysis where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in the same trials, and verified the result with meta-analyses where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in different trials. Results showed that expected numbers needed to treat (NNT) for additive effects were generally within the 95% confidence interval of measured NNTs. This was true for combinations of paracetamol plus ibuprofen and paracetamol plus opioids in acute pain, and naproxen plus sumatriptan in migraine, but not where efficacy was very low or very high, nor combinations of paracetamol plus dextropropoxyphene. There was no evidence of synergy, defined as supra-additive effects.

  14. The sequential addition and migration method to generate representative volume elements for the homogenization of short fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matti

    2017-02-01

    We present an algorithm for generating volume elements of short fiber reinforced plastic microstructures for prescribed fourth order fiber orientation tensor, fiber aspect ratio and solid volume fraction. The algorithm inserts fibers randomly into an existing microstructure, and removes the resulting overlap systematically based on a gradient descent method. In contrast to existing methods, large fiber aspect ratios (up to 150) and large volume fractions (60 vol% for isotropic orientation and aspect ratio of 33) can be reached. We study the effective linear elastic properties of the resulting microstructures, depending on fiber orientation, volume fraction as well as aspect ratio, and examine the size of a corresponding representative volume element.

  15. Effect of organic additives on characteristics of carbon-coated LiCoPO4 synthesized by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeyoshi, Yuta; Miyamoto, Shohei; Noda, Yusaku; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-coated LiCoPO4 particles are synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal process using three different organic additives (carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC), glucose, and ascorbic acid). The effect of the organic additives on particle size, morphology, nature of carbon coating, and electrochemical property of the resulting LiCoPO4 is investigated. CMC plays important roles to decrease the particle size and form well-covered carbon coating on the surface. Carbon-coated LiCoPO4 prepared using CMC delivers higher initial discharge capacity of 135 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C, and shows superior rate capability and cyclic performance than the other samples. The improved electrochemical characteristics are attributed to not only the fine particle which allows facile electronic and ionic transport, but also the high coverage of carbon coating which improves the electrical conductivity and prevents the irreversible reactions of the charged LiCoPO4 with electrolyte.

  16. Simultaneous quantification of five proteins and seven additives in dairy products with a heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaofang; Sun, Meng; He, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Ping; He, Langchong

    2015-09-01

    A heart-cutting two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to simultaneously quantify five major proteins and seven food additives (maltol, ethyl maltol, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and saccharin sodium) in milk and milk powders. In this two-dimensional system, a Venusil XBP-C4 column was selected in the first dimension for protein separation, and a Hypersil ODS-2 C18 column was employed in the second dimension for additive separation; a two-position, six-port switching valve was used to transfer the targets (additives) from the first dimension to the second dimension. Method validation consisted of selectivity, response function, linearity, precision, sensitivity, and recovery. In addition, a conventional one-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method was also tested for comparison. The two-dimensional method resulted in significantly improved recovery of the food additives compared to the conventional method (90.6-105.4% and 65.5-86.5%, respectively). Furthermore, this novel method has a simple one-step sample preparation procedure, which shortens the analysis time, resulting in more efficient analysis and less solvent usage.

  17. Effects of Organic Additives on the Morphology of Various Calcium Phosphates Prepared via Solution and Emulsion Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, I.; Wei, T.; Kikushima, Y.; Riman, R.; Akazawa, T.

    2011-10-01

    Dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) particles were prepared through the reaction between calcium nitrate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate in a solution and a multiple emulsion. Organic compounds were added into the phosphate solution with the aim of modifying the morphology. Large parallelogrammic particles of DCPD were obtained with no additive. By adding 2-aminoethanol, the product was changed to rhombic in shape and reduced to one-twentieth in size, and the phase was DCPA. In the multiple emulsion, microspheres composed of DCPA were prepared. They were constructed by flaky, primary particles. The crystalline phase and morphology were affected by the concentrations of surfactants in the oil and outer aqueous phases.

  18. The Role of Laser Additive Manufacturing Methods of Metals in Repair, Refurbishment and Remanufacturing - Enabling Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Maija; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Soukka, Risto

    Circular economy is an economy model where products, components, and materials are aimed to be kept at their highest utility and value at all times. Repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing processes are procedures aiming at returning the value of the product during its life cycle. Additive manufacturing (AM) is expected to be an enabling technology in circular economy based business models. One of AM process that enables repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing is Directed Energy Deposition. Respectively Powder Bed Fusion enables manufacturing of replacement components on demand. The aim of this study is to identify the current research findings and state of art of utilizing AM in repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing processes of metallic products. The focus is in identifying possibilities of AM in promotion of circular economy and expected environmental benefits based on the found literature. Results of the study indicate significant potential in utilizing AM in repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing activities.

  19. Influence of binder properties, method of addition, powder type and operating conditions on fluid-bed melt granulation and resulting tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Abberger, T

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate melt granulation in a laboratory scale fluid-bed granulator with respect to granule growth, granule properties and resulting tablet properties. The parameters investigated were method of addition of PEG (spray-on or addition as flakes), binder concentration, PEG type (3000, 4000 and 6000, sprayed-on), size (PEG 4000, added as three different sized flakes), powder type (two different sized lactose types and corn starch) and operating conditions (volume air flow and heating temperature). Addition of binder as flakes led to layering as a growth mechanism when the size of the flakes was high. Coalescence occurred when the size was low. Coalescence also occurred when spraying was the method of addition. Due to the greater viscosity of the PEG 6000 melt it produced bigger granules than 3000 or 4000. The influence of volume air flow was moderate and the influence of heating temperature in the range of 70-90 degrees C was very low with both methods of addition. The disintegration time of tablets from granules where PEG was added as flakes was shorter than from granules where PEG was sprayed-on. The latter method of binder addition led to tablets which did not disintegrate but eroded. This was apparently caused by formation of a binder matrix, which could not be destroyed by the disintegrant.

  20. STOL Aircraft Structural Vibration Prediction Method. Volume II. Acoustic Prediction Details and Additional Plots for Small STOL Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Aerospace Company o Boeing Military Airplane Development P.O. Box 3999, Seattle, We. 98124 AUGUST 1979 FINAL REPORT FOR PERIOD AUGUST 1977 -AUGUST 1979...Ian______________ sttmn aple in- August 1979".-. Other re.WŘdquest forS.( o this docmen omut) IS. SUPPLEMENTARYNTESETrl1189 s ss Thisrport onslimitseo two...methods for STOL aircraft. Aooaanjoii J~ o *ITIS QM1&X WCO TA3 UVW=Ouhoed ______________ fnUFiIii t q By_ LJIIC -Distribution/ ELECTE __~Avilability

  1. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  2. Enantioselective Michael additions of nitromethane by a catalytic double activation method using chiral lewis Acid and achiral amine catalysts.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kennosuke; Kanemasa, Shuji

    2002-11-13

    Reactions of nitromethane with 1-(2-alkenoyl)-3,5-dimethylpyrazoles can be effectively catalyzed by R,R-DBFOX/Ph.Ni(ClO4)2.3H2O and achiral amine bases, each in a catalytic loading of 10 mol %, to give 1-(3-substituted 4-nitrobutanoyl)-3,5-dimethylpyrazoles in high chemical yields. Excellent enantioselectivities up to 98% ee have been achieved. The nitro moiety can be easily reduced on Raney nickel at atmospheric pressure, followed by concurrent cyclization, to give enantiomers of 4-substituted 2-pyrrolidinone derivatives after usual workup. This method can be successfully applied to a short step synthesis of (R)-(-)-rolipram.

  3. Community shifts of actively growing lake bacteria after N-acetyl-glucosamine addition: improving the BrdU-FACS method.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yuya; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2014-02-01

    In aquatic environments, community dynamics of bacteria, especially actively growing bacteria (AGB), are tightly linked with dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality. We analyzed the community dynamics of DNA-synthesizing and accordingly AGB by linking an improved bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry approach with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BrdU-FACS). FACS-sorted cells of even oligotrophic ecosystems in winter were characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In incubation experiments, we examined community shifts of AGB in response to the addition of N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG), one of the most abundant aminosugars in aquatic systems. Our improved BrdU-FACS analysis revealed that AGB winter communities of oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (northeastern Germany) substantially differ from those of total bacteria and consist of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Candidatus OP10 and Chloroflexi. AGB populations with different BrdU-fluorescence intensities and cell sizes represented different phylotypes suggesting that single-cell growth potential varies at the taxon level. NAG incubation experiments demonstrated that a variety of widespread taxa related to Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi actively grow in the presence of NAG. The BrdU-FACS approach enables detailed phylogenetic studies of AGB and, thus, to identify those phylotypes which are potential key players in aquatic DOM cycling.

  4. Irrigation, organic matter addition, and tarping as methods of reducing emissions of methyl iodide from agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, D J; Luo, L; Xuan, R; Yates, S R

    2011-02-15

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is increasingly being used as a highly effective alternative to the soil fumigant methyl bromide. Due to its volatile and toxic nature, MeI draws wide attention on its potential atmospheric emission following field fumigation treatment. Using soil columns that make it possible to determine emissions and gas phase distribution of soil fumigants, we studied MeI behavior in two soils differing in organic matter content. Additionally, the effectiveness of surface irrigation and tarping with virtually impermeable film (VIF) was assessed. In the lower organic matter, bare soil (control), emissions of MeI were rapid and high (83% of total). Although the peak emission flux was reduced by irrigation, the total loss was very similar to the control (82%). Tarping with VIF dramatically reduced emissions (0.04% total emissions). In the higher organic matter soil, degradation rate of MeI was increased around 4-fold, leading to a significant reduction in emissions (63% total emissions). The work suggests that surface tarping with VIF would be highly effective as an emissions reduction strategy and would also result in the maintenance of high soil gas concentrations (important for pest control). Ripping of the tarp after two weeks led to an immediate spike release of MeI, but, even so, the flux rate at this time was almost 20 times lower than the peak flux rate in the control. Even with tarp ripping, the total emission loss from the VIF treatment remained low (6%).

  5. An improved UPLC method for the detection of undeclared horse meat addition by using myoglobin as molecular marker.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Antonella M A; Giarretta, Nicola; Lippert, Martina; Severino, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo

    2015-02-15

    In 2013, following the scandal of the presence of undeclared horse meat in various processed beef products across the Europe, several researches have been undertaken for the safety of consumer health. In this framework, an improved UPLC separation method has been developed to detect the presence of horse myoglobin in raw meat samples. The separation of both horse and beef myoglobins was achieved in only seven minutes. The methodology was improved by preparing mixtures with different composition percentages of horse and beef meat. By using myoglobin as marker, low amounts (0.50mg/0.50g, w/w; ∼0.1%) of horse meat can be detected and quantified in minced raw meat samples with high reproducibility and sensitivity, thus offering a valid alternative to conventional PCR techniques.

  6. Analytical curve or standard addition method: how to elect and design--a strategy applied to copper determination in sugarcane spirits using AAS.

    PubMed

    Honorato, Fernanda Araujo; Honorato, Ricardo Saldanha; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Araujo, Mario Cesar Ugulino

    2002-11-01

    In most instrumental analysis, the analyte concentration is usually obtained the by Analytical Curve Method (ACM) or Standard Addition Method (SAM). Thus, it is important for the analyst to select the most appropriate method, to seek the best conditions of analysis, and to provide parameters of analytical performance. A strategy to do so is proposed in this paper in conjunction with MATLAB software to implement it. The proposed strategy was applied to copper determination by atomic absorption spectrometry in Brazilian sugarcane spirits termed 'Cachaça' and SAM was chosen as the most appropriate method. To select the best experimental design for SAM, the influence of some factors, such as the number of standard additions and concentration levels, the location of the levels and the average concentration of the standard additions were demonstrated. The design with six standard additions, four concentration levels located near the inferior and superior levels and the average concentration of the standard additions closer to zero yielded SAM with an adequate compromise between precision, cost and time of analysis. The uniform distribution of concentration levels, usually used in routine analysis, is not a good design regarding precision. On the other hand, it is adequate when the linear range is unknown. Generally, the proposed strategy can be applied to different instrumental techniques and samples, which aim to improve their analytical performance.

  7. Energetics of tert-butoxyl addition reaction to norbornadiene: a method for estimating the pi-bond strength of a carbon-carbon double bond.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paulo M; Estácio, Sílvia G; Lopes, Gustavo T; Agapito, Filipe; Santos, Rui C; Costa Cabral, Benedito J; Borges dos Santos, Rui M; Martinho Simões, José A

    2009-06-11

    The energetics of tert-butoxyl radical addition reaction to norbornadiene was investigated by time-resolved photoacoustic calorimetry (TR-PAC). The result, together with the C-O bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) in the addition product, allowed us to calculate the pi-bond dissociation enthalpy in norbornadiene. Quantum chemistry (QC) methods were also used to obtain several enthalpies of reaction of the addition of oxygen-centered radicals to alkenes. The pi-bond dissociation enthalpies in these molecules were calculated by a procedure similar to that used in the case of norbornadiene and were compared with the pi-BDE values obtained by the method proposed by Benson. These two different approaches yield similar values for the pi-BDEs in alkenes, indicating that the addition method proposed in the present study is a valid way to derive that quantity. The influence of strain in the pi-BDEs of cyclic alkenes was investigated and allowed us to justify the difference between the pi-BDE in norbornene and norbornadiene. Finally, the thermochemistry of the addition and abstraction reactions involving these two molecules and tert-butoxyl radical was analyzed.

