Science.gov

Sample records for additive color mixing

  1. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  2. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  3. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  4. [Optimizing Color Rendering for Mixed-Color White Light LED].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-yu; Jin, Peng; Zhou, Qi-feng

    2015-05-01

    To optimize color rendering of mixed-color LEDs, the Gaussian model was used to analyze the color-mixed LED's spectrum power distribution. The peak wavelength "λm", spectral half width "Δλ" and amplitude "A" were basic parameters for optimizing color rendering R9, which is very important for objects to be colorful and vivid under the white light LED's'illuminating. The typical methods for color mixing were used to get white light LEDs. Result was that to get the satisfied color rendering index, one of the color primaries should be certain and then other color primaries would be analyzed through changing three basic parameters step by step. It was concluded that the analysis in this paper would be referential to optimize the color-mixed white LED's color rendering. PMID:26415452

  5. [Optimizing Color Rendering for Mixed-Color White Light LED].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-yu; Jin, Peng; Zhou, Qi-feng

    2015-05-01

    To optimize color rendering of mixed-color LEDs, the Gaussian model was used to analyze the color-mixed LED's spectrum power distribution. The peak wavelength "λm", spectral half width "Δλ" and amplitude "A" were basic parameters for optimizing color rendering R9, which is very important for objects to be colorful and vivid under the white light LED's'illuminating. The typical methods for color mixing were used to get white light LEDs. Result was that to get the satisfied color rendering index, one of the color primaries should be certain and then other color primaries would be analyzed through changing three basic parameters step by step. It was concluded that the analysis in this paper would be referential to optimize the color-mixed white LED's color rendering.

  6. Mixed additive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Francisco; Covas, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    We consider mixed models y =∑i =0 w Xiβi with V (y )=∑i =1 w θiMi Where Mi=XiXi⊤ , i = 1, . . ., w, and µ = X0β0. For these we will estimate the variance components θ1, . . ., θw, aswell estimable vectors through the decomposition of the initial model into sub-models y(h), h ∈ Γ, with V (y (h ))=γ (h )Ig (h )h ∈Γ . Moreover we will consider L extensions of these models, i.e., y˚=Ly+ɛ, where L=D (1n1, . . ., 1nw) and ɛ, independent of y, has null mean vector and variance covariance matrix θw+1Iw, where w =∑i =1 n wi .

  7. Using a Video Projector for Color-Mixing Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Richard A.

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions are provided for using color television projector systems to demonstrate color mixing. With such a projector, manipulation of the three primary colors can be done by simply covering and uncovering the three separate beams. In addition, projector systems serve as good examples in studying geometrical optics. (Author/JN)

  8. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about using different light intensities for R, G, and B? What colors do we get? This problem of color mixing has been intensively discussed for decades by several authors, as pointed out by Ruiz's "Color Addition and Subtraction Apps" work and the references included therein. An early LED demonstrator for additive color mixing dates back to 1985, and apps to illustrate color mixing are available online. In this work, we describe an experimental setup making use of a microcontroller device: the Arduino Uno. This setup is designed as a game in order to improve students' understanding of color mixing.

  9. LED color mixing with diffractive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonenberger, Theresa; Baumgart, Jörg; Wendel, Simon; Neumann, Cornelius

    2013-03-01

    Lighting solutions with colored LEDs provide many opportunities for illumination. One of these opportunities is to create a color tunable light source. In this way different kinds of white light (color temperature) as well as discrete colors may be realized. This opens the field for applications as mood lighting. But there is always a spatial separation of the distinct LEDs that might get converted into an angular separation by any collimating optics. This angular separation causes such problems like color fringes and colored shadows that cannot be accepted in most applications. Conventional methods to solve these problems include e.g. mixing rods or dichroic filters. A new approach is the use of the dispersive effect of a diffractive structure to compensate the angular separation of the different colors. In this contribution the potential and limitations of diffractive structures in LED color mixing applications are discussed. Ray tracing simulations were performed to analyze such important parameters like efficiency, color performance and the cross section of the color mixing optics. New means for the estimation of color mixing performance were developed. A software tool makes it possible to detect the color distribution within ray trace data and it provides a quality factor to estimate the color mixing performance. It can be shown that the spectral band width has a large influence on the mixing process. Ray tracing simulations are compared with results of an experimental setup such that both measured as well as simulated data is presented.

  10. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  11. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your mint-flavored toothpaste. They are dyes, pigments, or other substances that can impart color when ... even though tattoo parlors often claim that the pigments in their inks are "FDA-approved." Likewise, no ...

  12. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  13. The von Nardroff Color Mixing Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2005-12-01

    Ernest von Nardroff gave his name to the color mixing apparatus shown in Fig. 1. The basic idea behind this demonstration is to produce three beams of colored light that may be projected onto a white surface. If beams of red, blue, and green are overlapped to produce a figure like a three leaf clover or a Venn diagram, the region of complete overlap will appear white, and the three regions of overlap of two colors produce the three false primaries: yellow, magenta, and cyan. A straightforward technique is to use three slide projectors, each with a colored filter. Von Nardroff's apparatus, displayed at the educational exhibit of Erasmus Hall High School at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis in 1904, permits the use of only one projector.

  14. 7 CFR 29.2282 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2282 Section 29.2282... 21) § 29.2282 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together... and does not blend with the normal colors of the type or group. (See Rule 17, § 29.2408.)...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2282 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2282 Section 29.2282... 21) § 29.2282 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together... and does not blend with the normal colors of the type or group. (See Rule 17, § 29.2408.)...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2282 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2282 Section 29.2282... 21) § 29.2282 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together... and does not blend with the normal colors of the type or group. (See Rule 17, § 29.2408.)...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2282 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2282 Section 29.2282... 21) § 29.2282 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together... and does not blend with the normal colors of the type or group. (See Rule 17, § 29.2408.)...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2282 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2282 Section 29.2282... 21) § 29.2282 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together... and does not blend with the normal colors of the type or group. (See Rule 17, § 29.2408.)...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3040 - Mixed color (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color (M). 29.3040 Section 29.3040 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mixed color (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together. (See Rule 16.)...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3040 - Mixed color (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color (M). 29.3040 Section 29.3040 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mixed color (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together. (See Rule 16.)...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  2. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  3. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  4. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  5. 7 CFR 29.3040 - Mixed color (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color (M). 29.3040 Section 29.3040 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mixed color (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together. (See Rule 16.)...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3040 - Mixed color (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color (M). 29.3040 Section 29.3040 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mixed color (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together. (See Rule 16.)...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  8. 7 CFR 29.3040 - Mixed color (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color (M). 29.3040 Section 29.3040 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mixed color (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together. (See Rule 16.)...

  9. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  10. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  11. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  12. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  13. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  14. Glow Sticks: Spectra and Color Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer; Birriel, Ignacio

    2014-10-01

    Glow sticks are a popular Halloween staple familiar to most of our students. The production of light via a chemical reaction is called "chemiluminescence," and glow sticks are often used as demonstrations and experiments in the chemistry classroom to study reaction rates as a function of temperature.1-3 A black light can be used to illuminate glow sticks that have not been cracked or those that are "dead" in order to demonstrate fluorescence in liquid chemicals.4 In this article, we present the use of glow sticks as an inexpensive demonstration of spectra and color addition.

  15. Optical design for uniform color mixing illumination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zheng, Zhenrong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2013-09-01

    In many applications, the emitting light from LEDs with different colors need to be mixed together on a large scale target plane and this illumination mode is usually generated with the help of a diffuser. Abandoning the traditional method, we proposed a LED color mixing method which can produce an illumination pattern with both high color uniformity and irradiance uniformity. This method is composed of the two main aspects: arrangement of irradiance array and design of LED lens. With the method, an independent rectangular irradiance distribution is generated by each lens unit, and the large scale color uniform illumination is obtained by arraying the irradiance distribution. A 3×3 array of LED module units consisting of 36 LED lens units with 4 different colors are designed, and a desired result with high color uniformity is obtained. This color mixing method is feasible and practical, and is superior to the existing methods.

  16. 7 CFR 29.2534 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2534 Section 29.2534... Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2534 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together, or any leaf of which 20 percent...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2534 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2534 Section 29.2534... Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2534 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together, or any leaf of which 20 percent...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2534 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2534 Section 29.2534... Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2534 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together, or any leaf of which 20 percent...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2534 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2534 Section 29.2534... Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2534 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together, or any leaf of which 20 percent...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2534 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2534 Section 29.2534... Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2534 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together, or any leaf of which 20 percent...

  1. Microwave sanitization of color additives used in cosmetics: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jasnow, S B; Smith, J L

    1975-08-01

    Microwave exposure has been explored as a method of microbiologically sanitizing color additives used in cosmetic products. Selected microbiologically unacceptable cosmetic color additives, D&C red no. 7 Ca lake (certified synthetic organic color), carmine (natural organic color not subject to certification), and chromium hydroxide green (inorganic color not subject to certification), were submitted to microwave exposure. Gram-negative bacteria were eliminated, as verified by enrichment procedures, and levels of gram-positive bacteria were reduced. Generally, analytical and dermal safety studies indicated no significant alterations in physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of the colors. Sanitization was also successfully performed on other colors (D&C red no. 9 Ba lake, D&C red no. 12 Ba lake, D&C green no. 5, and FD&C red no. 4); initial physical and chemical tests were satisfactory. Results indicated that this method of sanitization is feasible and warrants further investigation.

  2. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about…

  3. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting § 81.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS,...

  4. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... affecting § 81.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS,...

  5. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... affecting § 81.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS,...

  6. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... affecting § 81.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS,...

  7. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... affecting § 81.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS,...

  8. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... additives? Q. How are ingredients listed on a product label? A . Food manufacturers are required to list all ... in the food on the label. On a product label, the ingredients are listed in order of predominance, ...

  9. Color reproductivity improvement with additional virtual color filters for WRGB image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a high accuracy color reproduction method based on an estimated spectral reflectance of objects using additional virtual color filters for a wide dynamic range WRGB color filter CMOS image sensor. The four virtual color filters are created by multiplying the spectral sensitivity of White pixel by gauss functions which have different central wave length and standard deviation, and the virtual sensor outputs of those virtual filters are estimated from the four real output signals of the WRGB image sensor. The accuracy of color reproduction was evaluated with a Macbeth Color Checker (MCC), and the averaged value of the color difference ΔEab of 24 colors was 1.88 with our approach.

  10. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color...

  11. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color...

  12. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color...

  13. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color...

  14. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color...

  15. The Plaid Theory of Color Mixing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanlon, Heather

    1990-01-01

    Develops a multimedia approach for teaching color theory suitable for grade four through adult. Students select the hue, value, and degree of translucence they wish to work with and through a combination of crayon work and tissue collage, create a multicolored plaid. Outlines materials, art concepts, and process involved. (KM)

  16. Additive photonic colors in the Brazilian diamond weevil: entimus imperialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchet, S.; Vigneron, J.-P.; Colomer, J.-F.; Vandenbem, C.; Deparis, O.

    2012-10-01

    Structurally colored nano-architectures found in living organisms are complex optical materials, giving rise to multiscale visual effects. In arthropods, these structures often consist of porous biopolymers and form natural photonic crystals. A signature of the structural origin of coloration in insects is iridescence, i.e., color changes with the viewing angle. In the scales located on the elytra of the Brazilian weevil Entimus imperialis (Curculionidae), three-dimensional photonic crystals are observed. On one hand, each of them interacts independently with light, producing a single color which is observed by optical microscopy and ranges from blue to orange. On the other hand, the color perceived by the naked eye is due to multi-length-scale light effects involving different orientations of a single photonic crystal. This disorder in crystal orientations alters the light propagation in such a way that the crystal iridescence is removed. Entimus imperialis is therefore a remarkable example of additive photonic colors produced by a complex multi-scale organic architecture. In order to study this specific natural photonic structure, electron microscopy is used. The structure turns out to be formed of a single type of photonic crystal with different orientations within each scale on the elytra. Our modeling approach takes into account the disorder in the photonic crystals and explains why the structure displays bright colors at the level of individual scales and a non-iridescent green color in the far-field.

  17. Mysterious coloring: structural origin of color mixing for two breeds of Papilio butterflies.

    PubMed

    Diao, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-01

    The structural origin of the coloration mechanisms and related extraordinary optical properties of the wing scales of two breeds of Papilio butterflies, namely, Papilio ulysses and Papilio blumei, are explored. The precise ordered biophotonic nanostructures of the wing scales are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Despite their structural similarities, the two breeds of Papilio butterflies do not exhibit any analogy in their optical performances. When illuminated with UV-Vis light, P. ulysses gives rise to two reflection peaks: one is from concavities, and the other is from ridges. These two spectral peaks shift their positions under different illumination angles (normal and 45° incident light). In contrast, the spectra for the green scales of P. blumei give one broad reflection peak, and the peak remains the same under normal and 45° incident light. The optical microscopy images indicate that the cap-shaped concavities on P. blumei's wing scales generate an abnormal bicolor reflection with a strong polarization effect. Both of these two breeds of butterflies take advantage of color mixing strategy: the blue color of P. ulysses is mixed by the colors reflected from concavities and ridges; the green color of P. blumei is produced by the biocolor reflection from concavities. The differences of their coloration mixing mechanisms and optical performances are due to the variations of their nanostructures. The investigation of the color mixing mechanisms of these biologically photonic nanostructures may offer a convenient way for fabricating optical devices based on biomimicry. PMID:21643177

  18. Mysterious coloring: structural origin of color mixing for two breeds of Papilio butterflies.

    PubMed

    Diao, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-01

    The structural origin of the coloration mechanisms and related extraordinary optical properties of the wing scales of two breeds of Papilio butterflies, namely, Papilio ulysses and Papilio blumei, are explored. The precise ordered biophotonic nanostructures of the wing scales are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Despite their structural similarities, the two breeds of Papilio butterflies do not exhibit any analogy in their optical performances. When illuminated with UV-Vis light, P. ulysses gives rise to two reflection peaks: one is from concavities, and the other is from ridges. These two spectral peaks shift their positions under different illumination angles (normal and 45° incident light). In contrast, the spectra for the green scales of P. blumei give one broad reflection peak, and the peak remains the same under normal and 45° incident light. The optical microscopy images indicate that the cap-shaped concavities on P. blumei's wing scales generate an abnormal bicolor reflection with a strong polarization effect. Both of these two breeds of butterflies take advantage of color mixing strategy: the blue color of P. ulysses is mixed by the colors reflected from concavities and ridges; the green color of P. blumei is produced by the biocolor reflection from concavities. The differences of their coloration mixing mechanisms and optical performances are due to the variations of their nanostructures. The investigation of the color mixing mechanisms of these biologically photonic nanostructures may offer a convenient way for fabricating optical devices based on biomimicry.

  19. Angular and spatial color mixing using mixing rods with the geometry of a chaotic-dispersive billiard system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonenberger, Theresa S.; Baumgart, Jörg; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    For mixing light from different colored LEDs, an optical color mixing system is required to avoid colored shadows and color fringes. Concerning the different color mixing systems, mixing rods are widespread as they provide very good spatial color mixing with high efficiency. The essential disadvantage of mixing rods, so far, is the lack of angular color mixing. The solution presented in this publication is the application of a chaotic-dispersive billiard's geometry on the cross section of the mixing rod. To show both the spatial and the angular mixing properties of a square and a chaotic-dispersive mixing rod, simulations generated by the raytracing software ASAP are provided. All results are validated with prototype measurements.

  20. 78 FR 14664 - Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 73, 172, 173, 176, 177, 178, 184, and 189 Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending...

  1. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  2. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  3. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  4. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  5. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  6. Studying Mixing in Non-Newtonian Blue Maize Flour Suspensions Using Color Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; García-Lara, Silverio; Ballescá-Estrada, Adriana; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-Newtonian fluids occur in many relevant flow and mixing scenarios at the lab and industrial scale. The addition of acid or basic solutions to a non-Newtonian fluid is not an infrequent operation, particularly in Biotechnology applications where the pH of Non-Newtonian culture broths is usually regulated using this strategy. Methodology and Findings We conducted mixing experiments in agitated vessels using Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions. Acid or basic pulses were injected to reveal mixing patterns and flow structures and to follow their time evolution. No foreign pH indicator was used as blue maize flours naturally contain anthocyanins that act as a native, wide spectrum, pH indicator. We describe a novel method to quantitate mixedness and mixing evolution through Dynamic Color Analysis (DCA) in this system. Color readings corresponding to different times and locations within the mixing vessel were taken with a digital camera (or a colorimeter) and translated to the CIELab scale of colors. We use distances in the Lab space, a 3D color space, between a particular mixing state and the final mixing point to characterize segregation/mixing in the system. Conclusion and Relevance Blue maize suspensions represent an adequate and flexible model to study mixing (and fluid mechanics in general) in Non-Newtonian suspensions using acid/base tracer injections. Simple strategies based on the evaluation of color distances in the CIELab space (or other scales such as HSB) can be adapted to characterize mixedness and mixing evolution in experiments using blue maize suspensions. PMID:25401332

  7. Determination of seven certified color additives in food products using liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Barrows, Julie N

    2013-04-17

    This study describes a new method for determining FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Blue No. 2, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red No. 3, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 5, and FD&C Yellow No. 6 in food products. These seven color additives are water-soluble dyes that are required to be batch certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they may be used in food and other FDA-regulated products. In the new method, the color additives are extracted from a product using one of two procedures developed for various product types, isolated from the noncolored components, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The method was validated by determining linearity, range, precision, recovery from various matrices, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and relative standard deviation for each color additive. A survey of 44 food products, including beverages, frozen treats, powder mixes, gelatin products, candies, icings, jellies, spices, dressings, sauces, baked goods, and dairy products, found total color additives ranging from 1.9 to 1221 mg/kg. FDA intends to use the new method for conducting a rigorous, comprehensive dietary exposure assessment of certified color additives in products likely to be consumed by children.

  8. The role of natural color additives in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C D; Hallagan, J B; Taylor, S L

    2001-01-01

    A critical evaluation of the available information demonstrates that reactions to natural color additives are rare. Studies of turmeric and carotenoid pigments administered in mixtures with other food colorings failed to definitely identify reactions to either color additive. For carotenoids, the one case report of an adverse reaction was not conclusive. An anaphylactic reaction to saffron does suggest an IgE-mediated reaction, but the high use of saffron as compared with this single report of an adverse reaction suggests that sensitivity to saffron is extremely rare. Numerous reports of reactions to grapes or grape products have been reported in the literature, but no reports of sensitivities to grape skin extract or grape color extract were found. In rare cases, annatto dye may provoke a severe, adverse reaction in individuals with an uncommon hypersensitivity, and may aggravate the symptoms of patients suffering from recurrent urticaria. In its long history of use, there has been only one reported case of anaphylaxis resulting from the ingestion of annatto. Studies designed to investigate the role of annatto in recurrent urticaria sufferers were limited due to the absence of double-blind challenge and placebo controls. A number of cases of adverse reactions to carmine following ingestion have been reported in the literature. These adverse reactions suggest an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. In many of the reported cases, the cause of sensitization to carmine was topical exposure from the use of carmine-containing cosmetics or occupational exposure to carmine and not from ingestion of carmine-containing foods and beverages. Following sensitization, affected individuals would be sensitive to carmine and the amounts present in foods and beverages could elicit allergic reactions. It is not known whether all individuals with carmine sensitivity induced through topical use are sensitive to the ingestion of carmine in foods. However, reactions to carmine solely because

  9. 21 CFR 70.5 - General restrictions on use of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Color additives for use in the area of the eye. No listing or certification of a color additive shall be... eye unless such listing or certification of such color additive specifically provides for such use. Any color additive used in or on any article intended for use in the area of the eye, the listing...

  10. 21 CFR 70.5 - General restrictions on use of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Color additives for use in the area of the eye. No listing or certification of a color additive shall be... eye unless such listing or certification of such color additive specifically provides for such use. Any color additive used in or on any article intended for use in the area of the eye, the listing...

  11. 21 CFR 70.5 - General restrictions on use of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Color additives for use in the area of the eye. No listing or certification of a color additive shall be... eye unless such listing or certification of such color additive specifically provides for such use. Any color additive used in or on any article intended for use in the area of the eye, the listing...

  12. 21 CFR 70.5 - General restrictions on use of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Color additives for use in the area of the eye. No listing or certification of a color additive shall be... eye unless such listing or certification of such color additive specifically provides for such use. Any color additive used in or on any article intended for use in the area of the eye, the listing...

  13. 21 CFR 70.5 - General restrictions on use of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Color additives for use in the area of the eye. No listing or certification of a color additive shall be... eye unless such listing or certification of such color additive specifically provides for such use. Any color additive used in or on any article intended for use in the area of the eye, the listing...

  14. 21 CFR 80.35 - Color additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Color additive mixtures; certification and... additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification. (a) Color additive mixtures to be certified. Any color additive mixture that contains one or more straight colors listed in part 74 of...

  15. 21 CFR 80.35 - Color additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Color additive mixtures; certification and... additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification. (a) Color additive mixtures to be certified. Any color additive mixture that contains one or more straight colors listed in part 74 of...

  16. 21 CFR 80.35 - Color additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color additive mixtures; certification and... additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification. (a) Color additive mixtures to be certified. Any color additive mixture that contains one or more straight colors listed in part 74 of...

  17. 21 CFR 80.35 - Color additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Color additive mixtures; certification and... additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification. (a) Color additive mixtures to be certified. Any color additive mixture that contains one or more straight colors listed in part 74 of...

  18. 21 CFR 80.35 - Color additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Color additive mixtures; certification and... additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification. (a) Color additive mixtures to be certified. Any color additive mixture that contains one or more straight colors listed in part 74 of...

  19. Fuzzy Filtering Method for Color Videos Corrupted by Additive Noise

    PubMed Central

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Nino-de-Rivera, Luis

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for the denoising of color videos corrupted by additive noise is presented in this paper. The proposed technique consists of three principal filtering steps: spatial, spatiotemporal, and spatial postprocessing. In contrast to other state-of-the-art algorithms, during the first spatial step, the eight gradient values in different directions for pixels located in the vicinity of a central pixel as well as the R, G, and B channel correlation between the analogous pixels in different color bands are taken into account. These gradient values give the information about the level of contamination then the designed fuzzy rules are used to preserve the image features (textures, edges, sharpness, chromatic properties, etc.). In the second step, two neighboring video frames are processed together. Possible local motions between neighboring frames are estimated using block matching procedure in eight directions to perform interframe filtering. In the final step, the edges and smoothed regions in a current frame are distinguished for final postprocessing filtering. Numerous simulation results confirm that this novel 3D fuzzy method performs better than other state-of-the-art techniques in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD, and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via the human vision system in the different color videos. PMID:24688428

  20. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the eye”; “Do not use for coloring drugs for injection.” (d) Special labeling for color additives not... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other... AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements...

  1. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the eye”; “Do not use for coloring drugs for injection.” (d) Special labeling for color additives not... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other... AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements...

  2. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the eye”; “Do not use for coloring drugs for injection.” (d) Special labeling for color additives not... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other... AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements...

  3. 76 FR 37690 - CooperVision, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... color additives are intended to be copolymerized with various monomers for use as colored contact lens materials. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Regarding CAP 1C0291: Judith Kidwell, Center for Food Safety and... color additives are intended to be copolymerized with various monomers for use as colored contact...

  4. Assessing the use of food coloring as an appropriate visual guide for homogenously mixed capsule powders in extemporaneous compounding.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Brittany; Carlson, Christie; Rao, Deepa A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the use of food colors as a visual aid to determine homogeneous mixing in the extemporaneous preparation of capsules. Six different batches of progesterone slow-release 200-mg capsules were prepared by different mixing methods until visually determined as homogeneous based on yellow food coloring distribution in the preparation by the Central Iowa Compounding Pharmacy, Des Moines, Iowa. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to extract and evaluate yellow food coloring content in each of these batches and compared to an in-house, small-batch geometric dilution preparation of progesterone slow- release 200-mg capsules. Of the 6 batches tested, only one, which followed the principles of additive dilution and an appropriate mixing time, was both visually and quantitatively homogeneous in the detection of yellow food coloring. The use of food coloring alone is not a valid quality-assurance tool in determining homogeneous mixing. Principles of geometric and/or additive dilution and appropriate mixing times along with the food color can serve as a quality-assurance tool.

  5. Development of the RGB LEDs color mixing mechanism for stability the color temperature at different projection distances.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In lighting application, the color mixing of the RGB LEDs can provide more color selection in correlated color temperature and color rendering. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a RGB color mixing mechanism by applying the mechanism design. Three sets of lamp-type RGB LEDs are individually installed on three four-bar linkages. A crank is used to drive three groups of RGB LEDs lamp-type to project lights onto a single plane in order to mix the lights. And, simulations of the illuminance and associated color temperatures are conducted by changing the distance to the projection plane, under the assumption that the stability of the color temperature of the projected light does not change according to the projecting height. Thus, the effect of change in the color temperature on color determination by the humans' eyes was avoided. The success of the proposed method will allow medical personnel to choose suitable wavelengths and color temperatures according to the particular requirements of their medical-examination environments. PMID:26444810

  6. Development of the RGB LEDs color mixing mechanism for stability the color temperature at different projection distances.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In lighting application, the color mixing of the RGB LEDs can provide more color selection in correlated color temperature and color rendering. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a RGB color mixing mechanism by applying the mechanism design. Three sets of lamp-type RGB LEDs are individually installed on three four-bar linkages. A crank is used to drive three groups of RGB LEDs lamp-type to project lights onto a single plane in order to mix the lights. And, simulations of the illuminance and associated color temperatures are conducted by changing the distance to the projection plane, under the assumption that the stability of the color temperature of the projected light does not change according to the projecting height. Thus, the effect of change in the color temperature on color determination by the humans' eyes was avoided. The success of the proposed method will allow medical personnel to choose suitable wavelengths and color temperatures according to the particular requirements of their medical-examination environments.

  7. 77 FR 65150 - Cryovac North America; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... FR 9340), FDA announced that a color additive petition (CAP 4C0276) had been filed by Cryovac North... amended to provide for the safe use of synthetic iron oxide as a color additive in or on cooked meat... Certification to provide for the safe use of synthetic iron oxide as a color additive in or on cooked...

  8. 21 CFR 71.37 - Exemption of color additives for investigational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or cosmetic containing such a color additive for investigational use by experts qualified to determine safety shall be exempt from the requirements of section 402(c), 501(a), or 601(e) of the act, provided that the color additive or the food, drug, or cosmetic containing the color additive bears a...

  9. 21 CFR 71.37 - Exemption of color additives for investigational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or cosmetic containing such a color additive for investigational use by experts qualified to determine safety shall be exempt from the requirements of section 402(c), 501(a), or 601(e) of the act, provided that the color additive or the food, drug, or cosmetic containing the color additive bears a...

  10. 21 CFR 71.37 - Exemption of color additives for investigational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of color additives for investigational use. 71.37 Section 71.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS Administrative Action on Petitions § 71.37 Exemption of color additives for investigational use. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 14.142 - Functions of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Functions of a color additive advisory committee. 14.142 Section 14.142 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Color Additive Advisory Committees § 14.142 Functions of a color additive...

  12. 21 CFR 71.37 - Exemption of color additives for investigational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of color additives for investigational use. 71.37 Section 71.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS Administrative Action on Petitions § 71.37 Exemption of color additives for investigational use. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 14.145 - Procedures of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures of a color additive advisory committee. 14.145 Section 14.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Color Additive Advisory Committees § 14.145 Procedures of a color additive...

  14. 21 CFR 70.10 - Color additives in standardized foods and new drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Color additives in standardized foods and new drugs. 70.10 Section 70.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES General Provisions § 70.10 Color additives in standardized foods and new drugs. (a) Standardized foods. (1) Where...

  15. 21 CFR 71.37 - Exemption of color additives for investigational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of color additives for investigational use. 71.37 Section 71.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS Administrative Action on Petitions § 71.37 Exemption of color additives for investigational use. (a)...

  16. 76 FR 59503 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 69; Confirmation of Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...-sulphonate (CAS Reg. No. 70209-99- 3), also known as Reactive Blue 69, as a color additive in contact lenses... color additive in contact lenses. FDA gave interested persons until June 3, 2011, to file objections or... May 4, 2011 (76 FR 25234). The final rule amended the color additive regulations to provide for...

  17. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  18. 75 FR 13556 - Biocompatibles UK Ltd.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Biocompatibles UK Ltd.; Filing of Color Additive Petition...) is announcing that Biocompatibles UK Ltd., has filed a petition proposing that the color additive...] (CAS Reg. No. 4499-01-8) reacted with polyvinyl alcohol as a color additive in vascular...

  19. 78 FR 54758 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... the Federal Register of June 12, 2013 (78 FR 35115). The final rule amended the color additive... the Federal Register of June 12, 2013 (78 FR 35115), we amended the color additive regulations in Sec... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt...

  20. 76 FR 47210 - Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color... petitions for food additives and color additives that are published in accordance with the Federal Food.... Similarly, section 721 of the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 379e) establishes a petition approval process for...

  1. Collimating lamp with well color mixing of red/green/blue LEDs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Moreno, Ivan; Lo, Yi-Chien; Chiu, Bo-Chun; Chien, Wei-Ting

    2012-01-01

    A novel light luminaire is proposed and experimentally analyzed, which efficiently mixes and projects the tunable light from red, green and blue (RGB) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Simultaneous light collimation and color mixing is a challenging task because most collimators separate colors, and most color mixers spread the light beam. Our method is simple and compact; it only uses a short light pipe, a thin diffuser, and a total internal reflection lens. We performed an experimental study to find a balance between optical efficiency and color uniformity by changing light recycling and color mixing. PMID:22379671

  2. Collimating lamp with well color mixing of red/green/blue LEDs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Moreno, Ivan; Lo, Yi-Chien; Chiu, Bo-Chun; Chien, Wei-Ting

    2012-01-01

    A novel light luminaire is proposed and experimentally analyzed, which efficiently mixes and projects the tunable light from red, green and blue (RGB) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Simultaneous light collimation and color mixing is a challenging task because most collimators separate colors, and most color mixers spread the light beam. Our method is simple and compact; it only uses a short light pipe, a thin diffuser, and a total internal reflection lens. We performed an experimental study to find a balance between optical efficiency and color uniformity by changing light recycling and color mixing.

  3. Composite tints: mixing composite materials to alter color and techniques to simulate hypocalcification and craze lines.

    PubMed

    Chalifoux, Paul R

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to teach advanced composite techniques based on sound material science and advanced artistic principles. The effects of oxygen inhibition, shrinkage, wear, filler content, and composite chemistry are reviewed. Color blending using composite translucency to show through underlying and surrounding tooth structure achieves improved color matching and color transition from tooth structure to a composite restoration. Mixing color tints modifies composite color, and applying composite tints produces effects such as hypocalcifications and craze lines.

  4. An electrochromic painter's palette: color mixing via solution co-processing.

    PubMed

    Bulloch, Rayford H; Kerszulis, Justin A; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2015-01-28

    Electrochromic polymers (ECPs) have been shown to be synthetically tunable, producing a full palette of vibrantly colored to highly transmissive polymers. The development of these colored-to-transmissive ECPs employed synthetic design strategies for broad color targeting; however, due to the subtleties of color perception and the intricacies of polymer structure and color relationships, fine color control is difficult. In contrast, color mixing is a well-established practice in the printing industry. We have identified three colored-to-transmissive switching electrochromic polymers, referred to as ECP-Cyan (ECP-C), ECP-Magenta (ECP-M), and ECP-Yellow (ECP-Y), which, via the co-processing of multicomponent ECP mixtures, follow the CMY color mixing model. The presented work qualitatively assesses the thin film characteristics of solution co-processed ECP mixtures. To quantitatively determine the predictability of the color properties of ECP mixtures, we estimated mass extinction coefficients (εmass) from solution spectra of the CMY ECPs and compared the estimated and experimentally observed color values of blends via a calculated color difference (ΔEab). The values of ΔEab range from 8 to 26 across all mixture compositions, with an average value of 15, representing a reasonable degree of agreement between predicted and observed color values. We demonstrate here the ability to co-process ECP mixtures into vibrantly colored, visually continuous films and the ability to estimate the color properties produced in these mixed ECP films.

  5. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    PubMed

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  6. 21 CFR 14.140 - Establishment of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Establishment of a color additive advisory committee. 14.140 Section 14.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Color Additive Advisory Committees § 14.140 Establishment of a color...

  7. 78 FR 43093 - Sensient Technologies Corporation; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Register of August 24, 1998 (63 FR 45073), FDA announced that a color additive petition (CAP 8C0261) had... the color additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of External D&C Violet No. 2 in... Certification to provide for the safe use of External D&C Violet No. 2 in coloring externally applied...

  8. 21 CFR 14.140 - Establishment of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Establishment of a color additive advisory committee. 14.140 Section 14.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Color Additive Advisory Committees § 14.140 Establishment of a color...

  9. 75 FR 14491 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... notice published in the Federal Register of February 25, 2008 (73 FR 10035), FDA announced that a color... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt From... and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the color additive regulations to increase the permitted...

  10. Listing of color additives for coloring sutures; [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper in coloring nonabsorbable sutures for general and ophthalmic surgery made from a blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene). This action responds to a petition filed by Ethicon, Inc.

  11. Listing of color additives for coloring sutures; [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper in coloring nonabsorbable sutures for general and ophthalmic surgery made from a blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene). This action responds to a petition filed by Ethicon, Inc. PMID:10558496

  12. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color... and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a color... because of the deficiencies involved: (1) All safety and functionality data and information submitted...

  13. Rapid determination of color additives, using the C18 cartridge.

    PubMed

    Young, M L

    1984-01-01

    A reliable method has been developed for the rapid separation and identification of the 7 permitted FD&C dyes (Red Nos. 3 and 40; Blue Nos. 1 and 2; Yellow Nos. 5 and 6; Green No. 3) and the recently banned FD&C Red No. 2 in foods. The colors are separated by using the C18 cartridge, and their identity is confirmed by spectrophotometry.

