Science.gov

Sample records for additive main effects

  1. Hydraulic and Geomorphic Effects of Large Woody Debris Additions in the Narraguagus Watershed, Coastal Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E.; Snyder, N. P.

    2009-12-01

    Maine coastal rivers host the last remaining runs of endangered anadromous Atlantic salmon in the United States, whose populations have declined from ~500,000 returning adults in the 1880s to only ~1000 in 2000. Restoration projects focus on these rivers, and recent efforts involve adding large woody debris (LWD) to small tributaries to improve salmon rearing habitat. LWD changes the hydraulics and geomorphology of small streams by acting as a barrier to flow and resulting in decreased velocity zones, scour pools, and sediment storage and sorting. We quantify the effects of LWD additions in early August 2008 on hydraulics and substrate in Baker Brook, a west-flowing tributary of the Narraguagus River. Hydraulically, we focus on the treatment reach nearest the confluence with the Narraguagus River (Baker1). We study substrate in this and the upstream treatment location (Baker3). Both study locations are divided into two reaches, treatment (received cut wood) and control (did not receive cut wood). The reaches are further divided into 50 m sub-reaches based on gradient (1-2%). We seek to answer two research questions: (1) how much does mean velocity through the study sub-reaches change as a result of additions; and (2) does sediment storage and sorting result from the LWD additions? We measured reach-average velocities (Ureach) in Baker1 using the salt dilution method in May, July, August and October 2008 and May 2009. We use rating curves to compare the post-treatment to the pre-treatment Ureach-stage relationship. No reach-average change was quantified during the low-to-moderate flows we observed. We found a localized change in cross-sectionally averaged velocity (U⊥) measured with a flow meter in one sub-reach, but this is because an added tree intersected the cross-section where measurements were recorded. We quantified pre- and post-treatment sub-reach substrate median grain size (D50) with intensive clast counts in July 2008 and May 2009. Two of the three

  2. Additively Manufactured Main Fuel Valve Housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was utilized to fabricate a liquid hydrogen valve housing typical of those found in rocket engines and main propulsion systems. The SLM process allowed for a valve geometry that would be difficult, if not impossible to fabricate by traditional means. Several valve bodies were built by different SLM suppliers and assembled with valve internals. The assemblies were then tested with liquid nitrogen and operated as desired. One unit was also burst tested and sectioned for materials analysis. The design, test results, and planned testing are presented herein.

  3. 47. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was added in 1941. Note the variety of building materials used in the wall: cement, bricks and finally cement blocks, with wood topping the entire wall. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  4. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    PubMed

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  5. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  6. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  7. 49 CFR 218.105 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated main track switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule... the requirements of this section. (b) Designating switch position. The normal position of a...

  8. 49 CFR 218.105 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated main track switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule... the requirements of this section. (b) Designating switch position. The normal position of a...

  9. 49 CFR 218.105 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated main track switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule... the requirements of this section. (b) Designating switch position. The normal position of a...

  10. 49 CFR 218.105 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated main track switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule... the requirements of this section. (b) Designating switch position. The normal position of a...

  11. 49 CFR 218.105 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated main track switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule... the requirements of this section. (b) Designating switch position. The normal position of a...

  12. Effect of additives on protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2009-06-01

    This paper overviews solution additives that affect protein stability and aggregation during refolding, heating, and freezing processes. Solution additives are mainly grouped into two classes, i.e., protein denaturants and stabilizers. The former includes guanidine, urea, strong ionic detergents, and certain chaotropic salts; the latter includes certain amino acids, sugars, polyhydric alcohols, osmolytes, and kosmotropic salts. However, there are solution additives that are not unambiguously placed into these two classes, including arginine, certain divalent cation salts (e.g., MgCl(2)) and certain polyhydric alcohols (e.g., ethylene glycol). Certain non-ionic or non-detergent surfactants, ionic liquids, amino acid derivatives, polyamines, and certain amphiphilic polymers may belong to this class. They have marginal effects on protein structure and stability, but are able to disrupt protein interactions. Information on additives that do not catalyze chemical reactions nor affect protein functions helps us to design protein solutions for increased stability or reduced aggregation. PMID:19519415

  13. ProPhenol-Catalyzed Asymmetric Additions by Spontaneously Assembled Dinuclear Main Group Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    magnesium ProPhenol complex was used to facilitate enantioselective diazoacetate aldol reactions with aryl, α,β-unsaturated, and aliphatic aldehydes. The utility of bimetallic ProPhenol catalysts was extended to asymmetric additions with a wide range of substrate combinations. Effective pronucleophiles include oxazolones, 2-furanone, nitroalkanes, pyrroles, 3-hydroxyoxindoles, alkynes, meso-1,3-diols, and dialkyl phosphine oxides. These substrates were found to be effective with a number of electrophiles, including aldehydes, imines, nitroalkenes, acyl silanes, vinyl benzoates, and α,β-unsaturated carbonyls. A truly diverse range of enantioenriched compounds have been prepared using the ProPhenol ligand, and the commercial availability of both ligand enantiomers makes it ideally suited for the synthesis of complex molecules. To date, enantioselective ProPhenol-catalyzed reactions have been used in the synthesis of more than 20 natural products. PMID:25650587

  14. Flow-induced vibration of the SSME Lox posts: additional issues. [Space shuttle main engine

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.

    1984-12-01

    A mathematical model is presented for flow-induced vibration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) liquid oxygen (LOX) posts. The definition of the critical flow velocity is addressed, and detuning of the vibrations of the LOX posts is discussed. Nonuniform flow distributions in the axial and transverse directions are examined briefly, followed by upstream turbulence. The dependence of response upon post location is addressed briefly. Scruton's number, a mass-damping parameter, is defined and its value for the SSME LOX posts is given. Also discussed are the interaction of turbulent buffeting and fluidelastic instability, post arrangement, and swirlers around the posts. The differences are discussed between the quasi-static, the analytical, and the general analytical mathematical models. (LEW)

  15. Addition of ethylene or hydrogen to a main-group metal cluster under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Vasko, Petra; Wang, Shuai; Tuononen, Heikki M; Power, Philip P

    2015-03-16

    Reaction of the tin cluster Sn8(Ar(Me6))4(Ar(Me6)=C6H2-2,6-(C6H3-2,4,6-Me3)2) with excess ethylene or dihydrogen at 25 °C/1 atmosphere yielded two new clusters that incorporated ethylene or hydrogen. The reaction with ethylene yielded Sn4(Ar(Me6))4(C2H2)5 that contained five ethylene moieties bridging four aryl substituted tin atoms and one tin-tin bond. Reaction with H2 produced a cyclic tin species of formula (Sn(H)Ar(Me6))4, which could also be synthesized by the reaction of {(Ar(Me6))Sn(μ-Cl)}2 with DIBAL-H. These reactions represent the first instances of direct reactions of isolable main-group clusters with ethylene or hydrogen under mild conditions. The products were characterized in the solid state by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy and in solution by multinuclear NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopies. Density functional theory calculations were performed to explain the reactivity of the cluster.