  8. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  9. Observation of the Effectiveness of Drama Method in Helping to Acquire the Addition-Subtraction Skills by Children at Preschool Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Sema; Quadir, Seher Ersoy

    2013-01-01

    Principal aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of the program prepared by researchers in order to enable 6 year-old children attending pre-school educational institutions to effectively gain addition subtraction skills through a drama-related method. The work group in the research comprised of 80 kids who continued their education in…

  10. Cisapride a green analytical reagent for rapid and sensitive determination of bromate in drinking water, bread and flour additives by oxidative coupling spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Okab, Riyad Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Green analytical methods using Cisapride (CPE) as green analytical reagent was investigated in this work. Rapid, simple, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of bromate in water sample, bread and flour additives were developed. The proposed methods based on the oxidative coupling between phenoxazine and Cisapride in the presence of bromate to form red colored product with max at 520 nm. Phenoxazine and Cisapride and its reaction products were found to be environmentally friendly under the optimum experimental condition. The method obeys beers law in concentration range 0.11-4.00 g ml-1 and molar absorptivity 1.41 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1. All variables have been optimized and the presented reaction sequences were applied to the analysis of bromate in water, bread and flour additive samples. The performance of these method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference method. The combination of pharmaceutical drugs reagents with low concentration create some unique green chemical analyses.

  11. Cisapride a green analytical reagent for rapid and sensitive determination of bromate in drinking water, bread and flour additives by oxidative coupling spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Al Okab, Riyad Ahmed

    2013-02-15

    Green analytical methods using Cisapride (CPE) as green analytical reagent was investigated in this work. Rapid, simple, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of bromate in water sample, bread and flour additives were developed. The proposed methods based on the oxidative coupling between phenoxazine and Cisapride in the presence of bromate to form red colored product with max at 520 nm. Phenoxazine and Cisapride and its reaction products were found to be environmentally friendly under the optimum experimental condition. The method obeys beers law in concentration range 0.11-4.00 g ml(-1) and molar absorptivity 1.41 × 10(4) L mol(-1)cm(-1). All variables have been optimized and the presented reaction sequences were applied to the analysis of bromate in water, bread and flour additive samples. The performance of these method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference method. The combination of pharmaceutical drugs reagents with low concentration create some unique green chemical analyses.

  12. Application of contact glow discharge electrolysis method for degradation of batik dye waste Remazol Red by the addition of Fe2+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksono, Nelson; Puspita, Indah; Sukreni, Tulus

    2017-03-01

    Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (CGDE) has been shown to degrade much weight organic compounds such as dyes because the production of hydroxil radical (•OH) is excess. This research aims to degrade batik dye waste Remazol Red, using CGDE method with the addition of Fe2+ ion. The addition of iron salt compounds has proven to increase process efficiency. Dye degradation is known by measure its absorbances with Spectrophotometer UV-Vis. The result of study showed that percentage degradation was 99.92% in 20 minutes which obtained by using Na2SO4 0.01 M, with addition FeSO4 0,1 gram, applied voltage 860 volt, and 1 wolfram anode 5 mm depth.

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  15. Use of a simplified generalized standard additions method for the analysis of cement, gypsum and basic slag by slurry nebulization ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Ljiljana; McCrindle, Robert I; Botha, Barend M; Potgieter, Herman J

    2004-05-01

    The simplified generalized standard additions method (GSAM) was investigated as an alternative method for the ICP-OES analysis of solid materials, introduced into the plasma in the form of slurries. The method is an expansion of the conventional standard additions method. It is based on the principle of varying both the sample mass and the amount of standard solution added. The relationship between the sample mass, standard solution added and signal intensity is assumed to be linear. Concentration of the analyte can be found either geometrically from the slope of the two-dimensional response plane in a three-dimensional space or mathematically from the ratio of the parameters estimated by multiple linear regression. The analysis of a series of certified reference materials (CRMs) (cement CRM-BCS No 353, gypsum CRM-Gyp A and basic slag CRM No 382/I) introduced into the plasma in the form of slurry is described. The slurries contained glycerol and hydrochloric acid and were placed in an ultrasonic bath to ensure good dispersion. "Table curve 3D" software was used to fit the data. Results obtained showed that the method could be successfully applied to the analysis of cement, gypsum and slag samples, without the need to dissolve them. In this way, we could avoid the use of hazardous chemicals (concentrated acids), incomplete dissolution and loss of some volatiles. The application of the simplified GSAM for the analysis did not require a CRM with similar chemical and mineralogical properties for the calibration of the instrument.

  16. Additive method for the prediction of protein-peptide binding affinity. Application to the MHC class I molecule HLA-A*0201.

    PubMed

    Doytchinova, Irini A; Blythe, Martin J; Flower, Darren R

    2002-01-01

    A method has been developed for prediction of binding affinities between proteins and peptides. We exemplify the method through its application to binding predictions of peptides with affinity to major histocompatibility complex class I molecule HLA-A*0201. The method is named "additive" because it is based on the assumption that the binding affinity of a peptide could be presented as a sum of the contributions of the amino acids at each position and the interactions between them. The amino acid contributions and the contributions of the interactions between adjacent side chains and every second side chain were derived using a partial least squares (PLS) statistical methodology using a training set of 420 experimental IC50 values. The predictive power of the method was assessed using rigorous cross-validation and using an independent test set of 89 peptides. The mean value of the residuals between the experimental and predicted pIC50 values was 0.508 for this test set. The additive method was implemented in a program for rapid T-cell epitope search. It is universal and can be applied to any peptide-protein interaction where binding data is known.

  17. Effect of PEG additive on anode microstructure and cell performance of anode-supported MT-SOFCs fabricated by phase inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cong; Liu, Tong; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-04-01

    Anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) have been fabricated by phase inversion method. For the anode support preparation, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethersulfone (PESf) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) were applied as solvent, polymer binder and additive, respectively. The effect of molecular weight and amount of PEG additive on the thermodynamics of the casting solutions was characterized by measuring the coagulation value. Viscosity of the casting slurries was also measured and the influence of PEG additive on viscosity was studied and discussed. The presence of PEG in the casting slurry can significantly influence the final anode support microstructure. Based on the microstructure result and the measured gas permeation value, two anode supports were selected for cell fabrication. For cell with the anode support fabricated using slurry with PEG additive, a maximum cell power density of 704 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant; cell fabricated without any PEG additive shows the peak cell power density of 331 mW cm-2. The relationship between anode microstructure and cell performance was discussed.

  18. Noise variance analysis using a flat panel x-ray detector: A method for additive noise assessment with application to breast CT applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Huang, Shih-Ying; Packard, Nathan J.; Boone, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A simplified linear model approach was proposed to accurately model the response of a flat panel detector used for breast CT (bCT). Methods: Individual detector pixel mean and variance were measured from bCT projection images acquired both in air and with a polyethylene cylinder, with the detector operating in both fixed low gain and dynamic gain mode. Once the coefficients of the linear model are determined, the fractional additive noise can be used as a quantitative metric to evaluate the system’s efficiency in utilizing x-ray photons, including the performance of different gain modes of the detector. Results: Fractional additive noise increases as the object thickness increases or as the radiation dose to the detector decreases. For bCT scan techniques on the UC Davis prototype scanner (80 kVp, 500 views total, 30 frames∕s), in the low gain mode, additive noise contributes 21% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 44% for a 17 cm object. With the dynamic gain mode, additive noise only represents approximately 2.6% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 7.3% for a 17 cm object. Conclusions: The existence of the signal-independent additive noise is the primary cause for a quadratic relationship between bCT noise variance and the inverse of radiation dose at the detector. With the knowledge of the additive noise contribution to experimentally acquired images, system modifications can be made to reduce the impact of additive noise and improve the quantum noise efficiency of the bCT system. PMID:20831059

  19. Noise variance analysis using a flat panel x-ray detector: A method for additive noise assessment with application to breast CT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Kai; Huang, Shih-Ying; Packard, Nathan J.; Boone, John M.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: A simplified linear model approach was proposed to accurately model the response of a flat panel detector used for breast CT (bCT). Methods: Individual detector pixel mean and variance were measured from bCT projection images acquired both in air and with a polyethylene cylinder, with the detector operating in both fixed low gain and dynamic gain mode. Once the coefficients of the linear model are determined, the fractional additive noise can be used as a quantitative metric to evaluate the system's efficiency in utilizing x-ray photons, including the performance of different gain modes of the detector. Results: Fractional additive noise increases as the object thickness increases or as the radiation dose to the detector decreases. For bCT scan techniques on the UC Davis prototype scanner (80 kVp, 500 views total, 30 frames/s), in the low gain mode, additive noise contributes 21% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 44% for a 17 cm object. With the dynamic gain mode, additive noise only represents approximately 2.6% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 7.3% for a 17 cm object. Conclusions: The existence of the signal-independent additive noise is the primary cause for a quadratic relationship between bCT noise variance and the inverse of radiation dose at the detector. With the knowledge of the additive noise contribution to experimentally acquired images, system modifications can be made to reduce the impact of additive noise and improve the quantum noise efficiency of the bCT system.

  20. The effectiveness of the McKenzie method in addition to first-line care for acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low back pain is a highly prevalent and disabling condition worldwide. Clinical guidelines for the management of patients with acute low back pain recommend first-line treatment consisting of advice, reassurance and simple analgesics. Exercise is also commonly prescribed to these patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of adding the McKenzie method to the first-line care of patients with acute low back pain. Methods A multi-centre randomized controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up was conducted between September 2005 and June 2008. Patients seeking care for acute non-specific low back pain from primary care medical practices were screened. Eligible participants were assigned to receive a treatment programme based on the McKenzie method and first-line care (advice, reassurance and time-contingent acetaminophen) or first-line care alone, for 3 weeks. Primary outcome measures included pain (0-10 Numeric Rating Scale) over the first seven days, pain at 1 week, pain at 3 weeks and global perceived effect (-5 to 5 scale) at 3 weeks. Treatment effects were estimated using linear mixed models. Results One hundred and forty-eight participants were randomized into study groups, of whom 138 (93%) completed the last follow-up. The addition of the McKenzie method to first-line care produced statistically significant but small reductions in pain when compared to first-line care alone: mean of -0.4 points (95% confidence interval, -0.8 to -0.1) at 1 week, -0.7 points (95% confidence interval, -1.2 to -0.1) at 3 weeks, and -0.3 points (95% confidence interval, -0.5 to -0.0) over the first 7 days. Patients receiving the McKenzie method did not show additional effects on global perceived effect, disability, function or on the risk of persistent symptoms. These patients sought less additional health care than those receiving only first-line care (P = 0.002). Conclusions When added to the currently recommended first-line care of acute

  1. Gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, O.A.; Smith, G.G.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a method for improving the quality and performance of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing gasoline into the fuel tank of the internal combustion engine; and adding to the gasoline, in an amount effective to improve the performance of an internal combustion engine, a stable dispersion of 3 to 20 volume percent of a compound consisting essentially of polyoxyethylene sorbitol polyoleate in a gasoline-miscible oxygenated organic solvent; and operating the engine.

  2. Colorimetric Method of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification with the Pre-Addition of Calcein for Detecting Flavobacterium columnare and its Assessment in Tilapia Farms.

    PubMed

    Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kampeera, Jantana; Sirithammajak, Sarawut; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Turner, Warren; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2015-03-01

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in fish, affects many economically important freshwater fish species. A colorimetric method of loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the pre-addition of calcein (LAMP-calcein) was developed and used to detect the presence of F. columnare in farmed tilapia (Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia [Nile Tilapia × Mozambique Tilapia O. mossambicus]) and rearing water. The detection method, based on a change in color from orange to green, could be performed within 45 min at 63°C. The method was highly specific, as it had no cross-detections with 14 other bacterial species, including other fish pathogens and two Flavobacterium species. The method has a minimum detection limit of 2.2 × 10(2) F. columnare CFU; thus, it is about 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. With this method, F. columnare was detected in gonad, gill, and blood samples from apparently healthy tilapia broodstock as well as in samples of fertilized eggs, newly hatched fry, and rearing water. The bacteria isolated from the blood were further characterized biochemically and found to be phenotypically identical to F. columnare. The amplified products from the LAMP-calcein method had 97% homology with the DNA sequence of F. columnare.

  3. Enhancement on wettability and intermetallic compound formation with an addition of Al on Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder fabricated via powder metallurgy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adli, Nisrin; Razak, Nurul Razliana Abdul; Saud, Norainiza

    2016-07-01

    Due to the toxicity of lead (Pb), the exploration of another possibility for lead-free solder is necessary. Nowadays, SnCu alloys are being established as one of the lead-free solder alternatives. In this study, Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder with an addition of 1wt% and 5wt% Al were investigated by using powder metallurgy method. The effect of Al addition on the wettability and intermetallic compound thickness (IMC) of Sn-0.7Cu-Al lead-free solder were appraised. Results showed that Al having a high potential to enhance Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder due to its good wetting and reduction of IMC thickness. The contact angle and IMC of the Sn-0.7Cu-Al lead-free solder were decreased by 14.32% and 40% as the Al content increased from 1 wt% to 5 wt%.

  4. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    SciTech Connect

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  5. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts.

  6. Analytical methods for SiO2 and other inorganic oxides in titanium dioxide or certain silicates for food additive specifications.

    PubMed

    Mutsuga, Motoh; Sato, Kyoko; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2011-04-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the detection of SiO(2) and other oxides in titanium dioxide and certain silicates used in food additives using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry without hydrofluoric acid. SiO(2) and other oxides in titanium dioxide or certain silicates were resolved by alkali fusion with KOH and boric acid and then dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid as a test solution for ICP. The recovery of SiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) added at 0.1 and 1.0%, respectively, in TiO(2) was 88-104%; coefficient of variation was <4%. The limit of determination of SiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) was about 0.08%, and the accuracy of the ICP method was better than that of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) test method. The recovery of SiO(2) and other oxides in silicates was 95-107% with a coefficient of variation of <4%. Using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDX) with fundamental parameter determination, the content of SiO(2) and other oxide in titanium dioxide and silicate showed good agreement with the ICP results. ICP with alkali fusion proved suitable as a test method for SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and other oxides in titanium dioxide and certain silicates, and EDX proves useful for screening such impurities in titanium dioxide and componential analysis of certain silicates.