  14. Illuminance formation and color difference of mixed-color light emitting diodes in a rectangular light pipe: an analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chu-Ming; Chern, Jyh-Long

    2008-01-20

    We developed an analytical method of illuminance formation for mixed-color LEDs in a rectangular light pipe in order to derive American National Standards Institute (ANSI) light uniformity, ANSI color uniformity, and color difference of light output using photometry, nonimaging, and colorimetry. The analytical results indicate that the distributions of illuminance and color difference vary with different geometric structures of light pipes and the location of the light sources. It was found that both the ANSI light and the ANSI color uniformity on the exit plane of the light pipe are reduced exponentially with the increase in length of the light pipe. It is evident that a length scale L/A greater than unity assures that the mixed-color LED sources on the entrance plane are uniformly illuminated with acceptable uniform brightness and color on the exit plane of the rectangular light pipe, where L is the length of the light pipe, and A is a constant, which is a geometric parameter for the scale unit of the light pipe's input face. Furthermore, the ANSI light uniformity can be minimized, and the ANSI color uniformity can be maximized under the condition of multilight-source locations P=Q= +/- A/4, where P and Q are the coordinates along the long axis and the short axis, respectively, with one being the entrance plane of the light pipe. We can conclude that the optimum form factor of the light pipe is a square shaped cross section, with the length scale L/A being equal to unity and with multilight sources located individually on positions of A/4 in order to achieve very uniform illuminations with the highest light efficiency and compact package for the optical system with mixed-color LEDs, where L is the length of the light pipe.

  15. Application of color mixing for safety and quality inspection of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fujian; Chen, Yud-Ren; Chao, Kuanglin

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, color-mixing applications for food safety and quality was studied, including two-color mixing and three-color mixing. It was shown that the chromaticness of the visual signal resulting from two- or three-color mixing is directly related to the band ratio of light intensity at the two or three selected wavebands. An optical visual device using color mixing to implement the band ratio criterion was presented. Inspection through human vision assisted by an optical device that implements the band ratio criterion would offer flexibility and significant cost savings as compared to inspection with a multispectral machine vision system that implements the same criterion. Example applications of this optical color mixing technique were given for the inspection of chicken carcasses with various diseases and for the detection of chilling injury in cucumbers. Simulation results showed that discrimination by chromaticness that has a direct relation with band ratio can work very well with proper selection of the two or three narrow wavebands. This novel color mixing technique for visual inspection can be implemented on visual devices for a variety of applications, ranging from target detection to food safety inspection.

  16. Three-color mixing for classifying agricultural products for safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fujian; Chen, Yud-Ren; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S

    2006-05-20

    A three-color mixing application for food safety inspection is presented. It is shown that the chromaticness of the visual signal resulting from the three-color mixing achieved through our device is directly related to the three-band ratio of light intensity at three selected wavebands. An optical visual device using three-color mixing to implement the three-band ratio criterion is presented. Inspection through human vision assisted by an optical device that implements the three-band ratio criterion would offer flexibility and significant cost savings as compared to inspection with a multispectral machine vision system that implements the same criterion. Example applications of this optical three-color mixing technique are given for the inspection of chicken carcasses with various diseases and for apples with fecal contamination. With proper selection of the three narrow wavebands, discrimination by chromaticness that has a direct relation with the three-band ratio can work very well. In particular, compared with the previously presented two-color mixing application, the conditions of chicken carcasses were more easily identified using the three-color mixing application. The novel three-color mixing technique for visual inspection can be implemented on visual devices for a variety of applications, ranging from target detection to food safety inspection.

  17. Optimization of soil mixing technology through metallic iron addition.

    SciTech Connect

    Moos, L. P.

    1999-01-15

    Enhanced soil mixing is a process used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil. In this process, also known as soil mixing with thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, or SM/TESVE, a soil mixing apparatus breaks up and mixes a column of soil up to 9 m (30 ft) deep; simultaneously, hot air is blown through the soil. The hot air carries the VOCs to the surface where they are collected and safely disposed of. This technology is cost effective at high VOC concentrations, but it becomes cost prohibitive at low concentrations. Argonne National Laboratory-East conducted a project to evaluate ways of improving the effectiveness of this system. The project investigated the feasibility of integrating the SM/TESVE process with three soil treatment processes--soil vapor extraction, augmented indigenous biodegradation, and zero-valent iron addition. Each of these technologies was considered a polishing treatment designed to remove the contaminants left behind by enhanced soil mixing. The experiment was designed to determine if the overall VOC removal effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the SM/TESVE process could be improved by integrating this approach with one of the polishing treatment systems.

  18. Characterization studies on the additives mixed L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Hameed, A. S.; Karthikeyan, C.; Ravi, G.; Rohani, S.

    2011-04-01

    L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP), potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) mixed LAP (LAP:KSCN) and sodium sulfite (Na 2SO 3) mixed LAP (LAP:Na 2SO 3) single crystals were grown by slow cooling technique. The effect of microbial contamination and coloration on the growth solutions was studied. The crystalline powders of the grown crystals were examined by X-ray diffraction and the lattice parameters of the crystals were estimated. From the FTIR spectroscopic analysis, various functional group frequencies associated with the crystals were assigned. Vickers microhardness studies were done on {1 0 0} faces for pure and additives mixed LAP crystals. From the preliminary surface second harmonic generation (SHG) results, it was found that the SHG intensity at (1 0 0) face of LAP:KSCN crystal was much stronger than that of pure LAP.

  19. 21 CFR 14.140 - Establishment of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of a color additive advisory committee. 14.140 Section 14.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Color Additive Advisory Committees §...

  20. 21 CFR 14.145 - Procedures of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures of a color additive advisory committee. 14.145 Section 14.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Color Additive Advisory Committees §...

  1. 21 CFR 14.142 - Functions of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Functions of a color additive advisory committee. 14.142 Section 14.142 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Color Additive Advisory Committees §...

  2. 21 CFR 14.155 - Fees and compensation pertaining to a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fees and compensation pertaining to a color additive advisory committee. 14.155 Section 14.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Color Additive Advisory Committees § 14.155 Fees...

  3. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... for the use of the color additive, such as “for food use only”; “for food, drug, and cosmetic...

  4. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... for the use of the color additive, such as “for food use only”; “for food, drug, and cosmetic...

  5. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.42 Criteria for evaluating the safety of...

  6. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.42 Criteria for evaluating the safety of...

  7. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.42 Criteria for evaluating the safety of...

  8. 75 FR 34360 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... (75 FR 14491), FDA amended the color additive regulations in Sec. 73.2110 (21 CFR 73.2110) by...: The effective date for the final rule published in the Federal Register of March 26, 2010 (75 FR 14491... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1001 - Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use exempt from certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Restrictions Alcohol, specially denatured As set forth in 26 CFR, pt. 212 As set forth in 26 CFR, pt. 211... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use... § 73.1001 Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use exempt from certification. The...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1001 - Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use exempt from certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Restrictions Alcohol, specially denatured As set forth in 26 CFR, pt. 212 As set forth in 26 CFR, pt. 211... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use... § 73.1001 Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use exempt from certification. The...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1001 - Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use exempt from certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Restrictions Alcohol, specially denatured As set forth in 26 CFR, pt. 212 As set forth in 26 CFR, pt. 211... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use... § 73.1001 Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use exempt from certification. The...

  12. 21 CFR 14.155 - Fees and compensation pertaining to a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees and compensation pertaining to a color additive advisory committee. 14.155 Section 14.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Color...

  13. 77 FR 16784 - E. & J. Gallo Winery; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 E. & J. Gallo Winery; Filing of Color... and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that E. & J. Gallo Winery has filed a petition proposing... color additive petition (CAP 2C0294) has been filed by E. & J. Gallo Winery, c/o Keller and Heckman...

  14. 21 CFR 70.10 - Color additives in standardized foods and new drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color additives in standardized foods and new... on such compliance and will expire with the expiration of the temporary permit. (b) New drugs. (1) Where an application for a new drug is received and this application proposes, for coloring...

  15. 75 FR 5887 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Paracoccus Pigment; Confirmation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of November 16, 2009 (74 FR 58843), FDA amended the color... published in the Federal Register on November 16, 2009 (74 FR 58843) is confirmed as December 17, 2009. FOR... Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Paracoccus Pigment; Confirmation of Effective Date...

  16. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  17. Qualitative identification of permitted and non-permitted color additives in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    Color additives are dyes, pigments, or other substances that can impart color when added or applied to foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, or the human body. These substances must be pre-approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and listed in the Code of Federal Regulations before they may be used in FDA-regulated products. Both domestic and imported cosmetic products sold in interstate commerce fall under FDA jurisdiction, and FDA's district laboratories use a combination of analytical methods for identifying or confirming the presence of potentially violative color additives. We have developed a qualitative method for identifying 29 water- and methanol-soluble color additives in various types of cosmetic products. The color additives are extracted with combinations of methylene chloride, methanol, acetic acid, and water and are identified by LC with photodiode array detection. Estimated LOD values ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/L. A survey of lip products, nail polishes, eye products, blushes, body glitter, face paints, bath products, creams, and toothpastes identified permitted and non-permitted color additives. Our new LC method is intended to supplement the visible spectrophotometry and TLC methods currently used by FDA's district laboratories and will help optimize the use of time, labor, and solvents.

  18. Color removal from cotton textile industry wastewater in an activated sludge system with various additives.

    PubMed

    Pala, Ayşegül; Tokat, Enis

    2002-06-01

    The low biodegradability of many dyes and textile chemicals indicates that biological treatment is not always successful in the treatment of cotton textile wastewater, in terms of color removal. In this study, a specific organic flocculant (Marwichem DEC), powdered activated carbon (PAC), bentonite, activated clay and commercial synthetic inorganic clay (Macrosorb) were directly added into the activated sludge laboratory pilot plant model. Before dosage, the optimum sludge retention time and hydraulic retention time were determined as 30 days and 1.6 days, respectively. The Monod kinetic constants were determined as Y = 0.76 kg MLSS/kg COD, Kd = 0.026 l/day, K(S) = 113.3 mg/L, k = 0.42 l/day and mu(max) = 0.32 kg MLSS/kg COD day. Under these conditions the average COD removal was 94% and color removal was 36%. The addition of these materials did not change COD removal significantly. The most effective materials were found to be DEC and PAC for color removal. While the color removal efficiency for 120 mg/L DEC addition was 78%, it was 65% for 100 mg/L, 77% for 200 mg/L and 86% for 400 mg/L PAC addition. The advantage of DEC compared to PAC was the lower sludge production. Statistical analyses using multiple linear regression indicate that there is no relationship between the effluent color with the influent color and total suspended solids (TSS) for DEC and PAC addition. On the other hand, when only bentonite, activated clay and Macrosorb were added, the effluent color was primarily dependent on the influent color and the TSS concentration had little effect. When the data is examined by using Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests and it was found that there was a significant difference between the color data groups.

  19. Two-color resonant four-wave mixing: A tool for double resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlfing, E.A.; Tobiason, J.D.; Dunlop, J.R.; Williams, S.

    1995-08-01

    Two-color resonant four-wave mixing (RFWM) shows great promise in a variety of double-resonance applications in molecular spectroscopy and chemical dynamics. One such application is stimulated emission pumping (SEP), which is a powerful method of characterizing ground-state potential energy surfaces in regions of chemical interest. The authors use time-independent, diagrammatic perturbation theory to identify the resonant terms in the third-order nonlinear susceptibility for each possible scheme by which two-color RFWM can be used for double-resonance spectroscopy. After a spherical tensor analysis they arrive at a signal expression for two-color RFWM that separates the molecular properties from purely laboratory-frame factors. In addition, the spectral response for tuning the DUMP laser in RFWM-SEP is found to be a simple Lorentzian in free-jet experiments. The authors demonstrate the utility of RFWM-SEP and test their theoretical predictions in experiments on jet-cooled transient molecules. In experiments on C{sub 3} they compare the two possible RFWM-SEP processes and show that one is particularly well-suited to the common situation in which the PUMP transition is strong but the DUMP transitions are weak. They obtain RFWM-SEP spectra of the formyl radical, HCO, that probe quasibound vibrational resonances lying above the low threshold for dissociation to H+CO. Varying the polarization of the input beams or PUMP rotational branch produces dramatic effects, in the relative intensities of rotational lines in the RFWM-SEP spectra of HCO; these effects are well-described by their theoretical analysis. Finally, RFWM-SEP spectra of HCO resonances that are homogeneously broadened by dissociation confirm the predicted lineshape and give widths that are in good agreement with those determined via unsaturated fluorescence depletion SEP.

  20. 78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ...)ester (C.I. Reactive Blue 247) as color additives in contact lenses. This action is in response to two... additional copolymers of 1,4-bis anthraquinone (C.I. Reactive Blue 246) as color additives in contact lenses... and/or acrylic monomers for use in coloring contact lenses.\\2\\ The petitions sought to expand the...

  1. 78 FR 42451 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt From... color additive regulations in Sec. Sec. 73.3100 and 73.3106 (21 CFR 73.3100 and 73.3106), respectively... Blue 246), as color additives in contact lenses. We also corrected the nomenclature for Reactive...

  2. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  3. 76 FR 20992 - Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is... Director, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. BILLING CODE...

  4. 78 FR 57105 - Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company; Filing of Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food.... Dated: September 11, 2013. Dennis M. Keefe, Director, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for...

  5. 77 FR 54862 - GNT USA, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 GNT USA, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug.... Keefe, Director, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition....

  6. 76 FR 25234 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 69

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... (CAS Reg. No. 70209-99-3), also known as Reactive Blue 69, as a color additive in contact lenses. This... additive in contact lenses. The petition was filed under section 721 of the Federal Food, Drug, and... review of the safety of the use of Reactive Blue 69 pigment in contact lenses, the Agency considered...

  7. A Colorful Mixing Experiment in a Stirred Tank Using Non-Newtonian Blue Maize Flour Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujilo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rojas-de Gante, Cecillia; García-Lara, Silverio; Ballesca´-Estrada, Adriana; Alvarez, Marion Moise´s

    2014-01-01

    A simple experiment designed to study mixing of a material of complex rheology in a stirred tank is described. Non-Newtonian suspensions of blue maize flour that naturally contain anthocyanins have been chosen as a model fluid. These anthocyanins act as a native, wide spectrum pH indicator exhibiting greenish colors in alkaline environments, blue…

  8. 21 CFR 14.140 - Establishment of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Establishment of a color additive advisory committee. 14.140 Section 14.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., that requires the exercise of scientific judgment and a person who would be adversely affected by...

  9. 21 CFR 14.140 - Establishment of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Establishment of a color additive advisory committee. 14.140 Section 14.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... carcinogenicity, that requires the exercise of scientific judgment and a person who would be adversely affected...

  10. 21 CFR 14.147 - Membership of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, the Commissioner will request the National Academy of Sciences to select the members of a color additive advisory committee from among experts qualified in the subject matter to be reviewed by... one of the members as the chairman. (ii) If the National Academy of Sciences is unable or refuses...

  11. 21 CFR 14.147 - Membership of a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, the Commissioner will request the National Academy of Sciences to select the members of a color additive advisory committee from among experts qualified in the subject matter to be reviewed by... one of the members as the chairman. (ii) If the National Academy of Sciences is unable or refuses...

  12. 75 FR 17939 - EMD Chemicals, Inc.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... the Federal Register of September 25, 1998 (63 FR 51359), FDA announced that a color additive petition... published an amended filing notice in the Federal Register of June 21, 1999 (64 FR 33097), indicating that... candies, nutritional supplement tablets and gelatin capsules, and chewing gum (71 FR 31927). The...

  13. 75 FR 10808 - CIBA Vision Corp.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In a notice published in the Federal Register of August 17, 2005 (70 FR 48426), FDA....) Pigment Violet 19, C.I. Pigment Yellow 154, and C.I. Pigment Red 122 as color additives in contact lenses.... Pigment Violet 19 (CAP 5C0278, Docket No. FDA-2005-C- 0245), C.I. Pigment Yellow 154 (CAP 5C0279,...

  14. 78 FR 68713 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Spirulina Extract; Confirmation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... final rule published August 13, 2013 (78 FR 49117), is confirmed as September 13, 2013. FOR FURTHER... the Federal Register of August 13, 2013 (78 FR 49117), we amended the color additive regulations to... the safe use of spirulina extract made from the dried biomass of the cyanobacteria...

  15. 21 CFR 14.155 - Fees and compensation pertaining to a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fees and compensation pertaining to a color additive advisory committee. 14.155 Section 14.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... drawn to the order of the Food and Drug Administration, collectible at par in Washington, DC....

  16. 21 CFR 14.155 - Fees and compensation pertaining to a color additive advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fees and compensation pertaining to a color additive advisory committee. 14.155 Section 14.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... drawn to the order of the Food and Drug Administration, collectible at par in Washington, DC....

  17. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... established in § 20.61 of this chapter. (6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing...

  18. 76 FR 55321 - CooperVision, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 CooperVision, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petitions Correction In proposed rule document C1-2011-16089 appearing on page 49707 in the issue...

  19. 76 FR 49707 - CooperVision, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 CooperVision, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petitions Correction In proposed rule document 2011-16089 appearing on page 37690 in the issue of...

  20. 75 FR 5887 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Astaxanthin Dimethyldisuccinate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... the final rule published in the Federal Register of November 5, 2009 (74 FR 57248) is confirmed as...-436-1264. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of November 5, 2009 (74 FR 57248), FDA... Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Astaxanthin Dimethyldisuccinate; Confirmation of...

  1. Two-color mixing for classifying agricultural products for safety and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fujian; Chen, Yud-Ren; Chao, Kuanglin; Chan, Diane E.

    2006-02-01

    We show that the chromaticness of the visual signal that results from the two-color mixing achieved through an optically enhanced binocular device is directly related to the band ratio of light intensity at the two selected wavebands. A technique that implements the band-ratio criterion in a visual device by using two-color mixing is presented here. The device will allow inspectors to identify targets visually in accordance with a two-wavelength band ratio. It is a method of inspection by human vision assisted by an optical device, which offers greater flexibility and better cost savings than a multispectral machine vision system that implements the band-ratio criterion. With proper selection of the two narrow wavebands, discrimination by chromaticness that is directly related to the band ratio can work well. An example application of this technique for the inspection of carcasses chickens of afficted with various diseases is given. An optimal pair of wavelengths of 454 and 578 nm was selected to optimize differences in saturation and hue in CIE LUV color space among different types of target. Another example application, for the detection of chilling injury in cucumbers, is given, here the selected wavelength pair was 504 and 652 nm. The novel two-color mixing technique for visual inspection can be included in visual devices for various applications, ranging from target detection to food safety inspection.

  2. Two-color mixing for classifying agricultural products for safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fujian; Chen, Yud-Ren; Chao, Kuanglin; Chan, Diane E

    2006-02-01

    We show that the chromaticness of the visual signal that results from the two-color mixing achieved through an optically enhanced binocular device is directly related to the band ratio of light intensity at the two selected wavebands. A technique that implements the band-ratio criterion in a visual device by using two-color mixing is presented here. The device will allow inspectors to identify targets visually in accordance with a two-wavelength band ratio. It is a method of inspection by human vision assisted by an optical device, which offers greater flexibility and better cost savings than a multispectral machine vision system that implements the band-ratio criterion. With proper selection of the two narrow wavebands, discrimination by chromaticness that is directly related to the band ratio can work well. An example application of this technique for the inspection of carcasses chickens of afficted with various diseases is given. An optimal pair of wavelengths of 454 and 578 nm was selected to optimize differences in saturation and hue in CIE LUV color space among different types of target. Another example application, for the detection of chilling injury in cucumbers, is given, here the selected wavelength pair was 504 and 652 nm. The novel two-color mixing technique for visual inspection can be included in visual devices for various applications, ranging from target detection to food safety inspection.

  3. Characterizing LEDs for general illumination applications: mixed-color and phosphor-based white sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Maliyagoda, Nishantha; Deng, Lei; Pysar, Richard M.

    2001-12-01

    The rapid development of high-brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs) has made this technology a potential candidate for architectural lighting applications. There are two distinct approaches for creating white light. The first is combining blue LEDs with a phosphor and the second is mixing monochromatic LEDs in appropriate proportions. This manuscript presents some of the critical issues involved in creating a good quality, stable white light source using the color mixture approach for LEDs. Some sample calculations for mixing different colored LEDs to obtain specific color appearance (CCT) and color rendering properties (CRI) are shown in this paper. Calculations show that the CRI values of mixed-color white LEDs can be changed significantly by shifting the wavelengths of the LEDs by a small amount. It is also shown that small amplitude and wavelength shifts can cause perceivable color differences in the mixed-color white LEDs. Therefore, circuits must be properly designed to power these types of white light sources so that they are acceptable for architectural lighting applications. Because the light output variation as a function of time at different drive currents was not readily available, an experiment was conducted to quantify the light output change as a function of time for red, green, blue and white 5-mm LEDs, at fiber different constant current values (20,30,40,50 and 50 mA). The light output of the different colored LEDs depreciated at different rates. The depreciation rates increased in the following order: red, green, blue, and white. Furthermore, the light output depreciation increased with increasing drive current. The red LEDs has the least amount of light output depreciation rate variation as function of drive current, green and blue LEDs ranked after that, and white LEDs had the most variation for the same drive current variation. A group of twelve new high-powered phosphor-based white LEDs were tested at their rated current, (which is much

  4. Analysis of ocean color components within stratified and well-mixed waters of the western English Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochmann, Herschel T.; Walsh, John J.; Carder, Kendall L.; Sournia, A.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    1995-01-01

    In situ pigment and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) data from two distinct hydrographic regions of the western English Channel are used to explore the possible marine DOC contamination of the past satellite estimates of phytoplankton biomass. To compare with field measurements, the individual spectral contributions of DOC, pigments, and water to the total diffuse attenuation coefficient, K(sub par), are summed on a quantum basis within stratified waters near Plymouth, England; and for the spectrally averaged diffuse attenuation coefficient, K(sub d), on an energy basis within tidally mixed waters near Roscoff, France. In addition, coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images from 1979 to 1986 were used to compute DOC concentrations for comparison with in situ values. Our analysis suggests that almost 50% of the color signal of satellite-sensed pigments may be attributed to absorption by marine colored DOC (CDOC) within the English Channel. These results compare favorably to the in situ DOC measurements off Plymouth, but not to off-Roscoff measurements, suggesting that there may be more CDOC in the stratified waters and more nonabsorbing DOC in the tidally mixed waters.

  5. Noni puree (Morinda citrifolia) mixed in beef patties enhanced color stability.

    PubMed

    Tapp, W Nathan; Yancey, Janeal W S; Apple, Jason K; Dikeman, Michael E; Godbee, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    Ground beef, mixed with 0, 2, 4, and 6% Noni puree, was formed into 150-g patties, aerobically packaged, and displayed in retail for 5d. After 2 and 3d, patties with higher concentrations of Noni were perceived as redder and less discolored (P<0.05) by visual panelists. Noni patties were found to have greater (P<0.05) a* values than controls, even though all patties became less red during display. After 3 and 5d of retail display, patties with higher concentrations of Noni puree also had lower TBARS (were less oxidized; P<0.05). In fresh taste panels, panelists perceived the patties to have less beef flavor and greater incidence of off-flavors (P<0.05) as Noni puree concentration increased. The potential of Noni puree to improve the color stability and shelf life of fresh ground beef is very promising, but the flavors produced by the addition of Noni in ground beef may be detrimental to its use.

  6. Assessing the effects of different pectins addition on color quality and antioxidant properties of blackberry jam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Results Blackberry jam was obtained by a traditional procedure used in households or small-scale systems with different commercial pectins (HMP: high-methoxyl pectin, LMP: low-methoxyl pectin and LMAP: low-methoxyl amidated pectin) added to three concentrations (0.3, 0.7 and 1.0%) and investigated in terms of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), antioxidant capacity expressed as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics (TP), color density (CD) and percent of polymeric color, PC (%). Thermal processing resulted in significant depreciation of analyzed parameters reported to the corresponding values of fresh fruit as follows: TMA (69-82%), TP (33-55%) and FRAP (18-52%). Biologically active compounds and color were best retained one day post-processing in jams with LMAP followed by samples with LMP and HMP. Storage for 6 months brings along additional dramatic losses reported to the values recorded one day post-processing as follows: TMA (31-56%), TP (29-51%) and FRAP (20-41%). Also, both processing and storage resulted in significant increases in PC (%). The pectin type and dosage are very influential factors for limiting the alterations occurring in response to processing and storage. The best color retention and the highest TMA, TP and FRAP were achieved by LMAP, followed by LMP and HMP. Additionally, a high level of bioactive compounds in jam could be related to a high dose of pectin. LMAP to a level of 1% is the most indicated to provide the highest antioxidant

  7. Attentional capture by evaluative stimuli: gain- and loss-connoting colors boost the additional-singleton effect.

    PubMed

    Wentura, Dirk; Müller, Philipp; Rothermund, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    In a valence induction task, one color acquired positive valence by indicating the chance to win money (in the case of fast and correct responses), and a different color acquired negative valence by indicating the danger to lose money (in the case of slow or incorrect responses). In the additional-singleton trials of a visual search task, the task-irrelevant singleton color was either the positive one, the negative one, or one of two neutral colors. We found an additional-singleton effect (i.e., longer RTs with a singleton color than in the no-singleton control condition). This effect was significantly increased for the two valent colors (with no differences between them) relative to the two neutral colors (with no differences between them, either). This result favors the hypothesis that the general relevance of stimuli elicits attentional capture, rather than the negativity bias hypothesis. PMID:24488806

  8. Uniform illumination design by configuration of LEDs and optimization of LED lens for large-scale color-mixing applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Huihui; Wu, Rengmao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yaqin; Zheng, Zhenrong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2013-06-10

    In many applications, the emitting light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with different colors needs to be mixed together on a large-scale plane, and this illumination mode is usually generated with a diffuser. Abandoning the traditional methods, we proposed an LED color-mixing method that can produce both high color uniformity and irradiance uniformity illumination. This method is composed of two main aspects: arrangement of the irradiance array and design of the LED lens. With this method, an independent rectangular irradiance distribution is generated by each lens unit, and the large-scale color uniform illumination is obtained by arraying the irradiance distribution. A 3×3 array of LED module units consisting of 36 LED lens units with four different colors is designed, and a desired result with high color uniformity is obtained. PMID:23759848

  9. Uniform illumination design by configuration of LEDs and optimization of LED lens for large-scale color-mixing applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Huihui; Wu, Rengmao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yaqin; Zheng, Zhenrong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2013-06-10

    In many applications, the emitting light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with different colors needs to be mixed together on a large-scale plane, and this illumination mode is usually generated with a diffuser. Abandoning the traditional methods, we proposed an LED color-mixing method that can produce both high color uniformity and irradiance uniformity illumination. This method is composed of two main aspects: arrangement of the irradiance array and design of the LED lens. With this method, an independent rectangular irradiance distribution is generated by each lens unit, and the large-scale color uniform illumination is obtained by arraying the irradiance distribution. A 3×3 array of LED module units consisting of 36 LED lens units with four different colors is designed, and a desired result with high color uniformity is obtained.

  10. Rapid identification of color additives, using the C18 cartridge: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Young, M L

    1988-01-01

    Nine laboratories collaboratively studied a method for the separation and identification of the 7 permitted FD&C color additives (Red Nos. 3 and 40; Blue Nos. 1 and 2; Yellow Nos. 5 and 6; Green No. 3) and the banned FD&C Red No. 2 in foods. The method is based on use of a commercial C18 cartridge and spectrophotometry or thin layer chromatography. Collaborators analyzed 5 commercial products (noodles, candy, carbonated soda, flavored gelatin, and powdered drink) and 2 dye mixtures (one containing FD&C Red Nos. 2, 3, and 40; the other containing FD&C Green No. 3 and Red No. 3). All of the colors were identified with little or no difficulty by 8 collaborators. The method has been adopted official first action.

  11. Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Bruce

    1975-01-01

    The color wheel, because it is an excellent way to teach color theory has become somewhat of a traditional assignment in most basic design courses. Article described a way to change this situation by re-designing and improving upon the basic color wheel. (Author/RK)

  12. Symmetry breaking and generational mixing in top-color-assisted technicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Kenneth

    1996-08-01

    Top-color-assisted technicolor provides a dynanamical explanation for electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking and for the large mass of the top quark without unnatural fine-tuning. A major challenge is to generate the observed mixing between heavy and light generations while breaking the strong top-color interactions near 1 TeV. I argue that these phenomena, as well as electroweak symmetry breaking, are intimately connected and I present a scenario for them based on nontrivial patterns of technifermion condensation. I also exhibit a class of models realizing this scenario. This picture leads to a rich phenomenology, especially in hadron and lepton collider experiments in the few hundred GeV to few TeV region and in precision electroweak tests at the Z0, atomic parity violation, and polarized Mo/ller scattering.

  13. 3D filtering technique in presence of additive noise in color videos implemented on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Palacios, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    A filtering method for color videos contaminated by additive noise is presented. The proposed framework employs three filtering stages: spatial similarity filtering, neighboring frame denoising, and spatial post-processing smoothing. The difference with other state-of- the-art filtering methods, is that this approach, based on fuzzy logic, analyses basic and related gradient values between neighboring pixels into a 7 fi 7 sliding window in the vicinity of a central pixel in each of the RGB channels. Following, the similarity measures between the analogous pixels in the color bands are taken into account during the denoising. Next, two neighboring video frames are analyzed together estimating local motions between the frames using block matching procedure. In the final stage, the edges and smoothed areas are processed differently in a current frame during the post-processing filtering. Numerous simulations results confirm that this 3D fuzzy filter perform better than other state-of-the- art methods, such as: 3D-LLMMSE, WMVCE, RFMDAF, FDARTF G, VBM3D and NLM, in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via human vision system in the different color videos. An efficiency analysis of the designed and other mentioned filters have been performed on the DSPs TMS320 DM642 and TMS320DM648 by Texas Instruments through MATLAB and Simulink module showing that the novel 3D fuzzy filter can be used in real-time processing applications.

  14. Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorgato, Simone; Mohedano, Rubén.; Chaves, Julio; Cvetkovic, Aleksandra; Hernández, Maikel; Benitez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Thienpont, Hugo; Duerr, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Today's SSL illumination market shows a clear trend to high flux packages with higher efficiency and higher CRI, realized by means of multiple color chips and phosphors. Such light sources require the optics to provide both near- and far-field color mixing. This design problem is particularly challenging for collimated luminaries, since traditional diffusers cannot be employed without enlarging the exit aperture and reducing brightness. Furthermore, diffusers compromise the light output ratio (efficiency) of the lamps to which they are applied. A solution, based on Köhler integration, consisting of a spherical cap comprising spherical microlenses on both its interior and exterior sides was presented in 2012. The diameter of this so-called Shell-Mixer was 3 times that of the chip array footprint. A new version of the Shell-Mixer, based on the Edge Ray Principle and conservation of etendue, where neither the outer shape of the cap nor the surfaces of the lenses are constrained to spheres or 2D Cartesian ovals will be shown in this work. The new shell is freeform, only twice as large as the original chip-array and equals the original model in terms of color uniformity, brightness and efficiency.

  15. Freeform étendue-preserving optics for light and color mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorgato, Simone; Mohedano, Rubén.; Chaves, Julio; Cvetkovic, Aleksandra; Hernández, Maikel; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Thienpont, Hugo; Duerr, Fabian

    2015-09-01

    Today's SSL illumination market shows a clear trend towards high flux packages with higher efficiency and higher CRI, realized by means of multiple color chips and phosphors. Such light sources require the optics to provide both near- and far-field color mixing. This design problem is particularly challenging for collimated luminaries, since traditional diffusers cannot be employed without enlarging the exit aperture and reducing brightness (so increasing étendue). Furthermore, diffusers compromise the light output ratio (efficiency) of the lamps to which they are applied. A solution, based on Köhler integration, consisting of a spherical cap comprising spherical microlenses on both its interior and exterior sides was presented in 2012. When placed on top of an inhomogeneous multichip Lambertian LED, this so-called Shell-Mixer creates a homogeneous (both spatially and angularly) virtual source, also Lambertian, where the images of the chips merge. The virtual source is located at the same position with essentially the same size of the original source. The diameter of this optics was 3 times that of the chip-array footprint. In this work, we present a new version of the Shell-Mixer, based on the Edge Ray Principle, where neither the overall shape of the cap nor the surfaces of the lenses are constrained to spheres or rotational Cartesian ovals. This new Shell- Mixer is freeform, only twice as large as the original chip-array and equals the original model in terms of brightness, color uniformity and efficiency.

  16. Efficient speckle-suppressed white light source by micro-vibrated and color-mixing techniques for lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shih-Yu; Lin, Hoang Yan; Lee, Tsung-Xian

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated an efficient speckle-suppressed white light source generation when a blue laser diode illuminates on a micro-vibrated phosphor paper. Both micro-vibrated and color-mixing techniques are used in this system. With only micro-vibrated technique, the speckle contrast can be reduced from about 50% to 7.4% for the scattering blue image for a 16-ms integration time. Together with color-mixing technique, mixing speckle contrast is defined for laser diode pumped phosphor and almost speckle-free result is achieved. For color temperature lower than 5000 K, almost speckle-free mixed white can be obtained even without vibration technique. PMID:26480187

  17. Efficient speckle-suppressed white light source by micro-vibrated and color-mixing techniques for lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shih-Yu; Lin, Hoang Yan; Lee, Tsung-Xian

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated an efficient speckle-suppressed white light source generation when a blue laser diode illuminates on a micro-vibrated phosphor paper. Both micro-vibrated and color-mixing techniques are used in this system. With only micro-vibrated technique, the speckle contrast can be reduced from about 50% to 7.4% for the scattering blue image for a 16-ms integration time. Together with color-mixing technique, mixing speckle contrast is defined for laser diode pumped phosphor and almost speckle-free result is achieved. For color temperature lower than 5000 K, almost speckle-free mixed white can be obtained even without vibration technique.

  18. Long wavelength mid-infrared from mixing two colors from a fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Siyuan; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman; Strickland, Donna

    2015-05-01

    At Waterloo, we are developing a high power, short pulse, two-color, Yb:fiber amplifier system to generate the long wavelength (<15μm) side of the molecular fingerprint spectral region, by difference frequency mixing the two colors. This spectral region is important for trace gas detection of explosives. As an example, it has been shown that the strong spectroscopic signatures of a peroxide-based explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP) occur between 15 and 20 μm. To date, we have achieved a tuning range from 16 to 20 μm with a maximum average power of 1.7 mW. On the short wavelength side, the two colors would need to be pulled further apart, which requires a higher power seed to beat the amplified spontaneous emission that appears at the gain peak of the amplifiers between the two seed colors. On the long wavelength side, we are limited to 20 μm by the transparency region of the nonlinear crystals. We would like to find new nonlinear materials that have transparency from 1 to 30μm. If we could generate wavelengths from 15 to 30 μm with sufficient power, we could extend the spectral region to also cover 8 to 15μm by frequency doubling the longer wavelengths. We are currently working on replacing bulk optics in the system with fiber based optical elements to select the wavelengths as well as stretch and recompress the pulses in order to make the system compact and stable.