  16. Additive effects on lubricant fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, S.; Moore, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Bench and engine tests were used to determine the effects of typical lubricating oil components on the fuel economy performance of energy conserving oils. The bench studies identified negative fuel economy effects of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates and positive effects of overbased sulfonates. The Sequence VI dynamometer test quantified viscometric influences on fuel economy; results indicated that SAE 5W-30 oils are not always more fuel efficient than 10W-30 analogs, and that viscosity index improver type has a large impact on fuel economy. These effects were integrated with additive effects on other formulation criteria to design an overall system.

  17. Main Idea Comprehension: Training Teachers and Effects on Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriedo, N.; Alonso-Tapia, J.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of main idea identification training by teachers who had been successfully trained in such identification. Finds that the experimental group of students (in grades six, seven, and eight) performed better than the control group on main idea identification and knowledge of strategies related to that process. Discusses…

  18. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. The Arithmetic Tie Effect Is Mainly Encoding-based.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenberger, Sven

    2001-01-01

    Examined two possible explanations for the arithmetic tie effect: faster encoding of tie problems versus faster access to arithmetic facts. Found that the tie effect vanished with heterogeneous addition problems, and for seven out of eight participants, the effect vanished with heterogeneous multiplication problems. Concludes that the tie effect…

  1. Effective length measurements of prototype Main Injector Dipole endpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, H.D.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.

    1993-03-03

    An endpack design has been developed for the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole. A major part of the design process was the testing of a series of prototype removable endpacks. The magnetic parameters that were tested included the effective length and the field shape variation. This report presents a description of the measurement techniques and the results for the effective length. The final endpack has an effective length at 1500 A (0.29T) of 2.6 {plus_minus} 0.3 mm greater than the steel length, and the change in effective length from 1500 A to maximum current of 9500 A (1.74T) is {minus}1.88 {plus_minus} 0.05 mm.

  2. [Pharmacological effects of CM6912 and its main metabolites].

    PubMed

    Morishita, H; Kushiku, K; Furukawa, T; Yamaki, Y; Izawa, M; Shibazaki, Y; Shibata, U

    1985-07-01

    Pharmacodynamic effects of ethyl 7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1H-1,4- benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (CM6912), a new benzodiazepine derivative, and its main metabolites (CM6913 = M1, CM7116 = M2) on the peripheral systems were investigated in several species of animals. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 or 5 mg/kg, i.v.) had little effect on blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but it slightly reduced the respiration rate. M1 decreased the heart rate without affecting respiration, blood pressure and ECG. In conscious rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect respiration, blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but M1 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) increased the heart rate. CM6912 (5 or 30 mg/kg), when administered orally, also increased heart rate. In pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs, CM6912 and its metabolites (5 mg/kg, i.v.) decreased respiration and heart rate without affecting blood pressure and ECG. CM 6912 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect cardiovascular responses to the carotid occlusion, vagus stimulation, and pre- and post-ganglionic stimulation of cardiac ganglion in anesthetized dogs. CM6912 and its metabolites affected neither the spontaneous contraction nor the heart rate of isolated rabbit atria. These compounds also had no action on isolated aortic strips from rabbits. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the muscle tone of isolated guinea pig intestine, and it had no effects on the contractile responses to acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin and barium chloride. In isolated rabbit intestine, CM6912 and M2 slightly reduced the amplitude of contraction, while M1 had no effect. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the spontaneous motility of isolated non-pregnant and pregnant rat uteri as well as in situ non-pregnant rat uterus and isolated guinea pig vas deferens, including the contractile response to adrenaline. CM6912 and M2 relaxed isolated guinea pig trachea strips only at high concentrations. CM6912 and its

  3. Cost effective stream-gaging strategies for Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the successful application of the traveling-hydrographer program developed by Moss and Gilroy to stream-gaging operations. This application was novel in the consideration of winter discharge records for the period of backwater effects due to ice. The current level of operation in Maine was identified as requiring a budget of $195,000 and having a total uncertainty of 374 cubic feet per second. Stream-gaging strategies were identified that could reduce the level of uncertainty in the system by as much as 45.8%, assuming the budgetary level remained constant. Alternately, practical stream-gaging strategies were also indentified that could reduce the total level of funding by as much as 19.2%, assuming the current level of uncertainty was deemed acceptable. Several alternatives of concurent budgeting and levels of uncertainty were identified. These relationships provide flexibility to the network manager. The results, documented in the report, were based on a sparse data base and should be applied in that context. (USGS)

  4. Effects of precommercial thinning on snowshoe hares in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homyack, J.A.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.

    2007-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an important prey species and a dominant herbivore across much of their North American range, and researchers have questioned the influences of forestry practices that alter habitat for hares and the potential community-level effects on carnivores. We examined the effects of precommercial thinning (PCT) from 1 to 11 years posttreatment on snowshoe hares. In the commercial forests of northern Maine, USA, we counted and cleared hare pellets twice a year during 2001 and 2002 on >46 km of pellet transects across 30 regenerating conifer stands (17 treated with PCT) previously treated with an aerial application of herbicide. We compared densities of snowshoe hare pellets among 3 development classes with (1 yr after thinning, 6 yr after thinning, and 11 yr after thinning) and without thinning (stands with a similar history of clearcut and herbicide treatment but no thinning). During both years, densities of hares were lower in stands treated with PCT than in similar unthinned stands across the 3 development classes and during both leaf-off and leaf-on seasons (P < 0.001). Within both thinned and unthinned stands, hare density was greatest in stands in the 1-year development class when compared to the 6-year and 11-year development classes, but a statistical difference (P = 0.048) among classes was evident only during leaf-off seasons. Precommercial thinning was associated with densities of snowshoe hares that were approximately half of those in similar unthinned stands up to at least 11 years posttreatment; however, thinned stands may retain densities of hares greater than stands managed using other forest harvesting regimes. Our results apply to core portions of stands with crop trees spaced at 1.8-2.4-m intervals following complete overstory removal and herbicide treatment. We advocate caution when applying our results to other thinning regimes or across broader spatial scales.

  5. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brooks Watershed in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Alexander Elvir; Gregory J. White

    2005-06-01

    The foliar chemistry of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). The BBWM is a paired-watershed forest ecosystem study, with one watershed treated bimonthly since 1989 with ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) at a rate of 25.2 kg N·ha–1·year–1. Foliar N concentrations were higher in all tree species within the treated watershed compared with trees within the reference watershed. Foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were lower in American beech and red spruce within the treated watershed. There were no significant differences in foliar K concentrations between watersheds. Foliar P and Mn concentration differences between watersheds were inconsistent among years. Differences in foliar N concentrations between watersheds declined over time in sugar maple but not in red spruce or American beech. Differences in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations between the treated and reference watersheds increased over time for American beech and red spruce, primarily because of a consistent decline in concentrations of these nutrients in trees within the treated watershed. No temporal trends in foliar Ca and Mg concentration differences between watersheds were observed for sugar maple.