  7. Development and validation of a simple method for routine analysis of ractopamine hydrochloride in raw material and feed additives by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ellen Figueiredo; Borges, Keyller Bastos; Tanimoto, Hélio; Nogueira, Raquel Tassara; Bertolini, Lucimara Cristiane Toso; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto

    2009-01-01

    A simple method was optimized and validated for determination of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in raw material and feed additives by HPLC for use in quality control in veterinary industries. The best-optimized conditions were a C8 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5.0 microm particle size) at room temperature with acetonitrile-100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0; 75 + 25, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 275 nm. With these conditions, the retention time of RAC was around 5.2 min, and standard curves were linear in the concentration range of 160-240 microg/mL (correlation coefficient > or = 0.999). Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (ranged from 1.60 to 2.05 microg/mL), limit of quantification (ranged from 4.26 to 6.84 microg/mL), precision (relative standard deviation < or = 1.87%), accuracy (ranged from 96.97 to 100.54%), and robustness, gave results within acceptable ranges. Therefore, the developed method can be successfully applied for the routine quality control analysis of raw material and feed additives.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  9. Intrinsic dependence of the magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared via chemical methods with addition of chelating agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, E. C.; Tenório, Mayara A.; Mecena, S. G.; Zucolotto, B.; Silva, L. S.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the effect of addition of different chelating agents on the magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles produced by the combining of both co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods is reported. The Rietveld analyses of X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that our samples are single phase (space group: Fd-3m) with small average sizes. The weight losses observed in the thermogravimetric measurements together with the M×H curves show that the organic contamination coming from chelating agent decomposition can give rise to misinterpretation of the magnetization measurements. Besides, analyses of the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization measurements and the M×H curves measured at room temperature allows us to state that both the average blocking temperature and particles size distribution are sensitive to the kind of chelating agent.

  10. Microencapsulation of human insulin DEAE-dextran complex and the complex in liposomes by the emulsion non-solvent addition method.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, A; Manosroi, J

    1997-01-01

    Human insulin-DEAE (diethyl amino ethyl) dextran complex and human insulin DEAE-dextran complex in liposomes were encapsulated in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) microcapsules by the emulsion non-solvent addition method. The ratio of core-to-coat used was 1:1. The average diameters of the complex microcapsules and the complex liposome microcapsules were 239.5 +/- 77.5 and 182.9 +/- 52.2 microns respectively. In vitro dissolution studies of both types of microcapsules in simulated intestinal fluid at pH 7.2 showed a sustained release of the complex and the complex liposome microcapsules with t50 = 1.5 h and 4 h respectively. This study can be applied to the further development of oral formulations of human insulin liposomes for diabetic treatment.

  11. Influence of an Additive-Free Particle Spreading Method on Interactions between Charged Colloidal Particles at an Oil/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Yi, Zonglin; Xing, Xiaochen; Ngai, To; Jin, Fan

    2016-05-17

    The assembly and manipulation of charged colloidal particles at oil/water interfaces represent active areas of fundamental and applied research. Previously, we have shown that colloidal particles can spontaneously generate unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface when spreading solvent is used to disperse them at an oil/water interface. These residual charges in turn affect the long-ranged electrostatic repulsive forces and packing of particles at the interface. To further uncover the influence arising from the spreading solvents on interfacial particle interactions, in the present study we utilize pure buoyancy to drive the particles onto an oil/water interface and compare the differences between such a spontaneously adsorbed particle monolayer to the spread monolayer based on solvent spreading techniques. Our results show that the solvent-free method could also lead particles to spread well at the interface, but it does not result in violent sliding of particles along the interface. More importantly, this additive-free spreading method can avoid the formation of unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface. These findings agree well with our previous hypothesis; namely, those unstable residual charges are triboelectric charges that arise from the violently rubbing of particles on oil at the interface. Therefore, if the spreading solvents could be avoided, then we would be able to get rid of the formation of residual charges at interfaces. This finding will provide insight for precisely controlling the interactions among colloidal particles trapped at fluid/fluid interfaces.

  12. A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.

    PubMed

    De Zan, María M; Teglia, Carla M; Robles, Juan C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2011-07-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them.

  13. A novel method to produce solid lipid nanoparticles using n-butanol as an additional co-surfactant according to the o/w microemulsion quenching technique.

    PubMed

    Mojahedian, Mohammad M; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) are novel medicinal carriers for controlled drug release and drug targeting in different roots of administration such as parenteral, oral, ophthalmic and topical. These carriers have some benefits such as increased drug stability, high drug payload, the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and no biotoxicity. Therefore, due to the cost-efficient, proportionally increasable, and reproducible preparation of SLN/NLC and the avoidance of organic solvents used, the warm microemulsion quenching method was selected from among several preparation methods for development in this research. To prepare the warm O/W microemulsion, lipids (distearin, stearic acid, beeswax, triolein alone or in combination with others) were melted at a temperature of 65°C. After that, different ratios of Tween60 (10-22.5%) and glyceryl monostearate (surfactant and co-surfactant) and water were added, and the combination was stirred. Then, 1-butanol (co-surfactant) was added dropwise until a clear microemulsion was formed and titration continued to achieve cloudiness (to obtain the microemulsion zone). The warm o/w microemulsions were added dropwise into 4°C water (1:5 volume ratio) while being stirred at 400 or 600 rpm. Lipid nanosuspensions were created upon the addition of the warm o/w microemulsion to the cold water. The SLN were obtained over a range of concentrations of co-surfactants and lipids and observed for microemulsion stability (clearness). For selected preparations, characterization involved also determination of mean particle size, polydispersity and shape. According to the aim of this study, the optimum formulations requiring the minimum amounts of 1-butanol (1.2%) and lower temperatures for creation were selected. Mono-disperse lipid nanoparticles were prepared in the size range 77 ± 1 nm to 124 ± 21 nm according to a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and transmission electron

  14. Determination of Unknown Concentrations of Sodium Acetate Using the Method of Standard Addition and Proton NMR: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajabzadeh, Massy

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using…

  15. Study of adsorption of detergent-dispersion additives on solid particles dispersed in oil using the method of electrical conductivity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Waligora, B.; Buczak, H.; Olszewska, A.; Szeglowski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    By measuring electrical conductivity of paraffin oil solutions in isooctane (1:1 by volume) the variation in concentration of detergent-dispersant additives is studied; this variation is caused by their adsorption on solid particles (carbon black, aluminum powder). It is shown that dispersants have an improved ability to undergo adsorption, compared with detergents. Studies of adsorption of additives on model sorbents may be used to develop tests for evaluating additive properties. 7 references, 4 figures.

  16. Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry: Noise characteristics of aerosols, application of generalized standard additions method, and Mach disk as an emission source

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Shen

    1995-10-06

    This dissertation is focused on three problem areas in the performance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. The noise characteristics of aerosols produced by ICP nebulizers are investigated. A laser beam is scattered by aerosol and detected by a photomultiplier tube and the noise amplitude spectrum of the scattered radiation is measured by a spectrum analyzer. Discrete frequency noise in the aerosol generated by a Meinhard nebulizer or a direct injection nebulizer is primarily caused by pulsation in the liquid flow from the pump. A Scott-type spray chamber suppresses white noise, while a conical, straight-pass spray chamber enhances white noise, relative to the noise seen from the primary aerosol. Simultaneous correction for both spectral interferences and matrix effects in ICP atomic emission spectrometry (AES) can be accomplished by using the generalized standard additions method (GSAM). Results obtained with the application of the GSAM to the Perkin-Elmer Optima 3000 ICP atomic emission spectrometer are presented. The echelle-based polychromator with segmented-array charge-coupled device detectors enables the direct, visual examination of the overlapping lines Cd (1) 228.802 nm and As (1) 228.812 nm. The slit translation capability allows a large number of data points to be sampled, therefore, the advantage of noise averaging is gained. An ICP is extracted into a small quartz vacuum chamber through a sampling orifice in a water-cooled copper plate. Optical emission from the Mach disk region is measured with a new type of echelle spectrometer equipped with two segmented-array charge-coupled-device detectors, with an effort to improve the detection limits for simultaneous multielement analysis by ICP-AES.

  17. Predicting tree species presence and basal area in Utah: A comparison of stochastic gradient boosting, generalized additive models, and tree-based methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moisen, G.G.; Freeman, E.A.; Blackard, J.A.; Frescino, T.S.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Edwards, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Many efforts are underway to produce broad-scale forest attribute maps by modelling forest class and structure variables collected in forest inventories as functions of satellite-based and biophysical information. Typically, variants of classification and regression trees implemented in Rulequest's?? See5 and Cubist (for binary and continuous responses, respectively) are the tools of choice in many of these applications. These tools are widely used in large remote sensing applications, but are not easily interpretable, do not have ties with survey estimation methods, and use proprietary unpublished algorithms. Consequently, three alternative modelling techniques were compared for mapping presence and basal area of 13 species located in the mountain ranges of Utah, USA. The modelling techniques compared included the widely used See5/Cubist, generalized additive models (GAMs), and stochastic gradient boosting (SGB). Model performance was evaluated using independent test data sets. Evaluation criteria for mapping species presence included specificity, sensitivity, Kappa, and area under the curve (AUC). Evaluation criteria for the continuous basal area variables included correlation and relative mean squared error. For predicting species presence (setting thresholds to maximize Kappa), SGB had higher values for the majority of the species for specificity and Kappa, while GAMs had higher values for the majority of the species for sensitivity. In evaluating resultant AUC values, GAM and/or SGB models had significantly better results than the See5 models where significant differences could be detected between models. For nine out of 13 species, basal area prediction results for all modelling techniques were poor (correlations less than 0.5 and relative mean squared errors greater than 0.8), but SGB provided the most stable predictions in these instances. SGB and Cubist performed equally well for modelling basal area for three species with moderate prediction success

  18. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  19. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  20. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  1. Micromeritics and release behaviours of cellulose acetate butyrate microspheres containing theophylline prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation and emulsion non-solvent addition method.

    PubMed

    Jelvehgari, Mitra; Atapour, Fatemeh; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2009-07-01

    The present research work compares the effect of microsphere preparation technique on micromeritics and release behaviors of theophylline microspheres. Microspheres were prepared by oil-in oil (O(1)/O(2)) emulsion solvent evaporation method (ESE) using different ratios of anhydrous theophylline to cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB). Cyclohexane was used as non-solvent to modify the ESE technique (MESE method) and the effect of non-solvent volume on properties of microspheres was investigated. The obtained microspheres were analyzed in terms of drug content, particle size and encapsulation efficiency. The morphology of microsphere was studied using scanning electron microscope. The solid state of microspheres, theophylline and CAB were investigated using X-ray, FT-IR and DSC. The drug content of microspheres prepared by MESE method was significantly lower (15.54% +/- 0.46) than microspheres prepared by ESE method (41.08 +/- 0.40%). The results showed that as the amount of cyclohexane was increased from 2 mL to 6 mL the drug content of microspheres was increased from 15.54% to 28.71%. Higher encapsulation efficiencies were obtained for microspheres prepared by ESE method (95.87%) in comparison with MESE method (64.71%). Mean particle size of microsphere prepared by ESE method was not remarkably affected by drug to polymer ratio, whereas in MSES method when the volume of cyclohexane was increased the mean particle size of microsphere was significantly decreased. The ratio of drug to polymer significantly changed the rate of drug release from microspheres and the highest drug release was obtained for the microsphere with high drug to polymer ratio. The amount of cyclohexane did not significantly change the drug release. Although, x-ray showed a small change in crystallinity of theophylline in microspheres, DSC results proved that theophylline in microspheres is in amorphous state. No major chemical interaction between the drug and polymer was reported during the

  2. Grating array systems having a plurality of gratings operative in a coherently additive mode and methods for making such grating array systems

    DOEpatents

    Kessler, Terrance J.; Bunkenburg, Joachim; Huang, Hu

    2007-02-13

    A plurality of gratings (G1, G2) are arranged together with a wavefront sensor, actuators, and feedback system to align the gratings in such a manner, that they operate like a single, large, monolithic grating. Sub-wavelength-scale movements in the mechanical mounting, due to environmental influences, are monitored by an interferometer (28), and compensated by precision actuators (16, 18, 20) that maintain the coherently additive mode. The actuators define the grating plane, and are positioned in response to the wavefronts from the gratings and a reference flat, thus producing the interferogram that contains the alignment information. Movement of the actuators is also in response to a diffraction-limited spot on the CCD (36) to which light diffracted from the gratings is focused. The actuator geometry is implemented to take advantage of the compensating nature of the degrees of freedom between gratings, reducing the number of necessary control variables.

  3. Cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to mussel hemocytes and gill cells in vitro: Influence of synthesis method, crystalline structure, size and additive.

    PubMed

    Katsumiti, Alberto; Berhanu, Deborah; Howard, Kieren T; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Oron, Miriam; Reip, Paul; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the production and applications of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has led to grow concerns about the consequences for the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of a set of TiO2 NPs on the viability of mussel hemocytes and gill cells using neutral red and thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide assays. For this, we compared the cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs (0.1-100 mg Ti/L) produced by different techniques: rutile NPs (60 nm) produced by milling and containing disodium laureth sulfosuccinate (DSLS), rutile NPs (10, 40 and 60 nm) produced by wet chemistry and anatase/rutile NPs (∼100 nm) produced by plasma synthesis. The commercially available P25 anatase/rutile NPs (10-20 nm) were also tested. Exposures were performed in parallel with their respective bulk forms and the cytotoxicity of the additive DSLS was also tested. Z potential values in distilled water indicated different stabilities depending on the NP type and all NPs tested formed agglomerates/aggregates in cell culture media. In general, TiO2 NPs showed a relatively low and dose-dependent toxicity for both cell models with the two assays tested. NPs produced by milling showed the highest effects, probably due to the toxicity of DSLS. Size-dependent toxicity was found for NPs produced by wet chemistry (10 nm > 40 nm and 60 nm). All TiO2 NPs tested were more toxic than bulk forms excepting for plasma produced ones, which were the least toxic TiO2 tested. The mixture bulk anatase/rutile TiO2 was more toxic than bulk rutile TiO2. In conclusion, the toxicity of TiO2 NPs varied with the mode of synthesis, crystalline structure and size of NPs and can also be influenced by the presence of additives in the suspensions.