  19. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages. PMID:26760939

  20. Effect of ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel colorant additives and acrylamide formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxing; Gu, Zhengbiao

    2014-09-01

    Ammonia caramels are among the most widely used colorant additives in the food industry. They are commonly prepared through the Maillard reaction and caramelization of mixtures of reducing sugars with ammonia or ammonium salts. Antioxidants are known to inhibit acrylamide formation during the Maillard reaction, and they may affect the properties of the ammonia caramel products. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel. A mixture of glucose and ammonia was allowed to react at 120 °C for 60 min in the presence of ascorbic acid at final concentrations of 0 to 0.08 M. The ammonia caramels obtained from these reactions were all positively charged. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased, the color intensity of the ammonia caramel showed a decreasing trend, while the intensity of the fluorescence and total amount of pyrazines in the volatiles showed a tendency to increase. The addition of ascorbic acid did not result in obvious changes in the UV-visible spectra of the ammonia caramels and the types of pyrazines in the volatiles were also unchanged. It is noteworthy that the addition of 0.02 to 0.08 M ascorbic acid did reduce the formation of the by-product acrylamide, a harmful substance in food. When the concentration of ascorbic acid added reached 0.04 M, the content of acrylamide in the ammonia caramel was 20.53 μg/L, which was approximately 44% lower than that without ascorbic acid. As a result, ascorbic acid can be considered to improve the quality and safety of ammonia caramels.

  1. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  2. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM 2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  3. Effects of maternally exposed food coloring additives on laryngeal histology in rats.

    PubMed

    Başak, Kayhan; Doguç, Duygu Kumbul; Aylak, Firdevs; Karadayi, Nimet; Gültekin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Experimental reports showed carcinogenic effects of artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) on many organs, including the head and neck region. We aimed to investigate the effect of AFCAs on laryngeal histomorphology and immunohistochemical expression in maternally exposed rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were evaluated in their offspring. Significant decreasing in goblet cell count and cilia loss were observed with AFCAs in maternally exposed rats (p<0.05). Immunohistochemically, the Ki67 index was significantly increased and villin expression was significantly reduced in laryngeal epithelium in the study group (p<0.05), whereas expression of cyclooxygenase type 2, Muc-2, Muc-5AC, p53, and epidermal growth factor receptors did not differ between the groups. This study demonstrated that maternal exposure of AFCAs plays a role in the mucosal defense system and possibly in carcinogenesis. PMID:24941295

  4. Color-tunable mixed photoluminescence emission from Alq3 organic layer in metal-Alq3-metal surface plasmon structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the color-tunable mixed photoluminescence (PL) emission from an Alq3 organic layer in an Au-Alq3-Au plasmonic structure through the combination of organic fluorescence emission and another form of emission that is enabled by the surface plasmons in the plasmonic structure. The emission wavelength of the latter depends on the Alq3 thickness and can be tuned within the Alq3 fluorescent spectra. Therefore, a two-color broadband, color-tunable mixed PL structure was obtained. Obvious changes in the Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates and the corresponding emission colors of Au-Alq3-Au samples clearly varied with the Alq3 thickness (90, 130, and 156 nm). PMID:25328506

  5. Highly Efficient, Color-Reproducible Full-Color Electroluminescent Devices Based on Red/Green/Blue Quantum Dot-Mixed Multilayer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Han, Chang-Yeol; Kang, Hee-Don; Ko, Heejoo; Lee, Changho; Lee, Jonghyuk; Myoung, NoSoung; Yim, Sang-Youp; Yang, Heesun

    2015-11-24

    Over the past few years the performance of colloidal quantum dot-light-emitting diode (QLED) has been progressively improved. However, most of QLED work has been fulfilled in the form of monochromatic device, while full-color-enabling white QLED still remains nearly unexplored. Using red, green, and blue quantum dots (QDs), herein, we fabricate bichromatic and trichromatic QLEDs through sequential solution-processed deposition of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) (PVK) hole transport layer, two or three types of QDs-mixed multilayer, and ZnO nanoparticle electron transport layer. The relative electroluminescent (EL) spectral ratios of constituent QDs in the above multicolored devices are found to inevitably vary with applied bias, leading to the common observation of an increasing contribution of a higher-band gap QD EL over low-band gap one at a higher voltage. The white EL from a trichromatic device is resolved into its primary colors through combining with color filters, producing an exceptional color gamut of 126% relative to National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) color space that a state-of-the-art full-color organic LED counterpart cannot attain. Our trichromatic white QLED also displays the record-high EL performance such as the peak values of 23,352 cd/m(2) in luminance, 21.8 cd/A in current efficiency, and 10.9% in external quantum efficiency. PMID:26435403

  6. Volatilization of ammonia from manure as affected by manure additives, temperature and mixing.

    PubMed

    Van der Stelt, B; Temminghoff, E J M; Van Vliet, P C J; Van Riemsdijk, W H

    2007-12-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization decreases the N-nutrient value of livestock manure slurries and can lead to soil acidification and eutrophication problems. In this study the effect of three manure additives (Euro Mest-mix (Mx), Effective Micro-organisms (EM), and Agri-mest (Am)) on NH(3) volatilization at three temperatures (4, 20, and 35 degrees C) was investigated. The manufacturers claim that Mx contains absorbing clay minerals and that applying Am and EM to slurry will reduce nitrogen losses, most likely by enhancing the biodegradation of manure slurry. Furthermore, the effect of mixing slurry on NH(3) volatilization has been investigated. Ammonia volatilization increased with increasing temperature and mixing of the slurries. However, at 35 degrees C mixing of manure reduced NH(3) emissions compared to non-mixing, which is related to a reduced crust resistance to gaseous transport at higher temperatures for non-mixing. Moreover, mixing introduces oxygen into the anaerobic slurry environment which will slow down microbial activity. The use of additives did not change manure characteristics (pH, dry matter, N(total), N(mineral), C/N, and C/N(organic)) and did not result in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in NH(3) emissions, except that at 4 degrees C and no mixing a significant decrease of 34% in NH(3) volatilization was observed, when Am and EM together, were applied to slurry. PMID:17215124

  7. The effect of silane addition timing on mixing processability and properties of silica reinforced rubber compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hee-Hoon; Jin, Hyun-Ho; Ha, Sung-Ho; Jang, Suk-Hee; Kang, Yong-Gu; Han, Min-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    A series of experiments were performed to determine an optimum balance between processability and performance of a highly loaded silica compound. The experiments evaluated 4 different silane injection times. All mixing related to silane addition was conducted with a scaled up "Tandem" mixer line. With exception to silane addition timing, almost all operating conditions were controlled between experimental features. It was found that when the silane addition was introduced earlier in the mixing cycle both the reaction was more complete and the bound rubber content was higher. But processability indicators such as sheet forming and Mooney plasticity were negatively impacted. On the other hand, as silane injection was delayed to later in the mixing process the filler dispersion and good sheet forming was improved. However both the bound rubber content and Silane reaction completion were decreased. With the changes in silane addition time, the processability and properties of a silica compound can be controlled.

  8. Expanding the bactericidal action of the food color additive phloxine B to gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven

    2005-08-01

    Phloxine B (D&C red no. 28) is a color additive for food, drugs, and cosmetics. It has been previously shown to have anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities. In this work, the effect of Phloxine B on various gram-negative bacteria and other gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aureus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Shigella was studied, along with the mechanism of anti-microbial activity. In the presence of fluorescent light, the viable count for gram-positive bacteria, (Bacillus spp. and S. aureus) decreased in a dose and time dependent manner when incubated with Phloxine B. The viability of gram-positive bacteria was reduced by 99.99% in 40 min, while there was no effect on gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella choleraesuis, E. coli and Shigella flexneri). However, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) expands the spectrum of activity for Phloxine B to include gram-negative bacteria. EDTA increased membrane-permeability by releasing lipopolysaccharide. Overall, in an Agar diffusion test the light-dependent bactericidal activity of 1 microg of Phloxine B had a potency of 0.64 units of chloramphenicol and 0.5 units of tetracycline when tested on B. cereus, and had a potency of 0.7 units of chloramphenicol and 0.2 units of tetracycline when tested on S. aureus. The data suggest that the dye may have some potential anti-microbial applications.

  9. The effect of powder A2/powder A3 mixing ratio on color and translucency parameters of dental porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan-Sun; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Hae-Young

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to mix dental ceramic powder in varying ratios and evaluate the effect of the mixing ratio on color and translucency. MATERIALS AND METHODS The ceramic powder of shade A3 of the same product was mixed with the shade A2 of three products: IPS e.max Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Vintage Halo (SHOFU Inc., Kyoto, Japan), and Ceramco 3 (Ceramco-Dentsply, Burlington, NJ, USA) in the following fixed ratios (0 wt%, 25 wt%, 50 wt%, 75 wt%, and 100 wt%) and then fired. A total of 150 specimen of ceramic fired were manufactured in a regular size (W: 8.5 mm, L: 10.5 mm, and H: 1.5 mm). For color and translucency, L*, a*, and b* were measured and Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for data analysis (α=0.05). RESULTS The higher the mixing ratio was, L*, a*, and b* of IPS e.max Ceram were all increased, and L* of Vintage Halo was reduced and a* and b* were increased. L* and a* of Ceramco3 were reduced and b* of Ceramco3 was increased. Color difference (ΔE*ab) was increased in all three products as the mixing ratio got higher. Increased mixing ratios resulted in decreased translucency parameter (TP) values for IPS e.max Ceram but increased TP values for Vintage Halo and Ceramco3. CONCLUSION In this limited study, CIE L*, a*, and b* were influenced by the mixing ratio of the A3 powders and porcelain powder mixtures represented a various color and translucency. PMID:26576257

  10. Optoelectronic Properties of Color-Tunable Mixed Ligand-Based Light-Emitting Zinc Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Devender; Bhagwan, Shri; Saini, Raman Kumar; Tanwar, Vijeta; Nishal, Vandna

    2016-10-01

    A series of mixed ligand-based zinc complexes (Zn1-Zn5); [(8-hydroxyquinolinato)(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazolato)zinc(II)] (Zn1), [(5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinato)(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazolato)zinc(II)] (Zn2), [(5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinolinato)(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazolato)zinc(II)] (Zn3), [(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazolato)zinc(II)] (Zn4) and [(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazolato)zinc(II)] (Zn5) were synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of zinc complexes were examined by ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy. All prepared metal complexes produced intense luminescence on excitation with a UV light source. In this study, the color-tunable characteristics of metal complexes were investigated by introducing the electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups on the 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand. The emission spectra of metal complexes showed emission wavelength at 500 nm for [ZnHBI(q)], 509 nm for [ZnHBI(Clq)], 504 nm for [Zn(HBI)(Cl2q)], 496 nm for [ZnHBI (Meq)] and 573 nm for [ZnHBI(Me2Q)] materials. A temperature-dependent PL spectrum was used to study the emission profile of zinc complex and observed that variation in the temperature altered the position and the intensity of emission peak. The synthesized metal complex also exhibited good thermal stability (>300°C). Photophysical characteristics of color-tunable light-emitting zinc complexes suggested that these materials could be efficiently used for emissive display device applications.

  11. Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Additives for Use in Modified Asphalt Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamoun, Zahi

    The objective of this research effort is to evaluate the use of warm-mix additives with polymer modified and terminal blend tire rubber asphalt mixtures from Nevada and California. The research completed over two stages: first stage evaluated two different WMA technologies; Sasobit and Advera, and second stage evaluated one additional WMA technology; Evotherm. The experimental program covered the evaluation of resistance of the mixtures to moisture damage, the performance characteristics of the mixtures, and mechanistic analysis of mixtures in simulated pavements. In the both stages, the mixture resistance to moisture damage was evaluated using the indirect tensile test and the dynamic modulus at multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and the resistance of the various asphalt mixtures to permanent deformation using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT). Resistance of the untreated mixes to fatigue cracking using the flexural beam fatigue was only completed for the first stage. One source of aggregates was sampled in, two different batches, three warm mix asphalt technologies (Advera, Sasobit and Evotherm) and three asphalt binder types (neat, polymer-modified, and terminal blend tire rubber modified asphalt binders) typically used in Nevada and California were evaluated in this study. This thesis presents the resistance of the first stage mixtures to permanent deformation and fatigue cracking using two warm-mix additives; Advera and Sasobit, and the resistance to moisture damage and permanent deformation of the second stage mixtures with only one warm-mix additive; Evotherm.

  12. The use of elemental powder mixes in laser-based additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Rodney Michael

    This study examines the use and functionality of laser depositing alloys from mixes of elemental metallic powders. Through the use of laser-based additive manufacturing (LAM), near net-shaped 3-Dimensional metallic parts can be produced in a layer-by-layer fashion. It is customary for pre-alloyed powders to be used in this process. However, mixes of elemental powders can be used to produce alloys that are formed during the deposition process. This alternative technique requires that the elemental powders adequately mix during deposition for a homogeneous deposit to be produced. Cost savings and versatility are among several of the advantages to using elemental powder mixes in LAM. Representative alloys of 316 and 430 Stainless Steel (SS) and Ti-6Al-4V were produced with elemental powder mixes during this research. These deposits were then compared to deposits of the same material manufactured with pre-alloyed powder. Comparison between the two types of samples included; EDS analysis to examine chemical homogeneity, metallography techniques to compare microstructures, and finally hardness testing to observe mechanical properties. The enthalpy of mixing is also discussed as this can impact the resulting homogeneity of deposits produced with mixes of elemental powders. Some differences were observed between the two types of deposits for 430 SS and Ti-6Al-4V. Results indicate that deposits fabricated with mixes of elemental powders can be produced to an equivalent quality of pre-alloyed powder deposits for 316 SS. This research also proposes potential alloys that could be considered for use in an elemental powder mixing technique.

  13. Two-wave-band color-mixing binoculars for the detection of wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses: a simulation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fujian; Chen, Yud-Ren; Chao, Kuanglin

    2005-09-10

    Visual inspection of wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses with a novel two-narrowband color-mixing technique for optically enhanced binoculars is simulated. From mean spectra of wholesome, airsacculitis (air-sac), cadaver, inflammatory process (IP), septicemia-toxemia (septox), and tumor chicken samples, 10 nm wave-band pairs are selected using color difference and chromaticness difference indices for simulation of multitarget and single-target detection. The color appearance simulation uses the CIECAM97s color appearance model. Results show that for multitarget detection, the wave-band pair of (454 nm, 578 nm) is able to differentiate all six chicken conditions. For single-target detection of wholesome, air-sac, cadaver, and tumor, the wave-band pairs of (449 nm, 571 nm), (441 nm, 576 nm), (458 nm, 576 nm), and (431 nm, 501 nm), respectively, easily distinguish the target condition from the other five conditions. For single-target detection of IP and septox, the wave-band pairs of (454 nm, 591 nm) and (454 nm, 590 nm), respectively, are able to differentiate the target conditions from wholesome and tumor conditions but have difficulty with the other chicken conditions. The two-color-mixing technique shows promise for use in small-scale processing plant environments to improve the visual inspection process.

  14. 78 FR 37962 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...-propenoic)ester (C.I. Reactive Blue 247) as color additives in contact lenses. DATES: Effective date confirmed: May 2, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Regarding CAP 1C0291 (C.I. Reactive Blue 246... rule that published in the Federal Register of April 1, 2013 (78 FR 19413), and that amended the...

  15. Bactericidal activity of the food color additive Phloxine B against Staphylococcus aureus and other food borne microbial pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains requires the development of new anti S. aureus agents. The objective of this study was evaluating the antimicrobial activity of the food color additive Phloxine B against S. aureus and other food microbial pathogens. Our result ...

  16. 21 CFR 81.10 - Termination of provisional listings of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... impurity named, no method of analysis has been suggested to establish the fact. β-Naphthylamine is a known carcinogen; therefore, there is no scientific evidence that will support a safe tolerance for these colors in.... β-Naphthylamine is a known carcinogen; therefore, there is no scientific evidence that will...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1001 - Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use exempt from certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Restrictions Alcohol, specially denatured As set forth in 26 CFR, pt. 212 As set forth in 26 CFR, pt. 211. Cetyl alcohol As set forth in N.F. XI Isopropyl alcohol In color coatings for pharmaceutical forms, no... chapter Polysorbate 80 As set forth in sec. 172.840 of this chapter Polyvinyl-pyrrolidone As set forth...

  18. Palatability of colonic lavage solution is improved by the addition of artificially sweetened flavored drink mixes.

    PubMed

    Gruber, M; Fay, D; Pudhorodsky, T; Lance, P

    1991-12-01

    A frequent complaint of patients asked to drink polyethylene glycol (PEG) colonic lavage solution is the salty flavor. This often results in failure to ingest the entire 4 liters of the solution and compromises bowel cleansing. The purpose of this study was to determine systematically whether the addition of a flavored drink mix sweetened with aspartame to the PEG lavage solution would improve palatability without significantly altering the osmolality of the solution. Eighty-seven (87) staff volunteers participated in a taste test of PEG lavage solutions containing varying amounts of commercially available drink mixes. The solution containing two packages of lemon-flavored KoolAid drink mix sweetened with aspartame was significantly more palatable than the others (p less than 0.005), while osmolality remained within the range specified by the manufacturer of Colyte.

  19. Determination of arsenic, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury in certifiable color additives by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Nancy Morris

    2015-01-01

    Specifications in the Code of Federal Regulations limit the levels of As, Pb, and Hg in most certifiable color additives, and some have additional specification limits for Cr and Mn. A new ICP/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of these elements in various certifiable color additives. One dissolution and two microwave-assisted digestion sample preparation procedures were optimized to address initial low Hg and enhanced As recoveries. Results using the three sample preparation procedures were generally equivalent for all of the elements determined. LOQ values were 0.3 mg/kg for As, 0.7 mg/kg for Cr, 0.4 mg/kg for Pb, 0.7 mg/kg for Mn, and 0.1 mg/kg for Hg.

  20. Use of ready-mixed concrete plant sludge water in concrete containing an additive or admixture.

    PubMed

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using sludge water from a ready-mixed concrete plant as mixing water in concrete containing either fly ash as an additive or a superplasticizer admixture based on sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates (SNF). The chemical and physical properties of the sludge water and the dry sludge were investigated. Cement pastes were mixed using sludge water containing various levels of total solids content (0.5, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15%) in order to determine the optimum content in the sludge water. Increasing the total solids content beyond 5-6% tended to reduce the compressive strength and shorten the setting time. Concrete mixes were then prepared using sludge water containing 5-6% total solids content. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to water required, setting time, slump, compressive strength, permeability, and resistance to acid attack. The use of sludge water in the concrete mix tended to reduce the effect of both fly ash and superplasticizer. Sludge water with a total solids content of less than 6% is suitable for use in the production of concrete with acceptable strength and durability.

  1. Black curves and creep behaviour of crumb rubber modified binders containing warm mix asphalt additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Juan; Rodríguez-Alloza, Ana María; Giuliani, Felice

    2016-08-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a new research topic in the field of road pavement materials. This technology allows lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by reducing compaction and placement temperatures of the asphalt mixtures. However, this technology is still under study, and the influence of the WMA additives has yet to be investigated thoroughly and clearly identified, especially in the case of crumb rubber modified (CRM) binders.

  2. Multi-Length-Scale Morphologies Driven by Mixed Additives in Porphyrin-Based Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ke; Miao, Jingsheng; Xiao, Liangang; Deng, Wanyuan; Kan, Yuanyuan; Liang, Tianxiang; Wang, Cheng; Huang, Fei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Wu, Hongbin; Peng, Xiaobin

    2016-06-01

    A new category of deep-absorbing small molecules is developed. Optimized devices driven by mixed additives show a remarkable short-circuit current of ≈20 mA cm(-2) and a highest power conversion efficiency of 9.06%. A multi-length-scale morphology is formed, which is fully characterized by resonant soft X-ray scattering, high-angle annular dark film image transmission electron microscopy, etc.

  3. Stability of a general mixed additive-cubic functional equation in non-Archimedean fuzzy normed spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Tianzhou; Rassias, John Michael; Xu Wanxin

    2010-09-15

    We establish some stability results concerning the general mixed additive-cubic functional equation in non-Archimedean fuzzy normed spaces. In addition, we establish some results of approximately general mixed additive-cubic mappings in non-Archimedean fuzzy normed spaces. The results improve and extend some recent results.

  4. Ionization-Induced Multiwave Mixing: Terahertz Generation with Two-Color Laser Pulses of Various Frequency Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostin, V. A.; Laryushin, I. D.; Silaev, A. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    Ultrafast strong-field ionization is shown to be accompanied by atypical multiwave mixing with the number of mixed waves defined by the dependence of the ionization rate on the field strength. For two-color laser pulses of various frequency ratios, this results in the excitation of a free-electron current at laser combination frequencies and possibly in the excitation of the zero-frequency (residual) current responsible for terahertz (THz) generation in a formed plasma. The high-order nature of ionization-induced wave mixing may cause THz generation with uncommon laser frequency ratios (such as 2 : 3 and 3 : 4 ) to be virtually as effective as that with the commonly used frequency ratio of 1 : 2 .

  5. Enhancement of nitrate removal at the sediment-water interface by carbon addition plus vertical mixing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuechu; He, Shengbing; Zhang, Yueping; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Danyue; Huang, Xiaochen; Tang, Jianwu

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands and ponds are frequently used to remove nitrate from effluents or runoffs. However, the efficiency of this approach is limited. Based on the assumption that introducing vertical mixing to water column plus carbon addition would benefit the diffusion across the sediment-water interface, we conducted simulation experiments to identify a method for enhancing nitrate removal. The results suggested that the sediment-water interface has a great potential for nitrate removal, and the potential can be activated after several days of acclimation. Adding additional carbon plus mixing significantly increases the nitrate removal capacity, and the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) is well fitted to a first-order reaction model. Adding Hydrilla verticillata debris as a carbon source increased nitrate removal, whereas adding Eichhornia crassipe decreased it. Adding ethanol plus mixing greatly improved the removal performance, with the removal rate of NO3(-)-N and TN reaching 15.0-16.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The feasibility of this enhancement method was further confirmed with a wetland microcosm, and the NO3(-)-N removal rate maintained at 10.0-12.0 g m(-2) d(-1) at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.5 m d(-1). PMID:25556005

  6. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS Administrative Action on Petitions...

  7. Optical projection display systems integrated with three-color-mixing waveguides and grating-light-valve devices.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ju-Nan; Wu, Hui-Wen; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2006-07-24

    An integrated optical projection display technique utilizing three-color-mixing waveguides and grating-light-valve devices is demonstrated. This new projection display system comprises an optical lens, a microscanner, a grating light valve, and a 3x1 planar waveguide device. The planar waveguide device is fabricated using a SU-8 negative photoresist process, which is suitable material for rapid prototyping of integrated optical circuits. It works as a three-color-mixer and is successfully used for color image generation. The intensity of color for each pixel in the display picture is tuned by groups of movable ribbons comprising a grating light valve and image generating diffraction gratings. This study also demonstrates a surface-micromachined optical scanner using four stress-actuated polysilicon plates to raise a horizontal mirror. The electrostatically driven mirror can be used for scanning projection display applications. Experimental data show that the optical scanner has a mirror scanning angle up to +/-15(o) using an operating voltage of 25 V. A sub-millisecond switching time (<900 mus) and an optical insertion loss of 0.85 dB is achieved for multi-mode waveguides. The development of the proposed integrated optical system could be promising for an image generation system.

  8. Effect of Crumb Rubber and Warm Mix Additives on Asphalt Aging, Rheological, and Failure Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prashant

    Asphalt-rubber mixtures have been shown to have useful properties with respect to distresses observed in asphalt concrete pavements. The most notable change in properties is a large increase in viscosity and improved low-temperature cracking resistance. Warm mix additives can lower production and compaction temperatures. Lower temperatures reduce harmful emissions and lower energy consumption, and thus provide environmental benefits and cut costs. In this study, the effects of crumb rubber modification on various asphalts such as California Valley, Boscan, Alaska North Slope, Laguna and Cold Lake were also studied. The materials used for warm mix modification were obtained from various commercial sources. The RAF binder was produced by Imperial Oil in their Nanticoke, Ontario, refinery on Lake Erie. A second commercial PG 52-34 (hereafter denoted as NER) was obtained/sampled during the construction of a northern Ontario MTO contract. Some regular tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) and some modified new protocols such as the extended BBR test (LS-308) and the Double-Edge Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) are used to study, the effect of warm mix and a host of other additives on rheological, aging and failure properties. A comparison in the properties of RAF and NER asphalts has also been made as RAF is good quality asphalt and NER is bad quality asphalt. From the studies the effect of additives on chemical and physical hardening tendencies was found to be significant. The asphalt samples tested in this study showed a range of tendencies for chemical and physical hardening.

  9. Mixed Signals? Morphological and Molecular Evidence Suggest a Color Polymorphism in Some Neotropical Polythore Damselflies

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Kathleen M.; Ankrom, Nikole; Sherratt, Thomas N.; Hoffmann, Joachim; Van Gossum, Hans; Ware, Jessica L.; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI). Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these “wingforms” do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and

  10. Mixed signals? Morphological and molecular evidence suggest a color polymorphism in some neotropical polythore damselflies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Herrera, Melissa; Kuhn, William R; Lorenzo-Carballa, Maria Olalla; Harding, Kathleen M; Ankrom, Nikole; Sherratt, Thomas N; Hoffmann, Joachim; Van Gossum, Hans; Ware, Jessica L; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Beatty, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI). Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the

  11. Dual-color ultraviolet photodetector based on mixed-phase-MgZnO/i-MgO/p-Si double heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X. H.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Shan, C. X.; Chen, H. Y.; Shen, D. Z.

    2012-08-01

    We report a dual-color ultraviolet (UV) photodetector based on mixed-phase-MgZnO/i-MgO/p-Si double heterojunction. The device exhibits distinct dominant responses at solar blind (250 nm) and visible blind (around 330 nm) UV regions under different reverse biases. By using the energy band diagram of the structure, it is found that the bias-tunable two-color detection is originated from different valence band offset between cubic MgZnO/MgO and hexagonal MgZnO/MgO. Meanwhile, due to the large conduction band offset at the Si/MgO interface, the visible-light photoresponse from Si substrate is suppressed.

  12. Testing with fragrance mix. Is the addition of sorbitan sesquioleate to the constituents useful?

    PubMed

    Frosch, P J; Pilz, B; Burrows, D; Camarasa, J G; Lachapelle, J M; Lahti, A; Menné, T; Wilkinson, J D

    1995-05-01

    In a multicentre study, the value of adding sorbitan sesquioleate (SSO) to the constituents of the 8% fragrance mix (FM) was investigated. In 7 centres, 709 consecutive patients were tested with 2 types of FM from different sources, its 8 constituents with 1% SSO, its 8 constituents without SSO, and 20% SSO. 5 patients (0.71%) reacted to the emulsifier SSO itself, read as definitely allergic on day 3/4. 53 patients reacted to either one of the mixes with an allergic type of reaction. When tested with the constituents without SSO, 41.5% showed an allergic reaction versus 54.7% with SSO. If both types of reactions were considered (allergic and irritant) 38.3% of 73 patients showed a positive "breakdown" result without SSO, versus 54.8% with SSO. The differences were statistically significant. Reactivity to FM constituents was changed in a specific pattern by addition of SSO--irritant reactions increased, particularly for cinnamic alcohol, eugenol, geraniol, oak moss and hydroxycitronellal, whereas others showed only a slight change. Allergic reactions were also increased by SSO, but the rank order of the top 3 sensitizers (isoeugenol, oak moss and eugenol) did not change. Cinnamic alcohol was the only constituent with decreased reactivity after addition of SSO. A positive history of fragrance sensitivity (HFS) was clearly associated with a positive allergic reaction to either the mix or 1 of its constituents (51% versus 28.6% with a negative HFS). Irritant reactions were linked to a negative HFS in a high proportion (64.3%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Micro-pixelation and color mixing in biological photonic structures (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Nagi, Ramneet K.

    2014-03-01

    The world of insects displays myriad hues of coloration effects produced by elaborate nano-scale architectures built into wings and exoskeleton. For example, we have recently found many weevils possess photonic architectures with cubic lattices. In this talk, we will present high-resolution three-dimensional reconstructions of weevil photonic structures with diamond and gyroid lattices. Moreover, by reconstructing entire scales we found arrays of single-crystalline domains, each oriented such that only selected crystal faces are visible to an observer. This pixel-like arrangement is key to the angle-independent coloration typical of weevils—a strategy that could enable a new generation of coating technologies.

  14. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-07-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150{degrees}C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs.

  15. Enhanced high-order-harmonic generation and wave mixing via two-color multiphoton excitation of atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetissian, H. K.; Avchyan, B. R.; Mkrtchian, G. F.

    2016-07-01

    We consider harmonics generation and wave mixing by two-color multiphoton resonant excitation of three-level atoms and molecules in strong laser fields. The coherent part of the spectra corresponding to multicolor harmonics generation is investigated. The obtained analytical results on the basis of a generalized rotating wave approximation are in a good agreement with numerical calculations. The results applied to the hydrogen atoms and homonuclear diatomic molecular ions show that one can achieve efficient generation of moderately high multicolor harmonics via multiphoton resonant excitation by appropriate laser pulses.

  16. Polarization-sensitive color mixing in the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2007-03-01

    It is well known that the wing scales of butterflies and moths have elaborated microstructures that cause various optical effects. Structural colors occur when the microstructures have a size comparable with the wavelength of light. On the other hand, the wing scales of some species are structurally modified at a size much larger size than the light wavelength. Here we show for the Madagascan sunset moth that not only the microstructures but also the large-size modifications can play an important role in scale coloration. The wing of the sunset moth shows a striking iridescence that is caused by the air-cuticle multilayer structure inside the wing scales. Further, the scale itself is highly curved from its root to distal end. Owing to this strong curvature, a deep groove structure is formed between adjacent two rows of the regularly arranged scales. We find that this groove structure together with multilayer optical interference produces an unusual optical effect through an inter-scale reflection mechanism; the wing color changes depending on light polarization. A model is proposed that quantitatively describes this color change. PMID:19532506

  17. Polarization-sensitive color mixing in the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2007-03-01

    It is well known that the wing scales of butterflies and moths have elaborated microstructures that cause various optical effects. Structural colors occur when the microstructures have a size comparable with the wavelength of light. On the other hand, the wing scales of some species are structurally modified at a size much larger size than the light wavelength. Here we show for the Madagascan sunset moth that not only the microstructures but also the large-size modifications can play an important role in scale coloration. The wing of the sunset moth shows a striking iridescence that is caused by the air-cuticle multilayer structure inside the wing scales. Further, the scale itself is highly curved from its root to distal end. Owing to this strong curvature, a deep groove structure is formed between adjacent two rows of the regularly arranged scales. We find that this groove structure together with multilayer optical interference produces an unusual optical effect through an inter-scale reflection mechanism; the wing color changes depending on light polarization. A model is proposed that quantitatively describes this color change.

  18. Polarization-sensitive color mixing in the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2007-03-01

    It is well known that the wing scales of butterflies and moths have elaborated microstructures that cause various optical effects. Structural colors occur when the microstructures have a size comparable with the wavelength of light. On the other hand, the wing scales of some species are structurally modified at a size much larger size than the light wavelength. Here we show for the Madagascan sunset moth that not only the microstructures but also the large-size modifications can play an important role in scale coloration. The wing of the sunset moth shows a striking iridescence that is caused by the air-cuticle multilayer structure inside the wing scales. Further, the scale itself is highly curved from its root to distal end. Owing to this strong curvature, a deep groove structure is formed between adjacent two rows of the regularly arranged scales. We find that this groove structure together with multilayer optical interference produces an unusual optical effect through an inter-scale reflection mechanism; the wing color changes depending on light polarization. A model is proposed that quantitatively describes this color change.

  19. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue, colorant food additives, on human blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kus, Esra; Eroglu, Halil Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic dyes over fifty are used in many areas including the food industry around the world. Sunset Yellow FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF are used as colorant food additives in many food products. The present study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the food additives were evaluated in lymphocyte cell cultures using mitotic index, replication index and micronucleus assay. Mitotic index frequencies and replication index values were decreased and micronucleus frequency was increased with increasing concentrations of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. The changes in mitotic index and micronucleus are statistically significant (p<0.05). The results show that the Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue can have cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. It care must be taken when using these materials as a food additive.

  20. Design a freeform microlens array module for any arbitrary-shape collimated beam shaping and color mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Enguo; Wu, Rengmao; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-06-01

    Collimated beam shaping with freeform surface usually employs a predefined mapping to tailor one or multiple freeform surfaces. Limitation on those designs is that the source, the freeform optics and the target are in fixed one-to-one correspondence with each other. To overcome this drawback, this paper presents a kind of freeform microlens array module integrated with an ultra-thin freeform microlens array and a condenser lens to reshape any arbitrary-shape collimated beam into a prescribed uniform rectangular illumination and achieve color mixing. The design theory is explicitly given, and some key issues are addressed. Several different application examples are given, and the target is obtained with high uniformity and energy efficiency. This freeform microlens array module, which shows better flexibility and practicality than the regular designs, can be used not only to reshape any arbitrary-shape collimated beam (or a collimated beam integrated with several sub-collimated beams), but also most importantly to achieve color mixing. With excellent optical performance and ultra-compact volume, this optical module together with the design theory can be further introduced into other applications and will have a huge market potential in the near future.