  6. Implementation of Complexity Analyzing Based on Additional Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Na; Liang, Yanhong; Liu, Fang

    According to the Complexity Theory, there is complexity in the system when the functional requirement is not be satisfied. There are several study performances for Complexity Theory based on Axiomatic Design. However, they focus on reducing the complexity in their study and no one focus on method of analyzing the complexity in the system. Therefore, this paper put forth a method of analyzing the complexity which is sought to make up the deficiency of the researches. In order to discussing the method of analyzing the complexity based on additional effect, this paper put forth two concepts which are ideal effect and additional effect. The method of analyzing complexity based on additional effect combines Complexity Theory with Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). It is helpful for designers to analyze the complexity by using additional effect. A case study shows the application of the process.

  7. Effect of additives on the purification of urease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of additives on the purification of proteins was investigated. The target protein studied here is the enzyme urease. Studies on the purification of urease from jack bean meal were carried out. 32% (v/v) acetone was utilized to extract urease from the jack bean meal. Further purification by crystallization with the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol and EDTA disodium salt dehydrate was carried out. It was found out that the presence of additives can affect the selectivity of the crystallization. Increases in both purity and yield of the urease after crystallization were observed in the presence of additives, which were proven using both SDS-PAGE and activity. Urease crystals with a yield of 69.9% and a purity of 85.1% were obtained in one crystallization step in the presence of additives. Furthermore, the effect of additives on the thermodynamics and kinetics of urease crystallization was studied.

  8. Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Miguel A; Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2008-06-09

    We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model.

  9. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  10. Unraveling Additive from Nonadditive Effects Using Genomic Relationship Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Patricio R.; Resende, Marcio F. R.; Gezan, Salvador A.; Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de los Campos, Gustavo; Kirst, Matias; Huber, Dudley; Peter, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    The application of quantitative genetics in plant and animal breeding has largely focused on additive models, which may also capture dominance and epistatic effects. Partitioning genetic variance into its additive and nonadditive components using pedigree-based models (P-genomic best linear unbiased predictor) (P-BLUP) is difficult with most commonly available family structures. However, the availability of dense panels of molecular markers makes possible the use of additive- and dominance-realized genomic relationships for the estimation of variance components and the prediction of genetic values (G-BLUP). We evaluated height data from a multifamily population of the tree species Pinus taeda with a systematic series of models accounting for additive, dominance, and first-order epistatic interactions (additive by additive, dominance by dominance, and additive by dominance), using either pedigree- or marker-based information. We show that, compared with the pedigree, use of realized genomic relationships in marker-based models yields a substantially more precise separation of additive and nonadditive components of genetic variance. We conclude that the marker-based relationship matrices in a model including additive and nonadditive effects performed better, improving breeding value prediction. Moreover, our results suggest that, for tree height in this population, the additive and nonadditive components of genetic variance are similar in magnitude. This novel result improves our current understanding of the genetic control and architecture of a quantitative trait and should be considered when developing breeding strategies. PMID:25324160

  11. Interactive effects of nutrient additions and predation on infaunal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Posey, M.H.; Alphin, T.D.; Cahoon, L.; Lindquist, D.; Becker, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrient additions represent an important anthropogenic stress on coastal ecosystems. At moderate levels, increased nutrients may lead to increased primary production and, possibly, to increased biomass of consumers although complex trophic interactions may modify or mask these effects. We examined the influence of nutrient additions and interactive effects of trophic interactions (predation) on benthic infaunal composition and abundances through small-scale field experiments in 2 estuaries that differed in ambient nutrient conditions. A blocked experimental design was used that allowed an assessment of direct nutrient effects in the presence and absence of predation by epibenthic predators as well as an assessment of the independent effects of predation. Benthic microalgal production increased with experimental nutrient additions and was greater when infaunal abundances were lower, but there were no significant interactions between these factors. Increased abundances of one infaunal taxa, Laeonereis culveri, as well as the grazer feeding guild were observed with nutrient additions and a number of taxa exhibited higher abundances with predator exclusion. In contrast to results from freshwater systems there were no significant interactive effects between nutrient additions and predator exclusion as was predicted. The infaunal responses observed here emphasize the importance of both bottom-up (nutrient addition and primary producer driven) and top-down (predation) controls in structuring benthic communities. These processes may work at different spatial and temporal scales, and affect different taxa, making observation of potential interactive effects difficult.

  12. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  13. Effects of some polymeric additives on the cocrystallization of caffeine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jihae; Kim, Il Won

    2011-11-01

    Effects of polymeric additives on the model cocrystallization were examined. The model cocrystal was made from caffeine and oxalic acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were the additives. The cocrystals were formed as millimeter-sized crystals without additives, and they became microcrystals with PLLA and PCL, and nanocrystals with PAA. XRD and IR revealed that the cocrystal structure was unchanged despite the strong effects of the additives on the crystal morphology, although some decrease in crystallinity was observed with PAA as confirmed by DSC. The DSC study also showed that the cocrystal melted and recrystallized to form α-caffeine upon heating. The present study verified that the polymeric additives can be utilized to modulate the size and morphology of the cocrystals without interfering the intermolecular interactions essential to the integrity of the cocrystal structures.

  14. Additive effects on the toughening of unsaturated polyester resins

    SciTech Connect

    Suspene, L.; Yang, Y.S.; Pascault, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    An elastomer additive, carboxy-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, was used for toughening in the free radical cross-linking copolymerization of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins. For molded parts, Charpy impact behavior was generally enhanced and the number of catastrophic failures was reduced. The miscibility and interfacial properties of additive and resin blends play important roles in the toughening process. Phase-diagram studies showed that the elastomer additive is immiscible with the UP resin and is phase-separated from the resin matrix during curing. This phase-separation phenomenon is similar to that in the low-profile mechanism of UP resins. Additive-resin system miscibility greatly influences curing morphology. Microvoids occurred in the additive phase of cured resin because of shrinkage stress. The intrinsic inhomogeneity of the polyester network and the existence of microvoids in the final product limit the toughening effect of additives on unsaturated polyester resins. 49 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1988-11-14

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  16. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to sue chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. (VC)

  17. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of additives on the ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow them to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 49 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Effects of additives on alum hematoxylin staining solutions.

    PubMed

    Clark, G

    1975-03-01

    All additives tested (ethyl alcohol, glycerine, chloral hydrate, ethylene and propylene glycol, and citric, malonic and maleic acids) in varying degrees limited the conversion of hematein to insoluble compounds. Peak absorbances increased slightly in hematoxylin solutions containing citric, malonic and maleic acids, but decreased with other additives, and in controls. After four months storage the absorbance in all solutions increased about 50%, acidity increased and staining effectiveness increased.

  19. [Analysis of genetic models and gene effects on main agronomy characters in rapeseed].

    PubMed

    Li, J; Qiu, J; Tang, Z; Shen, L

    1992-01-01

    According to four different genetic models, the genetic patterns of 8 agronomy traits were analysed by using the data of 24 generations which included positive and negative cross of 81008 x Tower, both of the varieties are of good quality. The results showed that none of 8 characters could fit in with additive-dominance models. Epistasis was found in all of these characters, and it has significant effect on generation means. Seed weight/plant and some other main yield characters are controlled by duplicate interaction genes. The interaction between triple genes or multiple genes needs to be utilized in yield heterosis.