  4. Improvement in the prediction of the translation initiation site through balancing methods, inclusion of acquired knowledge and addition of features to sequences of mRNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The accurate prediction of the initiation of translation in sequences of mRNA is an important activity for genome annotation. However, obtaining an accurate prediction is not always a simple task and can be modeled as a problem of classification between positive sequences (protein codifiers) and negative sequences (non-codifiers). The problem is highly imbalanced because each molecule of mRNA has a unique translation initiation site and various others that are not initiators. Therefore, this study focuses on the problem from the perspective of balancing classes and we present an undersampling balancing method, M-clus, which is based on clustering. The method also adds features to sequences and improves the performance of the classifier through the inclusion of knowledge obtained by the model, called InAKnow. Results Through this methodology, the measures of performance used (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and adjusted accuracy) are greater than 93% for the Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus organisms, and varied between 72.97% and 97.43% for the other organisms evaluated: Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, Nasonia vitripennis. The precision increases significantly by 39% and 22.9% for Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus, respectively, when the knowledge obtained by the model is included. For the other organisms, the precision increases by between 37.10% and 59.49%. The inclusion of certain features during training, for example, the presence of ATG in the upstream region of the Translation Initiation Site, improves the rate of sensitivity by approximately 7%. Using the M-Clus balancing method generates a significant increase in the rate of sensitivity from 51.39% to 91.55% (Mus musculus) and from 47.45% to 88.09% (Rattus norvegicus). Conclusions In order to solve the problem of TIS prediction, the results indicate that the methodology proposed in this work is adequate, particularly when using the

  5. An enhanced plant lipidomics method based on multiplexed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals additional insights into cold- and drought-induced membrane remodeling.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Pablo; Feussner, Kirstin; Feussner, Ivo

    2015-11-01

    Within the lipidome of plants a few bulk molecular species hamper the detection of the rest, which are present at relatively low levels. In addition, low-abundance species are often masked by numerous isobaric interferences, such as those caused by isoelemental species and isotopologues. This scenario not only means that minor species are underrepresented, but also leads to potential misidentifications and limits the structural information gathered by lipidomics approaches. In order to overcome these limitations we have developed a multiplexed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry lipidomics platform able to achieve an enhanced coverage of plant lipidomes. The platform is based on a single extraction step followed by a series of ultra-performance liquid chromatography separations. Post-column flow is then directed to both a triple quadrupole analyzer for targeted profiling and a time-of-flight analyzer for accurate mass analysis. As a proof of concept, plants were subjected to cold or drought, which are known to trigger widespread remodeling events in plant cell membranes. Analysis of the leaf lipidome yielded 393 molecular species within 23 different lipid classes. This enhanced coverage allowed us to identify lipid molecular species and even classes that are altered upon stress, allowing hypotheses on role of glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPC), steryl glycosides (SG) and acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) in drought stress to be addressed and confirming the findings from numerous previous studies with a single, wide-ranging lipidomics approach. This extended our knowledge on membrane remodeling during the drought response, integrating sphingolipids and sterol lipids into the current glycerolipid-based model.

  6. Addition of fumaric acid and sodium benzoate as an alternative method to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Comes, Justin E; Beelman, Robert B

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preservative treatment capable of the Food and Drug Administration-mandated 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider. Unpreserved apple cider was treated with generally recognized as safe acidulants and preservatives before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 in test tubes and subjected to mild heat treatments (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) followed by refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). Fumaric acid had significant (P < 0.05) bactericidal effect when added to cider at 0.10% (wt/vol) and adjusted to pH 3.3, but citric and malic acid had no effect. Strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.96) between increasing undissociated fumaric acid concentrations and increasing log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider indicated the undissociated acid to be the bactericidal form. The treatment that achieved the 5-log reduction in three commercial ciders was the addition of fumaric acid (0.15%, wt/vol) and sodium benzoate (0.05%, wt/vol) followed by holding at 25 degrees C for 6 h before 24 h of refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Subsequent experiments revealed that the same preservatives added to cider in flasks resulted in a more than 5-log reduction in less than 5 and 2 h when held at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The treatment also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced total aerobic counts in commercial ciders to populations less than those of pasteurized and raw ciders from the same source (after 5 and 21 days of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C, respectively). Sensory evaluation of the same ciders revealed that consumers found the preservative-treated cider to be acceptable.

  7. Enhanced salt-removal percentage in capacitive deionization with addition of ion-exchange membrane using carbon electrode synthesized with freezing thawing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Intan Permata; Endarko

    2016-04-01

    Ion-exchange membrane technology has shown a great potential to enhance the desalting efficiency. Ion-exchange membranes are placed in front of the electrodes so that the charged ions can be selectively passed through the membrane layer and captured by the oppositely charged electrode more quickly, so as to increase the efficiency of desalination. In this research, carbon electrodes have been synthesized from an activated carbon (700 - 1400 m2/g) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a binder using freezing thawing method. A solution with 180 µS/cm NaCl was pumped to the capacitive deionization (CDI) cell using a Boyu Submersible pump (model SP-601) at a flow rate of 25 mL/min and the voltage was set at 2 V. The result showed that the CDI cell with ion-exchange membrane (MCDI) has the salt removal efficiency greater than the CDI cell without ion-exchange membrane. The salt-removal percentage of MCDI was achieved at 66.36%, meanwhile the CDI cell without ion-exchange membrane resulted in 54.4%.

  8. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  9. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition reference values of limbs and trunk from NHANES 1999–2004 with additional visualization methods

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bo; Ng, Bennett K.; Shepherd, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Body Mass Index has traditionally been used as a measure of health, but Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Lean Mass Index (LMI) have been shown to be more predictive of mortality and health risk. Total body FMI and LMI reference curves have particularly been useful in quantifying sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Research has shown regional composition has significant associations to health outcomes. We derived FMI and LMI reference curves of the regions of the body (leg, arm, and trunk) for 15,908 individuals in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for each sex and ethnicity using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method and developed software to visualize this regional composition. These reference curves displayed differentiation between males and females during puberty and sharper limb LMI declines during late adulthood for males. For adults ages 30–50, females had 39%, 83%, and 47% larger arm, leg, and trunk FMI values than males, respectively. Males had 49%, 20%, and 15% higher regional LMI values than females for the arms, legs, and trunk respectively. The leg FMI and LMI of black females were 14% and 15% higher respectively than those of Hispanic and white females. White and Hispanic males had 37% higher trunk FMI values than black males. Hispanic females had 20% higher trunk FMI than white and black females. These data underscore the importance of accounting for sex and ethnicity in studies of regional composition. This study is the first to produce regional LMI and FMI reference tables and curves from the NHANES dataset. These reference curves provide a framework useful in studies and research involving sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, and other studies of compositional phenotypes. Further, the software tool we provide for visualizing regional composition will prove useful in monitoring progress in physical therapy, diets, or other attempts to attain healthier compositions. PMID:28346492

  10. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition reference values of limbs and trunk from NHANES 1999-2004 with additional visualization methods.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Benjamin J; Fan, Bo; Ng, Bennett K; Shepherd, John A

    2017-01-01

    Body Mass Index has traditionally been used as a measure of health, but Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Lean Mass Index (LMI) have been shown to be more predictive of mortality and health risk. Total body FMI and LMI reference curves have particularly been useful in quantifying sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Research has shown regional composition has significant associations to health outcomes. We derived FMI and LMI reference curves of the regions of the body (leg, arm, and trunk) for 15,908 individuals in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for each sex and ethnicity using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method and developed software to visualize this regional composition. These reference curves displayed differentiation between males and females during puberty and sharper limb LMI declines during late adulthood for males. For adults ages 30-50, females had 39%, 83%, and 47% larger arm, leg, and trunk FMI values than males, respectively. Males had 49%, 20%, and 15% higher regional LMI values than females for the arms, legs, and trunk respectively. The leg FMI and LMI of black females were 14% and 15% higher respectively than those of Hispanic and white females. White and Hispanic males had 37% higher trunk FMI values than black males. Hispanic females had 20% higher trunk FMI than white and black females. These data underscore the importance of accounting for sex and ethnicity in studies of regional composition. This study is the first to produce regional LMI and FMI reference tables and curves from the NHANES dataset. These reference curves provide a framework useful in studies and research involving sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, and other studies of compositional phenotypes. Further, the software tool we provide for visualizing regional composition will prove useful in monitoring progress in physical therapy, diets, or other attempts to attain healthier compositions.

  11. The limitations of tissue-oxygen measurement and positron emission tomography as additional methods for postoperative breast reconstruction free-flap monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schrey, Aleksi; Niemi, Tarja; Kinnunen, Ilpo; Minn, Heikki; Vahlberg, Tero; Kalliokoski, Kari; Suominen, Erkki; Grénman, Reidar; Aitasalo, Kalle

    2010-02-01

    Twelve patients who underwent breast reconstruction with a microvascular flap were monitored postoperatively with continuous partial tissue oxygenation (p(ti)O(2)) measurement. The regional blood flow (BF) of the entire flap was evaluated with positron emission tomography (PET) using oxygen-15-labelled water on the first postoperative (POP) morning to achieve data of the perfusion of the entire flap. A re-exploration was carried out if the p(ti)O(2) value remained lower than 15 mmHg for over 30 min. The mean p(ti)O(2) value of the flaps was 52.9+/-5.5 mmHg, whereas the mean BF values were 3.3+/-1.0 ml per 100 g min(-1). One false-positive result was detected by p(ti)O(2) measurement, resulting in an unnecessary re-exploration. Another re-operation suggested by the low p(ti)O(2) results was avoided due to the normal BF results assessed with PET. Totally, three flaps were re-explored. This prospective study suggests that continuous tissue-oxygen measurement with a polarographic needle probe is reliable for monitoring free breast flaps from one part of the flap, but assessing perfusion of the entire flap requires more complex monitoring methods, for example, PET. Clinical examination by experienced personnel remains important in free-breast-flap monitoring. PET could be useful in assessing free-flap perfusion in selected high-risk patients as an alternative to a re-operation when clinical examination and evaluation by other means are unreliable or present controversial results.

  12. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  13. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  14. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  15. Method for promoting Michael addition reactions

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Pankaj V.; Vietti, David E.; Whitman, David William

    2010-09-21

    Homogeneously dispersed solid reaction promoters having an average particle size from 0.01 .mu.m to 500 .mu.m are disclosed for preparing curable mixtures of at least one Michael donor and at least one Michael acceptor. The resulting curable mixtures are useful as coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers.

  16. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  17. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  18. Oxidation stability of biodiesel fuels and blends using the Rancimat and PetroOXY methods. Effect of 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol and catechol as biodiesel additives on oxidation stability

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Lucía; Bimbela, Fernando; Martín, Lorena; Arauzo, Jesús; Sánchez, José L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, several fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) have been synthesized from various fatty acid feedstocks: used frying olive oil, pork fat, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, and coconut. The oxidation stabilities of the biodiesel samples and of several blends have been measured simultaneously by both the Rancimat method, accepted by EN14112 standard, and the PetroOXY method, prEN16091 standard, with the aim of finding a correlation between both methodologies. Other biodiesel properties such as composition, cold filter plugging point (CFPP), flash point (FP), and kinematic viscosity have also been analyzed using standard methods in order to further characterize the biodiesel produced. In addition, the effect on the biodiesel properties of using 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol and catechol as additives in biodiesel blends with rapeseed and with soybean has also been analyzed. The use of both antioxidants results in a considerable improvement in the oxidation stability of both types of biodiesel, especially using catechol. Adding catechol loads as low as 0.05% (m/m) in blends with soybean biodiesel and as low as 0.10% (m/m) in blends with rapeseed biodiesel is sufficient for the oxidation stabilities to comply with the restrictions established by the European EN14214 standard. An empirical linear equation is proposed to correlate the oxidation stability by the two methods, PetroOXY and Rancimat. It has been found that the presence of either catechol or 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol as additives affects the correlation observed. PMID:25101258

  19. Oxidation stability of biodiesel fuels and blends using the Rancimat and PetroOXY methods. Effect of 4-allyl-2,6-dimetoxiphenol and cathecol as biodiesel additives on oxidation stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botella, Lucía; Bimbela, Fernando; Martín, Lorena; Arauzo, Jesús; Sanchez, Jose Luis

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, several fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) have been synthesized from various fatty acid feedstocks: used frying olive oil, pork fat, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower and coconut. The oxidation stabilities of the biodiesel samples and of several blends have been measured simultaneously by both the Rancimat method, accepted by EN14112 standard, and the PetroOXY method, prEN16091 standard, with the aim of finding a correlation between both methodologies. Other biodiesel properties such as composition, cold filter plugging point (CFPP), flash point (FP) and kinematic viscosity have also been analyzed using standard methods in order to further characterize the biodiesel produced. In addition, the effect on the biodiesel properties of using 4-allyl-2,6-dimetoxiphenol and cathecol as additives in biodiesel blends with rapeseed and with soybean has also been analyzed. The use of both antioxidants results in a considerable improvement in the oxidation stability of both types of biodiesel, especially using cathecol. Adding cathecol loads as low as 0.05 % (m/m) in blends with soybean biodiesel and as low as 0.10 % (m/m) in blends with rapeseed biodiesel is sufficient for the oxidation stabilities to comply with the restrictions established by the European EN14214 standard.An empirical linear equation is proposed to correlate the oxidation stability by the two methods, PetroOXY and Rancimat. It has been found that the presence of either cathecol or 4-allyl-2,6-dimetoxiphenol as additives affects the correlation observed.