  1. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix detects additional patients sensitive to perfumes and missed by the current fragrance mix.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Rastogi, Suresh C; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Goossens, An; White, Ian R; Uter, Wolfgang; Arnau, Elena Giménez; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-04-01

    The currently used 8% fragrance mix (FM I) does not identify all patients with a positive history of adverse reactions to fragrances. A new FM II with 6 frequently used chemicals was evaluated in 1701 consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. FM II was tested in 3 concentrations - 28% FM II contained 5% hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral), 2% citral, 5% farnesol, 5% coumarin, 1% citronellol and 10%alpha-hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde; in 14% FM II, the single constituents' concentration was lowered to 50% and in 2.8% FM II to 10%. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable, none. Positive reactions to FM I occurred in 6.5% of the patients. Positive reactions to FM II were dose-dependent and increased from 1.3% (2.8% FM II), through 2.9% (14% FM II) to 4.1% (28% FM II). Reactions classified as doubtful or irritant varied considerably between the 6 centres, with a mean value of 7.2% for FM I and means ranging from 1.8% to 10.6% for FM II. 8.7% of the tested patients had a certain fragrance history. Of these, 25.2% were positive to FM I; reactivity to FM II was again dose-dependent and ranged from 8.1% to 17.6% in this subgroup. Comparing 2 groups of history - certain and none - values for sensitivity and specificity were calculated: sensitivity: FM I, 25.2%; 2.8% FM II, 8.1%; 14% FM II, 13.5%; 28% FM II, 17.6%; specificity: FM I, 96.5%; 2.8% FM II, 99.5%; 14% FM II, 98.8%; 28% FM II, 98.1%. 31/70 patients (44.3%) positive to 28% FM II were negative to FM I, with 14% FM II this proportion being 16/50 (32%). In the group of patients with a certain history, a total of 7 patients were found reacting to FM II only. Conversely, in the group of patients without any fragrance history, there were significantly more positive reactions to FM I than to any concentration of FM II. In conclusion, the new FM II detects additional patients sensitive to fragrances missed

  2. Generalized Additive Mixed-Models for Pharmacology Using Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ingersoll, Thomas; Cole, Stephanie; Madren-Whalley, Janna; Booker, Lamont; Dorsey, Russell; Li, Albert; Salem, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IDMOC) is emerging as an in-vitro alternative to in-vivo animal models for pharmacology studies. IDMOC allows dose-response relationships to be investigated at the tissue and organoid levels, yet, these relationships often exhibit responses that are far more complex than the binary responses often measured in whole animals. To accommodate departure from binary endpoints, IDMOC requires an expansion of analytic techniques beyond simple linear probit and logistic models familiar in toxicology. IDMOC dose-responses may be measured at continuous scales, exhibit significant non-linearity such as local maxima or minima, and may include non-independent measures. Generalized additive mixed-modeling (GAMM) provides an alternative description of dose-response that relaxes assumptions of independence and linearity. We compared GAMMs to traditional linear models for describing dose-response in IDMOC pharmacology studies. PMID:27110941

  3. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOEpatents

    Poston, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  4. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOEpatents

    Poston, J.A.

    1997-12-02

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  5. Fast and simultaneous determination of eleven synthetic color additives in flour and meat products by liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ping; Lin, Zi-hao; Chen, Gui-yun; Xiao, Jian; Liang, Zhi-an; Luo, Li-ni; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xue-wu

    2015-08-15

    In this study, an efficient, fast and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of eleven synthetic color additives (Allura red, Amaranth, Azo rubine, Brilliant blue, Erythrosine, Indigotine, Ponceau 4R, New red, Sunset yellow, Quinoline yellow and Tartrazine) in flour and meat foodstuffs is developed and validated using HPLC coupled with DAD and MS/MS. The color additives were extracted with ammonia-methanol and was further purified with SPE procedure using Strata-AW column in order to reduce matrix interference. This HPLC-DAD method is intended for a comprehensive survey of color additives in foods. HPLC-MS/MS method was used as the further confirmation and identification. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 75.2-113.8%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. These methods are suitable for the routine monitoring analysis of eleven synthetic color additives due to its sensitivity, reasonable time and cost.

  6. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region. PMID:23242683

  7. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region.

  8. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  9. Nest survival of clay-colored and vesper sparrows in relation to woodland edge in mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, T.A.; Madden, E.M.; Shaffer, T.L.; Pietz, P.J.; Berkey, G.B.; Kadrmas, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    The quantity and quality of northern mixed-grass prairie continues to decline because of conversion to agriculture, invasion of woody and exotic plants, and disruption of important ecological processes that shape grasslands. Declines in grassland bird populations in North Dakota, USA, have coincided with these largely anthropogenic alterations to prairie habitat. In grasslands of north-central and northwestern North Dakota, woody plants have increased due primarily to fire suppression, extirpation of bison (Bos bison), and widescale planting of tree shelter belts. In northern grasslands, effects of woody vegetation on survival of grassland birds are poorly understood, and conclusions are based mainly on studies conducted outside the region. We examined nest survival of clay-colored sparrows (Spizella pallida) and vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) relative to the distance nests were located from aspen (Populus tremuloides,) woodland edges and relative to other habitat features near the nest. Clay-colored and vesper sparrow nest survival was higher for nests located near woodland edges, nests with greater cover of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), and nests more concealed by vegetation. Vesper sparrow nest survival increased as the percent cover of tall shrubs near the nest increased. Based on video-camera data, the 13-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus,) was the most common predator of sparrow eggs and young. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels were more common far from woodland edges than near, and this pattern may, in part, explain clay-colored and vesper sparrow nest survival in relation to woodland edges. In contrast to our results, studies conducted in other grassland systems generally report lower nest survival for grassland birds nesting near trees and shrubs. This disparity in results demonstrates the need to identify specific nest predators and their distributions with respect to important habitat features because these data can be

  10. Influence of dry mixing and distribution of conductive additives in cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Werner; Nötzel, Dorit; Wenzel, Valentin; Nirschl, Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Conductive additives, like carbon black or graphite, are essential components of lithium ion batteries due to the limited electrical conductivity of most electrode materials. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the optimized distribution of these materials within the electrode. A dry mixing process is used in order to prepare a conductive coating by depositing carbon black on the surface of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC) cathode particles. It is demonstrated that this - from a theoretically point of view - favorable distribution does not allow the preparation of working electrodes without taking into account the role of the binder. After adding an organic binder to the slurry, the polymer deposits on top of the carbon shell during drying and inhibits the conductive contact between the particles. This can be avoided by a fraction of distributed carbon particles which are associated with the binder phase providing conductive paths through the isolating organic material. It is shown that carbon black and graphite are principally fulfilling this task, but both materials are leading to varying processing behavior and electrode properties.

  11. COOLING OF COMPACT STARS WITH COLOR SUPERCONDUCTING PHASE IN QUARK-HADRON MIXED PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Tsuneo; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki E-mail: hashimoto@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2013-03-01

    We present a new scenario for the cooling of compact stars considering the central source of Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The Cas A observation shows that the central source is a compact star that has high effective temperature, and it is consistent with the cooling without exotic phases. The observation also gives the mass range of M {>=} 1.5 M {sub Sun }, which may conflict with the current plausible cooling scenario of compact stars. There are some cooled compact stars such as Vela or 3C58, which can barely be explained by the minimal cooling scenario, which includes the neutrino emission by nucleon superfluidity (PBF). Therefore, we invoke the exotic cooling processes, where a heavier star cools faster than lighter one. However, the scenario seems to be inconsistent with the observation of Cas A. Therefore, we present a new cooling scenario to explain the observation of Cas A by constructing models that include a quark color superconducting (CSC) phase with a large energy gap; this phase appears at ultrahigh density regions and reduces neutrino emissivity. In our model, a compact star has a CSC quark core with a low neutrino emissivity surrounded by high emissivity region made by normal quarks. We present cooling curves obtained from the evolutionary calculations of compact stars: while heavier stars cool slowly, and lighter ones indicate the opposite tendency without considering nucleon superfluidity. Furthermore, we show that our scenario is consistent with the recent observations of the effective temperature of Cas A during the last 10 years, including nucleon superfluidity.

  12. Validation of the AQT Color-Form Additive Model for Screening and Monitoring Pharmacological Treatment of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Niels Peter; Wiig, Elisabeth Hemmersam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This retrospective study used A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) processing-speed and efficiency measures for evaluating sensitivity and monitoring effects during pharmacological treatment of adults with ADHD. Method: Color (C), form (F), and color-form (CF) combination naming were administered to 69 adults during outpatient…

  13. Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Kulac, Esin

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) has been implicated in the induction and severity of some childhood behavioral and learning disabilities. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACHRs) are thought to be effective in the learning and memory-generating process. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrauterine exposure to AFCAs on subunit concentrations of NMDARs and nAChRs isoforms in rats. We administered a mixture of AFCAs (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation. The concentration of NR2A and NR2B subunits and nAChR α7, α4β2 isoforms in their offspring's hippocampi were measured by Western Blotting. Expressions of NR2B and nAChR β2 were significantly increased (17% and 6.70%, respectively), whereas expression of nAChR α4 was significantly decreased (5.67%) in male experimental group compared to the male control group (p<0.05). In the female experimental group, AFCAs caused a 14% decrease in NR2B expression when compared to the female control group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that exposure to AFCAs during the fetal period may lead to alterations in expressions of NMDARs and nAChRs in adulthood. These alterations were different between male and female genders. PMID:23429044

  14. Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweeteners permitted as additives in food by mixed micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boyce, M C

    1999-06-25

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was developed to simultaneously analyse commonly used food additives. The additive mixture, comprising propyl gallate, octyl gallate, dodecyl gallate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butylhydroquinone, p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester, p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, saccharin, aspartame and acesulfame-K, was not resolved using single surfactant micellar systems consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium cholate (SC) or sodium deoxycholate (SDC). The separation of these additives using mixed micellar systems, involving SDS/SC, SDS/SDC and SC/SDC, was investigated. Organic solvents were added to the mixed micellar phases to optimise the separation. The mixture was successfully separated using a 20 mM borate buffer with 35 mM SC, 15 mM SDS and 10% methanol added at pH 9.3. Additives in cola beverages and low-joule jam were investigated and quantified using this method.

  15. Suspended sediment concentration and optical property observations of mixed-turbidity, coastal waters through multispectral ocean color inversion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multispectral satellite ocean color data from high-turbidity areas of the coastal ocean contain information about the surface concentrations and optical properties of suspended sediments and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Empirical and semi-analytical inversion algorit...

  16. Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.

  17. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Marcia S.; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as “Project MIX.” Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. Conclusion The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The

  18. Use of pyrolyzed carbon black as additive in hot mix asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.; Lee, K.; Salgado, R.; Lovell, C.W.; Coree, B.J.

    1997-11-01

    This paper deals with the performance of mixtures of asphalt, pyrolyzed carbon black (CB{sub p}), and two aggregates (limestone and slag). Marshall mix design was performed to determine the optimum binder content at 5% of air voids. The range of the optimum binder content was 4.2%--5.5% for limestone mixtures and 6.3%--7.8% for slag mixtures, respectively. Dynamic confined creep tests, gyratory tests, resilient modulus tests, indirect tensile tests, and Hamburg wheel tracking tests were carried out using mixtures at the optimum binder content. The test results indicate that the use of CB{sub p} in asphalt pavements increases Marshall stability, decreases permanent strain, decreases the mix strain rate at 50 C and 138 kPa confinement, increases resilient modulus and tensile strength, and increases the stripping inflection point. These results suggest that CB{sub p} improves asphalt pavement performance.

  19. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  20. 78 FR 59624 - Guidance for Industry #223: Small Entity Compliance Guide-Declaring Color Additives in Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... 17, 2011 (76 FR 71248). FDA has prepared this SECG in accordance with section 212 of the Small... amendments. The 1990 amendments, among other things, provided for the declaration of certified color... . V. Electronic Access Persons with access to the Internet may obtain the SECG at either...

  1. Step-wise addition of disulfide bridge in firefly luciferase controls color shift through a flexible loop: a thermodynamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mahboobeh; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Hassani, Leila

    2013-02-01

    Multi-color bioluminescence is developed using the introduction of single/double disulfide bridges in firefly luciferase. The bioluminescence reaction, which uses luciferin, Mg(2+)-ATP and molecular oxygen to yield an electronically excited oxyluciferin, is carried out by the luciferase and emits visible light. The bioluminescence color of firefly luciferases is determined by the luciferase sequence and assay conditions. It has been proposed that the stability of a protein may increase through the introduction of a disulfide bridge that decreases the configurational entropy of unfolding. Single and double disulfide bridges are introduced into Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase to make separate mutant enzymes with a single/double bridge (C(81)-A(105)C, L(306)C-L(309)C, P(451)C-V(469)C; C(81)-A(105)C/P(451)C-V(469)C, and A(296)C-A(326)C/P(451)C-V(469)C). By introduction of disulfide bridges using site-directed mutagenesis in Photinus pyralis luciferase the color of emitted light was changed to red or kept in different extents. The bioluminescence color shift occurred with displacement of a critical loop in the luciferase structure without any change in green emitter mutants. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that among mutants, L(306)C-L(309)C shows a remarkable stability against urea denaturation and also a considerable increase in kinetic stability and a clear shift in bioluminescence spectra towards red.

  2. Short and long term effects of additional post curing and polishing systems on the color change of dental nano-composites.

    PubMed

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the short and long term effects of polishing systems and post-heat-light curing on the color stability of nano-composites. The disc shaped samples (ø=10 mm, h=3 mm) were prepared. Forty subgroups (n=5) were designed according to two different curing conditions and five different polishing methods. Color change measurements were performed on the day of specimen preparation (base) and repeated after 1 and 7 months of water storage. MANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests were applied (p<0.05). While the color difference values of resin composites were ranked as EXP2>EXP1>CME≥XTE after 1 month (p<0.05), after 7 months the ranking was EXP2≥EXP1>XTE>CME (p<0.05). Type and compositions of nano-composites may be important on the long-term color stability of the restoration. Additional post-heat-light curing of nano-composites may produce higher color change than the hand-light curing protocol. Consequently, the polishing procedures should be applied to obtain more resistant composite surface to discoloration. PMID:23370878

  3. Alteration of belowground carbon dynamics by nitrogen addition in southern California mixed conifer forests

    SciTech Connect

    Nowinski, Nicole S.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Jimenez, Gloria; Fenn, Mark E.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrogen deposition rates in southern California are the highest in North America and have had substantial effects on ecosystem functioning. We document changes in the belowground C cycle near ponderosa pine trees experiencing experimental nitrogen (N) addition (50 and 150 kg N ha 1 a 1 as slow release urea since 1997) at two end member sites along a pollution gradient in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Despite considerable differences in N deposition between the two sites, we observed parallel changes in microbial substrate use and soil enzyme activity with N addition. 14C measurements indicate that the mean age of C respired by the Oa horizon declined 10 15 years with N addition at both sites. N addition caused an increase in cellulolytic enzyme activity at the polluted site and a decrease in ligninolytic enzyme activity at the unpolluted site. Given the likely differences in lignin and cellulose ages, this could explain the difference in the age of microbial respiration with N addition. Measurements of fractionated soil organic matter did not show the same magnitude of changes in response to N addition as were observed for respired C. This lesser response was likely because the soils are mostly composed of C having turnover times of decades to centuries, and 9 years of N amendment were not enough to affect this material. Consequently, 14C of respired CO2 provided a more sensitive indicator of the effects of N addition than other methods. Results suggest that enhanced N deposition alone may not result in increased soil C storage in xeric ecosystems.

  4. Strengthen forensic entomology in court--the need for data exploration and the validation of a generalised additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Michèle; Amendt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Developmental data of juvenile blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically used to calculate the age of immature stages found on or around a corpse and thus to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI(min)). However, many of those data sets don't take into account that immature blow flies grow in a non-linear fashion. Linear models do not supply a sufficient reliability on age estimates and may even lead to an erroneous determination of the PMI(min). According to the Daubert standard and the need for improvements in forensic science, new statistic tools like smoothing methods and mixed models allow the modelling of non-linear relationships and expand the field of statistical analyses. The present study introduces into the background and application of these statistical techniques by analysing a model which describes the development of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina at different temperatures. The comparison of three statistical methods (linear regression, generalised additive modelling and generalised additive mixed modelling) clearly demonstrates that only the latter provided regression parameters that reflect the data adequately. We focus explicitly on both the exploration of the data--to assure their quality and to show the importance of checking it carefully prior to conducting the statistical tests--and the validation of the resulting models. Hence, we present a common method for evaluating and testing forensic entomological data sets by using for the first time generalised additive mixed models.

  5. Ecotoxicity of arsenic contaminated sludge after mixing with soils and addition into composting and vermicomposting processes.

    PubMed

    Vašíčková, Jana; Maňáková, Blanka; Šudoma, Marek; Hofman, Jakub

    2016-11-01

    Sludge coming from remediation of groundwater contaminated by industry is usually managed as hazardous waste despite it might be considered for further processing as a source of nutrients. The ecotoxicity of phosphorus rich sludge contaminated with arsenic was evaluated after mixing with soil and cultivation with Sinapis alba, and supplementation into composting and vermicomposting processes. The Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida reproduction tests and the Lactuca sativa root growth test were used. Invertebrate bioassays reacted sensitively to arsenic presence in soil-sludge mixtures. The root elongation of L. sativa was not sensitive and showed variable results. In general, the relationship between invertebrate tests results and arsenic mobile concentration was indicated in majority endpoints. Nevertheless, significant portion of the results still cannot be satisfactorily explained by As chemistry data. Composted and vermicomposted sludge mixtures showed surprisingly high toxicity on all three tested organisms despite the decrease in arsenic mobility, probably due to toxic metabolites of bacteria and earthworms produced during these processes. The results from the study indicated the inability of chemical methods to predict the effects of complex mixtures on living organisms with respect to ecotoxicity bioassays. PMID:27348256

  6. Ecotoxicity of arsenic contaminated sludge after mixing with soils and addition into composting and vermicomposting processes.

    PubMed

    Vašíčková, Jana; Maňáková, Blanka; Šudoma, Marek; Hofman, Jakub

    2016-11-01

    Sludge coming from remediation of groundwater contaminated by industry is usually managed as hazardous waste despite it might be considered for further processing as a source of nutrients. The ecotoxicity of phosphorus rich sludge contaminated with arsenic was evaluated after mixing with soil and cultivation with Sinapis alba, and supplementation into composting and vermicomposting processes. The Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida reproduction tests and the Lactuca sativa root growth test were used. Invertebrate bioassays reacted sensitively to arsenic presence in soil-sludge mixtures. The root elongation of L. sativa was not sensitive and showed variable results. In general, the relationship between invertebrate tests results and arsenic mobile concentration was indicated in majority endpoints. Nevertheless, significant portion of the results still cannot be satisfactorily explained by As chemistry data. Composted and vermicomposted sludge mixtures showed surprisingly high toxicity on all three tested organisms despite the decrease in arsenic mobility, probably due to toxic metabolites of bacteria and earthworms produced during these processes. The results from the study indicated the inability of chemical methods to predict the effects of complex mixtures on living organisms with respect to ecotoxicity bioassays.

  7. Investigation of the oxidation states of Cu additive in colored borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Guang Cheng, Shaodong; Li, Chao; Ma, Chuansheng; Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Wang, Zhao

    2014-12-14

    Three optically transparent colorful (red, green, and blue) glasses were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Nano-sized precipitates were found in scanning electron microscopy images. The precipitates were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The measured lattice parameters of these precipitates were found to fit the metallic copper in red glass but deviate from single valenced Cu oxides in green and blue glasses. The chemistry of these nano-sized particles was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). By fitting the EELS spectra obtained from the precipitates with the linear combination of reference spectra from Cu reference compounds, the oxidation states of Cu in the precipitates have been derived. First principle calculations suggested that the Cu nano-particles, which are in the similar oxidation states as our measurement, would show green color in the visible light range.

  8. Mix and match color vision: tuning spectral sensitivity by differential opsin gene expression in Lake Malawi cichlids.

    PubMed

    Parry, Juliet W L; Carleton, Karen L; Spady, Tyrone; Carboo, Aba; Hunt, David M; Bowmaker, James K

    2005-10-11

    Cichlid fish of the East African Rift Lakes are renowned for their diversity and offer a unique opportunity to study adaptive changes in the visual system in rapidly evolving species flocks. Since color plays a significant role in mate choice, differences in visual sensitivities could greatly influence and even drive speciation of cichlids. Lake Malawi cichlids inhabiting rock and sand habitats have significantly different cone spectral sensitivities. By combining microspectrophotometry (MSP) of isolated cones, sequencing of opsin genes, and spectral analysis of recombinant pigments, we have established the cone complements of four species of Malawi cichlids. MSP demonstrated that each of these species predominately expresses three cone pigments, although these differ between species to give three spectrally different cone complements. In addition, rare populations of spectrally distinct cones were found. In total, seven spectral classes were identified. This was confirmed by opsin gene sequencing, expression, and in vitro reconstitution. The genes represent the four major classes of cone opsin genes that diverged early in vertebrate evolution. All four species possess a long-wave-sensitive (LWS), three spectrally distinct green-sensitive (RH2), a blue-sensitive (SWS2A), a violet-sensitive (SWS2B), and an ultraviolet-sensitive (SWS1) opsin. However, African cichlids determine their spectral sensitivity by differential expression of primarily only three of the seven available cone opsin genes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that all percomorph fish have similar potential.

  9. Mixed layers of sodium caseinate + dextran sulfate: influence of order of addition to oil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Laureline S; Schmitt, Christophe; Leser, Martin E; Murray, Brent S; Dickinson, Eric

    2009-09-01

    We report on the interfacial properties of electrostatic complexes of protein (sodium caseinate) with a highly sulfated polysaccharide (dextran sulfate). Two routes were investigated for preparation of adsorbed layers at the n-tetradecane-water interface at pH = 6. Bilayers were made by the layer-by-layer deposition technique whereby polysaccharide was added to a previously established protein-stabilized interface. Mixed layers were made by the conventional one-step method in which soluble protein-polysaccharide complexes were adsorbed directly at the interface. Protein + polysaccharide systems gave a slower decay of interfacial tension and stronger dilatational viscoelastic properties than the protein alone, but there was no significant difference in dilatational properties between mixed layers and bilayers. Conversely, shear rheology experiments exhibited significant differences between the two kinds of interfacial layers, with the mixed system giving much stronger interfacial films than the bilayer system, i.e., shear viscosities and moduli at least an order of magnitude higher. The film shear viscoelasticity was further enhanced by acidification of the biopolymer mixture to pH = 2 prior to interface formation. Taken together, these measurements provide insight into the origin of previously reported differences in stability properties of oil-in-water emulsions made by the bilayer and mixed layer approaches. Addition of a proteolytic enzyme (trypsin) to both types of interfaces led to a significant increase in the elastic modulus of the film, suggesting that the enzyme was adsorbed at the interface via complexation with dextran sulfate. Overall, this study has confirmed the potential of shear rheology as a highly sensitive probe of associative electrostatic interactions and interfacial structure in mixed biopolymer layers. PMID:19459686

  10. Carotenoid micellarization varies greatly between individual and mixed vegetables with or without the addition of fat or fiber.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Orla; Ryan, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Aherne-Bruce, S Aisling; O'Brien, Nora M

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoid bioavailability is influenced by a number of factors, including the type of food matrix and the presence of fat, fiber, and other carotenoids. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: first, to assess the effects of mixing raw vegetables on the micellarization of beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein compared with individual vegetables; second, to investigate the effects of adding different oils on carotenoid transfer to the micelles; and third, and to a minor extent, to determine carotenoid micellarization following the addition of fiber. The two mixed vegetable meals were TRS (tomato, red pepper, and spinach) and CRS (courgette/zucchini, red pepper, and spinach). Similar trends in carotenoid micellarization were seen between individual vegetables and the TRS meal but not with the CRS meal. In general, the addition of olive, peanut, or rapeseed oil to the CRS meal significantly enhanced carotenoid micellarization but this effect was not concentration-dependent. In relation to the TRS meal, adding either vegetable oils or fiber (oat bran, wheat bran, and pectin) significantly decreased the micellarization of carotenoids to varying degrees. The results from this study indicate that changes to a combination of raw vegetables, with or without the addition of dietary fat or fiber, can have varying results on carotenoid bioavailability.

  11. Preparation and characterization of ceramic products by thermal treatment of sewage sludge ashes mixed with different additives.

    PubMed

    Merino, Ignacio; Arévalo, Luis F; Romero, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The study of the ceramic characteristics of sludge ashes, alone or mixed with additives (kaolin, montmorillonite, illitic clay, powdered flat glass) includes characterization of additives, preparation of probes (dry or wet mixed), thermal treatment (up to 1200 degrees C, except melting or deformation) and control (densities, compressive strengths and water absorption). Thermal treatment increases the density and compressive strength of probes (both parameters go through maxima, with later decreases) and decreases the absorption of water. The densification is also revealed by the evolution of the ratio of decrease of volume/loss of mass. The maximum values of compressive strengths were obtained for 25% of illitic clay, montmorillonite and glass powder. Densification concerning probes with sludge ashes alone does not occur with kaolin. Experimental data were adjusted to exponential relationships between compressive strengths and densities for every composition, and also to a general equation for all probes. The apparent density obtained was adjusted to a non-linear dependence with temperature, leading to a maximum in density and permitting calculating the temperature of occurrence of this maximum. The adjustment was not possible for probes containing kaolin, requiring presumably higher temperatures to densify. Water absorption has low values for ashes or kaolin probes, intermediate values for illite and powdered flat glass probes and high values for montmorillonite probes. Excepting with kaolin, ceramic materials with better characteristics than sludge ashes without additives were obtained at lower treatment temperatures. PMID:17150348

  12. [Examination of the cause of changing solution color by mixing aminophylline and dopamine, the compatibility of which was indicated by the supplier].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kawahara, Masami

    2014-01-01

    A case in which aminophylline solution was administered to a patient with congestive heart failure is reported and the problems caused by administration were solved by subsequent experiments. Dopamine solution was added from the side route using a mechanical pump, and mixed with aminophylline solution in the main route. Furosemide was administered after clamping and flushing the main route according to the supplier's information that indicated the compatibility of dopamine and aminophylline. However, the aminophylline solution turned black in color 3 h after furosemide administration. Several examinations were carried out to clarify the cause of the incompatibility in this case. The results showed that solutions with all possible combinations, including aminophylline and dopamine, turned black at 24 h after mixing, and the UV absorption at 430 nm increased from 0 to 0.28. UV absorption of the mixed solution increased in a dopamine dose-dependent manner in the range of 1.5-12 mg. When aminophylline was added to physiological saline or hypotonic electrolyte solution, the pH of each solution increased. These results suggested that degradation of dopamine to a melanin-like polymer under alkaline conditions caused the change in color of the solution. It is presumed that dopamine was inappropriately injected into aminophylline solution as the route was clamped tightly to shut out furosemide contamination. Aminophylline and dopamine are often co-administered to patients in critical condition. Thus, even if compatibility of aminophylline with dopamine is indicated by the supplier, they should be administered through separate routes.

  13. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, S.M.; Painter, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT, as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Title 40, part 268, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 268). This technology traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not. leach into the environment. Typical contaminants that are trapped by stabilization are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity as defined by 40 CFR part 261. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. They are inexpensive, easy to use, and effective for wastes containing low concentrations of toxic materials. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  14. Mixed model methods for genomic prediction and variance component estimation of additive and dominance effects using SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Da, Yang; Wang, Chunkao; Wang, Shengwen; Hu, Guo

    2014-01-01

    We established a genomic model of quantitative trait with genomic additive and dominance relationships that parallels the traditional quantitative genetics model, which partitions a genotypic value as breeding value plus dominance deviation and calculates additive and dominance relationships using pedigree information. Based on this genomic model, two sets of computationally complementary but mathematically identical mixed model methods were developed for genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and genomic restricted maximum likelihood estimation (GREML) of additive and dominance effects using SNP markers. These two sets are referred to as the CE and QM sets, where the CE set was designed for large numbers of markers and the QM set was designed for large numbers of individuals. GBLUP and associated accuracy formulations for individuals in training and validation data sets were derived for breeding values, dominance deviations and genotypic values. Simulation study showed that GREML and GBLUP generally were able to capture small additive and dominance effects that each accounted for 0.00005-0.0003 of the phenotypic variance and GREML was able to differentiate true additive and dominance heritability levels. GBLUP of the total genetic value as the summation of additive and dominance effects had higher prediction accuracy than either additive or dominance GBLUP, causal variants had the highest accuracy of GREML and GBLUP, and predicted accuracies were in agreement with observed accuracies. Genomic additive and dominance relationship matrices using SNP markers were consistent with theoretical expectations. The GREML and GBLUP methods can be an effective tool for assessing the type and magnitude of genetic effects affecting a phenotype and for predicting the total genetic value at the whole genome level.

  15. "My Skin Color Stops Me from Leading": Tracking, Identity, and Student Dynamics in a Racially Mixed School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The practice of separating students according to ability level, also known as academic tracking, allows racially mixed schools to maintain segregated classrooms. This article examines the effects of academic tracking on the racial identity and educational opportunities of students at a mixed-race suburban charter school. Through five months of…

  16. Genetically engineered mice with an additional class of cone photoreceptors: implications for the evolution of color vision.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Philip M; Olveczky, Bence P; Williams, Gary L; Jacobs, Gerald H; Reese, Benjamin E; Meister, Markus; Nathans, Jeremy

    2003-09-30

    Among eutherian mammals, only primates possess trichromatic color vision. In Old World primates, trichromacy was made possible by a visual pigment gene duplication. In most New World primates, trichromacy is based on polymorphic variation in a single X-linked gene that produces, by random X inactivation, a patchy mosaic of spectrally distinct cone photoreceptors in heterozygous females. In the present work, we have modeled the latter strategy in a nonprimate by replacing the X-linked mouse green pigment gene with one encoding the human red pigment. In the mouse retina, the human red pigment seems to function normally, and heterozygous female mice express the human red and mouse green pigments at levels that vary between animals. Multielectrode array recordings from heterozygous female retinas reveal significant variation in the chromatic sensitivities of retinal ganglion cells. The data are consistent with a model in which these retinal ganglion cells draw their inputs indiscriminately from a coarse-grained mosaic of red and green cones. These observations support the ideas that (i) chromatic signals could arise from stochastic variation in inputs drawn nonselectively from red and green cones and (ii) tissue mosaicism due to X chromosome inactivation could be one mechanism for driving the evolution of CNS diversity. PMID:14500905

  17. Genetically engineered mice with an additional class of cone photoreceptors: implications for the evolution of color vision.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Philip M; Olveczky, Bence P; Williams, Gary L; Jacobs, Gerald H; Reese, Benjamin E; Meister, Markus; Nathans, Jeremy

    2003-09-30

    Among eutherian mammals, only primates possess trichromatic color vision. In Old World primates, trichromacy was made possible by a visual pigment gene duplication. In most New World primates, trichromacy is based on polymorphic variation in a single X-linked gene that produces, by random X inactivation, a patchy mosaic of spectrally distinct cone photoreceptors in heterozygous females. In the present work, we have modeled the latter strategy in a nonprimate by replacing the X-linked mouse green pigment gene with one encoding the human red pigment. In the mouse retina, the human red pigment seems to function normally, and heterozygous female mice express the human red and mouse green pigments at levels that vary between animals. Multielectrode array recordings from heterozygous female retinas reveal significant variation in the chromatic sensitivities of retinal ganglion cells. The data are consistent with a model in which these retinal ganglion cells draw their inputs indiscriminately from a coarse-grained mosaic of red and green cones. These observations support the ideas that (i) chromatic signals could arise from stochastic variation in inputs drawn nonselectively from red and green cones and (ii) tissue mosaicism due to X chromosome inactivation could be one mechanism for driving the evolution of CNS diversity.

  18. Hematological parameters in Polish mixed breed rabbits with addition of meat breed blood in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we studied haematologic values, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, thrombocytes, leucocytes: lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes in the pheral blood in Polish mixed-breeds with addition of meat breed blood in order to obtain the reference values which are until now not available for this animals. In studying this indices we took into consideration the impact of the season (spring, summer, autumn, winter), and sex of the animals. The studies have shown a high impact of the season of the year on those rabbits, but only in spring and summer. Moreover we observed that the sex has mean impact on the studied values of haematological parameters in those rabbits. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper on haematologic values in this widely used group of rabbits, so they may serve as reference values. PMID:26812808

  19. Soil microbial responses to forest floor litter manipulation and nitrogen addition in a mixed-wood forest of northern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Lu; Zhao, Jing; You, Ye-Ming; Jianxin Sun, Osbert

    2016-01-01

    Changes in litterfall dynamics and soil properties due to anthropogenic or natural perturbations have important implications to soil carbon (C) and nutrient cycling via microbial pathway. Here we determine soil microbial responses to contrasting types of litter inputs (leaf vs. fine woody litter) and nitrogen (N) deposition by conducting a multi-year litter manipulation and N addition experiment in a mixed-wood forest. We found significantly higher soil organic C, total N, microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), microbial activity (MR), and activities of four soil extracellular enzymes, including β-glucosidase (BG), N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG), phenol oxidase (PO), and peroxidase (PER), as well as greater total bacteria biomass and relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria (G-) community, in top soils of plots with presence of leaf litter than of those without litter or with presence of only fine woody litter. No apparent additive or interactive effects of N addition were observed in this study. The occurrence of more labile leaf litter stimulated G-, which may facilitate microbial community growth and soil C stabilization as inferred by findings in literature. A continued treatment with contrasting types of litter inputs is likely to result in divergence in soil microbial community structure and function. PMID:26762490

  20. Combined action of time-delay and colored cross-associated multiplicative and additive noises on stability and stochastic resonance for a stochastic metapopulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang-Kang; Zong, De-Cai; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the transition between the stable state of a big density and the extinction state and stochastic resonance (SR) for a time-delayed metapopulation system disturbed by colored cross-correlated noises are investigated. By applying the fast descent method, the small time-delay approximation and McNamara and Wiesenfeld's SR theory, we investigate the impacts of time-delay, the multiplicative, additive noises and colored cross-correlated noise on the SNR and the shift between the two states of the system. Numerical results show that the multiplicative, additive noises and time-delay can all speed up the transition from the stable state to the extinction state, while the correlation noise and its correlation time can slow down the extinction process of the population system. With respect to SNR, the multiplicative noise always weakens the SR effect, while noise correlation time plays a dual role in motivating the SR phenomenon. Meanwhile, time-delay mainly plays a negative role in stimulating the SR phenomenon. Conversely, it could motivate the SR effect to increase the strength of the cross-correlation noise in the SNR-β plot, while the increase of additive noise intensity will firstly excite SR, and then suppress the SR effect.

  1. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT. This technology traps toxic contaminants in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. The concentration in the leachate is approximately ten times higher for the STLC procedure than the TCLP. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  2. Particle size distribution and chemical composition of total mixed rations for dairy cattle: water addition and feed sampling effects.