  20. The ages of globular cluster stars - Effects of rotation on pre-main-sequence, main-sequence, and turnoff evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Demarque, Pierre; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    1989-01-01

    Evolutionary sequences for low-metallicity stars (Z ranging from 0.001 to 0.0001) to study the effects of internal stellar rotation on the evolutionary time scales in the pre-main sequence, the main sequence (MS), and around the MS turnoff. Although a substantial amount of angular momentum remains in the interior, rotation is only a minor perturbation on the structure and ages of globular cluster stars. Even models with large initial angular momenta have MS lifetimes that are within 1 percent of those of standard models of the same mass and composition. Therefore, rotation does not affect age estimates of globular clusters from isochrone fitting. Furthermore, the models suggest that because rotation is not likely to affect horizontal-branch (HB) morphology, it does not affect significantly age estimates from the Delta-V method. Nevertheless, the internal angular momentum in the models is consistent with observations of surface rotational velocities on the HB, which require the preservation of a large reservoir of internal angular momentum.

  1. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  2. Fluorescence quenching effects of antibiotics on the main components of dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wei-Hua; Liu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in wastewater can be characterized using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis. Wastewater from animal farms or pharmaceutical plants usually contains high concentration of antibiotics. In this study, the quenching effect of antibiotics on the typical components of DOM was explored using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC analysis. Four antibiotics (roxarsone, sulfaquinoxaline sodium, oxytetracycline, and erythromycin) at the concentration of 0.5∼4.0 mg/L and three typical components of DOM (tyrosine, tryptophan, and humic acid) were selected. Fluorescence quenching effects were observed with the addition of antibiotics. Among these four antibiotics, roxarsone (2.9∼20.2 %), sulfaquinoxaline sodium (0∼32.0 %), and oxytetracycline (0∼41.8 %) led to a stronger quenching effect than erythromycin (0∼8.0 %). From the side of DOM, tyrosine and tryptophan (0.5∼41.8 %) exhibited a similar quenching effect, but they were higher than humic acids (0∼20.2 %) at the same concentration of antibiotics. For humic acid, a significant quenching effect was observed only with the addition of roxarsone. This might be the first report about the fluorescence quenching effect caused by antibiotics. The results from this study confirmed the interference of antibiotics on the fluorescence intensity of the main components of DOM and highlighted the importance of correcting fluorescence data in the wastewater containing antibiotics. PMID:26578380

  3. Moderating role of marital quality in older adults' depressed affect: beyond the main-effects model.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila; Franks, Melissa M

    2005-11-01

    We examine the role of three indicators of marital quality (marital disagreement, marital happiness, and time spent together) as moderators of the association between physical disability and depressed affect among married older individuals (N=1,044). We found support for the moderating role of marital disagreement wherein the detrimental effect of disability on depressed affect was significantly heightened among older adults with more disagreements with their spouse; a moderating effect was not detected for marital happiness or time spent together. We conclude that, in addition to its main effect on older adults' depressed affect, marital quality (as indicated by marital disagreement) plays a significant stress-moderating role in the physical disability-depressed affect link.

  4. Multitrophic effects of nutrient addition in upland grassland.

    PubMed

    Fountain, M T; Brown, V K; Gange, A C; Symondson, W O C; Murray, P J

    2008-06-01

    Although the effects of nutrient enhancement on aquatic systems are well documented, the consequences of nutritional supplements on soil food webs are poorly understood, and results of past research examining bottom-up effects are often conflicting. In addition, many studies have failed to separate the effects of nutrient enrichment and the physical effects of adding organic matter. In this field study, we hypothesised that the addition of nitrogen to soil would result in a trophic cascade, through detritivores (Collembola) to predators (spiders), increasing invertebrate numbers and diversity. Nitrogen and lime were added to plots in an upland grassland in a randomised block design. Populations of Collembola and spiders were sampled by means of pitfall traps and identified to species. Seventeen species of Collembola were identified from the nitrogen plus lime (N+L) and control plots. Species assemblage, diversity, richness, evenness and total number were not affected by nutrient additions. However, there was an increase in the number of Isotomidae juveniles and Parisotoma anglicana trapped in the N+L plots. Of the 44 spider species identified, over 80% were Linyphiidae. An effect on species assemblage from the addition of N+L to the plots was observed on two of the four sampling dates (July 2002 and June 2003). The linyphiid, Oedothorax retusus, was the only species significantly affected by the treatments and was more likely to be trapped in the control plots.The increased number of juvenile Collembola, and change in community composition of spiders, were consequences of the bottom-up effect caused by nutrient inputs. However, despite efforts to eliminate the indirect effects of nutrient inputs, a reduction in soil moisture in the N+L plots cannot be eliminated as a cause of the invertebrate population changes observed. Even so, this experiment was not confounded by the physical effects of habitat structure reported in most previous studies. It provides evidence

  5. Effects of additional cysteine in fish diet on mercury concentration.

    PubMed

    Mok, W J; Hatanaka, Y; Seoka, M; Itoh, T; Tsukamasa, Y; Ando, M

    2014-03-15

    Mercury contamination, especially of seafood, continues to attract public concern. Cysteine, NH2CH(CH2SH)COOH, is a naturally occurring hydrophobic amino acid that contains a thiol group. The purpose of our study was to investigate the use of the additive cysteine in fish diets to reduce mercury concentration in fish, and to observe the effectiveness of dietary cysteine in fish livers. Diets containing 1% and 10% cysteine successfully decreased mercury concentrations in fish compared with the 0% cysteine diet. The liver may have formed excessive lipid droplets or was unable to mobilize lipid stores during exposure to mercury; additional cysteine could help to mobilize excessive lipids in it.

  6. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  7. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Beaudette, C; Guo, J; Bozhilov, K; Mangolini, L

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive "dead spots" in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  8. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  9. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-08-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction.

  10. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-02-04

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation over Rh catalysts. Ethylene hydroformylation has often served as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of Rh catalysts. The mechanism of CO insertion in ethylene hydroformylation over Rh/SiO{sub 2} was investigated.

  11. EFFECT OF A WHOLE-CATCHMENT N ADDITION ON STREAM DETRITUS PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired catchment study investigating ecosystem effects of N and S deposition. Because of the decade long (NH4)2SO4 addition, the treatment catchment has higher stream NO3 and enriched foliar N concentrations compared to the reference ...