  20. Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio. PMID:24584480

  1. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  2. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  3. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  4. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  5. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  6. Facile and Promising Method for Michael Addition of Indole and Pyrrole to Electron-Deficient trans-β-Nitroolefins Catalyzed by a Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalyst Feist's Acid and Preliminary Study of Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al Majid, Abdullah M. A.; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H. M.; Naushad, Mu.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperative hydrogen-bonding effects has been demonstrated using novel 3-methylenecyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (Feist's acid (FA)) as hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the addition of indole and pyrrole to trans-β-nitrostyrene derivatives. Because of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) ability, Feist's acid (FA) has been introduced as a new class of hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the activation of nitroolefin towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. It has effectively catalyzed the Michael addition of indoles and pyrrole to β-nitroolefins under optimum reaction condition to furnish the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields (up to 98%). The method is general, atom-economical, convenient, and eco-friendly and could provide excellent yields and regioselectivities. Some newly synthesized compounds were for examined in vitro antimicrobial activity and their preliminary results are reported. PMID:24574906

  7. Facile and promising method for michael addition of indole and pyrrole to electron-deficient trans-β-nitroolefins catalyzed by a hydrogen bond donor catalyst Feist's acid and preliminary study of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Al Majid, Abdullah M A; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H M; Naushad, Mu

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperative hydrogen-bonding effects has been demonstrated using novel 3-methylenecyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (Feist's acid (FA)) as hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the addition of indole and pyrrole to trans-β-nitrostyrene derivatives. Because of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) ability, Feist's acid (FA) has been introduced as a new class of hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the activation of nitroolefin towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. It has effectively catalyzed the Michael addition of indoles and pyrrole to β-nitroolefins under optimum reaction condition to furnish the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields (up to 98%). The method is general, atom-economical, convenient, and eco-friendly and could provide excellent yields and regioselectivities. Some newly synthesized compounds were for examined in vitro antimicrobial activity and their preliminary results are reported.

  8. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  9. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  13. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  14. EMC Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has information about recent changes to promulgated and proposed test methods, perfomance specifications, and quality assurance procedures. It also includes updates and changes to all other approved and proposed test methods.

  15. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  16. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  17. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  18. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  19. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  20. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  1. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  2. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  3. Ecotoxicity of cadmium in a soil collembolan-predatory mite food chain: Can we use the (15)N labeled litter addition method to assess soil functional change?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong; Ke, Xin; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-12-01

    Effects of cadmium (Cd) on predator-prey relationships and soil ecological function are poorly understood and there are few methods available to measure soil functional change. Thus, we structured a soil-dwelling food chain containing the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and its collembolan prey Folsomia candida to study the effects of Cd exposure for eight weeks in a spiked soil aged for five years. The (15)N labeled litter was added as food to analyze the change in nitrogen (N) transfer content. H. aculeifer reproduction and growth and the survival and reproduction of F. candida were all negatively affected by Cd exposure, and H. aculeifer reproduction was the most sensitive parameter. The sensitivity responses of F. candida and H. aculeifer were different from those using the previous single species test. The results suggest that predator-prey interactions might influence the toxicity of Cd by predation and food restriction. Cadmium lethal body concentrations of adults and juveniles of F. candida and H. aculeifer juveniles were 500-600, 180-270 and 8-10 μg g(-1), respectively. The content of N transfer from litter to animals in the food chain decreased significantly with increasing soil Cd concentration between 100 and 400 mg kg(-1). The results suggest that the (15)N labeled litter addition method is potentially useful for quantitative assessment of soil functional change for further risk assessment purposes.

  4. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  5. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  6. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  7. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  8. Rationale, design and methods of the Study of Work and Pain (SWAP): a cluster randomised controlled trial testing the addition of a vocational advice service to best current primary care for patients with musculoskeletal pain (ISRCTN 52269669)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain is a major contributor to short and long term work absence. Patients seek care from their general practitioner (GP) and yet GPs often feel ill-equipped to deal with work issues. Providing a vocational case management service in primary care, to support patients with musculoskeletal problems to remain at or return to work, is one potential solution but requires robust evaluation to test clinical and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design This protocol describes a cluster randomised controlled trial, with linked qualitative interviews, to investigate the effect of introducing a vocational advice service into general practice, to provide a structured approach to managing work related issues in primary care patients with musculoskeletal pain who are absent from work or struggling to remain in work. General practices (n = 6) will be randomised to offer best current care or best current care plus a vocational advice service. Adults of working age who are absent from or struggling to remain in work due to a musculoskeletal pain problem will be invited to participate and 330 participants will be recruited. Data collection will be through patient completed questionnaires at baseline, 4 and 12 months. The primary outcome is self-reported work absence at 4 months. Incremental cost-utility analysis will be undertaken to calculate the cost per additional QALY gained and incremental net benefits. A linked interview study will explore the experiences of the vocational advice service from the perspectives of GPs, nurse practitioners (NPs), patients and vocational advisors. Discussion This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Study of Work And Pain (SWAP) trial. The results of this trial will provide evidence to inform primary care practice and guide the development of services to provide support for musculoskeletal pain patients with work-related issues. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52269669. PMID:25012813

  9. Effect of SiO2 addition on photocatalytic activity, water contact angle and mechanical stability of visible light activated TiO2 thin films applied on stainless steel by a sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Mansour; Saghafian, Hasan; Golestani-Fard, Farhad; Barati, Nastaran; Khanahmadi, Amirhossein

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured N doped TiO2/20%SiO2 thin films were developed on steel surface via sol gel method using a painting airbrush. Thin films then were calcined at various temperatures in a range of 400-600 °C. The effect of SiO2 addition on phase composition and microstructural evolution of N doped TiO2 films were studied using XRD and FESEM. Optical properties, visible light photocatalytic activity, hydrophilic behavior, and mechanical behavior of the films were also investigated by DRS, methylene blue degradation, water contact angle measurements, and nanoscratch testing. Results indicated that the band gap energy of N doped TiO2/SiO2 was increased from 2.93 to 3.09 eV. Crack formation during calcination was also significantly promoted in the composite films. All composite films demonstrated weaker visible light photocatalytic activities and lower mechanical stability in comparison with N doped TiO2 films. Moreover, the N doped TiO2/SiO2 film calcined at 600 °C showed undesirable hydrophilic behavior with a water contact angle of 57° after 31 h of visible light irradiation. Outcomes of the present study reveal some different results to previous reports on TiO2/SiO2 films. In general, we believe the differences in substrate material as well as application in visible light are the main reasons for the above mentioned contradiction.

  10. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  11. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  12. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  13. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  14. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  15. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  16. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  17. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  18. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  19. THERMOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION OF ANTI-ABRASIVE OIL ADDITIVES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTISEIZE COMPOUNDS, *LUBRICANT ADDITIVES, *LUBRICANTS, ADDITIVES, ALKYL RADICALS, CHLORIDES, ETHYLENES, HEXANES (6 C), HYDROCARBONS, IRON, PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, POWDER METALS, SULFIDES, TEST METHODS, TRANSLATIONS

  20. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  1. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  2. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Update and Additions to the Determination of Chloroacetanilide Herbicide Degradation Compounds in Water Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, E.A.; Kish, J.L.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.

    2001-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1999 for the analysis of selected chloroacetanilide herbicide degradation compounds in water. These compounds were acetochlor ethane sulfonic acid (ESA), acetochlor oxanilic acid (OXA), alachlor ESA, alachlor OXA, metolachlor ESA, and metolachlor OXA. The HPLC/MS method was updated in 2000, and the method detection limits were modified accordingly. Four other degradation compounds also were added to the list of compounds that can be analyzed using HPLC/MS; these compounds were dimethenamid ESA, dimethenamid OXA, flufenacet ESA, and flufenacet OXA. Except for flufenacet OXA, good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for the updated HPLC/MS method in buffered reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The mean HPLC/MS recoveries of the degradation compounds from water samples spiked at 0.20 and 1.0 ?g/L (microgram per liter) ranged from 75 to 114 percent, with relative standard deviations of 15.8 percent or less for all compounds except flufenacet OXA, which had relative standard deviations ranging from 11.3 to 48.9 percent. Method detection levels (MDL's) using the updated HPLC/MS method varied from 0.009 to 0.045 ?g/L, with the flufenacet OXA MDL at 0.072 ?g/L. The updated HPLC/MS method is valuable for acquiring information about the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water.

  3. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  4. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method extension to quantify simultaneously melamine and cyanuric acid in egg powder and soy protein in addition to milk products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Mondal, Ana Mary; Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Konings, Erik; Acheson-Shalom, Ruth; Delatour, Thierry

    2010-11-24

    As a consequence of the adulteration of infant formulas and milk powders with melamine (MEL) in China in 2008, much attention has been devoted to the analysis of MEL [and cyanuric acid (CA)] in dairy products. Several methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or Raman spectroscopy have been described in the literature. However, no method is available for the simultaneous determination of MEL and CA in other raw materials, which are considered as high-risk materials for economically motivated adulteration. The present paper reports the results of an interlaboratory-based performance evaluation conducted with seven laboratories worldwide. The purpose was to demonstrate the ability of a cleanup-free LC-MS/MS method, originally developed for cow's milk and milk-powdered infant formula, to quantify MEL and CA in egg powder and soy protein. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg for MEL in egg powder and soy protein, respectively. For CA, LOD and LOQ were 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg in egg powder and 1.0 and 1.50 mg/kg in soy protein, respectively. Recoveries ranged within a 97-113% range for both MEL and CA in egg powder and soy protein. Reproducibility values (RSD(R)) from seven laboratories were within a 5.4-11.7% range for both analytes in the considered matrices. Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values between 0.4 and 0.7 indicate acceptable among-laboratory precision for the method described.

  5. Effects of MgO and Al2O3 Addition on Redox State of Chromium in CaO-SiO2-CrO x Slag System by XPS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-jun; Yu, Ji-peng; Chou, Kuo-chih; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2015-08-01

    The effects of MgO and Al2O3 on the redox state of chromium in CaO-SiO2-CrO x system have been investigated at 1873 K (1600 °C) under Ar-CO-CO2 atmosphere and analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. From the analysis of the Cr 2p core level spectra, it was found that both Cr(II) and Cr(III) exist simultaneously in CaO-MgO/Al2O3-SiO2-CrO x , and the quantitative ratio Cr(II)/Cr(III) has been obtained by deducing from the area under the computer-resolved peaks. Substitutions of CaO by MgO, SiO2 by Al2O3 favored the Cr(II) state existing in the system in the composition ranges of 3 to 10 wt pct MgO and 5 to 20 pct Al2O3. Meanwhile, from the analysis of the O1s spectra in CaO-MgO-SiO2-CrO x , it was found that the ratio of the non-bridging oxygen content increased first due to the CrO contribution to the electron distribution uniformly as O- at MgO low content. Afterward, it went to decreasing with continuing addition of MgO because ionic contribution of MgO is less than that of CaO and the influence of the CrO clustering on the non-Bridging oxygen is limited due to only 5 wt pct CrO x . In CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CrO x system, Cr(II) acts as a network modifier to compensate Al3+ charge balance to make the structure stable, so the non-bridge oxygen in this system continues decreasing.

  6. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  7. Abstraction and addition kinetics of C2H radicals with CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C2H4, and C3H6: CVT/SCT/ISPE and hybrid meta-DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Dash, Manas Ranjan; Rajakumar, B

    2015-02-07

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of C2H radicals with methane (k1), ethane (k2), propane (k3), ethylene (k4), and propylene (k5) were computed using canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) coupled with hybrid-meta density functional theory (DFT) over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 5000 K. The quantum chemical tunneling effect was corrected by the small curvature tunneling (SCT) method. The dynamic calculations are performed using the variational transition state theory (VTST) with the interpolated single-point energies (ISPE) method at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations were performed to verify that the transition states are connected to the reactants and products. The rate coefficients obtained over the studied temperature range yield the following Arrhenius expressions (cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k1 = 4.69 × 10(-19)T(2.44) exp[331/T], k2 = 4.29 × 10(-17)T(2.11) exp[432/T], k3 = 4.81 × 10(-17)T(1.98) exp[697/T], k4 = 7.54 × 10(-21)T(2.96) exp[1942/T], and k5 = 8.04 × 10(-23)T(3.44) exp[3011/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Branching ratio calculation for the reactions of C2H radicals with ethylene and propylene shows that the abstraction reactions are not important at lower temperatures. However, as the temperature increases, abstraction reactions become more important.

  8. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  9. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  10. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  11. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  12. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  13. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  14. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performance computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.

  15. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; ...

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performancemore » computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.« less

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  17. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry... determine the rates of emission of HCl from kilns and associated bypass stacks at portland cement... emission of specific organic HAP from raw material dryers, and kilns at Portland cement...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Monitoring and... rates of emission of HCl from kilns and associated bypass stacks at portland cement manufacturing... specific organic HAP from raw material dryers, kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills at Portland...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry... determine the rates of emission of HCl from kilns and associated bypass stacks at portland cement... emission of specific organic HAP from raw material dryers, and kilns at Portland cement...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Monitoring and... rates of emission of HCl from kilns and associated bypass stacks at portland cement manufacturing... specific organic HAP from raw material dryers, kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills at Portland...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Monitoring and... bypass stacks at portland cement manufacturing facilities, for use in applicability determinations under... kiln/raw mills and associated bypass stacks at portland cement manufacturing facilities, for use...

  3. 46 CFR 111.105-15 - Additional methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Each item of electrical equipment that is— (a) A powder-filled apparatus must meet IEC 60079-5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1); (b) An oil-immersed apparatus must meet either IEC 79-6...; see 46 CFR 110.10-1); (c) Type of protection “e” must meet IEC 60079-7 (incorporated by reference;...