    PubMed

    Arzola-Alvarez, C; Bocanegra-Viezca, J A; Murphy, M R; Salinas-Chavira, J; Corral-Luna, A; Romanos, A; Ruíz-Barrera, O; Rodríguez-Muela, C

    2010-09-01

    Four dairy farms were used to determine the effects of water addition to diets and sample collection location on the particle size distribution and chemical composition of total mixed rations (TMR). Samples were collected weekly from the mixing wagon and from 3 locations in the feed bunk (top, middle, and bottom) for 5 mo (April, May, July, August, and October). Samples were partially dried to determine the effect of moisture on particle size distribution. Particle size distribution was measured using the Penn State Particle Size Separator. Crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber contents were also analyzed. Particle fractions 19 to 8, 8 to 1.18, and <1.18 mm were judged adequate in all TMR for rumen function and milk yield; however, the percentage of material>19 mm was greater than recommended for TMR, according to the guidelines of Cooperative Extension of Pennsylvania State University. The particle size distribution in April differed from that in October, but intermediate months (May, July, and August) had similar particle size distributions. Samples from the bottom of the feed bunk had the highest percentage of particles retained on the 19-mm sieve. Samples from the top and middle of the feed bunk were similar to that from the mixing wagon. Higher percentages of particles were retained on >19, 19 to 8, and 8 to 1.18 mm sieves for wet than dried samples. The reverse was found for particles passing the 1.18-mm sieve. Mean particle size was higher for wet than dried samples. The crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber contents of TMR varied with month of sampling (18-21, 40-57, and 21-34%, respectively) but were within recommended ranges for high-yielding dairy cows. Analyses of TMR particle size distributions are useful for proper feed bunk management and formulation of diets that maintain rumen function and maximize milk production and quality. Water addition may help reduce dust associated with feeding TMR. PMID

  3. Blue-Green Color Tunable Solution Processable Organolead Chloride-Bromide Mixed Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Sadhanala, Aditya; Ahmad, Shahab; Zhao, Baodan; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Pearce, Phoebe M; Deschler, Felix; Hoye, Robert L Z; Gödel, Karl C; Bein, Thomas; Docampo, Pablo; Dutton, Siân E; De Volder, Michael F L; Friend, Richard H

    2015-09-01

    Solution-processed organo-lead halide perovskites are produced with sharp, color-pure electroluminescence that can be tuned from blue to green region of visible spectrum (425-570 nm). This was accomplished by controlling the halide composition of CH3NH3Pb(BrxCl1-x)3 [0 ≤ x ≤ 1] perovskites. The bandgap and lattice parameters change monotonically with composition. The films possess remarkably sharp band edges and a clean bandgap, with a single optically active phase. These chloride-bromide perovskites can potentially be used in optoelectronic devices like solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here we demonstrate high color-purity, tunable LEDs with narrow emission full width at half maxima (FWHM) and low turn on voltages using thin-films of these perovskite materials, including a blue CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite LED with a narrow emission FWHM of 5 nm.

  4. Blue-Green Color Tunable Solution Processable Organolead Chloride-Bromide Mixed Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Sadhanala, Aditya; Ahmad, Shahab; Zhao, Baodan; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Pearce, Phoebe M; Deschler, Felix; Hoye, Robert L Z; Gödel, Karl C; Bein, Thomas; Docampo, Pablo; Dutton, Siân E; De Volder, Michael F L; Friend, Richard H

    2015-09-01

    Solution-processed organo-lead halide perovskites are produced with sharp, color-pure electroluminescence that can be tuned from blue to green region of visible spectrum (425-570 nm). This was accomplished by controlling the halide composition of CH3NH3Pb(BrxCl1-x)3 [0 ≤ x ≤ 1] perovskites. The bandgap and lattice parameters change monotonically with composition. The films possess remarkably sharp band edges and a clean bandgap, with a single optically active phase. These chloride-bromide perovskites can potentially be used in optoelectronic devices like solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here we demonstrate high color-purity, tunable LEDs with narrow emission full width at half maxima (FWHM) and low turn on voltages using thin-films of these perovskite materials, including a blue CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite LED with a narrow emission FWHM of 5 nm. PMID:26236949

  5. Blue-Green Color Tunable Solution Processable Organolead Chloride–Bromide Mixed Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronic Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed organo-lead halide perovskites are produced with sharp, color-pure electroluminescence that can be tuned from blue to green region of visible spectrum (425–570 nm). This was accomplished by controlling the halide composition of CH3NH3Pb(BrxCl1–x)3 [0 ≤ x ≤ 1] perovskites. The bandgap and lattice parameters change monotonically with composition. The films possess remarkably sharp band edges and a clean bandgap, with a single optically active phase. These chloride–bromide perovskites can potentially be used in optoelectronic devices like solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here we demonstrate high color-purity, tunable LEDs with narrow emission full width at half maxima (FWHM) and low turn on voltages using thin-films of these perovskite materials, including a blue CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite LED with a narrow emission FWHM of 5 nm. PMID:26236949

  6. Who is black, white, or mixed race? How skin color, status, and nation shape racial classification in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Edward Telles; Paschel, Tianna

    2014-11-01

    Comparative research on racial classification has often turned to Latin America, where race is thought to be particularly fluid. Using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 America's Barometer survey, the authors examine patterns of self-identification in four countries. National differences in the relation between skin color, socioeconomic status, and race were found. Skin color predicts race closely in Panama but loosely in the Dominican Republic. Moreover, despite the dominant belief that money whitens, the authors discover that status polarizes (Brazil), mestizoizes (Colombia), darkens (Dominican Republic), or has no effect (Panama). The results show that race is both physical and cultural, with country variations in racial schema that reflect specific historical and political trajectories. PMID:25848671

  7. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  8. Characterization of the 1 ^5Πu - 1 ^5Πg Band of C_2 by Two-Color Resonant Four-Wave Mixing and Lif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radi, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The application of two-color resonant four-wave mixing (TC-RFWM) in combination with a discharge slit-source in a molecular beam environment is advantageous for the study of perturbations in C_2. Initial investigations have shown the potential of the method by a detailed deperturbation of the d3Π_g, v=4 state. The deperturbation of the d3Π_g, v=6 state unveiled the presence of the energetically lowest high-spin state of C_2. This dark state gains transition strength through the perturbation process with the d3Π_g, v=6 state yielding weak spectral features that are observable by the high sensitivity of the TC-RFWM technique. The successful deperturbation study of the d3Π_g, v=6 state resulted in the spectroscopic characterization of the quintet (15Πg) and an additional triplet state (d3Π_g, v=19). More recently, investigations have been performed by applying unfolded TC-RFWM to obtain further information on the quintet manifold. The first high-spin transition (15Πu) - 15Πg)) has been observed via an intermediate ``gateway'' state exhibiting both substantial triplet and quintet character owing to the perturbation between the 15Πg), v=0 and the d3Π_g, v=6 states. The high-lying quintet state is found to be predissociative and displays a shallow potential that accommodates three vibrational levels only. Further studies of the high-spin system will be presented in this contribution. By applying TC-RFWM and laser-induced fluorescence, data on the vibrational structure of the 15Πu - 15Πg system is obtained. The results are combined with high-level ab initio computations at the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) level of theory and the largest possible basis currently implemented in the 2012 version of MOLPRO. P. Bornhauser, G. Knopp, T. Gerber, and P.P. Radi, Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 262, 69 (2010) P. Bornhauser, Y. Sych, G. Knopp, T. Gerber, and P.P. Radi, Journal of Chemical Physics 134, 044302 (2011) Bornhauser, P., Marquardt, R

  9. [Examination of the cause of changing solution color by mixing aminophylline and dopamine, the compatibility of which was indicated by the supplier].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kawahara, Masami

    2014-01-01

    A case in which aminophylline solution was administered to a patient with congestive heart failure is reported and the problems caused by administration were solved by subsequent experiments. Dopamine solution was added from the side route using a mechanical pump, and mixed with aminophylline solution in the main route. Furosemide was administered after clamping and flushing the main route according to the supplier's information that indicated the compatibility of dopamine and aminophylline. However, the aminophylline solution turned black in color 3 h after furosemide administration. Several examinations were carried out to clarify the cause of the incompatibility in this case. The results showed that solutions with all possible combinations, including aminophylline and dopamine, turned black at 24 h after mixing, and the UV absorption at 430 nm increased from 0 to 0.28. UV absorption of the mixed solution increased in a dopamine dose-dependent manner in the range of 1.5-12 mg. When aminophylline was added to physiological saline or hypotonic electrolyte solution, the pH of each solution increased. These results suggested that degradation of dopamine to a melanin-like polymer under alkaline conditions caused the change in color of the solution. It is presumed that dopamine was inappropriately injected into aminophylline solution as the route was clamped tightly to shut out furosemide contamination. Aminophylline and dopamine are often co-administered to patients in critical condition. Thus, even if compatibility of aminophylline with dopamine is indicated by the supplier, they should be administered through separate routes. PMID:24492231

  10. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.; Maitino, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    Stabilization traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. Typical contaminants are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP-the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC-the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens). The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  11. Improving efficiency and color purity of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) through addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junfei; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Sen; Ying, Lei; Liu, Feng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) was used as a probe to study the effects of the addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene on the nanostructures and electroluminescence of PFO films. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed that the content of the β-phase in PFO film was obviously enhanced as a result of the addition of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene into the processing solvent of p-xylenes. Apparently rougher morphology associated with the effectively enhanced ordering of polymer chains across the entire film was observed for films processed from p-xylene solutions consisting of a certain amount of 1-chloronaphthalene, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition to the effects on the nanostructures of films, of particular interest is that the performance and color purity of polymer light-emitting devices can be noticeably enhanced upon the addition of 1-chloronaphthalene. These observations highlight the importance of controlling the nanostructures of the emissive layer, and demonstrate that the addition of a low volume ratio of high boiling-point additive can be a promising strategy to attain high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes.

  12. Improving efficiency and color purity of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) through addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junfei; Yu, Lei; Sen Zhao; Ying, Lei; Liu, Feng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) was used as a probe to study the effects of the addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene on the nanostructures and electroluminescence of PFO films. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed that the content of the β-phase in PFO film was obviously enhanced as a result of the addition of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene into the processing solvent of p-xylenes. Apparently rougher morphology associated with the effectively enhanced ordering of polymer chains across the entire film was observed for films processed from p-xylene solutions consisting of a certain amount of 1-chloronaphthalene, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition to the effects on the nanostructures of films, of particular interest is that the performance and color purity of polymer light-emitting devices can be noticeably enhanced upon the addition of 1-chloronaphthalene. These observations highlight the importance of controlling the nanostructures of the emissive layer, and demonstrate that the addition of a low volume ratio of high boiling-point additive can be a promising strategy to attain high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes.

  13. Improving efficiency and color purity of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) through addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junfei; Yu, Lei; Sen Zhao; Ying, Lei; Liu, Feng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) was used as a probe to study the effects of the addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene on the nanostructures and electroluminescence of PFO films. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed that the content of the β-phase in PFO film was obviously enhanced as a result of the addition of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene into the processing solvent of p-xylenes. Apparently rougher morphology associated with the effectively enhanced ordering of polymer chains across the entire film was observed for films processed from p-xylene solutions consisting of a certain amount of 1-chloronaphthalene, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition to the effects on the nanostructures of films, of particular interest is that the performance and color purity of polymer light-emitting devices can be noticeably enhanced upon the addition of 1-chloronaphthalene. These observations highlight the importance of controlling the nanostructures of the emissive layer, and demonstrate that the addition of a low volume ratio of high boiling-point additive can be a promising strategy to attain high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes. PMID:27250786

  14. Leaders of progressions in wild mixed-species troops of saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) and mustached tamarins (S. mystax), with emphasis on color vision and sex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Surridge, Alison K; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2003-12-01

    Leadership of travel progression is an important aspect of group living. It is widely believed that trichromacy evolved to facilitate the detection and selection of fruit in the dappled light of a forest. Further, it has been proposed that in New World primate species, which typically contain a range of color vision phenotypes, at least one female in a group will be trichromatic (i.e., having three types of visual pigment, in contrast to the two types of pigment found in dichromatic individuals) and will lead the group to fruiting trees. We examine progression leadership within two wild mixed-species troops of saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) and mustached (Saguinus mystax) tamarins over a complete year. As whole units, the mixed-species troops were most frequently led by a mustached tamarin. This is the first time that mixed-species group leadership and individual leadership have been quantified in these tamarin species. In terms of single-species intragroup leadership, neither the visual status (dichromatic or trichromatic) nor the sex of individuals had a consistent effect across species. Saddleback tamarin groups were led by males more frequently than females, while evidence suggests that mustached tamarins may be female-led. The notion that all groups contain at least one trichromatic female that leads the troop to feeding trees was not supported.

  15. Leaders of progressions in wild mixed-species troops of saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) and mustached tamarins (S. mystax), with emphasis on color vision and sex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Surridge, Alison K; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2003-12-01

    Leadership of travel progression is an important aspect of group living. It is widely believed that trichromacy evolved to facilitate the detection and selection of fruit in the dappled light of a forest. Further, it has been proposed that in New World primate species, which typically contain a range of color vision phenotypes, at least one female in a group will be trichromatic (i.e., having three types of visual pigment, in contrast to the two types of pigment found in dichromatic individuals) and will lead the group to fruiting trees. We examine progression leadership within two wild mixed-species troops of saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) and mustached (Saguinus mystax) tamarins over a complete year. As whole units, the mixed-species troops were most frequently led by a mustached tamarin. This is the first time that mixed-species group leadership and individual leadership have been quantified in these tamarin species. In terms of single-species intragroup leadership, neither the visual status (dichromatic or trichromatic) nor the sex of individuals had a consistent effect across species. Saddleback tamarin groups were led by males more frequently than females, while evidence suggests that mustached tamarins may be female-led. The notion that all groups contain at least one trichromatic female that leads the troop to feeding trees was not supported. PMID:14669267

  16. Enhancement mechanism of the additional absorbent on the absorption of the absorbing composite using a type-based mixing rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-04-01

    A silicone rubber composite filled with carbonyl iron particles and four different carbonous materials (carbon black, graphite, carbon fiber or multi-walled carbon nanotubes) was prepared using a two-roller mixture. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer at the frequency of 2-18 GHz. Then a type-based mixing rule based on the dielectric absorbent and magnetic absorbent was proposed to reveal the enhancing mechanism on the permittivity and permeability. The enforcement effect lies in the decreased percolation threshold and the changing pending parameter as the carbonous materials were added. The reflection loss (RL) result showed the added carbonous materials enhanced the absorption in the lower frequency range, the RL decrement value being about 2 dB at 4-5 GHz with a thickness of 1 mm. All the added carbonous materials reinforced the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composites. The maximum increment value of the SE was about 3.23 dB at 0.5 mm and 4.65 dB at 1 mm, respectively. The added carbonous materials could be effective additives for enforcing the absorption and shielding property of the absorbers.

  17. Dissipative quantum coherent dynamics probed in phase-space: electronically resonant 5-color 4-wave mixing on I2(B) in solid Kr.

    PubMed

    Segale, D; Apkarian, V A

    2011-07-14

    Spectrally resolved, 4-wave mixing measurements in five resonant colors are used to interrogate vibronic quantum coherences in phase-space. We highlight the principles through measurements on the B-state of I(2) in solid Kr--a prototype of a system strongly coupled to its environment. The measurements consist of preparing a superposition of wavepackets on the B-state and interrogating their cross-coherence as they get entangled with the environment. The study provides direct realizations of fundamental quantum principles in the mechanics of molecular matter, among them: the distinction between quantum and classical coherent dynamics of a system entangled with the environment, coherent dissipation, event-driven decoherence, environment selected coherent states, and non-local mechanics.

  18. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOEpatents

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  19. Inconspicuous structural coloration in the elytra of beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.

  20. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  1. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography☆

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D.; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5 mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1 g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3 mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65–72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity. PMID:25591404

  2. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-02-01

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65-72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity.

  3. Generalized additive mixed models for disentangling long-term trends, local anomalies, and seasonality in fruit tree phenology

    PubMed Central

    Polansky, Leo; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying temporal patterns of ephemeral plant structures such as leaves, flowers, and fruits gives insight into both plant and animal ecology. Different scales of temporal changes in fruits, for example within- versus across-year variability, are driven by different processes, but are not always easy to disentangle. We apply generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to study a long-term fruit presence–absence data set of individual trees collected from a high-altitude Afromontane tropical rain forest site within Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda. Our primary aim was to highlight and evaluate GAMM methodology, and quantify both intra- and interannual changes in fruit production. First, we conduct several simulation experiments to study the practical utility of model selection and smooth term estimation relevant for disentangling intra- and interannual variability. These simulations indicate that estimation of nonlinearity and seasonality is generally accurately identified using asymptotic theory. Applied to the empirical data set, we found that the forest-level fruiting variability arises from both regular seasonality and significant interannual variability, with the years 2009–2010 in particular showing a significant increase in the presence of fruits-driven by increased productivity of most species, and a regular annual peak associated occurring at the end of one of the two dry seasons. Our analyses illustrate a statistical framework for disentangling short-term increases/decreases in fruiting effort while pinpointing specific times in which fruiting is atypical, providing a first step for assessing the impacts of regular and irregular (e.g., climate change) abiotic covariates on fruiting phenology. Some consequences of the rich diversity of fruiting patterns observed here for the population biology of frugivores in BINP are also discussed. PMID:24102000

  4. Generalized additive mixed models for disentangling long-term trends, local anomalies, and seasonality in fruit tree phenology.

    PubMed

    Polansky, Leo; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-09-01

    Quantifying temporal patterns of ephemeral plant structures such as leaves, flowers, and fruits gives insight into both plant and animal ecology. Different scales of temporal changes in fruits, for example within- versus across-year variability, are driven by different processes, but are not always easy to disentangle. We apply generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to study a long-term fruit presence-absence data set of individual trees collected from a high-altitude Afromontane tropical rain forest site within Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda. Our primary aim was to highlight and evaluate GAMM methodology, and quantify both intra- and interannual changes in fruit production. First, we conduct several simulation experiments to study the practical utility of model selection and smooth term estimation relevant for disentangling intra- and interannual variability. These simulations indicate that estimation of nonlinearity and seasonality is generally accurately identified using asymptotic theory. Applied to the empirical data set, we found that the forest-level fruiting variability arises from both regular seasonality and significant interannual variability, with the years 2009-2010 in particular showing a significant increase in the presence of fruits-driven by increased productivity of most species, and a regular annual peak associated occurring at the end of one of the two dry seasons. Our analyses illustrate a statistical framework for disentangling short-term increases/decreases in fruiting effort while pinpointing specific times in which fruiting is atypical, providing a first step for assessing the impacts of regular and irregular (e.g., climate change) abiotic covariates on fruiting phenology. Some consequences of the rich diversity of fruiting patterns observed here for the population biology of frugivores in BINP are also discussed.

  5. Basic Color Theory and Color in Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroh, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the nature of light and its relationship to color, particularly two models of color production: the additive and subtractive models. Explains the importance of these models for understanding how computers and printers generate colors. Argues that it is important to understand these processes given the prevalence of computers in art. (DSK)

  6. Color image projection based on Fourier holograms.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Michal; Ducin, Izabela; Sypek, Maciej; Siemion, Agnieszka; Siemion, Andrzej; Suszek, Jaroslaw; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2010-04-15

    A method of color image projection is experimentally validated. It assumes a simultaneous illumination of a spatial light modulator (SLM) with three laser beams converging in a common point on a projection screen. The beams are masked with amplitude filters so that each one illuminates one third of the area of the SLM. A Fourier hologram of a chosen color component of an input image is calculated, and its phase pattern is addressed on a corresponding part of the SLM area. A full-color flat image is formed on the screen as a result of color mixing. Additional techniques of image optimization are applied: time-integral speckle averaging and an off-axis shift of a zero-order peak. Static and animated experimental results of such a color holographic projection with a good image quality are presented.

  7. Mixed N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Bis(oxazolinyl)borato Rhodium and Iridium Complexes in Photochemical and Thermal Oxidative Addition Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songchen; Manna, Kuntal; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D

    2014-12-08

    In order to facilitate oxidative addition chemistry of fac-coordinated rhodium(I) and iridium(I) compounds, carbene–bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborate proligands have been synthesized and reacted with organometallic precursors. Two proligands, PhB(OxMe2)2(ImtBuH) (H[1]; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImtBuH = 1-tert-butylimidazole) and PhB(OxMe2)2(ImMesH) (H[2]; ImMesH = 1-mesitylimidazole), are deprotonated with potassium benzyl to generate K[1] and K[2], and these potassium compounds serve as reagents for the synthesis of a series of rhodium and iridium complexes. Cyclooctadiene and dicarbonyl compounds {PhB(OxMe2)2ImtBu}Rh(η4-C8H12) (3), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(η4-C8H12) (4), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(CO)2 (5), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(η4-C8H12) (6), and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(CO)2 (7) are synthesized along with ToMM(η4-C8H12) (M = Rh (8); M = Ir (9); ToM = tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate). The spectroscopic and structural properties and reactivity of this series of compounds show electronic and steric effects of substituents on the imidazole (tert-butyl vs mesityl), effects of replacing an oxazoline in ToM with a carbene donor, and the influence of the donor ligand (CO vs C8H12). The reactions of K[2] and [M(μ-Cl)(η2-C8H14)2]2 (M = Rh, Ir) provide {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}Rh(μ-H)(μ-Cl)Rh(η2-C8H14)2 (10) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(η3-C8H13) (11). In the former compound, a spontaneous oxidative addition of a mesityl ortho-methyl to give a mixed-valent dirhodium species is observed, while the iridium compound forms a monometallic allyl hydride. Photochemical reactions of dicarbonyl compounds 5 and 7 result in C–H bond oxidative addition providing the compounds {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}RhH(CO) (12) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(Ph)CO (13). In 12, oxidative addition results in cyclometalation of the mesityl ortho-methyl similar to 10, whereas the iridium compound reacts with the benzene solvent to give a rare crystallographically characterized cis

  8. THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.

    2010-07-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) presently is in the process to determine means to reduce water utilization in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process, thus reducing effluent and processing times. The frit slurry addition system mixes the dry frit with water, yielding approximately a 50 weight percent slurry containing frit and the other fraction water. This slurry is discharged into the SME and excess water is removed via boiling. To reduce this water load to the SME, DWPF has proposed using a pneumatic system in conveying the frit to the SME, in essence a dry delivery system. The problem associated with utilizing a dry delivery system with the existing frit is the generation of dust when discharged into the SME. The use of water has been shown to be effective in the mining industry as well in the DOE complex to mitigate dusting. The method employed by SRNL to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting in dry powders was effective, between a lab and bench scale tests. In those tests, it was shown that as high as five weight percent (wt%) of water addition was required to mitigate dust from batches of glass forming minerals used by the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, Washington. The same method used to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting was used in this task to determine the quantity of water to mitigate this dusting using as-received frit. The ability for water to mitigate dusting is due to its adhesive properties as shown in Figure 1-1. Wetting the frit particles allows for the smaller frit particles (including dust) to adhere to the larger frit particles or to agglomerate into large particles. Fluids other than water can also be used, but their adhesive properties are different than water and the quantity required to mitigate dusting is different, as was observed in reference 1. Excessive water, a few weight percentages greater than that required to mitigate dusting can cause the resulting material not to flow. The primary

  9. Simultaneous two-phase flow measurement of spray mixing process by means of high-speed two-color PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Xu, Min; Hung, David L. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this article, a novel high-speed two-color PIV optical diagnostic technique has been developed and applied to simultaneously measure the velocity flow-fields of a multi-hole spark-ignition direct injection (SIDI) fuel injector spray and its ambient gas in a high-pressure constant volume chamber. To allow for the phase discrimination between the fuel droplets and ambient gas, a special tracer-filter system was designed. Fluorescent seeding particles with Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of 4.8 µm were used to trace the gas inside the chamber. With a single high-speed Nd:YLF laser sheet (527 nm) as the incident light source, the Mie-scattering signal marked the phase of the fuel spray, while the fluorescent signal generated from the seeding particles tracked the phase of ambient gas. A high-speed camera, with an image-doubler (mounted in front of the camera lens) that divided the camera pixels into two parts focusing on the same field of view, was used to collect the Mie-scattering signal and LIF (laser induced fluorescence) signal simultaneously with two carefully selected optical filters. To accommodate the large dynamic range of velocities in the two phases (1-2 orders of magnitude difference), two separation times (dt) were introduced. This technique was successfully applied to the liquid spray and ambient gas two-phase flow measurement. The measurement accuracy was compared with those from LDV (laser Doppler velocimetry) measurement and good agreement was obtained. Ambient gas motion surrounding the fuel spray was investigated and characterized into three zones. The momentum transfer process between the fuel spray and ambient gas in each zone was analyzed. The two-phase flow interaction under various superheated conditions was investigated. A strengthened momentum transfer from the liquid spray to the ambient was observed with increased superheat degree.

  10. Progress in color reflection holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Huang, Qiang; Jeong, Tung H.

    1998-02-01

    The recording technique of Denisyuk color reflection holograms has been simplified by using `white' laser light. The Slavich red-green-blue (RGB) sensitized ultra-high resolution silver halide emulsion was used for the hologram recording. The employed laser wavelengths were 633 nm, 531 nm, and 476 nm, generated by a helium-neon, a mixed argon- krypton ion, and an argon ion laser, respectively. A beam combination mechanism with dichroic filters enabled a simultaneously RGB exposure, which made the color balance and overall exposure energy easy to control as well as simplifying the recording procedure. Various approaches have been investigated in generating color hologram which have sufficiently high diffraction efficiency combined with improved color saturation. A specially designed test object consisting of the 1931 CIE chromaticity diagram, a rainbow ribbon cable, pure yellow dots, and a cloisonne elephant was used for color recording experiments. In addition, the Macbeth Color Checker chart was used. Both colorimetric evaluation and scattering noise measurements were performed using the PR-650 Photo Research SpectraScan SpectraCalorimeter.

  11. Frequency-domain time-resolved four wave mixing spectroscopy of vibrational coherence transfer with single-color excitation.

    PubMed

    Pakoulev, Andrei V; Rickard, Mark A; Mathew, Nathan A; Kornau, Kathryn M; Wright, John C

    2008-07-17

    Triply vibrationally enhanced four-wave mixing spectroscopy is employed to observe vibrational coherence transfer between the asymmetric and symmetric CO-stretching modes of rhodium(I) dicarbonyl acetylacetonate (RDC). Coherence transfer is a nonradiative transition of a coherent superposition of quantum states to a different coherent superposition due to coupling of the vibrational modes through the bath. All three excitation pulses in the experiment are resonant with a single quantum coherence, but coherence transfer results in new coherences with different frequencies. The new output frequency is observed with a monochromator that resolves it from the stronger peak at the original excitation frequency. This technique spectrally resolves pathways that include coherence transfer, discriminates against spectral features created solely by radiative transitions, and temporally resolves modulations created by interference between different coherence transfer pathways. Redfield theory simulates the temporal modulations in the impulsive limit, but it is also clear that coherence transfer violates the secular approximation invoked in most Redfield theories. Instead, it requires non-Markovian and bath memory effects. RDC may provide a simple model for the development of theories that incorporate these effects.

  12. Color reproduction with a smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-10-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition and understand how colors are made on digital displays.

  13. Increasing color saturation by optimizing light spectra constrained on color rendering properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haining; Dong, Jianfei; Zhang, Guoqi

    2016-02-01

    Enhancing the color saturation of objects via illumination with specially designed light spectra is promising in many commercial and scientific applications. Existing literature has focused on studying the colors that can be rendered by white light with various correlated color temperatures, and by the mixed light from various monochromatic light-emitting diodes. However, very little literature has been devoted to methods that can actively configure the light spectrum to enhance the color saturation of an arbitrary object. This paper proposes an optimization-based method to extend the gamut that can be achieved by a given polychromatic lamp toward a chosen direction, i.e., to increase the saturation of a specific color. Moreover, to trade-off the increased saturation of a color sample with the reduced colorfulness of other samples, constraints with tunable thresholds are imposed to the optimization problem to bound the variation of a contrast color sample. In addition, the effect of uncontrollable ambient light can be taken into account by mild modifications of the optimization problem. Simulation results show that the optimized light spectrum can effectively enhance the saturation of any specific color, while maintaining the other rendered colors as intact as possible. Visual experiments have also been conducted with 22 human subjects, whose responses agree with the simulation results. PMID:26831770

  14. Increasing color saturation by optimizing light spectra constrained on color rendering properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haining; Dong, Jianfei; Zhang, Guoqi

    2016-02-01

    Enhancing the color saturation of objects via illumination with specially designed light spectra is promising in many commercial and scientific applications. Existing literature has focused on studying the colors that can be rendered by white light with various correlated color temperatures, and by the mixed light from various monochromatic light-emitting diodes. However, very little literature has been devoted to methods that can actively configure the light spectrum to enhance the color saturation of an arbitrary object. This paper proposes an optimization-based method to extend the gamut that can be achieved by a given polychromatic lamp toward a chosen direction, i.e., to increase the saturation of a specific color. Moreover, to trade-off the increased saturation of a color sample with the reduced colorfulness of other samples, constraints with tunable thresholds are imposed to the optimization problem to bound the variation of a contrast color sample. In addition, the effect of uncontrollable ambient light can be taken into account by mild modifications of the optimization problem. Simulation results show that the optimized light spectrum can effectively enhance the saturation of any specific color, while maintaining the other rendered colors as intact as possible. Visual experiments have also been conducted with 22 human subjects, whose responses agree with the simulation results.

  15. Signal-to-noise ratio in direct-detection mid-infrared Random-Modulation Continuous-Wave lidar in the presence of colored additive noise.

    PubMed

    Rybaltowski, A; Taflove, A

    2001-10-01

    We have derived the signal-to-noise ratio in direct-detection Random-Modulation Continuous-Wave (RM-CW) lidar in the presence of colored additive noise. In contrast to a known formula derived for the photon shot-noise regime, which may adequately describe experimental conditions in the near-infrared, our result is applicable mainly at longer, mid-infrared wavelengths. Unlike the former formula, our result is explicitly dependent on the pseudorandom code (PRC) used for modulation. Three known modulation codes, the M-, A1-, and A2-sequence are compared and shown to have practically equivalent signal and noise properties (provided that clutter inherent in the A1- and A2-sequence is neglected), except that the M-sequence has a near-zero-frequency noise pickup that degrades its performance in real measurement systems. This difference provides an alternative explanation of a better performance of the A1-/A2-sequence in a previous experiment [3], carried out in the near-infrared. It suggests the presence of an additive noise component and thus some applicability of our result also in near-infrared lidar. A need for balanced sequences - particularly in the mid-infrared - is explained, although in a different way than previously suggested in near-infrared, photon shot noise-limited lidar. Additional, sinusoidal carrier modulation is considered and shown to have significant drawbacks. Our results allow comparison of given modulation sequences, and construction of improved ones. Interestingly, the improved sequences will possess less "random" characteristics, seemingly against the underlying concept of random modulation.

  16. Color-tunable and white-light emission of one-dimensional L-di-2-thenoyltartaric acid mixed-lanthanide coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chang; Sun, Jing-Wen; Yan, Peng-Fei; Li, Yu-Xin; Liu, Tian-Qi; Sun, Qing-Yan; Li, Guang-Ming

    2015-03-14

    A series of L-di-2-thenoyltartaric acid lanthanide coordination polymers, namely, {[La2L3(CH3OH)6(H2O)]·CH3OH·H2O}n (1), {[Ln2L3(CH3OH)x(H2O)6−x]·aCH3OH·bH2O}n, [Ln = Eu (2), x = 2, a = 0.5, b = 0.25; Ln = Gd (3), x = 3, a = 1, b = 0; Ln = Tb (4), x = 2, a = 1, b = 0], {[(Eu0.037Tb0.963)2L3(CH3OH)2(H2O)4]·CH3OH·2.75H2O}n (5), {[(Eu0.051Tb0.406La0.543)2L3(CH3OH)2(H2O)4]·0.5CH3OH·2H2O}n (6), and {[(Eu0.068Tb0.363Gd0.569)2L3(CH3OH)3(H2O)3]·CH3OH·H2O}n (7), have been synthesized using facile reactions of H2L (H2L = L-di-2-thenoyltartaric acid) with LnCl3·6H2O under ambient temperature. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that complexes 1–4 are isostructural, featuring one-dimensional (1D) ladder-like chain structures, in which the Ln(3+) ions are bridged by the carboxylate groups of the ligands. The luminescent spectra in the solid state at room temperature reveal that complexes 2 and 4 exhibit the characteristic red and green luminescence of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions, respectively, whereas complexes 1 and 3 display the blue emission of the ligand with a broad band centered at 422 nm. Notably, the mixed-lanthanide coordination polymers 5–7 exhibit color-tunable luminescence from yellow and white to blue upon variation of the excitation wavelength. It realizes color-tunable and white-light emission in 1D carboxylic acid mixed-lanthanide coordination polymers. PMID:25661972

  17. Mixed O/W emulsions stabilized by solid particles: a model system for controlled mass transfer triggered by surfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Drelich, Audrey; Grossiord, Jean-Louis; Gomez, François; Clausse, Danièle; Pezron, Isabelle

    2012-11-15

    This article deals with a model mixed oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion system developed to study the effect of surfactants on mass transfer between dispersed oil droplets of different composition. In this purpose, our goal was to formulate O/W emulsions without any surface active agents as stabilizer, which was achieved by replacing surfactants by a mixture of hydrophilic/hydrophobic silica particles. Then, to study the specific role of surfactants in the oil transfer process, different types and concentrations of surfactants were added to the mixed emulsion after its preparation. In such a way, the same original emulsion can be used for all experiments and the influence of various surface active molecules on the oil transfer mechanism can be directly studied. The model mixed emulsion used consists of a mixture of hexadecane-in-water and tetradecane-in-water emulsions. The transfer between tetradecane and hexadecane droplets was monitored by using differential scanning calorimetry, which allows the detection of freezing and melting signals characteristic of the composition of the dispersed oil droplets. The results obtained showed that it is possible to trigger the transfer of tetradecane towards hexadecane droplets by adding surfactants at concentrations above their critical micellar concentration, measured in presence of solid particles, through micellar transport mechanism. PMID:22909967

  18. Design of off-axis arranged light-emitting diodes and dual dichroic mirrors based color mixing system for micro-projection display.