  12. Survival of free and microencapsulated Bifidobacterium: effect of honey addition.

    PubMed

    Favarin, Luciana; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Luchese, Rosa Helena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of honey addition on the viability of free and emulsion encapsulated cells of two strains of Bifidobacterium that underwent simulation of human upper gastrointestinal transit. In the control condition, without honey, free cells were drastically reduced after exposure to gastrointestinal conditions. The reduction was more pronounced with Bifidobacterium J7 of human origin. On the other hand, when cells were encapsulated, the viability reduction was higher for strain Bifidobacterium Bb12. The microencapsulation improved the viability maintenance of both Bifidobacterium strains, in recommended amounts for probiotic activity, after exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, suspending free cells of both Bifidobacterium strains in honey solutions resulted in a protective effect, equivalent to the plain microencapsulation with sodium alginate 3%. It is concluded that microencapsulation and the addition of honey improved the ability of Bifidobacterium to tolerate gastrointestinal conditions in vitro. PMID:25775038

  13. Effect of additives on the thermolysis of ammonia borane

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J; Linehan, John C; Camaioni, Donald M; Rassat, Scot D; Zheng, Feng; Autrey, Thomas

    2007-08-21

    Ammonia borane (AB) is an attractive hydrogen storage material with high gravimetric and volumetric density of hydrogen. The thermolysis of solid ammonia borane follows sigmoidal kinetics with an "induction period" prior to rapid hydrogen release, generating a complex mixture of spent fuel products. We present evidence for the induction period involving isomerization of AB into the diammoniate of diborane (DADB). The induction period is substantially decreased with the addition of DADB. The induction period is also dependent on AB purity and temperature. Reducing the induction period and enhancing the rate of hydrogen release ultimately makes AB an attractive hydrogen storage material for fuel applications. This study profiles the mechanism of the thermolysis of AB, the effect of AB purity and the effect of chemical additives on the induction period and rates of dehydrogenation of AB.

  14. [Effective prevention through nutritional and food additives: barriers and resistance].

    PubMed

    Lux, R; Walter, U

    2006-06-01

    The population-wide and individual preventive potentials of nutritional and food additives such as vitamins and trace elements are generally accepted in the international literature. Iodisation and fluoridation were and are a main focus of activity. The enrichment of food with folic acid is also partly population-related. Until now, however, the theoretical possibilities of nutritional supplementations have not been fully exploited. Various barriers and resistances arise in programme development and implementation. Interviews with key stakeholders and community groups can clarify decade-long discussions in the literature and the media. The study on hand is based on a structural analysis. It shows the various arguments as well as beneficial and impeding factors for a population-wide prevention programme, for specific target groups and individuals. The findings of this research could also be applied to other Public Health challenges.

  15. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its Main Constituents.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on. Recently, numerous studies have reported such medicinal properties and found that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mediated by antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity, and cell-mediated immunity responses. This review highlights in vitro and animal findings regarding antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. sativus and its constituents. Present review found that the C. sativus and its main constituents such as safranal, crocins, and crocetin could be effective against various diseases because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its Main Constituents.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on. Recently, numerous studies have reported such medicinal properties and found that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mediated by antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity, and cell-mediated immunity responses. This review highlights in vitro and animal findings regarding antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. sativus and its constituents. Present review found that the C. sativus and its main constituents such as safranal, crocins, and crocetin could be effective against various diseases because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27098287

  17. Effect of additives on physicochemical properties in amorphous starch matrices.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Wang, Simon; Ludescher, Richard D

    2015-03-15

    The effect of the addition of non-reducing sugars or methylcellulose on the matrix physical properties and rate of non-enzymatic browning (NBR) between exogenous glucose+lysine in a starch-based glassy matrix were studied, using the methods of luminescence and FTIR. Amorphous starch-based matrices were formulated by rapidly dehydrating potato starch gel mixed with additives at weight ratios of 7:93 (additive:starch). Data on the phosphorescence emission energy and lifetime from erythrosin B dispersed in the matrices indicated that sugars decreased starch matrix mobility in a Tg-dependent manner, except for trehalose that interacted with starch in a unique mode, while methylcellulose, the additive with the highest Tg, increased the molecular mobility. Using FTIR, we found that methylcellulose decreased the strength of hydrogen bond network and sugars enhanced the hydrogen bond strength in the order: trehalose>maltitol>sucrose. Comparing those changes with the rate of NBR between exogenous glucose+lysine, we suggest that NBR rates are primarily influenced by matrix mobility, which is modulated by the hydrogen bond network, and interactions among components. PMID:25308673

  18. Cantaloupe melon peroxidase: characterization and effects of additives on activity.

    PubMed

    Lamikanra, O; Watson, M A

    2000-06-01

    Peroxidase in cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.), a fruit commonly fresh cut processed, was characterized to determine reaction pathway, optimal conditions for activity and effect of some additives on enzymatic action. Mn2+, CaCl2, NaNO2 and kinetin had partial inhibitory effects on enzyme activity. Activity was effectively inhibited by compounds capable of chelating peroxidase heme iron such as diethyldithiocarbamate and tiron, but unaffected by EDTA. Free radical scavenger, superoxide dismutase, also had no effect on reaction velocity. Enzymatic action was consistent with that of ascorbate peroxidase based on the relatively higher affinity for ascorbate over guaiacol. Optimum activity temperature was 50-55 degrees C. The enzyme was stable at temperatures below 40 degrees C and at 50 degrees C for up to 10 min. Over 90% of total activity was lost at 80 degrees C within 5 min. Broad pH optima, 5.5-7.5 at 50 degrees C and 6-7 at 30 degrees C, were obtained. Peroxidase activity in cantaloupe was higher than those in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), suggesting a relatively high oxidative stress in fresh cut cantaloupe. The potential use of ascorbate as an additive in fresh cut cantaloupe melon was demonstrated by its ability to preserve color in minimally processed fruits for 25 days at 4 degrees C, possibly as a result of an enhanced antioxidative action of the ascorbate-peroxidase complex and trace metal ion cofactors.

  19. 77 FR 40032 - Maine Public Service Company; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Maine Public Service Company; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund... determine the justness and reasonableness of the proposed formula rate by Maine Public Service Company. Maine Public Service Company, 139 FERC ] 61,262 (2012). The refund effective date in Docket No....

  20. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or not? Detecting the main foreground effect of most galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Weike; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Yongfeng; Dai, Mi

    2013-05-01

    Galaxy clusters are the most massive objects in the Universe and comprise a high-temperature intracluster medium of about 107 K, believed to offer a main foreground effect for cosmic microwave background (CMB) data in the form of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. This assumption has been confirmed by SZ signal detection in hundreds of clusters but, in comparison with the huge numbers of clusters within optically selected samples from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, this only accounts for a few per cent of clusters. Here we introduce a model-independent new method to confirm the assumption that most galaxy clusters can offer the thermal SZ signal as their main foreground effect. For the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data (and a given galaxy cluster sample), we introduced a parameter d1 as the nearest-neighbour cluster angular distance of each pixel, then we classified data pixels as `to be' (d1 → 0 case) or `not to be' (d1 large enough) affected by the sample clusters. By comparing the statistical results of these two kinds of pixels, we can see how the sample clusters affect the CMB data directly. We find that the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (ESZ) sample and X-ray samples (˜102 clusters) can lead to obvious temperature depression in the WMAP seven-year data, which confirms the SZ effect prediction. However, each optically selected sample (>104 clusters) shows an opposite result: the mean temperature rises to about 10 μK. This unexpected qualitative scenario implies that the main foreground effect of most clusters is not always the expected SZ effect. This may be the reason why the SZ signal detection result is lower than expected from the model.