  4. 10 CFR 2.705 - Discovery-additional methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... outweighs its likely benefit, taking into account the needs of the proceeding, the parties' resources, the... provided by 10 CFR 73.57; and (iii) The NRC Office of Administration has found, based upon a background... determinations based on criminal history records checks, the Office of Administration must take the...

  5. Volume 3a - Area Source Methods - Additional Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nonpoint (area) source emission reference materials from the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP). Provides nonpoint source guidance on ammonia emissions from natural landscapes, fertilized soils, and nonagricultural sources.

  6. Addition of molecular methods to mutation studies with Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.R. )

    1989-01-01

    For 80 years, Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a major tool in analyzing Mendelian genetics. By using chromosome inversions that suppress crossing over, geneticists have developed a large number of stocks for mutation analysis. These stocks permit numerous tests for specific locus mutations, lethals at multiple loci on any chromosome, chromosome exchanges, insertions, and deletions. The entire genome can be manipulated for a degree of genetic control not found in other germ-line systems. Recombinant DNA techniques now permit analysis of mutations to the nucleotide level. By combining classical genetic analysis with recombinant DNA techniques, it is possible to analyze mutations that range from chromosome aberrations and multilocus deficiencies to single nucleotide transitions.

  7. Addition of molecular methods to mutation studies with Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lee, W R

    1989-01-01

    For 80 years, Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a major tool in analyzing Mendelian genetics. By using chromosome inversions that suppress crossing over, geneticists have developed a large number of stocks for mutation analysis. These stocks permit numerous tests for specific locus mutations, lethals at multiple loci on any chromosome, chromosome exchanges, insertions, and deletions. The entire genome can be manipulated for a degree of genetic control not found in other germ-line systems. Recombinant DNA techniques now permit analysis of mutations to the nucleotide level. By combining classical genetic analysis with recombinant DNA techniques, it is possible to analyze mutations that range from chromosome aberrations and multilocus deficiencies to single nucleotide transitions.

  8. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  9. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  10. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  11. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  12. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  13. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.

    1996-01-01

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to bout 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution.

  14. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.

    1996-12-10

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution. 4 figs.

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  17. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  18. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Morrison, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  19. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  20. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  1. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  2. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  3. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  4. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  5. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  7. Addition of polyhaloalkanes to 1-vinylsilatrane

    SciTech Connect

    Voronkov, M.G.; Petukhov, L.P.; Adamovich, S.N.; Baryshok, V.P.; Rakhlin, V.I.; Shterenberg, B.Z.; Mirskov, R.G.

    1987-07-20

    In their previous work, they showed that the homolytic reaction of 1-allylsilatrane with polyhaloalkanes gives 1-halosilatranes. In the present work, they discovered the addition of polyhaloalkanes to 1-vinylsilatranes both upon photochemical initiation and in the presence of peroxides. The ease of this reaction, its regiospecificity and high product yields permit them to recommend it as a preparative method for the synthesis of 1-polyhaloalkylsilatranes.

  8. Thermal Response of an Additive Manufactured Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tong; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Wang, Hsin; Ozpineci, Burak; Ayers, Curtis William

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the impacts of abnormal thermal property introduced by additive manufacture has been analysis based on simulation and experiment of a 3D printed liquid-cooled heat sink. Comparisons to the heat sink with identical geometry and conventionally manufactured by Aluminum 6061 are presented. Micro-structure analysis is implemented and solutions to eliminate the impacts by different manufacture methods are proposed.

  9. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  10. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  11. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  12. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  13. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  14. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  15. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  16. Responses to additional JAPC questions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, T.M.

    1998-02-03

    The goals are to improve performance and reduce costs; the variables tested are fuel fabrication and assembly tolerances and cladding materials. Significant results are: goal lifetimes achieved; D9/HT9 alloys superior--reduced swelling potential duct mechanical attachment methods viable; test performance per design predictions.

  17. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  18. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  19. Additive and Photochemical Manufacturing of Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Meng, Zhengong; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, 3D printing technologies have been extensively developed, enabling rapid prototyping from a conceptual design to an actual product. However, additive manufacturing of metals in the existing technologies is still cost-intensive and time-consuming. Herein a novel platform for low-cost additive manufacturing is introduced by simultaneously combining the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) method with photochemical reaction. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer as the sacrificial layer, sufficient ejection momentum can be generated in the LIFT method. A low-cost continuous wave (CW) laser diode at 405 nm was utilized and proved to be able to transfer the photochemically synthesized copper onto the target substrate. The wavelength-dependent photochemical behaviour in the LIFT method was verified and characterized by both theoretical and experimental studies compared to 1064 nm fiber laser. The conductivity of the synthesized copper patterns could be enhanced using post electroless plating while retaining the designed pattern shapes. Prototypes of electronic circuits were accordingly built and demonstrated for powering up LEDs. Apart from pristine PDMS materials with low surface energies, the proposed method can simultaneously perform laser-induced forward transfer and photochemical synthesis of metals, starting from their metal oxide forms, onto various target substrates such as polyimide, glass and thermoplastics.

  20. Additive and Photochemical Manufacturing of Copper

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Meng, Zhengong; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, 3D printing technologies have been extensively developed, enabling rapid prototyping from a conceptual design to an actual product. However, additive manufacturing of metals in the existing technologies is still cost-intensive and time-consuming. Herein a novel platform for low-cost additive manufacturing is introduced by simultaneously combining the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) method with photochemical reaction. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer as the sacrificial layer, sufficient ejection momentum can be generated in the LIFT method. A low-cost continuous wave (CW) laser diode at 405 nm was utilized and proved to be able to transfer the photochemically synthesized copper onto the target substrate. The wavelength-dependent photochemical behaviour in the LIFT method was verified and characterized by both theoretical and experimental studies compared to 1064 nm fiber laser. The conductivity of the synthesized copper patterns could be enhanced using post electroless plating while retaining the designed pattern shapes. Prototypes of electronic circuits were accordingly built and demonstrated for powering up LEDs. Apart from pristine PDMS materials with low surface energies, the proposed method can simultaneously perform laser-induced forward transfer and photochemical synthesis of metals, starting from their metal oxide forms, onto various target substrates such as polyimide, glass and thermoplastics. PMID:28000733

  1. Additive and Photochemical Manufacturing of Copper.

    PubMed

    Yung, Winco K C; Sun, Bo; Meng, Zhengong; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-12-21

    In recent years, 3D printing technologies have been extensively developed, enabling rapid prototyping from a conceptual design to an actual product. However, additive manufacturing of metals in the existing technologies is still cost-intensive and time-consuming. Herein a novel platform for low-cost additive manufacturing is introduced by simultaneously combining the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) method with photochemical reaction. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer as the sacrificial layer, sufficient ejection momentum can be generated in the LIFT method. A low-cost continuous wave (CW) laser diode at 405 nm was utilized and proved to be able to transfer the photochemically synthesized copper onto the target substrate. The wavelength-dependent photochemical behaviour in the LIFT method was verified and characterized by both theoretical and experimental studies compared to 1064 nm fiber laser. The conductivity of the synthesized copper patterns could be enhanced using post electroless plating while retaining the designed pattern shapes. Prototypes of electronic circuits were accordingly built and demonstrated for powering up LEDs. Apart from pristine PDMS materials with low surface energies, the proposed method can simultaneously perform laser-induced forward transfer and photochemical synthesis of metals, starting from their metal oxide forms, onto various target substrates such as polyimide, glass and thermoplastics.

  2. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  3. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  4. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  5. Learning Basic Addition Facts from Choosing between Alternative Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of addition facts was investigated in a practice study. Participants were 103 Grade 1 children who practiced simple addition problems with three different methods: (a) writing down the answer, (b) choosing between two alternative answers, and (c) filling in the second missing addend. On a test with simple addition problems,…

  6. Estimation of additive forces and moments for supersonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Stanley C., Jr.; Dillenius, Marnix F. E.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for estimating the additive forces and moments associated with supersonic, external compression inlets as a function of mass flow ratio has been developed. The technique makes use of a low order supersonic paneling method for calculating minimum additive forces at maximum mass flow conditions. A linear relationship between the minimum additive forces and the maximum values for fully blocked flow is employed to obtain the additive forces at a specified mass flow ratio. The method is applicable to two-dimensional inlets at zero or nonzero angle of attack, and to axisymmetric inlets at zero angle of attack. Comparisons with limited available additive drag data indicate fair to good agreement.

  7. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  8. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  9. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  10. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  11. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  12. The teratology testing of food additives.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  13. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cr(III) and Pb(II) Using Their Complexes with 5,11,17,23-Tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl)(azo)phenyl]calix[4]arene

    PubMed Central

    Van Tan, Le; Quang Hieu, Tran; Van Cuong, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    New complexes of 5,11,17,23-tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl)(azo)phenyl]calix[4]arene (TEAC) with Pb(II) and Cr(III) were prepared in basic solution with a mixture of MeOH and H2O as solvent. The ratio of TEAC and metal ion in complexes was found to be 1 : 1 under investigated condition. The complex formation constants (based on Benesi-Hildebrand method) for TEAC-Pb(II) and TEAC-Cr(III) were 4.03 × 104 and 1.2 × 104, respectively. Additionally, the molar extinction coefficients were 5 × 104 and 1.42 × 104 for TEAC-Pb(II) and TEAC-Cr(III), respectively. The H-Point Standard Addition Method (HPSAM) has been applied for simultaneous determination of complexes formation of Cr(III)/Pb(II) and TEAC with concentration from 2 : 1 to 1 : 20 (w/w). The proposed method was successfully utilized to invest lead and chromium contents in plating wastewater samples. The results for several analyzed samples were found to be in satisfied agreement with those acquired by using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. PMID:25984379

  14. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  15. Detection and identification of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal Schiff-base adducts along with products of Michael addition using data-dependent neutral loss-driven MS3 acquisition: method evaluation through an in vitro study on cytochrome c oxidase modifications.

    PubMed

    Rauniyar, Navin; Prokai, Laszlo

    2009-11-01

    We report a data-dependent neutral-loss-driven MS(3) acquisition to enhance, in addition to abundant Michael adducts, the detection of Schiff-base adducts of proteins and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a reactive end product of lipid peroxidation. In vitro modification of cytochrome c oxidase, a mitochondrial protein complex, was used as a model to evaluate the method. The technique allowed for a confident validation of modification sites and also identified a Schiff-base adduct in subunit Vb of the protein complex.

  16. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.

    1953-01-01

    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  17. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is a food additive? What is a "direct" food additive? What is an 'indirect" food additive? ... convenience foods. [ Top of Page ] What is a “direct” food additive? According to the FDA, “Direct food ...

  18. Additively Manufactured Metals in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Metals produced by additive manufacturing methods, such as Powder Bed Fusion Technology, are now mature enough to be considered for qualification in human spaceflight oxygen systems. The mechanical properties of metals produced through AM processes are being systematically studied. However, it is unknown whether AM metals in oxygen applications may present an increased risk of flammability or ignition as compared to wrought metals of the same metallurgical composition due to increased porosity. Per NASA-STD-6001B materials to be used in oxygen system applications shall be based on flammability and combustion test data, followed by a flammability assessment. Without systematic flammability and ignition testing in oxygen there is no credible method for NASA to accurately evaluate the risk of using AM metals in oxygen systems.

  19. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future.

  20. Additive and subtractive transparent depth displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Frank L.; Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Image fusion is the generally preferred method to combine two or more images for visual display on a single screen. We demonstrate that perceptual image separation may be preferable over perceptual image fusion for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. In this context image separation refers to the simultaneous presentation of images on different depth planes of a single display. Image separation allows the user to recognize the source of the information that is displayed. This can be important because synthetic images are more liable to flaws. We have examined methods to optimize perceptual image separation. A true depth difference between enhanced and synthetic imagery works quite well. A standard stereoscopic display based on convergence is less suitable since the two images tend to interfere: the image behind is masked (occluded) by the image in front, which results in poor viewing comfort. This effect places 3D systems based on 3D glasses, as well as most autostereoscopic displays, at a serious disadvantage. A 3D display based on additive or subtractive transparency is acceptable: both the perceptual separation and the viewing comfort are good, but the color of objects depends on the color in the other depth layer(s). A combined additive and subtractive transparent display eliminates this disadvantage and is most suitable for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. We suggest that the development of such a display system is of a greater practical value than increasing the number of depth planes in autostereoscopic displays.

  1. EU assessment of enterococci as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Becquet, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    Particular micro-organisms such as enterococcal strains are used as probiotics in feed. Observations indicate a positive effect of such strains on the gut flora, especially for young animals or during feed transition phases. This favourable effect is perceived by the farmers as a means of maintenance of the health status of the animals (e.g. less diarrhoea) and results in significant improvement of animal performance. Micro-organisms have been used since the end of the 1980s in animal feeds and were strictly regulated in 1993, when they were introduced under the scope of Council Directive 70/524/EEC of 23 November 1970 on additives in animal nutrition on feed additives. After a transition period, which ended in the year 2000, every microbial strain must now be assessed by the EU bodies and authorised by a Commission Regulation, before it can be placed on the market for use in feedingstuffs. Council Directive 70/524/EEC on feed additives is based on three main principles: (1) pre-market authorisation, (2) positive list principle, and (3) thorough risk assessment of the effect of a particular strain on human and animal health as well as on the environment. Therefore, before introducing a new enterococcal strain preparation or promote a new use of an approved product, a dossier has to be submitted to the authorities, following the guidelines, as published in Commission Directive 94/40/EEC [Commission Directive 94/40/EC of 22 July 1994 amending Council Directive 87/153/EEC fixing guidelines for the assessment of additives in animal nutrition]. These guidelines contain detailed evaluation methods. The safety requirements refer to (1) the target animal categories, (2) the consumer and the environment (presence of toxins and virulence factors as well as antibiotic resistance and transferability are assessed), and (3) the workers, based on requirements of Council Directive 89/391/EEC.