    PubMed

    Chen, Enguo; Yu, Feihong; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-02-20

    A simple but efficient color mixing system for micro-projection display is presented in this paper, which has employed off-axis arranged LEDs and specifically designed dichroic mirrors in order to achieve higher optical efficiency and a better space utilization ratio compared with previous systems. The design method of the dual-dichroic-mirror (DDM) system is investigated both analytically and numerically. The design results are consistent with the theoretical calculation, and the advantages of the proposed DDM system are obvious. Compared with traditional systems that are commonly used in micro-projectors, the DDM system has indicated a much higher collection efficiency (up to 93.36%) with a significantly reduced size of 1.47 cc. Equipped with the DDM system, the designed micro-projector has realized an energy utilization ratio of 76.92% and an irradiance uniformity of 96.59% with an ultra-compact volume of 28.8  mm×28.1  mm×10  mm, which is competent for embedded projection display. It is believed that such a design has good prospects in commercialized production in the future. PMID:24663315

  19. Design of off-axis arranged light-emitting diodes and dual dichroic mirrors based color mixing system for micro-projection display.

    PubMed

    Chen, Enguo; Yu, Feihong; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-02-20

    A simple but efficient color mixing system for micro-projection display is presented in this paper, which has employed off-axis arranged LEDs and specifically designed dichroic mirrors in order to achieve higher optical efficiency and a better space utilization ratio compared with previous systems. The design method of the dual-dichroic-mirror (DDM) system is investigated both analytically and numerically. The design results are consistent with the theoretical calculation, and the advantages of the proposed DDM system are obvious. Compared with traditional systems that are commonly used in micro-projectors, the DDM system has indicated a much higher collection efficiency (up to 93.36%) with a significantly reduced size of 1.47 cc. Equipped with the DDM system, the designed micro-projector has realized an energy utilization ratio of 76.92% and an irradiance uniformity of 96.59% with an ultra-compact volume of 28.8  mm×28.1  mm×10  mm, which is competent for embedded projection display. It is believed that such a design has good prospects in commercialized production in the future.

  20. Terbium(III), europium(III), and mixed terbium(III)-europium(III) mucicate frameworks: hydrophilicity and stoichiometry-dependent color tunability.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sudip; Adhikari, Sangita; Riju, Hiranya; Maji, Tapas Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Two 3D porous terbium(III) mucicate frameworks, {[Tb(2)(Mu(2-))(3)(H(2)O)(2)]·4H(2)O}(n) (1) and {[Tb(Mu(2-))(Ox(2-))(0.5)(H(2)O)]·H(2)O}(n) (2), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions by changing the pH of the reaction medium. Isostructural europium(III) and seven mixed terbium(III)-europium(III) mucicates were synthesized by doping different percentages of Eu(III) under similar reaction conditions and unveiling different emission colors ranging from green to red under the same wavelength. Both dehydrated Tb(III) metal-organic frameworks exhibit selective H(2)O vapor sorption over other solvent molecules (MeOH, MeCN, and EtOH) of less polarity and bigger size and have been correlated to the highly hydrophilic pore surfaces decorated with -OH groups and O atoms from the carboxyl groups of mucicate.

  1. 1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis and Other Mixed Aggregation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yun; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Gupta, Lekha; Faggin, Marc F.; Collum, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at −78 °C undergoes 1,4-addition to an unsaturated ester via a rate-limiting deaggregation of LDA dimer followed by a post-rate-limiting reaction with the substrate. Muted autocatalysis is traced to a lithium enolate-mediated deaggregation of the LDA dimer and the intervention of LDA-lithium enolate mixed aggregates displaying higher reactivities than LDA. Striking accelerations are elicited by <1.0 mol % LiCl. Rate and mechanistic studies reveal that the uncatalyzed and catalyzed pathways funnel through a common monosolvated-monomer-based intermediate. Four distinct classes of mixed aggregation effects are discussed. PMID:20961095

  2. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  3. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    Color deficiency; Blindness - color ... Color blindness occurs when there is a problem with the pigments in certain nerve cells of the eye that sense color. These cells are called cones. They are found ...

  4. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the ...

  5. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants.

    PubMed

    Amchova, Petra; Kotolova, Hana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention has been recently paid to the toxicity of additives used in food. The European Parliament and the Council published the REGULATION (EC) No. 1333/2008 on food additives establishing that the toxicity of food additives evaluated before 20th January 2009 must be re-evaluated by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The aim of this review is to survey current knowledge specifically on the toxicity issues of synthetic food colorants using official reports published by the EFSA and other available studies published since the respective report. Synthetic colorants described are Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow, Sunset Yellow, Azorubine, Ponceau 4R, Erythrosine, Allura Red, Patent Blue, Indigo Carmine, Brilliant Blue FCF, Green S, Brilliant Black and Brown HT. Moreover, a summary of evidence on possible detrimental effects of colorant mixes on children's behaviour is provided and future research directions are outlined.

  6. The Molecular Basis of Form and Color: A Chemistry Course for Art Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course including topics such as the nature of electromagnetic radiation, the color of transparent and opaque materials, the detection and description of color, color-order systems, color measurement, and color mixing. (MLH)

  7. Color prediction in textile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Buonopane, Massimo

    2004-09-01

    Nowadays production systems of fancy yarns for knits allow the creation of extremely complex products in which many effects are obtained by means of color alteration. Current production technique consists in defining type and quantity of fibers by making preliminary samples. This samples are then compared with a reference one. This comparison is based on operator experience. Many samples are required in order to achieve a sample similar to the reference one. This work requires time and then additional costs for a textile manufacturer. In addition, the methodology is subjective. Nowadays, spectrophotometers are the only devices that seem to be able to provide objective indications. They are based on a spectral analysis of the light reflected by the knit material. In this paper the study of a new method for color evaluation of a mix of wool fibers with different colors is presented. First of all fiber characterization were carried out through scattering and absorption coefficients using the Kubelka-Munk theory. Then the estimated color was compared with a reference item, in order to define conformity by means of objective parameters. Finally, theoretical characterization was compared with the measured quantity. This allowed estimation of prediction quality.

  8. Effect of air annealing on the color center in Yb:Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics with MgO as sintering additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhongwen; Lu, Tiecheng; Wei, Nian; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Benyuan; Qi, Jianqi; Guan, Yongbing; Chen, Xingtao; Wu, Huajun; Zhao, Yu

    2015-09-01

    High quality Yb:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) transparent ceramics were fabricated by vacuum sintering with MgO as sintering aids. The Yb:YAG samples were annealed at 1250-1450 °C for 20 h in air. The experimental results showed that the transparency of Yb:YAG samples declined markedly with the annealing temperatures of 1250-1450 °C. The samples became increasingly orange-yellow in color with the increase of annealing temperature. The potential reasons of discoloration were discussed for the first time. It was attributed to the complex color center [Mg2+F+] formed during the annealing, which was evidenced by optical absorption in the range of 300-500 nm wavelength and the presence of an electron spin resonance (ESR) line at g = 1.9806. The formation mechanism of the complex color center was explained in detail. The complex color center can be eliminated after post-HIP (hot isostatic pressing). And by air annealing and post-HIP, the transmittance of the samples increased from 80.3% to 83.4%.

  9. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  10. [Establishment of background color to discriminate among tablets: sharper and more feasible with color-weak simulation as access to safe medication].

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Makiko; Maeda, Hatsuo; Okamoto, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    Color-weak persons, who in Japan represent approximately 5% of male and 0.2% of female population, may not be able to discriminate among colors of tablets. Thus using color-weak simulation by Variantor™ we evaluated the effects of background colors (light, medium, and dark gray, purple, blue, and blue green) on discrimination among yellow, yellow red, red, and mixed group tablets by our established method. In addition, the influence of white 10-mm ruled squares on background sheets was examined, and the change in color of the tablets and background sheets through the simulation measured. Variance analysis of the data obtained from 42 volunteers demonstrated that with color-weak vision, the best discrimination among yellow, yellow red, or mixed group tablets was achieved on a dark gray background sheet, and a blue background sheet was useful to discriminate among each tablet group in all colors including red. These results were compared with those previously obtained with healthy and cataractous vision, suggesting that gap in color hue and chroma as well as value between background sheets and tablets affects discrimination with color-weak vision. The observed positive effects of white ruled squares, in contrast to those observed on healthy and cataractous vision, demonstrate that a background sheet arranged by two colors allows color-weak persons to discriminate among all sets of tablets in a sharp and feasible manner.

  11. Massively parallel neural circuits for stereoscopic color vision: encoding, decoding and identification.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B; Zhou, Yiyin

    2015-03-01

    Past work demonstrated how monochromatic visual stimuli could be faithfully encoded and decoded under Nyquist-type rate conditions. Color visual stimuli were then traditionally encoded and decoded in multiple separate monochromatic channels. The brain, however, appears to mix information about color channels at the earliest stages of the visual system, including the retina itself. If information about color is mixed and encoded by a common pool of neurons, how can colors be demixed and perceived? We present Color Video Time Encoding Machines (Color Video TEMs) for encoding color visual stimuli that take into account a variety of color representations within a single neural circuit. We then derive a Color Video Time Decoding Machine (Color Video TDM) algorithm for color demixing and reconstruction of color visual scenes from spikes produced by a population of visual neurons. In addition, we formulate Color Video Channel Identification Machines (Color Video CIMs) for functionally identifying color visual processing performed by a spiking neural circuit. Furthermore, we derive a duality between TDMs and CIMs that unifies the two and leads to a general theory of neural information representation for stereoscopic color vision. We provide examples demonstrating that a massively parallel color visual neural circuit can be first identified with arbitrary precision and its spike trains can be subsequently used to reconstruct the encoded stimuli. We argue that evaluation of the functional identification methodology can be effectively and intuitively performed in the stimulus space. In this space, a signal reconstructed from spike trains generated by the identified neural circuit can be compared to the original stimulus.

  12. Significant Promotion Effect of Mo Additive on a Novel Ce-Zr Mixed Oxide Catalyst for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO(x) with NH3.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shipeng; Liu, Fudong; Shi, Xiaoyan; Liu, Kuo; Lian, Zhihua; Xie, Lijuan; He, Hong

    2015-05-13

    A novel Mo-promoted Ce-Zr mixed oxide catalyst prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method was used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x) with NH3. The optimal catalyst showed high NH3-SCR activity, SO2/H2O durability, and thermal stability under test conditions. The addition of Mo inhibited growth of the CeO2 particle size, improved the redox ability, and increased the amount of surface acidity, especially the Lewis acidity, all of which were favorable for the excellent NH3-SCR performance. It is believed that the catalyst is promising for the removal of NO(x) from diesel engine exhaust.

  13. Synergy on catalytic effect of Fe-Zr additives mixed in different proportions on the hydrogen desorption from MgH{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, A.; Bazzanella, N.; Checchetto, R.; Miotello, A.

    2009-05-18

    Mg films with mixed Fe and Zr metallic additives were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering keeping the total metal content constant, about 7 at. %, and changing the [Fe]/[Zr] ratio. Isothermal hydrogen desorption curves showed that the kinetics depends on [Fe]/[Zr] ratio and is fastest when the [Fe]/[Zr] ratio is {approx}1.8. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed formation of Fe nanoclusters and Mg grain refinement. The improvement of the hydrogen desorption kinetics can be explained by the presence of atomically dispersed Zr and Fe nanoclusters acting as nucleation centers, as well as Mg grain refinement.

  14. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  15. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  16. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  17. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  19. Stabilization of {alpha}-SiAlONs using a rare-earth mixed oxide (RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as sintering additive

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, C.; Silva, O.M.M.; Silva, C.R.M.

    2005-07-12

    {alpha}-SiAlONs are commonly produced by liquid phase sintering of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with AlN and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additives. The formation of the {alpha}-SiAlONs using a mixed oxide (RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}), containing yttria and rare-earth oxides, as an alternative additive was investigated. Dense {alpha}-SiAlONs were obtained by gas-pressure sintering, starting from {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and AlN-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} or AlN-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additives. The mixed oxide powder RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} was characterized by means of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and compared to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the mixed oxide shows a pattern indicating a true solid solution formation. The Rietveld refinement of the crystal structure of the sintered {alpha}-SiAlON using AlN-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additive revealed a similar crystal structure to the {alpha}-SiAlON using AlN-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additive. The comparison of the microstructures of the both {alpha}-SiAlONs produced using pure Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} or RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}, revealed similar grain sizes of about 4.5 {mu}m with aspect ratios of about 5. Both materials show also similar mechanical properties, with hardness of 18.5 GPa and fracture toughness of 5 MPa m{sup 1/2}. It could be, thus, demonstrated that pure Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be substituted by the rare-earth solid solution, RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}, in the formation of {alpha}-SiAlONs, presenting similar microstructural and mechanical properties.

  20. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana addition on bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of beverages based on exotic fruits mixed with oat following simulated human digestion.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Buniowska, Magdalena; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine the impact of Stevia rebaudiana (SR) addition on bioactive compounds bioaccessibility of a new developed functional beverage based on exotic fruits (mango juice, papaya juice and açaí) mixed with orange juice and oat, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was performed. Ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides were evaluated before and after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Salivary and gastric digestion had no substantial effect on any of the major phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides, whereas carotenoids and anthocyanins diminished significantly during the gastric step. All analysed compounds were significantly altered during the pancreatic-bile digestion and this effect was more marked for carotenoids and total anthocyanins. However, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides bioaccessibility increased as did SR concentration. Ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was negatively affected by the SR addition. PMID:25872434

  1. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana addition on bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of beverages based on exotic fruits mixed with oat following simulated human digestion.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Buniowska, Magdalena; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine the impact of Stevia rebaudiana (SR) addition on bioactive compounds bioaccessibility of a new developed functional beverage based on exotic fruits (mango juice, papaya juice and açaí) mixed with orange juice and oat, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was performed. Ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides were evaluated before and after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Salivary and gastric digestion had no substantial effect on any of the major phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides, whereas carotenoids and anthocyanins diminished significantly during the gastric step. All analysed compounds were significantly altered during the pancreatic-bile digestion and this effect was more marked for carotenoids and total anthocyanins. However, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides bioaccessibility increased as did SR concentration. Ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was negatively affected by the SR addition.

  2. Potentiation of the effect of a commercial animal feed additive mixed with different probiotic yeast strains on the adsorption of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Poloni, Valeria; Dogi, Cecilia; Pereyra, Carina Maricel; Fernández Juri, Maria G; Köhler, Pablo; Rosa, Carlos A R; Dalcero, Ana Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia Reneé

    2015-01-01

    This study potentiates the adsorbent effect for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) of a commercial additive (CA) of animal feed, containing inactive lysate of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, active enzymes, adsorbents and a selenium-amino acid complex, when the additive was mixed separately with three S. cerevisiae strains. Levels of AFB1 of 20 and 50 ng g(-1) were used to determine the binding capacity of different concentrations of CA alone and in the presence of yeast strains, as well as toxin desorption, under gastrointestinal conditions. The viability of yeasts in the presence of CA was evaluated. The results show that the CA did not affect the viability of the yeast strains assayed. CA alone showed a low percentage adsorption. At 20 and at 50 ng g(-1), CA was highly efficient in adsorbing AFB1 when combined with RC016 and RC012 strains respectively. Desorption of AFB1 by CA alone and in combination with the yeasts increased with increasing levels of CA. The results demonstrate the improvement of CA in AFB1 adsorption once it is mixed with live yeasts.

  3. Colorful Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

  4. High-order Raman sidebands generated from the near-infrared to ultraviolet region by four-wave Raman mixing of hydrogen using an ultrashort two-color pump beam.

    PubMed

    Shitamichi, Osamu; Imasaka, Totaro

    2012-12-01

    A two-color pump beam consisting of a fundamental beam of a Ti:sapphire laser (35 fs, 802 nm) and a signal beam generated by optical parametric amplification (55 fs, 1203 nm) was utilized to generate multiple Raman sidebands by vibrational four-wave Raman mixing. The second harmonic emission (401 nm) was further employed as a seed beam for enhancing efficiency. Numerous sidebands emitting at 602, 481, 344, 301, 267, 241, 219, 200, and 185 nm were observed by irradiating the beam onto a screen coated with sodium salicylate. The spectral band width of these emission lines was capable of generating 0.9-fs optical pulses by Fourier synthesis.

  5. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  6. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP.

  7. Microstructure and environmental stability of Si3N4 sintered with mixed Y2O3, MgO, and Cr2O3 additives

    SciTech Connect

    Plucknett, K.P.; Butler, N.D.; Lewis, M.H.

    1991-10-01

    The microstructural evolution of an Si3N4 ceramic pressureless sintered with Y2O3, MgO, and Cr2O3 additives has been studied. Two basic processing variables were investigated: sintered Si3N4 (SSN), starting with Si3N4 powder, and sintered reaction bonded Si3N4 (SRBSN), starting with silicon powder. Glass-encapsulated hot isostatic pressing of SSN-type preforms was also examined, resulting in a finer grain structure than the pressureless sintered equivalent. The lower oxygen content of the SRBSN materials had only a minimal effect upon the observed microstructure relative to SSN materials. However, considerable variation in oxidation behavior was apparent, with partial matrix crystallization to Y2Si2O7 in the SSN ceramic and crystallization to a mixed cation phase in SRBSN variants. 25 refs.

  8. Information through color imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1975-01-01

    The color-sensing capability of the human eye is a powerful tool. In remote sensing we should use color to display data more meaningfully, not to re-create the scene. Color disappears with distance, and features change color with viewing angle. Color infrared film lets us apply color with additional meaning even though we introduce a false color response. Although the marginal gray scale on an ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) image may indicate balance between the green, red, and infrared bands, and although each band may be printed in a primary color, tests show that we are not fully applying the three primary colors. Therefore, contrast in the green band should be raised. For true three-color remote sensing of the Earth, we must find two generally meaningful signatures in the visible spectrum, or perhaps extend our spectral range. Before turning to costly digital processing we should explore analog processing. Most ERTS users deal with relative spectral radiance; the few concerned with absolute radiance could use the computer-compatible tapes or special annotations. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which assigns the range and contrast to the ERTS image, controls processing and could adjust the density range for maximum contrast in any ERTS scene. NASA cannot alter processing for local changes in reflective characteristics of the Earth but could adjust for Sun elevation and optimize the contrast in a given band.

  9. Uncalibrated color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Color calibration or the use of color measurement processes to characterize the color properties of a device or workflow is often expected or assumed for many color reproduction applications. However it is interesting to consider applications or situations in which color calibration is not as critical. In the first case it is possible to imagine an implicit color calibration resulting from a standardization or convergence of the colorant and substrate spectrum. In the second case it is possible to imagine cases where the device color variability is significantly less than the user color thresholds or expectations for color consistency. There are still general requirements for this form of pragmatic color but they are generally lower than for the higher end of digital color reproduction. Finally it is possible to imagine an implicit calibration that leverages in some way the highly accurate memory color for the hue of common objects. This scenario culminates with a challenge to create a natural capture calibration standard that does not require individual calibration, is spectrally diverse, is inexpensive and is environmentally friendly.

  10. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal.

  11. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

  12. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    PubMed

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  13. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  14. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  15. Evaluation of new mixed-mode UHPLC stationary phases and the importance of stationary phase choice when using low ionic-strength mobile phase additives.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Lucie; Vlčková, Hana; Petr, Solich

    2012-05-15

    In this study, the selectivity, retention properties, peak shape and loading capacity for bases were practically evaluated using two UHPLC mixed-mode hybrid CSH stationary phases modified by C18 or Phenyl group. The data were compared with the data obtained on other UHPLC hybrid stationary phases (BEH C18, BEH C8, BEH Phenyl and BEH Shield RP18) at both basic and acidic conditions using conventional HPLC buffers (50mM ammonium formate/acetate) as well as low ionic-strength additives such as, e.g. 0.1-0.01% formic/acetic acid and 1mM solution of ammonium formate/acetate, which are widely used in LC-MS applications. Ten pharmaceutically important compounds encompassing acids, bases and neutral were included into the study. Due to properties of CSH sorbent (which possess positively charged surface besides RP group), much improved peak shapes and weaker retention was obtained for bases even at very low concentration of acidic additives. Such conditions are ideally suited for LC-MS analysis of bases, where typical RP chromatographic separation (retention and good selectivity at basic pH) and LS-MS conditions (efficient ionization at acidic pH) are not in agreement. On the other hand, acids were more strongly retained and for some compounds the peak shape was influenced negatively due to ion-exchange mechanism. Further, the behavior of acidic, basic and neutral solutes is discussed using various additives at both basic and acidic pH for all above stated columns. The robustness of retention times after pH change from basic to acidic was also evaluated. The new CSH stationary phases represent an interesting selectivity tool preferably for separation of basic compounds. PMID:22483883

  16. Effects of pH and mixing agents on the temporal setting of tooth-colored and gray mineral trioxide aggregate.

    PubMed

    Watts, J Dustin; Holt, Dennis M; Beeson, Thomas J; Kirkpatrick, Timothy C; Rutledge, Richard E

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the compressive strength of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) and gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) when mixed with sterile water or local anesthetic and exposed to an acidic environment. A total of 248 samples of WMTA and GMTA were mixed and placed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), at pH 5.0 or 7.4, for a period of 7 or 28 days. When WMTA and GMTA were mixed with local anesthetic, the following were observed: 1) pH 5.0 caused a significant decrease in compressive strength (p<0.0001); 2) WMTA was significantly stronger than GMTA (p<0.0001); and 3) more time in PBS (total 28 days) caused a significant decrease in compressive strength (p<0.001). There were no consistent differences in compressive strength for WMTA or GMTA when mixed with sterile water. Variability of results suggests both types of MTA be mixed with sterile water in acidic and neutral environments.

  17. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  18. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen; Corell, Dennis D.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five-color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated lookup tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sensor. The color sensor monitors the chromaticity of the mixed light providing the correction factor for the current driver by using the generated lookup table. The long term stability and accuracy of the system will be experimentally investigated with target tolerance within a circle radius of 0.0013 in the uniform chromaticity diagram (CIE1976).

  19. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  20. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  1. Effect of extrusion on the antioxidant capacity and color attributes of expanded extrudates prepared from purple potato and yellow pea flour mixes.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Berrios, Jose De J; Powers, Joseph R; Tang, Juming

    2011-08-01

    Foods with antioxidant capacity provide protection against cardio-vascular, certain forms of cancers, and Alzheimer's diseases caused by oxidative damages and contribute health benefits. The effect of extrusion cooking on the antioxidant capacity and color attributes of extruded products prepared from 3 selected formulations of purple potato and yellow pea flours using a co-rotating twin screw extruder were studied. Expansion ratios of the extruded products varied from 3.93 to 4.75. The total antioxidant capacities (TAC) of the extruded products, using DPPH assay, were 3769 to 4116 μg trolox equivalent/g dry weight sample and not significantly different (P > 0.05) from their respective raw formulations. The total phenolic contents (TP) of the extruded products varied from 2088 to 3766 μg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight sample and retained 73% to 83% of the TP from the raw formulations after extrusion. The total anthocyanins contents (TA) in the extrudates were 0.116 to 0.228 mg of malvidin-3-glucosides/g dry weight sample. Compared with their raw formulations, significant losses (60% to 70%) of the TA in the extruded products occurred due to extrusion cooking. Browning indices and color attributes such as brightness, chroma, and hue angle agreed with degradation of anthocyanins in the extruded products. However, extrusion cooking retained antioxidant capacities of the raw formulations in the extruded products either in their natural forms or degraded products with radical scavenging activity. This study demonstrated the potential for the production of puffed extruded food products with the improved antioxidant content from colored potatoes and pulse formulations.

  2. Color discrimination, color naming and color preferences in 80-year olds.

    PubMed

    Wijk, H; Berg, S; Sivik, L; Steen, B

    1999-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate color discrimination, color naming and color preference in a random sample of 80-year-old men and women. Knowledge of color perception in old age can be of value when using color contrast, cues and codes in the environment to promote orientation and function. The color naming test indicated that the colors white, black, yellow, red, blue and green promoted recognition to the highest degree among all subjects. A gender-related difference, in favor of women, occurred in naming five of the mixed colors. Women also used more varied color names than men. Color discrimination was easier in the red and yellow area than in the blue and green area. This result correlates positively with visual function on far sight, and negatively with diagnosis of a cataract. The preference order for seven colors put blue, green and red at the top, and brown at the bottom, hence agreeing with earlier studies, and indicating that the preference order for colors remains relatively stable also in old age. This result should be considered when designing environments for old people.

  3. [Study of spectrum drifting of primary colors and its impact on color rendering properties].

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2012-08-01

    LEDs are currently used widely to display text, graphics and images in large screens. With red, green and blue LEDs as three primary colors, color rendition will be realized through color mixing. However, LEDs' spectrum will produce drifts with the changes in the temperature environment. With the changes in the driving current simulating changes in the temperature, the three primary color LEDs' spectral drifts were tested, and the drift characteristics of the three primary colors were obtained respectively. Based on the typical characteristics of the LEDs and the differences between LEDs with different colors in composition and molecular structure, the paper analyzed the reason for the spectrum drifts and the drift characteristics of different color LEDs, and proposed the equations of spectrum drifts. Putting the experimental data into the spectrum drift equations, the paper analyzed the impacts of primary colors on the mixed color, pointed out a way to reduce the chromatic aberration, and provided the theory for engineering application of color LEDs.

  4. Crater Floor in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  5. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  6. The influence of environmental variables on the presence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at two popular Cape Town bathing beaches: a generalized additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Weltz, Kay; Kock, Alison A; Winker, Henning; Attwood, Colin; Sikweyiya, Monwabisi

    2013-01-01

    Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14 °C and approached a maximum at 18 °C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18 °C than at 14 °C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town. PMID:23874668

  7. The influence of environmental variables on the presence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at two popular Cape Town bathing beaches: a generalized additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Weltz, Kay; Kock, Alison A; Winker, Henning; Attwood, Colin; Sikweyiya, Monwabisi

    2013-01-01

    Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14 °C and approached a maximum at 18 °C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18 °C than at 14 °C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town.

  8. The Influence of Environmental Variables on the Presence of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at Two Popular Cape Town Bathing Beaches: A Generalized Additive Mixed Model

    PubMed Central

    Weltz, Kay; Kock, Alison A.; Winker, Henning; Attwood, Colin; Sikweyiya, Monwabisi

    2013-01-01

    Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14°C and approached a maximum at 18°C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18°C than at 14°C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town. PMID:23874668

  9. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  10. Color categories and color appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  11. Effects of the mixing ratio of the CaAl12O19:mn and Zn2SiO4:mn color-conversion layer on the color tunable emissions of white organic light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H S; Kim, S H; Bang, H S; Choo, D C; Kim, T W; Hwang, D H; Kwon, M S; Chu, C

    2012-02-01

    The optical properties of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) fabricated utilizing a CaAl12O19:Mn and Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor layer were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns for CaAl12O19:Mn and Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphors showed that Mn ions in the CaAl12O19:Mn phosphors were completely substituted into Ca ions and that Mn ions in the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphors were completely substituted into Zn ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the size of the CaAl12O19:Mn phosphor was approximately between 0.1 and 3 microm, and that the size of the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor was smaller than 7 microm. The color coordinates of the electroluminescence spectra for WOLEDs with phosphor thicknesses of 0.25 and 0.35 mm shifted to the white emission side because the generated blue light from the blue OLEDs combined with the red and green lights was converted by the CaAl12O19:Mn and the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor down-conversion layers. PMID:22630022

  12. Effects of the mixing ratio of the CaAl12O19:mn and Zn2SiO4:mn color-conversion layer on the color tunable emissions of white organic light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H S; Kim, S H; Bang, H S; Choo, D C; Kim, T W; Hwang, D H; Kwon, M S; Chu, C

    2012-02-01

    The optical properties of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) fabricated utilizing a CaAl12O19:Mn and Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor layer were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns for CaAl12O19:Mn and Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphors showed that Mn ions in the CaAl12O19:Mn phosphors were completely substituted into Ca ions and that Mn ions in the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphors were completely substituted into Zn ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the size of the CaAl12O19:Mn phosphor was approximately between 0.1 and 3 microm, and that the size of the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor was smaller than 7 microm. The color coordinates of the electroluminescence spectra for WOLEDs with phosphor thicknesses of 0.25 and 0.35 mm shifted to the white emission side because the generated blue light from the blue OLEDs combined with the red and green lights was converted by the CaAl12O19:Mn and the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor down-conversion layers.

  13. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  14. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  15. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  16. High-order Raman sidebands generated from the near-infrared to ultraviolet region by four-wave Raman mixing of hydrogen using an ultrashort two-color pump beam.

    PubMed

    Shitamichi, Osamu; Imasaka, Totaro

    2012-12-01

    A two-color pump beam consisting of a fundamental beam of a Ti:sapphire laser (35 fs, 802 nm) and a signal beam generated by optical parametric amplification (55 fs, 1203 nm) was utilized to generate multiple Raman sidebands by vibrational four-wave Raman mixing. The second harmonic emission (401 nm) was further employed as a seed beam for enhancing efficiency. Numerous sidebands emitting at 602, 481, 344, 301, 267, 241, 219, 200, and 185 nm were observed by irradiating the beam onto a screen coated with sodium salicylate. The spectral band width of these emission lines was capable of generating 0.9-fs optical pulses by Fourier synthesis. PMID:23262742

  17. Rational chemical design of the next generation of molecular imaging probes based on physics and biology: mixing modalities, colors and signals

    PubMed Central

    Longmire, Michelle R.; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, numerous in vivo molecular imaging probes have been developed. As a consequence, much has been published on the design and synthesis of molecular imaging probes focusing on each modality, each type of material, or each target disease. More recently, second generation molecular imaging probes with unique, multi-functional, or multiplexed characteristics have been designed. This critical review focuses on (i) molecular imaging using combinations of modalities and signals that employ the full range of the electromagnetic spectra, (ii) optimized chemical design of molecular imaging probes for in vivo kinetics based on biology and physiology across a range of physical sizes, (iii) practical examples of second generation molecular imaging probes designed to extract complementary data from targets using multiple modalities, color, and comprehensive signals (277 references). PMID:21607237

  18. Rational chemical design of the next generation of molecular imaging probes based on physics and biology: mixing modalities, colors and signals.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Longmire, Michelle R; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, numerous in vivo molecular imaging probes have been developed. As a consequence, much has been published on the design and synthesis of molecular imaging probes focusing on each modality, each type of material, or each target disease. More recently, second generation molecular imaging probes with unique, multi-functional, or multiplexed characteristics have been designed. This critical review focuses on (i) molecular imaging using combinations of modalities and signals that employ the full range of the electromagnetic spectra, (ii) optimized chemical design of molecular imaging probes for in vivo kinetics based on biology and physiology across a range of physical sizes, (iii) practical examples of second generation molecular imaging probes designed to extract complementary data from targets using multiple modalities, color, and comprehensive signals (277 references).

  19. Quantum Color

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-20

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  20. Measurements of Molecular Mixing in a High Schmidt Number Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mueschke, N J; Schilling, O; Youngs, D L; Andrews, M

    2007-12-03

    Molecular mixing measurements are performed for a high Schmidt number (Sc {approx} 10{sup 3}), small Atwood number (A {approx} 7.5 x 10{sup -4}) buoyancy-driven turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer in a water channel facility. Salt was added to the top stream to create the desired density difference. The degree of molecular mixing was measured as a function of time by monitoring a diffusion-limited chemical reaction between the two fluid streams. The pH of each stream was modified by the addition of acid or alkali such that a local neutralization reaction occurred as the two fluids molecularly mixed. The progress of this neutralization reaction was tracked by the addition of phenolphthalein - a pH-sensitive chemical indicator - to the acidic stream. Accurately calibrated backlit optical techniques were used to measure the average concentration of the colored chemical indicator. Comparisons of chemical product formation for pre-transitional buoyancy- and shear-driven mixing layers are given. It is also shown that experiments performed at different equivalence ratios (acid/alkali concentration) can be combined to obtain a mathematical relationship between the colored product formed and the density variance. This relationship was used to obtain high-fidelity, quantitative measures of the degree of molecular mixing which are independent of probe resolution constraints. The dependence of such mixing parameters on the Schmidt and Reynolds numbers is examined by comparing the current Sc {approx} 10{sup 3} measurements with Sc = 0.7 gas-phase and Pr = 7 liquid-phase measurements. This comparison indicates that the Schmidt number has a large effect on the bulk quantity of mixed fluid at small Reynolds numbers Re{sub h} < 10{sup 3}. At late times, all mixing parameters indicated a greater degree of molecular mixing and a decreased Schmidt number dependence. Implications for the development and quantitative assessment of turbulent transport and mixing models appropriate for

  1. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Andrea F P; Cey, Edwin E

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted. PMID:26348834

  2. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Andrea F P; Cey, Edwin E

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted.

  3. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, Andrea F. P.; Cey, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted.

  4. Automatic Skin Color Beautification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Da-Yuan; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    In this paper, we propose an automatic skin beautification framework based on color-temperature-insensitive skin-color detection. To polish selected skin region, we apply bilateral filter to smooth the facial flaw. Last, we use Poisson image cloning to integrate the beautified parts into the original input. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be applied in varied light source environment. In addition, this method can naturally beautify the portrait skin.