  1. Effects of acetylacetone additions on PZT thin film processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.W.; Assink, R.A.; Dimos, D.; Sinclair, M.B.; Boyle, T.J.; Buchheit, C.D.

    1995-02-01

    Sol-gel processing methods are frequently used for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for many electronic applications. Our standard approach for film fabrication utilizes lead acetate and acetic acid modified metal alkoxides of zirconium and titanium in the preparation of our precursor solutions. This report highlights some of our recent results on the effects of the addition of a second chelating ligand, acetylacetone, to this process. The authors discuss the changes in film drying behavior, densification and ceramic microstructure which accompany acetylacetone additions to the precursor solution and relate the observed variations in processing behavior to differences in chemical precursor structure induced by the acetylacetone ligand. Improvements in thin film microstructure, ferroelectric and optical properties are observed when acetylacetone is added to the precursor solution.

  2. Effect of rotational disruption on the size-frequency distribution of the Main Belt asteroid population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Marzari, Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Davis, Donald R.

    2014-03-01

    The size distribution of small asteroids in the Main Belt is assumed to be determined by an equilibrium between the creation of new bodies out of the impact debris of larger asteroids and the destruction of small asteroids by collisions with smaller projectiles. However, for a diameter less than 6 km, we find that YORP-induced rotational disruption significantly contributes to the erosion even exceeding the effects of collisional fragmentation. Including this additional grinding mechanism in a collision evolution model for the asteroid belt, we generate size-frequency distributions from either an accretional or an `Asteroids were born big' initial size-frequency distribution that are consistent with observations reported in Gladman et al. Rotational disruption is a new mechanism that must be included in all future collisional evolution models of asteroids.

  3. Effects of aerodynamic interaction between main and tail rotors on helicopter hover performance and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menger, R. P.; Wood, T. L.; Brieger, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A model test was conducted to determine the effects of aerodynamic interaction between main rotor, tail rotor, and vertical fin on helicopter performance and noise in hover out of ground effect. The experimental data were obtained from hover tests performed with a .151 scale Model 222 main rotor, tail rotor and vertical fin. Of primary interest was the effect of location of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor. Penalties on main rotor power due to interaction with the tail rotor ranged up to 3% depending upon tail rotor location and orientation. Penalties on tail rotor power due to fin blockage alone ranged up to 10% for pusher tail rotors and up to 50% for tractor tail rotors. The main rotor wake had only a second order effect on these tail rotor/fin interactions. Design charts are presented showing the penalties on main rotor power as a function of the relative location of the tail rotor.

  4. Synergistic anticancer effects of triptolide and celastrol, two main compounds from thunder god vine

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Xiao-Long; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Yang, Yang; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Wei, Meng-Ning; Zhang, Xu; Lv, Min; Chen, Mei-Wan; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Triptolide and celastrol are two main active compounds isolated from Thunder God Vine with the potent anticancer activity. However, the anticancer effect of triptolide in combination with celastrol is still unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of triptolide with celastrol synergistically induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis with the increased intracellular ROS accumulation in cancer cells. Pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine dramatically blocked the apoptosis induced by co-treatment with triptolide and celastrol. Treatment with celastrol alone led to the decreased expressions of HSP90 client proteins including survivin, AKT, EGFR, which was enhanced by the addition of triptolide. Additionally, the celastrol-induced expression of HSP70 and HSP27 was abrogated by triptolide. In the nude mice with xenograft tumors, the lower-dose combination of triptolide with celastrol significantly inhibited the growth of tumors without obvious toxicity. Overall, triptolide in combination with celastrol showed outstanding synergistic anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this beneficial combination may offer a promising treatment option for cancer patients. PMID:26447544

  5. Synergistic anticancer effects of triptolide and celastrol, two main compounds from thunder god vine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi-Wei; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Mei, Xiao-Long; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Yang, Yang; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Wei, Meng-Ning; Zhang, Xu; Lv, Min; Chen, Mei-Wan; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi

    2015-10-20

    Triptolide and celastrol are two main active compounds isolated from Thunder God Vine with the potent anticancer activity. However, the anticancer effect of triptolide in combination with celastrol is still unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of triptolide with celastrol synergistically induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis with the increased intracellular ROS accumulation in cancer cells. Pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine dramatically blocked the apoptosis induced by co-treatment with triptolide and celastrol. Treatment with celastrol alone led to the decreased expressions of HSP90 client proteins including survivin, AKT, EGFR, which was enhanced by the addition of triptolide. Additionally, the celastrol-induced expression of HSP70 and HSP27 was abrogated by triptolide. In the nude mice with xenograft tumors, the lower-dose combination of triptolide with celastrol significantly inhibited the growth of tumors without obvious toxicity. Overall, triptolide in combination with celastrol showed outstanding synergistic anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this beneficial combination may offer a promising treatment option for cancer patients.

  6. Pronounced effects of additional resistance in Andreev reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. Y.; Huang, S. X.; Chien, C. L.

    2010-06-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the additional resistance (RE) , which is an unavoidable consequence of pseudo-four-probe electrical measurements, on the point-contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectrum by both modeling and experiments. Instead of considering the total resistance between the two voltage leads across a point contact as a sum of a contact resistance (RC) and a fixed sample resistance (RS) , it is essential to treat the total resistance as a sum of the Andreev resistance RAR and the additional resistance RE , which are, respectively, the resistances affected and unaffected by the Andreev reflection process. We show a detailed formalism of taking RE into account in modeling and demonstrate that the PCAR spectrum can be drastically affected by the presence of RE . Experimentally, we have found that not only RE cannot be readily measured or even estimated, it is in fact different for each contact, depending on the contact resistance and whether the contact is near the purely ballistic regime or the purely diffusive regime. A self-consistent process is necessary to analyze the entire PCAR spectrum, properly normalize the conductance, determine RE , and other parameters including the spin polarization and the superconducting gap for each contact. We determine RE for various contacts on specimens with different resistivity and resolve the causes of RE . For contacts close to the diffusive regime, there are two sources of RE : a dominant contribution which is linearly proportional to the total resistance and a constant value from the sample resistance. We also address the effects of additional resistance when PCAR is administered in the ballistic limit and in the diffusive limit. With the proper treatment of the additional resistance, we demonstrate that PCAR can quantitatively extract essential information of spin polarization and superconducting gap.