  2. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  3. A Generally Applicable Computer Algorithm Based on the Group Additivity Method for the Calculation of Seven Molecular Descriptors: Heat of Combustion, LogPO/W, LogS, Refractivity, Polarizability, Toxicity and LogBB of Organic Compounds; Scope and Limits of Applicability.

    PubMed

    Naef, Rudolf

    2015-10-07

    A generally applicable computer algorithm for the calculation of the seven molecular descriptors heat of combustion, logPoctanol/water, logS (water solubility), molar refractivity, molecular polarizability, aqueous toxicity (protozoan growth inhibition) and logBB (log (cblood/cbrain)) is presented. The method, an extendable form of the group-additivity method, is based on the complete break-down of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood. The contribution of the resulting atom groups to the descriptor values is calculated using the Gauss-Seidel fitting method, based on experimental data gathered from literature. The plausibility of the method was tested for each descriptor by means of a k-fold cross-validation procedure demonstrating good to excellent predictive power for the former six descriptors and low reliability of logBB predictions. The goodness of fit (Q²) and the standard deviation of the 10-fold cross-validation calculation was >0.9999 and 25.2 kJ/mol, respectively, (based on N = 1965 test compounds) for the heat of combustion, 0.9451 and 0.51 (N = 2640) for logP, 0.8838 and 0.74 (N = 1419) for logS, 0.9987 and 0.74 (N = 4045) for the molar refractivity, 0.9897 and 0.77 (N = 308) for the molecular polarizability, 0.8404 and 0.42 (N = 810) for the toxicity and 0.4709 and 0.53 (N = 383) for logBB. The latter descriptor revealing a very low Q² for the test molecules (R² was 0.7068 and standard deviation 0.38 for N = 413 training molecules) is included as an example to show the limits of the group-additivity method. An eighth molecular descriptor, the heat of formation, was indirectly calculated from the heat of combustion data and correlated with published experimental heat of formation data with a correlation coefficient R² of 0.9974 (N = 2031).

  4. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bend, J; Bolger, M; Knaap, A G A C; Kuznesof, P M; Larsen, J C; Mattia, A; Meylan, I; Pitt, J I; Resnik, S; Schlatter, J; Vavasour, E; Rao, M Veerabhadra; Verger, P; Walker, R; Wallin, H; Whitehouse, B; Abbott, P J; Adegoke, G; Baan, R; Baines, J; Barlow, S; Benford, D; Bruno, A; Charrondiere, R; Chen, J; Choi, M; DiNovi, M; Fisher, C E; Iseki, N; Kawamura, Y; Konishi, Y; Lawrie, S; Leblanc, J C; Leclercq, C; Lee, H M; Moy, G; Munro, I C; Nishikawa, A; Olempska-Beer, Z; de Peuter, G; Pronk, M E J; Renwick, A G; Sheffer, M; Sipes, I G; Tritscher, A; Soares, L Valente; Wennberg, A; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    for the following flavouring agents were revised: maltol and ethyl maltol, maltyl isobutyrate, 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran and 2,4,5-trimethyl-delta-oxazoline (Nos 1482, 1506 and 1559), and monomenthyl glutarate (No. 1414), as well as the method of assay for the sodium salts of certain flavouring agents. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for intakes and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminants considered.

  5. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition

    SciTech Connect

    Popple, Richard A. Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify

  6. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pesticides where other legal premarket approval requirements apply. Direct food additives are those that are added to ... and other foods to add texture -- is a direct additive. Most direct additives are identified on the ...

  7. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  8. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  9. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  10. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  11. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  12. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  13. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  14. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  15. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  16. Additively manufactured metallic pentamode meta-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayati, R.; Leeflang, A. M.; Zadpoor, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical metamaterials exhibit unusual mechanical properties that originate from their topological design. Pentamode metamaterials are particularly interesting because they could be designed to possess any thermodynamically admissible elasticity tensor. In this study, we additively manufacture the metallic pentamode metamaterials from a biocompatible and mechanically strong titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) using an energy distribution method developed for the powder bed fusion techniques. The mechanical properties of the developed materials were a few orders of magnitude higher than those of the similar topologies fabricated previously from polymers. Moreover, the elastic modulus and yield stress of the presented pentamode metamaterials were decoupled from their relative density, meaning that the metallic meta-biomaterials with independently tailored elastic and mass transport (permeability) properties could be designed for tissue regeneration purposes.

  17. Dielectric breakdown of additively manufactured polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Monzel, W. Jacob; Hoff, Brad W.; Maestas, Sabrina S.; French, David M.; Hayden, Steven C.

    2016-01-11

    Dielectric strength testing of selected Polyjet-printed polymer plastics was performed in accordance with ASTM D149. This dielectric strength data is compared to manufacturer-provided dielectric strength data for selected plastics printed using the stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), and selective laser sintering (SLS) methods. Tested Polyjet samples demonstrated dielectric strengths as high as 47.5 kV/mm for a 0.5 mm thick sample and 32.1 kV/mm for a 1.0 mm sample. As a result, the dielectric strength of the additively manufactured plastics evaluated as part of this study was lower than the majority of non-printed plastics by at least 15% (with the exception of polycarbonate).

  18. Dielectric breakdown of additively manufactured polymeric materials

    DOE PAGES

    Monzel, W. Jacob; Hoff, Brad W.; Maestas, Sabrina S.; ...

    2016-01-11

    Dielectric strength testing of selected Polyjet-printed polymer plastics was performed in accordance with ASTM D149. This dielectric strength data is compared to manufacturer-provided dielectric strength data for selected plastics printed using the stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), and selective laser sintering (SLS) methods. Tested Polyjet samples demonstrated dielectric strengths as high as 47.5 kV/mm for a 0.5 mm thick sample and 32.1 kV/mm for a 1.0 mm sample. As a result, the dielectric strength of the additively manufactured plastics evaluated as part of this study was lower than the majority of non-printed plastics by at least 15% (with themore » exception of polycarbonate).« less

  19. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives.

  20. Influence of dispersing additive on asphaltenes aggregation in model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A. M.; Shishmina, L. V.; Tukhvatullina, A. Z.; Ismailov, Yu R.; Ges, G. A.

    2016-09-01

    The work is devoted to investigation of the dispersing additive influence on asphaltenes aggregation in the asphaltenes-toluene-heptane model system by photon correlation spectroscopy method. The experimental relationship between the onset point of asphaltenes and their concentration in toluene has been obtained. The influence of model system composition on asphaltenes aggregation has been researched. The estimation of aggregative and sedimentation stability of asphaltenes in model system and system with addition of dispersing additive has been given.

  1. Implementation of Complexity Analyzing Based on Additional Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Na; Liang, Yanhong; Liu, Fang

    According to the Complexity Theory, there is complexity in the system when the functional requirement is not be satisfied. There are several study performances for Complexity Theory based on Axiomatic Design. However, they focus on reducing the complexity in their study and no one focus on method of analyzing the complexity in the system. Therefore, this paper put forth a method of analyzing the complexity which is sought to make up the deficiency of the researches. In order to discussing the method of analyzing the complexity based on additional effect, this paper put forth two concepts which are ideal effect and additional effect. The method of analyzing complexity based on additional effect combines Complexity Theory with Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). It is helpful for designers to analyze the complexity by using additional effect. A case study shows the application of the process.

  2. Use of Vitelline Protein B as a Microencapsulating Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficht, Allison R. (Inventor); Carson, Ken (Inventor); Sheffield, Cynthia (Inventor); Waite, John Herbert (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions and methods for the use of an encapsulation additive having between about 0.1 to about 30 percent isolated and purified vitelline protein B to provide for mixed and extended release formulations.

  3. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  4. Characterization of the Tribological Behavior of Graphene-Based Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Erck, Robert

    2014-09-01

    XG-supplied nanocrystalline additives were extensively tested for friction and wear behavior. A technique for investigating the stability of additives was developed, and a report covered filtration and centrifugation methods for settling and filterable content. Friction and wear trends in partially and fully formulated oils were reported. Particle size analysis was performed and reported.

  5. Students' Responses To Different Representations Of A Vector Addition Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Jeffrey M.; Thompson, John R.; Wittmann, Michael C.; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Frank, Brian W.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate if the visual representation of vectors can affect which methods students use to add them. We gave students one of four questions with different graphical representations, asking students to add the same two vectors. For students in an algebra-based class the arrangement of the vectors had a statistically significant effect on the vector addition method chosen while the addition or removal of a grid did not.

  6. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional funds. 1274.917 Section 1274.917... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.917 Additional funds. Additional Funds July 2002... under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional...

  7. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  8. Using an organic additive to manipulate sizes of perylene nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Daniel; Baba, Koichi; Mori, Junichi; Miyashita, Yousuke; Kasai, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Nakanishi, Hachiro

    2010-01-01

    A new method has been successfully developed for the control of sizes of organic nanoparticles. The method, which relies on the use of stopped-flow UV-visible absorption spectroscopy to measure the rate of perylene nanoparticle formation by reprecipitation in water, is based on the systematic addition of an organic additive (N,N'-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboxyimide) to the target compound (perylene) solutions. Upon reprecipitation, a strong dependence between additive concentration and rate of perylene nanocrystallization is observed. Authors clearly demonstrated that, in the reprecipitation method, faster rates of organic nanoparticle formation is achieved with increasing additive concentration, and consequently to smaller organic nanoparticles. It is believed that N,N'-bis (2,6-dimethylphenyl)-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboxyimide acts as "seeds" for further growth of perylene nanoparticles up to approximately 400 nm.

  9. Adduct Formation in ESI/MS by Mobile Phase Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruve, Anneli; Kaupmees, Karl

    2017-03-01

    Adduct formation is a common ionization method in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). However, this process is poorly understood and complicated to control. We demonstrate possibilities to control adduct formation via mobile phase additives in ESI positive mode for 17 oxygen and nitrogen bases. Mobile phase additives were found to be a very effective measure for manipulating the formation efficiencies of adducts. An appropriate choice of additive may increase sensitivity by up to three orders of magnitude. In general, sodium adduct [M + Na]+ and protonated molecule [M + H]+ formation efficiencies were found to be in good correlation; however, the former were significantly more influenced by mobile phase properties. Although the highest formation efficiencies for both species were observed in water/acetonitrile mixtures not containing additives, the repeatability of the formation efficiencies was found to be improved by additives. It is concluded that mobile phase additives are powerful, yet not limiting factors, for altering adduct formation.

  10. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  11. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and their possible effects is controversial. Some studies indicate that certain food ...

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  13. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  14. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  15. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  16. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  17. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  18. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  19. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  20. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  1. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  2. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  3. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  4. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  5. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  6. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  7. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  8. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  9. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10...) REGISTRATION OF FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading...

  10. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5460 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 615.5460 Section 615.5460 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN... Additional provisions. (a) Additional requirements. In any case or any class of cases arising under...

  12. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  13. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  14. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  15. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  16. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  17. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  18. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  19. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  20. 5 CFR 841.1006 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 841.1006 Section....1006 Additional provisions. These additional provisions are also binding on the State and OPM: (a) A... will issue an accounting. If the State finds this accounting unacceptable, it may then and only...

  1. 5 CFR 831.1905 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 831.1905 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT State Income Tax Withholding § 831.1905 Additional provisions. These additional provisions are also binding on the State and OPM: (a) A request or revocation is effective when processed...

  2. Network Reconstruction Using Nonparametric Additive ODE Models

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, James; Michailidis, George

    2014-01-01

    Network representations of biological systems are widespread and reconstructing unknown networks from data is a focal problem for computational biologists. For example, the series of biochemical reactions in a metabolic pathway can be represented as a network, with nodes corresponding to metabolites and edges linking reactants to products. In a different context, regulatory relationships among genes are commonly represented as directed networks with edges pointing from influential genes to their targets. Reconstructing such networks from data is a challenging problem receiving much attention in the literature. There is a particular need for approaches tailored to time-series data and not reliant on direct intervention experiments, as the former are often more readily available. In this paper, we introduce an approach to reconstructing directed networks based on dynamic systems models. Our approach generalizes commonly used ODE models based on linear or nonlinear dynamics by extending the functional class for the functions involved from parametric to nonparametric models. Concomitantly we limit the complexity by imposing an additive structure on the estimated slope functions. Thus the submodel associated with each node is a sum of univariate functions. These univariate component functions form the basis for a novel coupling metric that we define in order to quantify the strength of proposed relationships and hence rank potential edges. We show the utility of the method by reconstructing networks using simulated data from computational models for the glycolytic pathway of Lactocaccus Lactis and a gene network regulating the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells. For purposes of comparison, we also assess reconstruction performance using gene networks from the DREAM challenges. We compare our method to those that similarly rely on dynamic systems models and use the results to attempt to disentangle the distinct roles of linearity, sparsity, and derivative

  3. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  4. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  5. OPERATOR BURDEN IN METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Love, Lonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging manufacturing process that creates usable machine parts via layer-by-layer joining of a stock material. With this layer-wise approach, high-performance geometries can be created which are impossible with traditional manufacturing methods. Metal AM technology has the potential to significantly reduce the manufacturing burden of developing custom hardware; however, a major consideration in choosing a metal AM system is the required amount of operator involvement (i.e., operator burden) in the manufacturing process. The operator burden not only determines the amount of operator training and specialization required but also the usability of the system in a facility. As operators of several metal AM processes, the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Labs is uniquely poised to provide insight into requirements for operator involvement in each of the three major metal AM processes. The paper covers an overview of each of the three metal AM technologies, focusing on the burden on the operator to complete the build cycle, process the part for final use, and reset the AM equipment for future builds.