  5. Addition of potassium carbonate to continuous cultures of mixed ruminal bacteria shifts volatile fatty acids and daily production of biohydrogenation intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T C; Bridges, W C; Harrison, J H; Young, K M

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported a 0.4 percentage unit increase in milk fat of lactating dairy cattle when dietary K was increased from 1.2 to 2% with potassium carbonate. Because milk fat yield has been associated with ruminal production of certain conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, 2 studies were conducted to determine if increasing potassium carbonate in the rumen would alter patterns of fermentation and biohydrogenation. In experiment 1, 5 dual-flow continuous fermenters were injected just before each feeding with a 10% (wt/wt) stock potassium carbonate solution to provide the equivalent of 1.1 (K1), 2.2 (K2), and 3.3 (K3) % of diet dry matter (DM) as added K. One of the remaining fermenters received no K (K0) and the last fermenter (NaOH) was injected with adequate NaOH stock solution (10%, wt/wt) to match the pH observed for the K3 treatment. For experiment 2, 6 dual-flow continuous fermenters were used to evaluate 6 treatments arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial to examine 2 levels of soybean oil (0 and 3.64% of diet DM) and added K at 0, 1.6, and 3.3% of diet DM. In both experiments, fermenters were fed 55 to 57 g of DM/d of a typical dairy diet consisting of 1:1 forage (10% alfalfa hay and 90% corn silage) to concentrate mix in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1630 h, and fed the respective diets for 10-d periods. Potassium carbonate addition increased pH in both experiments. Acetate:propionate ratio and pH in experiment 1 increased linearly for K0 to K3. Acetate:propionate ratio was lower for NaOH compared with K3 but the pH was the same. The trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA production rates (mg/d) increased linearly from K0 to K3, but K3 and NaOH did not differ. Production of trans-10 18:1 decreased and that of trans-10,cis-12 tended to decrease from K0 to K3, but production of trans-10,cis-12 CLA remained high for NaOH. Addition of K to the cultures in experiment 2 decreased propionate and increased acetate and acetate:propionate ratio for the 0% fat diet but

  6. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  7. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  8. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  9. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  10. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  11. Label-free multi-color superlocalization of plasmonic emission within metallic nano-interstice using femtosecond chirp-manipulated four wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chao-Yi; Tang, Po-Wen; Yu, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Sheng Hsiung

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrate an as yet unused method to sieve, localize, and steer plasmonic hot spot within metallic nano-interstices close to percolation threshold. Multicolor superlocalization of plasmon mode within 60 nm was constantly achieved by chirp-manipulated superresolved four wave mixing (FWM) images. Since the percolated film is strongly plasmonic active and structurally multiscale invariant, the present method provides orders of magnitude enhanced light localization within single metallic nano-interstice, and can be universally applied to any region of the random film. The result, verified by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and deconvolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (deconSTORM) algorithm, may contribute to label-free multiplex superlocalized spectroscopy of single molecule and sub-cellular activity monitoring combining hot spot steering capability. PMID:26699002

  12. Label-free multi-color superlocalization of plasmonic emission within metallic nano-interstice using femtosecond chirp-manipulated four wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chao-Yi; Tang, Po-Wen; Yu, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Sheng Hsiung

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrate an as yet unused method to sieve, localize, and steer plasmonic hot spot within metallic nano-interstices close to percolation threshold. Multicolor superlocalization of plasmon mode within 60 nm was constantly achieved by chirp-manipulated superresolved four wave mixing (FWM) images. Since the percolated film is strongly plasmonic active and structurally multiscale invariant, the present method provides orders of magnitude enhanced light localization within single metallic nano-interstice, and can be universally applied to any region of the random film. The result, verified by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and deconvolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (deconSTORM) algorithm, may contribute to label-free multiplex superlocalized spectroscopy of single molecule and sub-cellular activity monitoring combining hot spot steering capability.

  13. Color Blind or Color Conscious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A color-blind approach often signifies that an educator has not considered what racial/ethnic identity means to youngsters. Students want to find themselves reflected in the faces of teachers and other students. Color-conscious teachers seek out materials that positively reflect students' identities and initiate discussions about race and racism.…

  14. Optimization of optical systems for LED spot lights concerning the color uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teupner, Anne; Bergenek, Krister; Wirth, Ralph; Miñano, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo

    2014-09-01

    Spotlighting is one illumination field where the application of light emitting diodes (LED) creates many advantages. Commonly, the system for spot lights consists of a LED light engine and collimating secondary optics. Through angular or spatial separated emitted light from the source and imaging optical elements, a non uniform far field appears with colored rings, dots or patterns. Many feasible combinations result in very different spatial color distributions. Several combinations of three multi-chip light sources and secondary optical elements like reflectors and TIR lenses with additional facets or scattering elements were analyzed mainly regarding the color uniformity. They are assessed by the merit function Usl which was derived from human factor experiments and describes the color uniformity based on the visual perception of humans. Furthermore, the optical systems are compared concerning efficiency, peak candela and aspect ratio. Both types of optics differ in the relation between the color uniformity level and other properties. A plain reflector with a slightly color mixing light source performs adequate. The results for the TIR lenses indicate that they need additional elements for good color mixing or blended light source. The most convenient system depends on the requirements of the application.

  15. Hypergraph coloring complexes

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes–a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen–Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the f- and h-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected. PMID:23483700

  16. Color vision.

    PubMed

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C

    2003-01-01

    Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.

  17. Inheritance of goat coat colors.

    PubMed

    Adalsteinsson, S; Sponenberg, D P; Alexieva, S; Russel, A J

    1994-01-01

    Goat color inheritance was evaluated based on color description of 218 kids and their parents (10 sires, 178 dams) from mixed crosses between several goat populations in an experiment on cashmere fiber production. Altogether 10 color patterns were observed. They were postulated to be caused by 10 alleles at the Agouti locus, with the allele for white or tan color being the top dominant allele, and the nine others codominant. The bottom recessive allele, for nonagouti color, was the 11th allele at this locus. The postulated alleles are white or tan (A(wt)), black mask (A(blm)), bezoar (A(bz)), badgerface (A(b)), grey (A(g)), lightbelly (A(lb)), swiss markings (A(sm)), lateral stripes (A(ls)), mahogany (A(mh)), red cheek (A(rc)), and nonagouti (Aa). Two types of eumelanin pigment were observed, black and light brown, the latter being dominant. Recessive brown was not observed.

  18. Priming letters by colors: evidence for the bidirectionality of grapheme-color synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Peter H; Kalckert, Andreas; Fink, Gereon R

    2009-10-01

    In synesthesia, stimulation of one sensory modality leads to a percept in another nonstimulated modality, for example, graphemes trigger an additional color percept in grapheme-color synesthesia, which encompasses the variants letter-color and digit-color synesthesia. Until recently, it was assumed that synesthesia occurs strictly unidirectional: Although the perception of a letter induces a color percept in letter-color synesthetes, they typically do not report that colors trigger the percept of a letter. Recent data on number processing in synesthesia suggest, however, that colors can implicitly elicit numerical representations in digit-color synesthetes, thereby questioning unidirectional models of synesthesia. Using a word fragment completion paradigm in 10 letter-color synesthetes, we show here for the first time that colors can implicitly influence lexical search. Our data provide strong support for a bidirectional nature of grapheme-color synesthesia and, in general, may allude to the mechanisms of cross-modality interactions in the human brain.

  19. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2014-02-20

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure.

  20. Priming Letters by Colors: Evidence for the Bidirectionality of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Peter H.; Kalckert, Andreas; Fink, Gereon R.

    2009-01-01

    In synesthesia, stimulation of one sensory modality leads to a percept in another nonstimulated modality, for example, graphemes trigger an additional color percept in grapheme-color synesthesia, which encompasses the variants letter-color and digit-color synesthesia. Until recently, it was assumed that synesthesia occurs strictly unidirectional:…

  1. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  2. Preparative separation of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt from the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (pyranine) by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-11-11

    In developing analytical methods for batch certification of the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (G8), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration needed the trisodium salt of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid (P3S) for use as a reference material. Since P3S was not commercially available, preparative quantities of it were separated from portions of a sample of G8 that contained ∼3.5% P3S. The separations were performed by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography using dodecylamine (DA) as the hydrophobic counterion. The added DA enabled partitioning of the polysulfonated components into the organic stationary phase of the two-phase solvent system used, 1-butanol-water (1:1). Thus, a typical separation that involved 20.3g of G8, using sulfuric acid as the retainer acid and 20% DA in the stationary phase and 0.1M sodium hydroxide as the mobile phase, resulted in ∼0.58 g of P3S of greater than 99% purity. The identification and characterization of the separated P3S were performed by elemental analyses, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution mass spectrometry, ultra-violet spectra, and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:21982993

  3. Preparative separation of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt from the color additive D&C Green No. 8 by affinity-ligand pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Adrian; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    In developing analytical methods for batch certification of the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (G8), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration needed the trisodium salt of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid (P3S) for use as a reference material. Since P3S was not commercially available, preparative quantities of it were separated from portions of a sample of G8 that contained ~ 3.5% P3S. The separations were performed by affinity-ligand pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography using dodecylamine (DA) as the ligand. The added ligand enabled partitioning of the polysulfonated components into the organic stationary phase of the two-phase solvent system used, 1-butanol – water (1:1). A typical separation that involved 20.3 g of G8, using sulfuric acid as the retainer acid and 20% DA in the stationary phase and 0.1M sodium hydroxide as the mobile phase, resulted in ~0.58 g of P3S of greater than 99% purity. The identification and characterization of the separated P3S were performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution mass spectrometry, ultra-violet spectra and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:21982993

  4. Measuring color quality of light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Wendy

    2006-08-01

    The successful commercialization of solid-state lighting for general illumination will require an effective method to characterize the color quality of these sources. The distinctive spectral characteristics of solid-state lighting sources present both unique challenges and opportunities with regards to color quality. Color quality is difficult to define, much less measure. Several aspects of color quality, including color fidelity (rendering), chromatic discrimination, and general population preferences must be considered. In some instances, these factors are contradictory. For example, observers tend to prefer lamps that increase object color chroma (vividness), though such chroma increases are deviations from color fidelity. In addition to devising a way to balance the influence of these different dimensions of color quality, consideration must be given to ways of communicating color quality in a simple way, which permits comparison between products. At NIST we're approaching this problem by developing a computational method that takes inspiration from the Color Rendering Index (CRI), but incorporates other aspects of color quality. The output of this Color Quality Scale (CQS) is a composite score incorporating a lamp's ability to accurately render object colors, permit precise discrimination between different colors, and display object colors in a way that is visually pleasing to typical consumers. Visual experimentation will be vital to improve and validate this method, which was initially developed with colorimetric simulations. Preliminary experimentation has begun, focusing on the issues most relevant to the development of commercial standards for color quality.

  5. Spatial processing in color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry

    2005-08-01

    We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.

  6. Color Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  7. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  12. Treatability studies on mixed (radioactive and hazardous) M-Area F006 waste sludge: Vitrification via the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.; Beam, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    Solidification of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste sludges into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The M-Area operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, produced reactor components for nuclear weapons materials for the US Department of Energy. The resulting waste is currently being stored in nine tanks. The total volume in storage of was initially {approximately}1,200,000 gallons of which {approximately} 1/3 is a gelatinous hydroxide sludge. Vitrification of the sludge into glass is an attractive option because it reduces the waste volume by {approximately}85% and reduces final disposal volume by 96% compared to alternative stabilization technologies. The large volume reductions allow for large associated savings in disposal and/or long term storage costs.

  13. Camouflage, Color Schemes, and Cubism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students learn about Cubism and color mixing. Explains that the students create camouflaged animals after learning about the work, "Female Torso" (Pablo Picasso). Includes directions for how to create the pictures and states that the assignment can be used with students of all ages. (CMK)

  14. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  15. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  16. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  17. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  18. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  19. Glow Sticks: Spectra and Color Mixing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birriel, Jennifer; Birriel, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Glow sticks are a popular Halloween staple familiar to most of our students. The production of light via a chemical reaction is called "chemiluminescence," and glow sticks are often used as demonstrations and experiments in the chemistry classroom to study reaction rates as a function of temperature. A black light can be used to…

  20. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  1. Color constancy by category correlation.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Vanrell, Maria; Baldrich, Ramon; Tous, Francesc

    2012-04-01

    Finding color representations that are stable to illuminant changes is still an open problem in computer vision. Until now, most approaches have been based on physical constraints or statistical assumptions derived from the scene, whereas very little attention has been paid to the effects that selected illuminants have on the final color image representation. The novelty of this paper is to propose perceptual constraints that are computed on the corrected images. We define the category hypothesis, which weights the set of feasible illuminants according to their ability to map the corrected image onto specific colors. Here, we choose these colors as the universal color categories related to basic linguistic terms, which have been psychophysically measured. These color categories encode natural color statistics, and their relevance across different cultures is indicated by the fact that they have received a common color name. From this category hypothesis, we propose a fast implementation that allows the sampling of a large set of illuminants. Experiments prove that our method rivals current state-of-art performance without the need for training algorithmic parameters. Additionally, the method can be used as a framework to insert top-down information from other sources, thus opening further research directions in solving for color constancy.

  2. 7 CFR 51.305 - Color requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Color Requirements § 51.305 Color requirements. In addition to the requirements specified for the grades set forth in §§ 51.300 to 51.304, apples of these grades shall have the percentage of color specified for the variety in table I appearing in this section. All apple varieties...

  3. 7 CFR 51.305 - Color requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Color Requirements § 51.305 Color requirements. In addition to the requirements specified for the grades set forth in §§ 51.300 to 51.304, apples of these grades shall have the percentage of color specified for the variety in table I appearing in this section. All apple varieties...

  4. 7 CFR 51.305 - Color requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Color Requirements § 51.305 Color requirements. In addition to the requirements specified for the grades set forth in §§ 51.300 to 51.304, apples of these grades shall have the percentage of color specified for the variety in table I appearing in this section. All apple varieties...

  5. In vitro color stability of provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Yaman, P; Razzoog, M; Brandau, H E

    1989-04-01

    A provisional restoration must protect the prepared tooth, provide comfort and function and be esthetically acceptable and color stable. This study measured the degree of color change of provisional restorations. Five commercially available resins were evaluated: Trim, Tab, Kind, Snap and Duralay. Five cylindrical samples of each resin were fabricated by mixing the powder and the liquid to a predetermined ratio and pouring the mix into a mold. The Minolta Chroma Meter II Reflectance was used to establish the baseline color L* a* b*. The resins were then subjected to accelerated in vitro aging in a Weather-O-Meter and color readings were recorded. The color differentials on delta E* were computed for each sample (delta E*ab = [(delta L*)2+(delta b*)2]1/2). The difference is a quantitative measurement of color change. The National Bureau of Standards describes delta E* as units (NBS Unit = delta E*ab x 0.92). With this parameter only the allowable delta E*ab need be specified rather than the range of allowable L*, a*, b* values. This is important for color comparison and quality control functions. The results showed that Kind had a slight color change delta E* = -1.72, Trim demonstrated the most color change delta E* = -13.84, while the remaining resins demonstrated a noticeable change in color due to in vitro aging.

  6. H-atom addition and abstraction reactions in mixed CO, H2CO and CH3OH ices - an extended view on complex organic molecule formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2016-01-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been observed not only in the hot cores surrounding low- and high-mass protostars, but also in cold dark clouds. Therefore, it is interesting to understand how such species can be formed without the presence of embedded energy sources. We present new laboratory experiments on the low-temperature solid state formation of three complex molecules - methyl formate (HC(O)OCH3), glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (H2C(OH)CH2OH) - through recombination of free radicals formed via H-atom addition and abstraction reactions at different stages in the CO→H2CO→CH3OH hydrogenation network at 15 K. The experiments extend previous CO hydrogenation studies and aim at resembling the physical-chemical conditions typical of the CO freeze-out stage in dark molecular clouds, when H2CO and CH3OH form by recombination of accreting CO molecules and H-atoms on ice grains. We confirm that H2CO, once formed through CO hydrogenation, not only yields CH3OH through ongoing H-atom addition reactions, but is also subject to H-atom-induced abstraction reactions, yielding CO again. In a similar way, H2CO is also formed in abstraction reactions involving CH3OH. The dominant methanol H-atom abstraction product is expected to be CH2OH, while H-atom additions to H2CO should at least partially proceed through CH3O intermediate radicals. The occurrence of H-atom abstraction reactions in ice mantles leads to more reactive intermediates (HCO, CH3O and CH2OH) than previously thought, when assuming sequential H-atom addition reactions only. This enhances the probability to form COMs through radical-radical recombination without the need of UV photolysis or cosmic rays as external triggers.

  7. Introduction To Color Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorell, Lisa G.

    1983-08-01

    Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.

  8. Realizing molecular pixel system for full-color fluorescence reproduction: RGB-emitting molecular mixture free from energy transfer crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Eon; Park, Sanghyuk; Park, Soo Young

    2013-07-31

    A full-color molecular pixel system is realized for the first time using simple mixtures composed of RGB-emitting excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) dyes, each of which has delicately tailored Stokes shift and independent emission capability completely free from energy transfer crosstalk between them. It is demonstrated that the whole range of emission colors enclosed within the RGB color triangle on the CIE 1931 diagram is predictable and conveniently reproducible from the RGB molecular pixels not only in the solution but also in the polymer film. It must be noted that mixing ratios to reproduce the desired color coordinates can be precisely calculated on the basis of additive color theory according to their molecular pixel behavior. PMID:23876082

  9. Realizing molecular pixel system for full-color fluorescence reproduction: RGB-emitting molecular mixture free from energy transfer crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Eon; Park, Sanghyuk; Park, Soo Young

    2013-07-31

    A full-color molecular pixel system is realized for the first time using simple mixtures composed of RGB-emitting excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) dyes, each of which has delicately tailored Stokes shift and independent emission capability completely free from energy transfer crosstalk between them. It is demonstrated that the whole range of emission colors enclosed within the RGB color triangle on the CIE 1931 diagram is predictable and conveniently reproducible from the RGB molecular pixels not only in the solution but also in the polymer film. It must be noted that mixing ratios to reproduce the desired color coordinates can be precisely calculated on the basis of additive color theory according to their molecular pixel behavior.

  10. Grounding context in face processing: color, emotion, and gender.

    PubMed

    Gil, Sandrine; Le Bigot, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have become interested in the way that the affective quality of contextual information transfers to a perceived target. We therefore examined the effect of a red (vs. green, mixed red/green, and achromatic) background - known to be valenced - on the processing of stimuli that play a key role in human interactions, namely facial expressions. We also examined whether the valenced-color effect can be modulated by gender, which is also known to be valenced. Female and male adult participants performed a categorization task of facial expressions of emotion in which the faces of female and male posers expressing two ambiguous emotions (i.e., neutral and surprise) were presented against the four different colored backgrounds. Additionally, this task was completed by collecting subjective ratings for each colored background in the form of five semantic differential scales corresponding to both discrete and dimensional perspectives of emotion. We found that the red background resulted in more negative face perception than the green background, whether the poser was female or male. However, whereas this valenced-color effect was the only effect for female posers, for male posers, the effect was modulated by both the nature of the ambiguous emotion and the decoder's gender. Overall, our findings offer evidence that color and gender have a common valence-based dimension. PMID:25852625

  11. Grounding context in face processing: color, emotion, and gender

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Sandrine; Le Bigot, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have become interested in the way that the affective quality of contextual information transfers to a perceived target. We therefore examined the effect of a red (vs. green, mixed red/green, and achromatic) background – known to be valenced – on the processing of stimuli that play a key role in human interactions, namely facial expressions. We also examined whether the valenced-color effect can be modulated by gender, which is also known to be valenced. Female and male adult participants performed a categorization task of facial expressions of emotion in which the faces of female and male posers expressing two ambiguous emotions (i.e., neutral and surprise) were presented against the four different colored backgrounds. Additionally, this task was completed by collecting subjective ratings for each colored background in the form of five semantic differential scales corresponding to both discrete and dimensional perspectives of emotion. We found that the red background resulted in more negative face perception than the green background, whether the poser was female or male. However, whereas this valenced-color effect was the only effect for female posers, for male posers, the effect was modulated by both the nature of the ambiguous emotion and the decoder’s gender. Overall, our findings offer evidence that color and gender have a common valence-based dimension. PMID:25852625

  12. Mixing in colliding, ultrasonically levitated drops.

    PubMed

    Chainani, Edward T; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Lab-in-a-drop, using ultrasonic levitation, has been actively investigated for the last two decades. Benefits include lack of contact between solutions and an apparatus and a lack of sample cross-contamination. Understanding and controlling mixing in the levitated drop is necessary for using an acoustically levitated drop as a microreactor, particularly for studying kinetics. A pulsed electrostatic delivery system enables addition and mixing of a desired-volume droplet with the levitated drop. Measurement of mixing kinetics is obtained by high-speed video monitoring of a titration reaction. Drop heterogeneity is visualized as 370 nl of 0.25 M KOH (pH: 13.4) was added to 3.7 μL of 0.058 M HCl (pH: 1.24). Spontaneous mixing time is about 2 s. Following droplet impact, the mixed drop orbits the levitator axis at about 5 Hz during homogenization. The video's green channel (maximum response near 540 nm) shows the color change due to phenolphthalein absorption. While mixing is at least an order of magnitude faster in the levitated drop compared with three-dimensional diffusion, modulation of the acoustic waveform near the surface acoustic wave resonance frequency of the levitated drop does not substantially reduce mixing time. PMID:24460103

  13. Perceptual transparency in neon color spreading displays.

    PubMed

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2002-08-01

    In neon color spreading displays, both a color illusion and perceptual transparency can be seen. In this study, we investigated the color conditions for the perception of transparency in such displays. It was found that the data are very well accounted for by a generalization of Metelli's (1970) episcotister model of balanced perceptual transparency to tristimulus values. This additive model correctly predicted which combinations of colors would lead to optimal impressions of transparency. Color combinations deviating slightly from the additive model also looked transparent, but less convincingly so.

  14. Color images in telepathology: how many colors do we need?

    PubMed

    Doolittle, M H; Doolittle, K W; Winkelman, Z; Weinberg, D S

    1997-01-01

    It is generally assumed that for telepathology, accurate depiction of microscopic images requires the use of "true color" (ie, 24 bits, eight bits each for red, green, and blue) in the digitized image used for transmission. If such a 24-bit color image file, which provides a palette of 16.7 million colors, could be reduced in size by decreasing the possible numbers of colors displayed in the image to 8 bits (palette of 256 colors), the image files would require less storage space, could be transmitted more rapidly, and would require less telecommunications bandwidth. However, such color reduction must not result in detectable image degradation, especially if the images are to be used for diagnosis. Therefore, we performed a carefully controlled study to determine whether pathologists could detect differences in the quality of microscopic images that were reduced from 24 to 8 bits of color. Thirty pathologists were each asked to view a set of 30 image pairs displayed on a computer monitor. Each image pair consisted of the original 24-bit color version and an 8-bit color-reduced version, derived using an adaptive color reduction algorithm with diffusion dithering. Observers were asked whether they could detect any difference in quality between the image pairs. Then, regardless of their answer, they were asked to choose the better quality image of the pair. Overall, there was not a statistically significant ability to consciously detect differences between the image pairs (P < .750). However, when forced to choose, there was a significant preference for the 8-bit images as being of "better quality" (P < .005). We conclude that telepathology applications may be able to take advantage of adaptive color reduction algorithms to reduce image file size without sacrificing image quality. Additional studies must be performed to determine the minimal image requirements for accurate diagnosis by telepatholgy.

  15. Compositional changes in red and violet smoke mixes after combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, M.V.; Rubin, I.B.; Moneyhun, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Anthraquinone-derived dyes are commonly used in colored dye mixes prepared for signal smoke grenades. Biological studies have shown, however, that a number of these dyes exhibit bacterial mutagenicity. In addition, these dyes are similar in structure to several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are well-known carcinogens. The grenades contain not only anthraquinone-derived dyes, but also a pyrotechnic fuel and cooling and starting mixes consisting primarily of potassium chlorate and nitrate, sodium bicarbonate, and sulfur. These dyes are volatilized at temperatures up to 550/sup 0/C during the detonation of the grenade, which could subject the dyes to oxidative and pyrolytic reactions that could result in a variety of reaction by-products. As part of a program to investigate possible environmental and occupational risks of the colored smoke dyes and in signal grenades, two colored smoke mixes, red and violet, have been studied both before and after detonation to evaluate any differences in composition due to the combustion process. This report focuses primarily on the separation and identification of the components of the original and combusted red and violet smoke mixes. The conditions for the detonation of the smoke grenades and sampling of the combusted smoke mixes are also discussed.

  16. Hidden Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, C.-R.

    2014-10-01

    With the acceptance of QCD as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, one of the basic problems in the analysis of nuclear phenomena became how to consistently account for the effects of the underlying quark/gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei. Besides providing more detailed understanding of conventional nuclear physics, QCD may also point to novel phenomena accessible by new or upgraded nuclear experimental facilities. We discuss a few interesting applications of QCD to nuclear physics with an emphasis on the hidden color degrees of freedom.

  17. Color uniformity in spotlights optimized with reflectors and TIR lenses.

    PubMed

    Teupner, Anne; Bergenek, Krister; Wirth, Ralph; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the color uniformity in the far field of spotlight systems to estimate visual perception with a merit function derived from human factor experiments. A multi-colored light-emitting diode (LED) light engine with different light mixing levels is combined with several reflectors and total internal reflection (TIR) lenses. The optimized systems are analyzed at several color uniformity levels with regard to the efficiency, peak luminous intensity and dimensions. It is shown that these properties cannot all be optimized at the same time. Furthermore, excellent color uniformity can be reached by a light mixing layer in the light engine or by adding mixing elements to the secondary optics. PMID:25836237

  18. Color uniformity in spotlights optimized with reflectors and TIR lenses.

    PubMed

    Teupner, Anne; Bergenek, Krister; Wirth, Ralph; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the color uniformity in the far field of spotlight systems to estimate visual perception with a merit function derived from human factor experiments. A multi-colored light-emitting diode (LED) light engine with different light mixing levels is combined with several reflectors and total internal reflection (TIR) lenses. The optimized systems are analyzed at several color uniformity levels with regard to the efficiency, peak luminous intensity and dimensions. It is shown that these properties cannot all be optimized at the same time. Furthermore, excellent color uniformity can be reached by a light mixing layer in the light engine or by adding mixing elements to the secondary optics.

  19. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  20. Color LCoS-based full-color electro-holographic 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jae-Woong; Lee, Dong-Whi; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a new color LCoS(liquid crystal on silicon)-based holographic full-color 3D display system is proposed. As the color LCoS SLM can produce a full-color image pattern using a color wheel, only one LCoS panel is required in this approach for full-color reconstruction of a 3D object. In the proposed method, each color fringe-pattern is generated and tinted with each color beam. R, G, B fringe-patterns are mixed up and displayed on the color LCoS SLM. And then, Red fringe-pattern can be diffracted at the red status of a color wheel and at the same manner Green/ Blue fringe-patterns can be diffracted at the green/ blue status of a color wheel, so that a full-color electro-holographic 3D image can be easily reconstructed by using some simple optics. From some experiments, a possibility of implementation of a new compact LCoS-based holographic full-color 3D video display system is suggested.

  1. Additional studies on mixed uranyl oxide-hydroxide hydrate alteration products of uraninite from the palermo and ruggles granitic pegmatites, grafton county, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Korzeb, S.L.; Lichte, F.E.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Additional studies on an incompletely characterized secondary uranium "mineral" from the Ruggles and Palermo granitic pegmatites, New Hampshire, referred to as mineral "A" by Frondel (1956), reveal a mixture of schoepite-group minerals and related uranyl oxide-hydroxide hydrated compounds. A composite chemical analysis yielded (in wt.%): PbO 4.85 (EMP), UO3 83.5 (EMP), BaO 0.675 (av. of EMP and ICP), CaO 0.167 (av. of EMP and ICP), K2O 2.455 (av. of EMP and ICP), SrO 0.21 (ICP), ThO2 0.85 (ICP), H2O 6.9, ??99.61. Powder-diffraction X-ray studies indicate a close resemblance in patterns between mineral "A" and several uranyl oxide-hydroxide hydrated minerals, including the schoepite family of minerals and UO2(OH)2. The powder-diffraction data for mineral "A" are most similar to those for synthetic UO2.86??1.5H2O and UO2(OH)2, but other phases are likely present as well. TGA analysis of both mineral "A" and metaschoepite show similar weight-loss and first derivative curves. The dominant losses are at 100??C, with secondary events at 400?? and 600??C. IR spectra show the presence of (OH) and H2O. Uraninite from both pegmatites, analyzed by LAM-ICP-MS, shows the presence of Th, Pb, K and Ca.

  2. Image-based color ink diffusion rendering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Ming; Wang, Ren-Jie

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an image-based painterly rendering algorithm for automatically synthesizing an image with color ink diffusion. We suggest a mathematical model with a physical base to simulate the phenomenon of color colloidal ink diffusing into absorbent paper. Our algorithm contains three main parts: a feature extraction phase, a Kubelka-Munk (KM) color mixing phase, and a color ink diffusion synthesis phase. In the feature extraction phase, the information of the reference image is simplified by luminance division and color segmentation. In the color mixing phase, the KM theory is employed to approximate the result when one pigment is painted upon another pigment layer. Then, in the color ink diffusion synthesis phase, the physically-based model that we propose is employed to simulate the result of color ink diffusion in absorbent paper using a texture synthesis technique. Our image-based ink diffusing rendering (IBCIDR) algorithm eliminates the drawback of conventional Chinese ink simulations, which are limited to the black ink domain, and our approach demonstrates that, without using any strokes, a color image can be automatically converted to the diffused ink style with a visually pleasing appearance.

  3. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  4. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  5. False-color Dalmatian Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 10 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 18, 2003 during the Southern Spring season in Noachis Terra.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -74, Longitude 351.9 East (8.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  6. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of multispectral night vision colorization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Dong, Wenjie; Blasch, Erik P.

    2012-08-01

    Multispectral images enable robust night vision (NV) object assessment over day-night conditions. Furthermore, colorized multispectral NV images can enhance human vision by improving observer object classification and reaction times, especially for low light conditions. NV colorization techniques can produce the colorized images that closely resemble natural scenes. Qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) comparisons of NV colorization techniques proposed in the past decade are made and two categories of coloring methods, color fusion and color mapping, are discussed and compared. Color fusion directly combines multispectral NV images into a color-version image by mixing pixel intensities at different color planes, of which a channel-based color fusion method is reviewed. Color-mapping usually maps the color properties of a false-colored NV image (source) onto that of a true-color daylight target picture (reference). Four coloring-mapping methods-statistical matching, histogram matching, joint histogram matching, and look-up table (LUT)-are presented and compared, including a new color-mapping method called joint-histogram matching (JHM). The experimental NV imagery includes visible (Red-Green-Blue), image-intensified, near infrared, and long-wave infrared images. The qualitative evaluations are conducted by visual inspections of the colorized images, whereas the quantitative evaluations are achieved by a newly proposed metric, objective evaluation index. From the experimental results according to both qualitative and quantitative evaluations, the following conclusions can be drawn: the segmentation-based colorization method produces very impressive and realistic colors but requires intense computations; color fusion and LUT-based methods run very fast but with less realistic results; the statistic-matching method always provides acceptable results; histogram matching and joint-histogram matching can generate impressive and vivid colors when the color

  7. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  8. RGB color sensor implemented with LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filoteo-Razo, J. D.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Hernández-Garcia, J. C.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Muñoz-Lopez, A.; Jauregui-Vázquez, D.; Rojas-Laguna, R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an optical sensor to detect color changes in fruit by means of white light reflection to measure fruit ripeness in industrial and agricultural applications. The system consists of a LED RGB array including photodetectors, a power source and plastic optic fiber (POF). By means of Labview ® graphic interface we can control the power emission of the diodes digitally mixing the colors at different intensities until we achieve white light to be used as a source for the color sensor. We used an ATmega2560 microcontroller as a data collection device to monitor the colors obtained and to show them as color models using Matlab ®. We show results from tests conducted using two guava samples, observing the evolution of the color change on the fruit skin until they became overripe.

  9. Origin of coloration in beetle scales: An optical and structural investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagi, Ramneet Kaur

    In this thesis the origin of angle-independent yellowish-green coloration of the exoskeleton of a beetle was studied. The beetle chosen was a weevil with the Latin name Eupholus chevrolati. The origin of this weevil's coloration was investigated by optical and structural characterization techniques, including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy imaging and focused ion beam milling, combined with three-dimensional modeling and photonic band structure calculations. Furthermore, using color theory the pixel-like coloring of the weevil's exoskeleton was investigated and an interesting additive color mixing scheme was discovered. For optical studies, a microreflectance microscopy/spectroscopy set-up was optimized. This set-up allowed not only for imaging of individual colored exoskeleton domains with sizes ˜2-10 μm, but also for obtaining reflection spectra of these micrometer-sized domains. Spectra were analyzed in terms of reflection intensity and wavelength position and shape of the reflection features. To find the origin of these colored exoskeleton spots, a combination of focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy imaging was employed. A three-dimensional photonic crystal in the form of a face-centered cubic lattice of ABC-stacked air cylinders in a biopolymeric cuticle matrix was discovered. Our photonic band structure calculations revealed the existence of different sets of stop-gaps for the lattice constant of 360, 380 and 400 nm in the main lattice directions, Gamma-L, Gamma-X, Gamma-U, Gamma-W and Gamma-K. In addition, scanning electron microscopy images were compared to the specific directional-cuts through the constructed face-centered cubic lattice-based model and the optical micrographs of individual domains to determine the photonic structure corresponding to the different lattice directions. The three-dimensional model revealed stop-gaps in the Gamma-L, Gamma-W and Gamma-K directions. Finally, the coloration of the weevil as

  10. Pathfinder Landing Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 14 May 2004 This image of the Mars Pathfinder Landing site was acquired July 17, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.4, Longitude 326.8 East (33.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  11. Holographic full-color 3D display system using color-LCoS spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Moon, Jaw-Woong; Lee, Dong-Hwi; Son, Kwang-Chul; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a new color LCoS (liquid crystal on silicon)-based holographic full-color 3D display system is proposed. As the color LCoS SLM (spatial light modulator) can produce a full-color image pattern using a color wheel, only one LCoS panel is required for full-color reconstruction of a 3D object contrary to the conventional three-panel method. That is, in the proposed method, each color fringe-pattern is generated and tinted with each color beam. R, G, B fringe-patterns are mixed up and displayed on the color LCoS SLM. And then, the red, green and blue fringe patterns can be diffracted at the corresponding status of a color wheel, so that a full-color holographic image could be easily reconstructed with simple optics. From some experiments, a possibility of implementation of a new LCoS-based holographic full-color 3D video display system is suggested.

  12. Three-color differential interferometry.

    PubMed

    Desse, J M

    1997-10-01

    It is shown that differential interferometry using a Wollaston prism and a three-color laser source is an optical technique that has all the advantages of differential interferometry in polarized white light and of classical monochromatic interferometry. The interference fringe pattern obtained is very large and colored and presents a central white fringe that enables easy identification of the zero order of the interferogram. The three-color source is obtained by filtering the unwanted lines of the ionized laser (mixed argon and krypton) and balancing the three red, green, and blue lines by a technique that involves placing birefringent plates between the polarizer and the analyzer, the thickness of which has been calculated to create a natural filter. The unsteady aerodynamic flow downstream of a diamond shape airfoil has been visualized with this technique, which shows that the power of the light source is sufficient to record the interferograms at a high rate. PMID:18264221

  13. Three-color differential interferometry.

    PubMed

    Desse, J M

    1997-10-01

    It is shown that differential interferometry using a Wollaston prism and a three-color laser source is an optical technique that has all the advantages of differential interferometry in polarized white light and of classical monochromatic interferometry. The interference fringe pattern obtained is very large and colored and presents a central white fringe that enables easy identification of the zero order of the interferogram. The three-color source is obtained by filtering the unwanted lines of the ionized laser (mixed argon and krypton) and balancing the three red, green, and blue lines by a technique that involves placing birefringent plates between the polarizer and the analyzer, the thickness of which has been calculated to create a natural filter. The unsteady aerodynamic flow downstream of a diamond shape airfoil has been visualized with this technique, which shows that the power of the light source is sufficient to record the interferograms at a high rate.