  7. Effects of Salinity and Nutrient Addition on Mangrove Excoecaria agallocha

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition. PMID:24691495

  8. Effectiveness of antibacterial copper additives in silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Gosau, Martin; Bürgers, Ralf; Vollkommer, Tobias; Holzmann, Thomas; Prantl, Lukas

    2013-08-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis plays a major role in capsular contractures of silicone breast implants. This in vitro study evaluates the antibacterial effect of copper on S. epidermidis in silicone implants. Specimens of a silicone material used for breast augmentation (Cu0) and specimens coated with different copper concentrations (Cu1, Cu2) were artificially aged. Surface roughness and surface free energy were assessed. The specimens were incubated in an S. epidermidis suspension. We assessed the quantification and the viability of adhering bacteria by live/dead cell labeling with fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, inhibition of bacterial growth was evaluated by agar diffusion, broth culture, and quantitative culture of surface bacteria. No significant differences in surface roughness and surface free energy were found between Cu0, Cu1 and Cu2. Aging did not change surface characteristics and the extent of bacterial adhesion. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the quantity of bacteria on Cu0 was significantly higher than that on Cu1 and Cu2. The ratio of dead to total adhering bacteria was significantly lower on Cu0 than on Cu1 and Cu2, and tended to be higher for Cu2 than for Cu1. Quantitative culture showed equal trends. Copper additives seem to have anti-adherence and bactericidal effects on S. epidermidis in vitro.

  9. Effects of salinity and nutrient addition on mangrove Excoecaria agallocha.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition.

  10. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  11. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  12. Additional disinfectants effective against the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Webb, R; Mendez, D; Berger, L; Speare, R

    2007-02-01

    Chytridiomycosis, a disease contributing to amphibian declines worldwide, is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Identifying efficient and practical disinfectants effective against B. dendrobatidis is important to reduce the spread of the disease both in the wild and captivity. Previous studies identified a range of suitable disinfectant strategies. We evaluated the suitability of 3 additional disinfectants: two of these (TriGene Virucidal Disinfectant Cleaner and F10 Super Concentrate Disinfectant) are mixtures of chemicals and one (Betadine Antiseptic Liquid) contains a single active ingredient, povidone iodine. The disinfectants were tested using a range of concentrations for 1,5 and 10 min to determine their ability to kill B. dendrobatidis in vitro. The measure of effectiveness was 100% kill of zoosporangia grown in multiwell plates. All disinfectants had a 100% efficacy at concentrations recommended by the manufacturers. The lowest concentrations capable of 100% kill after exposure for 1 min were 0.1 ml l(-1) for TriGene, 0.33 ml l(-1) for F10 and 100 ml l(-1) for Betadine. TriGene is the most effective disinfectant yet to be found, and both TriGene and F10 are more effective than various disinfectants tested in previous studies. TriGene and F10 are considered suitable for use in the field, as only small amounts of concentrate are needed. PMID:17425259

  13. Additive effectiveness in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    This study has presented evidence for improved design of soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff walls for containment of contaminants in the subsurface. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are designed and built as hydraulic barriers. These studies show that these hydraulic barriers can be enhanced to significantly retard the transport of metals such as cadmium. The results of these laboratory studies and the associated mathematical modeling suggest that passive barrier systems can be readily transformed to active systems which effect some treatment of the ground water passing through the barrier. This study examined the effectiveness of three mineral enhancements (attapulgite, calcium chabazite and bentonite) on the retention of cadmium in barrier systems. Cadmium is chosen as the model compound because it is a common, hazardous contaminant which has been found to be among the most mobile of the heavy metals under a range of field conditions. Previous studies have predicted the migration rates of cadmium through adsorbent barrier systems by using isotherm data in conjunction with one dimensional transport models. This study extends the earlier work by examining the effect of adsorbent concentration on predicted barrier effectiveness. Enhancement of a soil-bentonite slurry wall backfill was best enhanced through the addition of attapulgite, followed by ca-chabazite and finally by increasing bentonite content. It was found that the effectiveness of barriers increases with adsorbent concentration. Increasing the bentonite content is less effective in retarding the transport of cadmium than adding attapulgite or ca-chabazite. Note that these were laboratory findings and readers are provided the usual caution regarding extrapolation to field performance.

  14. The effect of additives and substrates on nonferrous metal electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zeyang

    Electrodeposits play an important role in science and industry today. Control of the quality of electrodeposits becomes more critical. One of the major factors which can lead to better products is the ability to control the electrocrystallization process to obtain smooth, dense and coherent deposits with good mechanical and physical properties, such as corrosion resistance, ductility and less internal stress. Many parameters may play a prominent role in electrodeposition. Two of the more important parameters is the control of impurities/additives present in the solution and cathode condition. In this study, the effects of small concentrations of tin additions on the composition, structure and surface morphology of Zn-Ni alloy deposits were studied. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were conducted to study the role of tin in changing the charge transfer resistance of the reaction. The results obtained were promising in elucidating some basic factors which influence Zn-Ni alloy electrocrystallization mechanisms. The effects of thermal oxidation of stainless steel cathodes used in copper electrodeposition were studied. Particular emphasis was given to the initial stages of copper nucleation and growth. The copper electrocrystallization process was strongly influenced by the temperature applied in oxidizing the stainless steel. In this research, the effects of the impurities Alsp{3+} and Crsp{3+} using two stainless steels as cathodes during Ni electrowinning from a sulfate bath were studied. The current efficiency decreased in the presence of the impurities over the concentration range studied. Certain changes in the surface morphology, internal stress, crystallographic orientation and polarization behavior were observed. The changes were different for two stainless steel substrates.

  15. Identifying main effects and epistatic interactions from large-scale SNP data via adaptive group Lasso

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based association studies aim at identifying SNPs associated with phenotypes, for example, complex diseases. The associated SNPs may influence the disease risk individually (main effects) or behave jointly (epistatic interactions). For the analysis of high throughput data, the main difficulty is that the number of SNPs far exceeds the number of samples. This difficulty is amplified when identifying interactions. Results In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Group Lasso (AGL) model for large-scale association studies. Our model enables us to analyze SNPs and their interactions simultaneously. We achieve this by introducing a sparsity constraint in our model based on the fact that only a small fraction of SNPs is disease-associated. In order to reduce the number of false positive findings, we develop an adaptive reweighting scheme to enhance sparsity. In addition, our method treats SNPs and their interactions as factors, and identifies them in a grouped manner. Thus, it is flexible to analyze various disease models, especially for interaction detection. However, due to the intensive computation when millions of interaction terms needs to be searched in the model fitting, our method needs to combined with some filtering methods when applied to genome-wide data for detecting interactions. Conclusion By using a wide range of simulated datasets and a real dataset from WTCCC, we demonstrate the advantages of our method. PMID:20122189

  16. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.; Pien, S.I.