  6. Use of waste rubber as concrete additive.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang Hsing; Lu, Chun-Ku; Chang, Jen-Ray; Lee, Maw Tien

    2007-02-01

    For resource reutilization, scrap tyres have long been investigated as an additive to concrete to form 'Rubcrete' for various applications and have shown promising results. However, the addition of rubber particles leads to the degradation of physical properties, particularly, the compressive strength of the concrete. In this study, a theoretical model was proposed to shed light on the mechanisms of decrease in compressive strength due to the addition of rubber particles as well as improvement in compressive strength through modification of particle surfaces. The literature suggests that the compressive strength can be improved by soaking the rubber particles in alkaline solution first to increase the inter-phase bonding between the rubber particles and cement. Instead, we discovered that the loss in compressive strength was due to local imperfections in the hydration of cement, induced by the addition of heterogeneous and hydrophobic rubber particles. Microscopic studies showed that the rubber particles disturbed the water transfer to create channels, which were prone to cracking and led to a loss in the compressive strength. Unexpectedly, no cracking was found along the surfaces of the rubber particles, indicating that the bonding strength between the rubber particles and cement phases was not the critical factor in determining the compressive strength. Therefore, a theoretical model was proposed to describe the water transfer in the Rubcrete specimens to explain the experimental data. In the model, the local water available for hydration (Q) is: Q = -A(slv)/6piv, where Q, A(slv), and v are mass flow rate (kg s(-1)), Hamaker constant (J), and dynamic viscosity (m2 s(-1)), respectively. By maximizing the quantity Q and, in turn, the Hamaker constant A(slv), the compressive strength could be improved. The Hamaker constant A(slv) for water film on rubber particle surfaces was smaller than that for the hydrated cement particles; the water transfer rate was lower in

  7. Surface analysis and evaluation of progressive addition lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiying; Li, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The Progressive addition lens is used increasingly extensive with its advantages of meeting the requirements of distant and near vision at the same time. Started from the surface equations of progressive addition lens, combined with evaluation method of spherical power and cylinder power, the relationship equations between the surface sag and optical power distribution are derived. According to the requirements on difference of actual and nominal optical power from Chinese National Standard, the tolerance analysis and evaluation of prototype progressive addition surface with addition of 2.5m-1 ( 7.5m-1 10m-1 ) is given in detail. The tolerance analysis method provides theoretical proof for lens processing control accuracy, and the processing feasibility of lens is evaluated much more reasonably.

  8. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  9. Reducing nontemplated 3' nucleotide addition to polynucleotide transcripts

    DOEpatents

    Kao, C. Cheng

    2000-01-01

    Non-template 3' nucleotide addition to a transcript is reduced by transcribing a transcript from a template comprising an ultimate and/or penultimate 5' ribose having a C'2 substituent such as methoxy, which reduces non-template 3' nucleotide addition to the transcript. The methods are shown to be applicable to a wide variety of polymerases, including Taq, T7 RNA polymerase, etc.

  10. Deuterium separation by infrared-induced addition reaction

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.

    1977-01-01

    A method for deuterium enrichment by the infrared-induced addition reaction of a deuterium halide with an unsaturated aliphatic compound. A gaseous mixture of a hydrogen halide feedstock and an unsaturated aliphatic compound, particularly an olefin, is irradiated to selectively vibrationally excite the deuterium halide contained therein. The excited deuterium halide preferentially reacts with the unsaturated aliphatic compound to produce a deuterated addition product which is removed from the reaction mixture.

  11. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  12. Solutol and cremophor products as new additives in suppository formulation.

    PubMed

    Berkó, Szilvia; Regdon, Géza; Erös, István

    2002-01-01

    Our research has a double purpose. On the one hand, doctors have expressed the need to formulate a rectal suppository dosage form from diuretic ethacrynic acid, which would add to the choice of treatment methods and thereby increase the possibilities of individual cure. On the other hand, the liberation and thereby the bioavailability of poorly-soluble ethacrynic acid needs to be enhanced, and for this purpose solubility-increasing additives new to rectal therapy were used. Solutol HS 15, Cremophor RH 40, and Cremophor RH 60 were used as additives in concentrations of 1, 3, 5, and 10%. The quantity of drug released changed as a function of additive concentration. Depending on the acceptor phase, the best results were achieved with an additive concentration of 1-3%, which is related to the optimal additive quantity accumulated on the boundary surface.

  13. 42 CFR 67.22 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY FOR HEALTH CARE POLICY AND RESEARCH GRANTS AND CONTRACTS Research Grants for Health Services Research, Evaluation, Demonstration, and Dissemination Projects § 67.22 Additional conditions....

  14. Selection of color additives: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Dureja, Harish; Madan, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Color additives have a unique place in the categories of the excipients. However, most of the color additives are complex heterogeneous organic compounds. In pharmaceuticals, colors are used in various oral (solid, liquid) and topical dosage form. Different regulatory authorities have their own specific set of regulation for registration, approval, and control of color additives. However, at this time of globalization, selection of appropriate color is not an easy task when a company wants to sale its product in many countries. In this article, the authors have explored various important factors which should be considered in the selection of color additives.

  15. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  16. Classification of additives for organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Machui, Florian; Maisch, Philipp; Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Langner, Stefan; Krantz, Johannes; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-04-27

    The use of additives to improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells has been intensely researched in recent years. However, so far, no system has been reported for the classification of additives and their functions. In this report, a system for classifying additives according to the fundamental mechanism by which they influence microstructure formation for P3HT:PCBM is suggested. The major parameters used for their classification are solubility and drying kinetics. Both are discussed in detail and their consequences on processing are analyzed. Furthermore, a general mechanism to classify the impact of additives on structure formation is suggested and discussed for different materials relevant to organic photovoltaic devices.

  17. Reducing Communication in Algebraic Multigrid Using Additive Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Yang, Ulrike Meier

    2014-02-12

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) has proven to be an effective scalable solver on many high performance computers. However, its increasing communication complexity on coarser levels has shown to seriously impact its performance on computers with high communication cost. Moreover, additive AMG variants provide not only increased parallelism as well as decreased numbers of messages per cycle but also generally exhibit slower convergence. Here we present various new additive variants with convergence rates that are significantly improved compared to the classical additive algebraic multigrid method and investigate their potential for decreased communication, and improved communication-computation overlap, features that are essential for good performance on future exascale architectures.

  18. Metal-air cell with performance enhancing additive

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel

    2015-11-10

    Systems and methods drawn to an electrochemical cell comprising a low temperature ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions and a performance enhancing additive added to the low temperature ionic liquid. The additive dissolves in the ionic liquid to form cations, which are coordinated with one or more negative ions forming ion complexes. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. The ion complexes improve oxygen reduction thermodynamics and/or kinetics relative to the ionic liquid without the additive.

  19. Electrophilic addition and cyclization reactions of allenes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengming

    2009-10-20

    Modern organic synthesis depends on the development of highly selective methods for the efficient construction of potentially useful target molecules. A primary goal in our laboratory is the discovery of new reactions that convert readily available starting materials to complex products with complete control of regio- and stereoselectivity. Allenes are one underused moiety in organic synthesis, because these groups are often thought to be highly reactive. However, many compounds containing the allene group, including natural products and pharmaceuticals, are fairly stable. The chemistry of allenes has been shown to have significant potential in organic synthesis. Electrophilic additions to allenes have often been considered to be synthetically less attractive due to the lack of efficient control of the regio- and stereoselectivity. However, this Account describes electrophilic reactions of allenes with defined regio- and stereoselectivity developed in our laboratory. Many substituted allenes are readily available from propargylic alcohols. Our work has involved an exploration of the reactions of these allenes with many different electrophiles: the E- or Z-halo- or seleno-hydroxylations of allenyl sulfoxides, sulfones, phosphine oxides, carboxylates, sulfides or selenides, butenolides, and arenes, and the halo- or selenolactonization reactions of allenoic acids and allenoates. These reactions have produced a host of new compounds such as stereodefined allylic alcohols, ethers, amides, thiiranes, and lactones. In all these reactions, water acts as a reactant and plays an important role in determining the reaction pathway and the stereoselectivity. The differing electronic properties of the two C=C bonds in these allenes determine the regioselectivity of these reactions. Through mechanistic studies of chirality transfer, isolation and reactivity of cyclic intermediates, (18)O-labeling, and substituent effects, we discovered that the E-stereoselectivity of some

  20. The stability of alloying additions in Zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, S. C.; Murphy, S. T.; Burr, P. A.; Grimes, R. W.; Chard-Tuckey, P. R.; Wenman, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    correlate well with metallic radii, with some anomalies regarding Sn (which has a larger volume than expected) and Ni (which shows a smaller volume than expected when on the less stable tetrahedral interstitial site). Most alloying additions show limited solubility (from their single phase metals) in α-Zr, but much greater solubility in β-Zr. The same is true for solutions from corresponding Zr intermetallics. Sn shows solubility in both α and β-Zr. However, most Sn intermetallics, show only a marginally positive solution energy, meaning they are likely to be soluble at elevated temperatures. Y, which does not form a stable intermetallic with Zr and has little equilibrium solubility in both α and β-Zr. Nb does not form a stable intermetallic and has little equilibrium solubility in α-Zr. However, unlike Y, Nb is soluble in β-Zr. In general, these conclusions are in agreement with experimental observations where available. However, many of the specific energies or defect volumes have not been previously established, or have been arrived at by disparate methods so as to hinder comparison. While these numbers provide a useful body of data, much remains to be done, especially since kinetic effects are important, as are the interplays between multiple alloying additions.

  1. Site Occupancy of Ternary Additions to B2 Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Amador, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    In this broad-based survey study, the substitutional site preference of ternary alloying additions to B2 compounds (stable at room temperature and 50/50 composition) is determined using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys. The method is applied to Ni, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Ta, Hf, Mo, Nb, W, V and Ru additions to NiAl, FeAl, CoAl, CoFe, CoHf, CoTi, FeTi, RuAl, RuSi, RuHf, RuTi, and RuZr. The results are compared, when available, to experimental data and other theoretical results.

  2. America Makes: National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) Project 1: Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of Complex Metallic Additive Manufactured (AM) Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    titanium and nickel-base alloys after AM fabrication. 4.1 Additive Manufacturing Methods and Applications Three-dimensional printing ( 3D ...AM is defining the process of 3D printing , while additive manufacturing considers the broad application of 3D printing , and necessary manufacturing... printing could generate an economic impact of $230 billion to $550 billion per year by 2025.[4] According to the 2014 Wohlers Report, the 3D printing

  3. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  4. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  5. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  6. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional...

  7. 10 CFR 2.605 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.605 Section 2.605 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Permit § 2.605 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review...

  8. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct...

  9. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  10. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  11. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  12. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  13. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  14. 43 CFR 3154.2 - Additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional bonding. 3154.2 Section 3154.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Requirements § 3154.2 Additional bonding. The authorized officer may increase the amount of any bond that...

  15. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  16. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  17. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  18. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  19. Fuel compositions containing deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lilburn, J.E.

    1980-11-18

    Fuel compositions are provided which contain a deposit control additive. The deposit control additive is produced by reacting a hydrocarbylpoly(oxyalkylene) alcohol with excess phosgene and an excess amount of certain polyamines. The product comprises hydrocarbylpoly(oxyalkylene) ureylene carbamates.

  20. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  1. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  2. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  3. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  4. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  5. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  6. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  7. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  8. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  9. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  10. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  11. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  12. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  13. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  14. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  15. 77 FR 47823 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Administration, New York, NY Coverage: A-List for the Total Government Requirement as aggregated by the General... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement...

  16. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Services Administration, New York, NY. COVERAGE: A-List for the Total Government Requirement as aggregated... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  17. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional audits. 9007.4 Section 9007.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR...

  18. 11 CFR 9008.13 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional audits. 9008.13 Section 9008.13... Convention Committees § 9008.13 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  19. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional audits. 9007.4 Section 9007.4... FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an...

  20. 11 CFR 9008.13 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Additional audits. 9008.13 Section 9008.13... Convention Committees § 9008.13 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  1. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Additional audits. 9007.4 Section 9007.4 Federal... EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  2. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  3. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  4. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  5. 42 CFR 68.16 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 68.16 Section 68.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS (LRPs) § 68.16 Additional conditions. (a)...

  6. 42 CFR 68.16 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 68.16 Section 68.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS (LRPs) § 68.16 Additional conditions. (a)...

  7. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  8. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  9. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  10. 77 FR 27737 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List... nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. Comments Must...

  11. 77 FR 55195 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This... persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. DATES: Effective Date: 10/8/2012....

  12. 78 FR 5423 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the... furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities....

  13. 77 FR 44220 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List... nonprofit agency employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. DATES: Comments Must...

  14. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...

  15. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...

  16. 46 CFR 117.25 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements. 117.25 Section 117.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... General Provisions § 117.25 Additional requirements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment carried...

  17. 46 CFR 117.25 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements. 117.25 Section 117.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... General Provisions § 117.25 Additional requirements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment carried...

  18. 46 CFR 117.25 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional requirements. 117.25 Section 117.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... General Provisions § 117.25 Additional requirements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment carried...

  19. 10 CFR 71.65 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 71.65 Section 71.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.65 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or...

  20. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... of Energy from granting additional nonexclusive, or exclusive, or partially exclusive licenses...

  1. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... of Energy from granting additional nonexclusive, or exclusive, or partially exclusive licenses...

  2. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for additional synthetic drugs currently not included in the regulations. The NRC determined that the...

  3. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  4. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  5. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  6. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  7. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  8. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  9. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  10. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  11. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  12. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by…

  13. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  14. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  15. Addition and Subtraction, and Algorithms in General

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2007-01-01

    The juxtaposition of articles by Ian Thompson and Ian Sugarman in "MT202" on addition and subtraction respectively engendered some bemused thoughts in this author, who for some years has been sheltered from controversy by retirement. In this article, Fielker shares some thoughts on addition and subtraction raised by Thompson and Sugarman in their…

  16. DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

  17. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The...

  18. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  19. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  20. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...