  14. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-06-01

    We report a structural color printing platform based on aluminum plasmonic metamaterials supporting near perfect light absorption and narrow-band spectral response tunable across the visible spectrum to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive color printing with high color purity and saturation. Additionally, the fabricated metamaterials can be protected by a transparent polymer thin layer for ambient use with further improved color performance. The demonstrated structural color printing with aluminum plasmonic metamaterials offers great potential for relevant applications such as security marking and information storage.

  15. Optimum color filters for CCD digital cameras.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, K; Seitz, P

    1993-06-01

    A procedure for the definition of optimum spectral transmission curves for any solid-state (especially silicon-based CCD) color camera is presented. The design of the target curves is based on computer simulation of the camera system and on the use of test colors with known spectral reflectances. Color errors are measured in a uniform color space (CIELUV) and by application of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage color difference formula. Dielectric filter stacks were designed by simulated thermal annealing, and a stripe filter pattern was fabricated with transmission properties close to the specifications. Optimization of the color transformation minimizes the residual average color error and an average color error of ~1 just noticeable difference should be feasible. This means that color differences on a side-to-side comparison of original and reproduced color are practically imperceptible. In addition, electrical cross talk within the solid-state imager can be compensated by adapting the color matrixing coefficients. The theoretical findings of this work were employed for the design and fabrication of a high-resolution digital CCD color camera with high calorimetric accuracy. PMID:20829908

  16. Masking the Color Wheel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Charlene

    1982-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which sixth graders made mirror-image masks using only two primary colors and one secondary color. Students discussed the effect of color combinations and the use of masks in folk and modern cultures. (AM)

  17. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  18. The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Dongsen Lu Guanzhong

    2007-02-15

    The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide was prepared by co-precipitation method with aqueous ammonia as the precipitation reagent. Boric acid was used as a source of boria, and boria contents varied from 2 to 20 wt%. The results indicate that the addition of small amount of boria (<8 wt%) hinders the crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} into a crystalline ZrTiO{sub 4} compound, while a larger amount of boria ({>=}8 wt%) promotes the crystallization process. FT-IR spectroscopy and {sup 11}B MAS NMR results show that tetrahedral borate species predominate at low boria loading, and trigonal borate species increase with increasing boria loading. Thus it is concluded that highly dispersed tetrahedral BO{sub 4} units delay, while a build-up of trigonal BO{sub 3} promote, the crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} to form ZrTiO{sub 4} crystals. - Graphical abstract: The addition of small amount of boria (<8 wt%) hinders the crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} into a crystalline ZrTiO{sub 4} compound, while the larger amount of boria ({>=}8 wt%) promotes the crystallization process.

  19. The Quantitative Determination of Food Dyes in Powdered Drink Mixes: A High School or General Science Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a simple spectro photometric method to quantitatively determine the quantity of FD&C color additives present in powdered drink mixes, are focused by the investigations. Samples containing single dyes of binary mixtures of dyes can be analyzed using this method.

  20. Opponent-colors approach to color rendering.

    PubMed

    Worthey, J A

    1982-01-01

    Starting with an opponent-colors formulation of color vision, two parameters, t and d, may be defined that express an illuminant's ability to realize red-green and blue-yellow contrasts of objects. For instance, calculation of t and d for daylight shows that on a gray day, color contrasts are actually reduced. By these measures, many common vapor-discharge illuminants systematically distort object colors. Because red-green contrasts contribute to border distinctness, and both types of color contrast contribute to brightness, such systematic distortions probably affect the overall clarity and brightness of what is perceived visually, Experimental data are consistent with this idea. In relation to color-constancy (retinex) experiments, it is approximately true that the visual system discounts the color of an illuminant but not its t and d.

  1. Color Me Understood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  2. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  3. Color: An Unsuspected Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scargall, Hollie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the appropriate use of colors in school libraries. Highlights include how colors affect students' learning and behavior; influences on users' moods; users' ages; the use of colors to bring out the best physical attributes; and the use of color for floor coverings, window treatments, furnishings, and accessories. (LRW)

  4. Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.; Yeh, Milton; Chen, J. C.; Li, X.; Chuang, Chih-Li

    2016-07-01

    Specially designed intermediate carrier blocking layers (ICBLs) in multi-active regions of III-nitride LEDs were shown to be effective in controlling the carrier injection distribution across the active regions. In principle, the majority of carriers, both holes and electrons, can be guided into targeted quantum wells and recombine to generate light of specific wavelengths at controlled current-densities. Accordingly we proposed and demonstrated a novel monolithic InGaN-based LED to achieve three primary colors of light from one device at selected current densities. This LED structure, which has three different sets of quantum wells separated with ICBLs for three primary red-green-blue (RGB) colors, was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Results show that this LED can emit light ranging from 460 to 650 nm to cover the entire visible spectrum. The emission wavelength starts at 650 nm and then decreases to 460 nm or lower as the injection current increases. In addition to three primary colors, many other colors can be obtained by color mixing techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of monolithic full-color LED grown by a simple growth technique without using re-growth process.

  5. Color segmentation in the HSI color space using the K-means algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Hague, G. Eric

    1997-04-01

    Segmentation of images is an important aspect of image recognition. While grayscale image segmentation has become quite a mature field, much less work has been done with regard to color image segmentation. Until recently, this was predominantly due to the lack of available computing power and color display hardware that is required to manipulate true color images (24-bit). TOday, it is not uncommon to find a standard desktop computer system with a true-color 24-bit display, at least 8 million bytes of memory, and 2 gigabytes of hard disk storage. Segmentation of color images is not as simple as segmenting each of the three RGB color components separately. The difficulty of using the RGB color space is that it doesn't closely model the psychological understanding of color. A better color model, which closely follows that of human visual perception is the hue, saturation, intensity model. This color model separates the color components in terms of chromatic and achromatic information. Strickland et al. was able to show the importance of color in the extraction of edge features form an image. His method enhances the edges that are detectable in the luminance image with information from the saturation image. Segmentation of both the saturation and intensity components is easily accomplished with any gray scale segmentation algorithm, since these spaces are linear. The modulus 2(pi) nature of the hue color component makes its segmentation difficult. For example, a hue of 0 and 2(pi) yields the same color tint. Instead of applying separate image segmentation to each of the hue, saturation, and intensity components, a better method is to segment the chromatic component separately from the intensity component because of the importance that the chromatic information plays in the segmentation of color images. This paper presents a method of using the gray scale K-means algorithm to segment 24-bit color images. Additionally, this paper will show the importance the hue

  6. Optimization of infrared two-color multicycle field synthesis for intense-isolated-attosecond-pulse generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Pengfei; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2010-11-01

    We present the optimization of the two-color synthesis method for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) in the multicycle regime. By mixing an infrared assistant pulse with a Ti:sapphire main pulse, we show that an IAP can be produced using a multicycle two-color pulse with a duration longer than 30 fs. We also discuss the influence of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and the relative intensity on the generation of IAPs. By optimizing the wavelength of the assistant field, IAP generation becomes insensitive to the CEP slip. Therefore, the optimized two-color method enables us to relax the requirements of pulse duration and easily produce the IAP with a conventional multicycle laser pulse. In addition, it enables us to markedly suppress the ionization of the harmonic medium. This is a major advantage for efficiently generating intense IAPs from a neutral medium by applying the appropriate phase-matching and energy-scaling techniques.

  7. Optimization of infrared two-color multicycle field synthesis for intense-isolated-attosecond-pulse generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lan Pengfei; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2010-11-15

    We present the optimization of the two-color synthesis method for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) in the multicycle regime. By mixing an infrared assistant pulse with a Ti:sapphire main pulse, we show that an IAP can be produced using a multicycle two-color pulse with a duration longer than 30 fs. We also discuss the influence of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and the relative intensity on the generation of IAPs. By optimizing the wavelength of the assistant field, IAP generation becomes insensitive to the CEP slip. Therefore, the optimized two-color method enables us to relax the requirements of pulse duration and easily produce the IAP with a conventional multicycle laser pulse. In addition, it enables us to markedly suppress the ionization of the harmonic medium. This is a major advantage for efficiently generating intense IAPs from a neutral medium by applying the appropriate phase-matching and energy-scaling techniques.

  8. Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known

  9. Perceptual uniformity of commonly used color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanaki, Ali; Espig, Kathryn; Kimpe, Tom; Xthona, Albert; Marchessoux, Cedric; Rostang, Johan; Piepers, Bastian

    2014-03-01

    Use of color images in medical imaging has increased significantly the last few years. Color information is essential for applications such as ophthalmology, dermatology and clinical photography. Use of color at least brings benefits for other applications such as endoscopy, laparoscopy and digital pathology. Remarkably, as of today, there is no agreed standard on how color information needs to be visualized for medical applications. This lack of standardization results in large variability of how color images are visualized and it makes quality assurance a challenge. For this reason FDA and ICC recently organized a joint summit on color in medical imaging (CMI). At this summit, one of the suggestions was that modalities such as digital pathology could benefit from using a perceptually uniform color space (T. Kimpe, "Color Behavior of Medical Displays," CMI presentation, May 2013). Perceptually uniform spaces have already been used for many years in the radiology community where the DICOM GSDF standard provides linearity in luminance but not in color behavior. In this paper we quantify perceptual uniformity, using CIE's ΔE2000 as a color distance metric, of several color spaces that are typically used for medical applications. We applied our method to theoretical color spaces Gamma 1.8, 2.0, & 2.2, standard sRGB, and DICOM (correction LUT for gray applied to all primaries). In addition, we also measured color spaces (i.e., native behavior) of a high-end medical display (Barco Coronis Fusion 6MP DL, MDCC-6130), and a consumer display (Dell 1907FP). Our results indicate that sRGB & the native color space on the Barco Coronis Fusion exhibit the least non-uniformity within their group. However, the remaining degree of perceptual non-uniformity is still significant and there is room for improvement.

  10. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  11. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  12. Alternatives to those artificial FD&C food colorants.

    PubMed

    Wrolstad, Ronald E; Culver, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Replacement of artificial food dyes with natural colorants is a current marketing trend, notwithstanding the fact that neither the United States nor the European Union (EU) has defined natural with respect to food colors. Consumer groups have concerns over the safety of synthetic colorants, and in addition, many of the naturally derived colorants provide health benefits. Food scientists frequently have the assignment of replacing artificial colorants with natural alternatives. This can be challenging, as naturally derived colorants are usually less stable, and all desired hues might, in fact, not be obtainable. In this review, the chemical and physical properties, limitations, and more suitable applications for those colorants that are legally available as substitutes for the synthetic colorants are summarized. Issues and challenges for certain foods are discussed, and in addition, colorants that may be available in the future are briefly described. PMID:22385164

  13. Alternatives to those artificial FD&C food colorants.

    PubMed

    Wrolstad, Ronald E; Culver, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Replacement of artificial food dyes with natural colorants is a current marketing trend, notwithstanding the fact that neither the United States nor the European Union (EU) has defined natural with respect to food colors. Consumer groups have concerns over the safety of synthetic colorants, and in addition, many of the naturally derived colorants provide health benefits. Food scientists frequently have the assignment of replacing artificial colorants with natural alternatives. This can be challenging, as naturally derived colorants are usually less stable, and all desired hues might, in fact, not be obtainable. In this review, the chemical and physical properties, limitations, and more suitable applications for those colorants that are legally available as substitutes for the synthetic colorants are summarized. Issues and challenges for certain foods are discussed, and in addition, colorants that may be available in the future are briefly described.

  14. A Linguistic Approach to Categorical Color Assignment for Data Visualization.

    PubMed

    Setlur, Vidya; Stone, Maureen C

    2016-01-01

    When data categories have strong color associations, it is useful to use these semantically meaningful concept-color associations in data visualizations. In this paper, we explore how linguistic information about the terms defining the data can be used to generate semantically meaningful colors. To do this effectively, we need first to establish that a term has a strong semantic color association, then discover which color or colors express it. Using co-occurrence measures of color name frequencies from Google n-grams, we define a measure for colorability that describes how strongly associated a given term is to any of a set of basic color terms. We then show how this colorability score can be used with additional semantic analysis to rank and retrieve a representative color from Google Images. Alternatively, we use symbolic relationships defined by WordNet to select identity colors for categories such as countries or brands. To create visually distinct color palettes, we use k-means clustering to create visually distinct sets, iteratively reassigning terms with multiple basic color associations as needed. This can be additionally constrained to use colors only in a predefined palette. PMID:26390484

  15. 7 CFR 51.305 - Color requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Color Requirements § 51.305 Color requirements. In addition to the requirements specified for the grades set forth in §§ 51.300 to 51.304, apples... this section. All apple varieties other than those appearing in table I shall have no...

  16. 7 CFR 51.305 - Color requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Color Requirements § 51.305 Color requirements. In addition to the requirements specified for the grades set forth in §§ 51.300 to 51.304, apples... this section. All apple varieties other than those appearing in table I shall have no...

  17. Color rendering indices in global illumination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-02-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. Based on state-of-the-art colorimetric methods we present a modern approach for calculating color rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: firstly, we use the CIELAB color space, secondly, we apply a Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation, and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda1 have shown for the cube model that interreflections can influence the CRI of an illuminant. We analyze how color rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  18. Self-assembled coffee-ring colloidal crystals for structurally colored contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhuoying; Li, Linliang; Liu, Panmiao; Zheng, Fuyin; Guo, Liuyang; Zhao, Yuanjin; Jin, Lu; Li, Tingting; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-02-25

    A circlular structural-colored contact lens is reported, which is fabricated by replicating self-assembled colloidal photonic crystal templates. The structural-colored contact lenses not only display variable and brilliant color under light illumination, but also avoid the addition of any colorants to the hydrogel lenses and prevent the potential harm posed by traditional colored contact lenses. PMID:25331232

  19. Biotechnological production of colorants.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Lex

    2014-01-01

    The color of food and drinks is important, as it is associated with freshness and taste. Despite that natural colorants are more expensive to produce, less stable to heat and light, and less consistent in color range, natural colorants have been gaining market share in recent years. The background is that artificial colorants are often associated with negative health aspects. Considerable progress has been made towards the fermentative production of some colorants. Because colorant biosynthesis is under close metabolic control, extensive strain and process development are needed in order to establish an economical production process. Another approach is the synthesis of colors by means of biotransformation of adequate precursors. Algae represent a promising group of microorganisms that have shown a high potential for the production of different colorants, and dedicated fermentation and downstream technologies have been developed. This chapter reviews the available information with respect to these approaches. PMID:24037500

  20. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  1. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  2. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  3. Evaluation of next-generation color wheels for field sequential color displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thollot, Julien; Sarayeddine, Khaled; Tremeau, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Field sequential color display technology uses the temporal properties of the human visual system in order to build a full colored frame by time sequential additive synthesis of a given number of sub-frames, e.g. the standard red, green, and blue primaries, or up to six primaries such as in the latest improvement made with color wheels. Because field sequential color display can exhibit a disturbing visual artifact called the rainbow effect or color breakup effect, we set up a psychophysical experiment to evaluate in an easy way the visual comfort of the standard observer according to the technology of color wheel used versus several significant parameters that must be taken into account when considering this effect. The study is an attempt to better understand the perception of the rainbow effect and the way to reduce it. It also provides data, results and discussion about color wheels, and their latest improvements.

  4. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  5. Why color synesthesia involves more than color.

    PubMed

    Eagleman, David M; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2009-07-01

    Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimuli can trigger experiences in non-stimulated sensory dimensions. The literature has focused on forms of synesthesia in which stimuli (e.g. music, touch or numbers) trigger experiences of color. Generally missing, however, is the observation that synesthetic colors are often accompanied by the experience of other surface properties such as texture (e.g. a visual experience of linen, metal, marble, velvet, etc). Current frameworks for synesthesia focus only upon the involvement of brain regions such as the V4 color complex. Here, we propose an expanded framework that includes brain regions involved in the encoding of material properties - specifically, larger regions of the medial ventral stream. The overlap of visual texture and color processing within ventral regions might explain why many experiences of synesthesia extend beyond color to other material properties.

  6. Amplitudes of Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Are Useful to Detect Small Fiber Involvement in Painful Mixed Fiber Neuropathies in Addition to Quantitative Sensory Testing – An Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Niels; Kahn, Ann-Kathrin; Zeller, Daniel; Katsarava, Zaza; Sommer, Claudia; Üçeyler, Nurcan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) elicited by electrical stimulation for the identification of small fiber involvement in patients with mixed fiber neuropathy (MFN). Eleven MFN patients with clinical signs of large fiber impairment and neuropathic pain and ten healthy controls underwent clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. Small fiber function, electrical conductivity and morphology were examined by quantitative sensory testing (QST), PREP, and skin punch biopsy. MFN was diagnosed following clinical and electrophysiological examination (chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy: n = 6; vasculitic neuropathy: n = 3; chronic axonal ­neuropathy: n = 2). The majority of patients with MFN characterized their pain by descriptors that mainly represent C-fiber-mediated pain. In QST, patients displayed elevated cold, warm, mechanical, and vibration detection thresholds and cold pain thresholds indicative of MFN. PREP amplitudes in patients correlated with cold (p < 0.05) and warm detection thresholds (p < 0.05). Burning pain and the presence of par-/dysesthesias correlated negatively with PREP amplitudes (p < 0.05). PREP amplitudes correlating with cold and warm detection thresholds, burning pain, and par-/dysesthesias support employing PREP amplitudes as an additional tool in conjunction with QST for detecting small fiber impairment in patients with MFN. PMID:26696950

  7. Electroweak Baryogenesis and Colored Scalars

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Timothy; Pierce, Aaron; /Michigan U., MCTP

    2012-02-15

    We consider the 2-loop finite temperature effective potential for a Standard Model-like Higgs boson, allowing Higgs boson couplings to additional scalars. If the scalars transform under color, they contribute 2-loop diagrams to the effective potential that include gluons. These 2-loop effects are perhaps stronger than previously appreciated. For a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV, they can increase the strength of the phase transition by as much as a factor of 3.5. It is this effect that is responsible for the survival of the tenuous electroweak baryogenesis window of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We further illuminate the importance of these 2-loop diagrams by contrasting models with colored scalars to models with singlet scalars. We conclude that baryogenesis favors models with light colored scalars. This motivates searches for pair-produced di-jet resonances or jet(s) + = E{sub T}.

  8. Binarization of color document images via luminance and saturation color features.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chun-Ming; Lee, Hsi-Jian

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel binarization algorithm for color document images. Conventional thresholding methods do not produce satisfactory binarization results for documents with close or mixed foreground colors and background colors. Initially, statistical image features are extracted from the luminance distribution. Then, a decision-tree based binarization method is proposed, which selects various color features to binarize color document images. First, if the document image colors are concentrated within a limited range, saturation is employed. Second, if the image foreground colors are significant, luminance is adopted. Third, if the image background colors are concentrated within a limited range, luminance is also applied. Fourth, if the total number of pixels with low luminance (less than 60) is limited, saturation is applied; else both luminance and saturation are employed. Our experiments include 519 color images, most of which are uniform invoice and name-card document images. The proposed binarization method generates better results than other available methods in shape and connected-component measurements. Also, the binarization method obtains higher recognition accuracy in a commercial OCR system than other comparable methods. PMID:18244645

  9. Light, Color, and Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

  10. Developments in Color Micrographics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourdajian, Ara

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent progress in color micrographics, which has centered about the corporate development of new microfilms whose capacities for reproducing and sustaining color image far exceed those of their predecessors. (Author/EJS)

  11. Color vision: retinal blues.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  12. Color photography of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S. M.; Fountain, J. W.; Mintor, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    Selected color photographs of Jupiter taken with the 154-cm Catalina reflector from October 1965 to September 1973 are presented. Eight oppositions are covered showing the developments in cloud belt structure and color distribution of the Jovian atmosphere.

  13. The Trouble with Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

  14. Automatic Palette Identification of Colored Graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Vinciane

    The median-shift, a new clustering algorithm, is proposed to automatically identify the palette of colored graphics, a pre-requisite for graphics vectorization. The median-shift is an iterative process which shifts each data point to the "median" point of its neighborhood defined thanks to a distance measure and a maximum radius, the only parameter of the method. The process is viewed as a graph transformation which converges to a set of clusters made of one or several connected vertices. As the palette identification depends on color perception, the clustering is performed in the L*a*b* feature space. As pixels located on edges are made of mixed colors not expected to be part of the palette, they are removed from the initial data set by an automatic pre-processing. Results are shown on scanned maps and on the Macbeth color chart and compared to well established methods.

  15. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  16. Sweetpotato Color Analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color is an important attribute that contributes to the appearance of a sweetpotato genotype. A consumer uses color, along with geometric attributes (e.g., gloss, luster, sheen, texture, opaqueness, shape), to subjectively evaluate the appearance of a sweetpotato root. Color can be quantified by t...

  17. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  18. Video enhancement method with color-protection post-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn Jin; Kwak, Youngshin

    2015-01-01

    The current study is aimed to propose a post-processing method for video enhancement by adopting a color-protection technique. The color-protection intends to attenuate perceptible artifacts due to over-enhancements in visually sensitive image regions such as low-chroma colors, including skin and gray objects. In addition, reducing the loss in color texture caused by the out-of-color-gamut signals is also taken into account. Consequently, color reproducibility of video sequences could be remarkably enhanced while the undesirable visual exaggerations are minimized.

  19. Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqiang; Li, Jiawen; Hu, Yanlei; Zhang, Chenchu; Li, Xiaohong; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao

    2015-03-01

    The femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surfaces with different incident wavelengths were investigated theoretically and experimentally. It indicates that the spectral regions of the colors firstly increase and then reduce with increasing spatial periods of the ripples induced by laser irradiation. Additionally, the colors are gradually changed from blue to red due to the elongation of the diffracted light wavelengths. As a result, the color effects are distinctly different. This study offers a new controllable parameter to produce diverse colors, which may find a wide range of applications in the laser color marking, art designing and so on.

  20. Water color and circulation southern Chesapeake Bay, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. M.; Gordon, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Satellite imagery from two EREP passes over the Rappahannock Estuary of the Chesapeake region is analyzed to chart colored water types, to delineate color boundaries and define circulatory patterns. Surface observations from boats and helicopters concurrent with Skylab overpass define the distributions of suspended sediment, transparency, temperature, salinity, phytoplankton, color of suspended material and optical ratio. Important features recorded by the imagery are a large-scale turbidity maximum and massive red tide blooms. Water movement is revealed by small-scale mixing patterns and tidal plumes of apparent sediment-laden water. The color patterns broadly reflect the bottom topography and the seaward gradient of suspended material between the river and the bay. Analyses of red, green and natural color photos by microdensitometry demonstrate the utility of charting water color types of potential use for managing estuarine water quality. The Skylab imagery is superior to aerial photography and surface observations for charting water color.

  1. Ultrathin Nanostructured Metals for Highly Transmissive Plasmonic Subtractive Color Filters

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Beibei; Gao, Yongkang; Bartoli, Filbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonic color filters employing a single optically-thick nanostructured metal layer have recently generated considerable interest as an alternative to colorant-based color filtering technologies, due to their reliability, ease of fabrication, and high color tunability. However, their relatively low transmission efficiency (~30%) needs to be significantly improved for practical applications. The present work reports, for the first time, a novel plasmonic subtractive color filtering scheme that exploits the counter-intuitive phenomenon of extraordinary low transmission (ELT) through an ultrathin nanostructured metal film. This approach relies on a fundamentally different color filtering mechanism than that of existing plasmonic additive color filters, and achieves unusually high transmission efficiencies of 60 ~ 70% for simple architectures. Furthermore, owing to short-range interactions of surface plasmon polaritons at ELT resonances, our design offers high spatial resolution color filtering with compact pixel size close to the optical diffraction limit (~λ/2), creating solid applications ranging from imaging sensors to color displays. PMID:24100869

  2. Correlating human color similarity judgments and colorimetric representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertan, Constantin C.; Ciuc, Mihai; Stoica, A.; Zamfir, Marta; Buzuloiu, Vasile V.; Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine

    2003-10-01

    A color similarity test was conducted on the 24 color patches of a Gretag Macbeth color checker. Color similarities were measured either by distances between standard colorimetric representations (such as RGB, Lab or spectral reflectance curves) or by human observer judgments. In each case, the dissimilarity matrix was processed by a classical, metric, multidimensional scaling algorithm, in order to produce a visually-interpretable two-dimensional plot of color dissimilarity. The analysis of the plots produces some interesting conclusions. First, the plots produced by the Lab, RGB and spectral representations exhibit very evident variation axes according to the luminance and basic chromatic differences (red-green, blue-yellow). This behavior (trivial for the Lab representation) suggests that the color similarity measurement by chromatic differences is implicitly embedded in the RGB and spectral representations. The color dissimilarity plots associated to the human judgments (for any individual, as well as for an "average" observer) exhibit a different organization, which mixes hue, saturation and luminance (HSV). According to these plots, the human similarity judgment is not entirely HSV-based. We prove that it is possible to obtain the same color dissimilarity plots if a fuzzy color model is assumed. The fuzzy color model provides similarity coefficients (similarity degrees) between pairs of colors, based on their inter-distance, according to an imposed "color confusion" control parameter, which seems to be relevant for the human vision.

  3. Using color to guide debridement.

    PubMed

    Endara, Matthew; Attinger, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    Chronic wounds are typically halted in the inflammatory stage of wound healing secondary to a prolonged inflammatory response of the body to bacterial colonization, as planktonic bacteria and biofilm and senescent cells present at the wound's edges. Surgical debridement of these wounds is a critical step taken by the treating physician to attain complete healing. In order for debridement to successfully reset the stages of wound healing, residual biofilm and senescent cells must be removed. Despite the importance of complete and thorough debridement, few methods exist, and even fewer articles have been written describing techniques to ensure that all portions of a wound are equally addressed with each procedure. Using methylene blue dye to color the wound allows the surgeon to address and debride all portions of the wound adequately. In addition, the surgeon must be very familiar with what the normal tissue colors are following removal of the methylene blue-dyed tissue. Getting to tissue with those colors provides an end point to the debridement and helps prevent removal of excess healthy tissue. This article describes the primary author's technique for staining tissues with methylene blue dye prior to wound debridement, as well as the colors to look for to signal completion of surgery. In addition, a review of biofilm and senescent cells is presented as both are targeted but frequently missed when wounds are incompletely debrided.

  4. On the quantification of mixing in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Ali; Xu, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Methods for quantifying mixing in microfluidics have varied largely in the past, and various indices have been employed to represent the extent of mixing. Mixing between two or more colored liquids is usually quantified using simple mathematical functions operated over a sequence of images. The function, usually termed mixing indices, involves a measure of standard deviation. Here, we first review some mixing indices and then experimentally verify the index most representative of a mixing event. It is observed that the relative mixing index is not affected by the lighting conditions, unlike other known mixing indices. Based on this finding, the use of a relative mixing index is advocated for further use in the lab-on-a-chip community for quantifying mixing events.

  5. Wear testing under high load conditionsThe effect of ``anti-scuff'' additions to AISI 3135, 52100 and 9310 steels introduced by ion implantation and ion beam mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, N. E. W.; Hirvonen, J. K.

    1983-05-01

    There is a need to eliminate the sudden onset of severe adhesive wear ("scuffing") in high performance hardened steels (e.g. AISI 9310) under arduous load conditions. We have investigated the friction and wear behavior of three ion implanted and ion beam mixed steels under simulated scuffing conditions using a Falex friction and wear tester. This machine enabled tests to be carried out at a load of 700 lb (318 kg), corresponding to a mean contact pressure of approximately 20 000 psi (i.e., 1×10 8 N/m 2) which was sufficient to induce scuffing. A series of lower load tests at 200 lb (91 kg) load (5.2 × 10 7 N/m 2) enabled the longer term wear performance of various ion/substrate combinations to be measured. The frictional force experienced during wear testing was used to assess the degree of scuffing, and the amount of material worn away was measured on the Falex tester or by subsequent weight loss determinations, depending on the type of test. The following ions were implanted: C +, N +, P +, Ti +, Cr +, Mo +, and Ta +, chosen in order to evaluate the effects of intermetallic additions (C, N, P), alloys elements (Ti, Cr), and anti-scuff elements (Mo, Ta). In addition some thin ( ˜1000 Å) vacuum evaporated layers of Si, V, Ni, Nb, Sn, Mo, Ta and W were prepared, and in some cases intermixed with N + ions at a fluence of typically 2×10 17/cm 2, to compare with the effects of ion implantation. Under the low load conditions the wear rate of AISI 3135 steel (1.5% Ni, 0.65% Cr alloy tool steel) was found to be reduced by a factor 3 as a result of N + implantation under low load, in agreement with previous work reported elsewhere, whereas other ions gave inconclusive results. The 52100 steel (a through-hardened martensitic bearing steel) showed marked improvements after Ti + implantation, revealing a sensitivity to fluence which correlated with known dry sliding behaviour of this steel modified by titanium implantations. Ta + and Mo + implantations into 9310 steel (a

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. Industrial Color Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCamy, C. S.

    1986-10-01

    Color is a very important property of many products and an essential feature of some. The commercial value of color is evident in the fact that customers reject product that is satisfactory in every other way, but is not the right color. Color isrumerically specified, measured, and controlled just as length or weight are. It has three dimensions: Hue, Value, and Chroma, and may be represented in a three-dimensional space. Colors of objects depend on the illumination and pairs of colors may match in one light but not in another. Controlled illumination is required for color matching. Illuminants were standardized by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). As a basis for color measurement, the CIE adopted three spectral sensitivity functions representing a standard observer. Color may be measured by instruments using standard illumination and simulating the standard observer. It is better to measure spectral reflectance or transmittance and compute colorimetric quantities. Color may be inspected on a production line and the data obtained can be used to control the process. When production cannot be controlled as precisely as required, product may be sorted by color.

  8. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  9. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  10. True Colors Shining Through

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic illustrates how scientists use the color calibration targets (upper left) located on both Mars Exploration Rovers to fine-tune the rovers' sense of color. In the center, spectra, or light signatures, acquired in the laboratory of the colored chips on the targets are shown as lines. Actual data from Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera is mapped on top of these lines as dots. The plot demonstrates that the observed colors of Mars match the colors of the chips, and thus approximate the red planet's true colors. This finding is further corroborated by the picture taken on Mars of the calibration target, which shows the colored chips as they would appear on Earth.

  11. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  12. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    the hill country to the Jaffna peninsula.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Location: 8.0 degrees North latitude, 80.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 275.6 by 482.4 kilometers (165.4 by 299.0 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  13. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  14. 7 CFR 29.3532 - Mixed (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed (M). 29.3532 Section 29.3532 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3532 Mixed (M). Variegated or distinctly different colors of the type mingled...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3532 - Mixed (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed (M). 29.3532 Section 29.3532 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3532 Mixed (M). Variegated or distinctly different colors of the type mingled...

  16. Dune-filled Crater in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 4 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on October 16, 2003 during the Southern Summer season of a crater within Molesworth Crater.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -27.4, Longitude 149.6 East (210.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  17. Electrokinetic pixels with biprimary inks for color displays and color-temperature-tunable smart windows.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S; Hsieh, W L; Smith, N; Goulding, M; Heikenfeld, J

    2015-06-10

    We report on the advanced implementation of the biprimary color system in applications where subtractive color is performed inside a single pixel to alter the magnitude and color of reflection (electronic paper displays) or the optical transmission and color temperature (smart windows). A novel device structure can switch between four states: clear, black, either of two complementary colors from RGB and CMY sets, and also mixed states between one of these four states. The device structure utilizes an electrokinetic pixel structure, which combines the spectral performance of in-plane electrophoretic devices with the improved switching speeds of vertical electrophoresis. The electrophoretic dispersions are dual-particle dual-colored and are controlled using two traditional planar electrokinetic electrodes on the front and back substrates, along with a third electrode conveniently located at the perimeter of each unit cell. Demonstrated performance includes contrast ratios reaching ~10∶1, reflectance of ~62%, and transparency of ~75%. For electronic paper displays, these results provide a pathway to double the reflective performance compared to the traditional RGBW color-filter approach. For smart windows, the technology provides not only control of shade (transmission) but also provides complete control over color temperature. Furthermore, this three-electrode device can be roll-to-roll fabricated without need for any alignment steps, requiring only a single micro-replication step followed by self-aligned contact printing of the third electrode. PMID:26192867

  18. On the colors of distant objects.

    PubMed

    Lynch, David K; Mazuk, S

    2005-09-20

    Distant objects like clouds, mountains, and the Sun can appear to have colors that are significantly different from their intrinsic colors: the low Sun is often red, white clouds and snow-capped peaks appear yellow or pink, and dark green or gray mountains can appear blue or purple. The color alteration increases with distance, or alternatively, optical depth. We investigate the perceived colors of distant objects by computing the CIE chromaticity coordinates from their spectra. For sources viewed through significant amounts of atmosphere (e.g., the low Sun), MODTRAN4 radiative-transfer calculations are used to retrieve the spectra. In addition to clouds and mountains, the colors of stars, the Sun, and the sky are presented as a function of solar elevation under a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  19. Large color gamut displays with diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Aieta, Francesco; Morovič, Peter; Morovič, Ján; Fiorentino, Marco; Santori, Charles; Fattal, David

    2016-06-01

    The ability to display a broad variety of colors has great benefits not only in the context of entertainment but also as a means to streamline design in prototyping and manufacturing processes. Displays that use RGB filters or backlights cannot span all colors that occur in nature. To improve the accuracy of color reproduction, there have been attempts to include additional color primaries in displays. Existing solutions, however, have an impact on cost, scalability, and spatial resolution and are predominantly applicable to projection systems. We propose an approach based on combining diffraction grating extractors and the HANS imaging pipeline initially developed for printing. This combination offers unprecedented potential to attain large color gamuts with the same backlights commercially used today.

  20. The nature of colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Pos, Osvaldo

    2002-06-01

    Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.