    1991-06-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  17. STELLAR DIAMETERS AND TEMPERATURES. III. MAIN-SEQUENCE A, F, G, AND K STARS: ADDITIONAL HIGH-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS AND EMPIRICAL RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; McAlister, Harold A.; Gies, Douglas; Von Braun, Kaspar; Van Belle, Gerard; Farrington, Chris; Schaefer, Gail; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.; Goldfinger, P. J.; Vargas, Norm; Ridgway, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Based on CHARA Array measurements, we present the angular diameters of 23 nearby, main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral types A7 to K0, 5 of which are exoplanet host stars. We derive linear radii, effective temperatures, and absolute luminosities of the stars using Hipparcos parallaxes and measured bolometric fluxes. The new data are combined with previously published values to create an Angular Diameter Anthology of measured angular diameters to main-sequence stars (luminosity classes V and IV). This compilation consists of 125 stars with diameter uncertainties of less than 5%, ranging in spectral types from A to M. The large quantity of empirical data is used to derive color-temperature relations to an assortment of color indices in the Johnson (BVR{sub J} I{sub J} JHK), Cousins (R{sub C} I{sub C}), Kron (R{sub K} I{sub K}), Sloan (griz), and WISE (W{sub 3} W{sub 4}) photometric systems. These relations have an average standard deviation of {approx}3% and are valid for stars with spectral types A0-M4. To derive even more accurate relations for Sun-like stars, we also determined these temperature relations omitting early-type stars (T{sub eff} > 6750 K) that may have biased luminosity estimates because of rapid rotation; for this subset the dispersion is only {approx}2.5%. We find effective temperatures in agreement within a couple of percent for the interferometrically characterized sample of main-sequence stars compared to those derived via the infrared flux method and spectroscopic analysis.

  18. Effect of Nb addition on the microstructure of BNT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangsubun, Chontira

    2014-11-01

    This research studied the fabrication of bismuth-sodium-titanate (BNT) powders and the effect of Nb2O5 addition on the structure and the properties of BNT ceramics. The powders were synthesized via high-energy ball milling by using a mixed-oxide process. The results show that the perovskite structure was obtained in BNT powders at a calcination temperature of 800 °C. Particle sizes below 200 nm were observed. For the study, BNT/xNb ceramics were prepared using x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.05. The ceramics were sintered at a temperature of 1200 °C for 2 hours. The results showed that the relative density increased with increasing Nb2O5 from 0 to 0.03 whereas the grain size decreased with increasing Nb2O5 from 0.01 to 0.05. In addition, the dielectric constant increased with increasing Nb2O5 content.

  19. Effect of adsorbent addition on floc formation and clarification.

    PubMed

    Younker, Jessica M; Walsh, Margaret E

    2016-07-01

    Adding adsorbent into the coagulation process is an emerging treatment solution for targeting hard-to-remove dissolved organic compounds from both drinking water and industrial wastewater. The impact of adding powdered activated carbon (PAC) or organoclay (OC) adsorbents with ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant was investigated in terms of potential changes to the coagulated flocs formed with respect to size, structure, and breakage and regrowth properties. The ability of dissolved air flotation (DAF) and sedimentation (SED) clarification processes to remove hybrid adsorbent-coagulant flocs was also evaluated through clarified water quality analysis of samples collected in bench-scale jar test experiments. The jar tests were conducted using both a synthetic fresh water and oily wastewater test water spiked with dissolved aromatic compounds phenol and naphthalene. Results of the study demonstrated that addition of adsorbent reduced the median coagulated floc size by up to 50% but did not affect floc strength or regrowth potential after application of high shear. Experimental results in fresh water demonstrated that sedimentation was more effective than DAF for clarification of both FeCl3-PAC and FeCl3-OC floc aggregates. However, experimental tests performed on the synthetic oily wastewater showed that coagulant-adsorbent floc aggregates were effectively removed with both DAF and sedimentation treatment, with lower residual turbidity achieved in clarified water samples than with coagulation treatment alone. Addition of OC or PAC into the coagulation process resulted in removals of over half, or nearly all of the dissolved aromatics, respectively. PMID:27064206

  20. Effect of salts addition on hydrogen production by C. acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Alshiyab, H; Kalil, M S; Hamid, A A; Wan Yusoff, W M

    2008-09-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of salts addition to fermentation medium on hydrogen production, under anaerobic batch culture system. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of both NaCl and sodium acetate on hydrogen production. The optimum pH and temperature for hydrogen production were at initial pH of 7.0 and 30 degrees C. Enhanced production of hydrogen, using glucose as substrate was achieved. In the absence of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Acetate enhanced hydrogen yield (Y(P/S)) from 350 mL g(-1) glucose utilized to 391 mL g(-1) glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 ml/L/h. Results also show that sodium chloride and sodium acetate in the medium adversely affect growth. Hydrogen yield per biomass (Y(P/X)) of 254 ml/L/g, biomass per substrate utilized (Y(X/S)) of 0.268 and (Y(H2/S) of 0.0349. The results suggested that Sodium at any concentration resulted to inhibit the bacterial productivity of hydrogen.

  1. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  2. Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive.

    PubMed

    Maher, T J; Wurtman, R J

    1987-11-01

    The artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester), is consumed, primarily in beverages, by a very large number of Americans, causing significant elevations in plasma and, probably, brain phenylalanine levels. Anecdotal reports suggest that some people suffer neurologic or behavioral reactions in association with aspartame consumption. Since phenylalanine can be neurotoxic and can affect the synthesis of inhibitory monoamine neurotransmitters, the phenylalanine in aspartame could conceiveably mediate neurologic effects. If mice are given aspartame in doses that elevate plasma phenylalanine levels more than those of tyrosine (which probably occurs after any aspartame dose in humans), the frequency of seizures following the administration of an epileptogenic drug, pentylenetetrazole, is enhanced. This effect is simulated by equimolar phenylalanine and blocked by concurrent administration of valine, which blocks phenylalanine's entry into the brain. Aspartame also potentiates the induction of seizures by inhaled fluorothyl or by electroconvulsive shock. Perhaps regulations concerning the sale of food additives should be modified to require the reporting of adverse reactions and the continuing conduct of mandated safety research.

  3. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  4. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricants was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricant tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwar additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt pct sulfur and 0.1 wt pct phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  5. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, George H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  6. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the susceptibility of Onchorhynchus mykiss to Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Menanteau-Ledouble, S; Krauss, I; Santos, G; Fibi, S; Weber, B; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-06-29

    In recent years, feed additives have increasingly been adopted by the aquaculture industry. These supplements not only offer an alternative to antibiotics but have also been linked to enhanced growth performance. However, the literature is still limited and provides contradictory information on their effectiveness. This is mainly due to the wide variety of available products and their complex mechanisms of action. Phytogenic feed additives have been shown to have antimicrobial effects and can improve growth performance. In the present study, we investigated the susceptibility of several fish pathogenic bacteria to a phytogenic essential oil product in vitro. In addition, we determined the protective effect of a commercial phytogenic feed additive containing oregano, anis and citrus oils on the resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida. The bacterium was administered through 3 different routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion in a bacterial solution and cohabitation with infected fish. Mortality rates were significantly lower in infected rainbow trout that had received the feed additive: the overall mortality rate across all routes of infection was 18% in fish fed a diet containing the additive compared to 37% in fish that received unsupplemented feed. The route of infection also significantly impacted mortality, with average mortality rates of 60, 17.5 and 5% for intra-peritoneal injection, immersion and cohabitation, respectively. In general, fish were better protected against infection by immersion than infection by injection. PMID:26119300

  7. Social influences on the motivation to quit smoking: main and moderating effects of social norms.

    PubMed

    Dohnke, Birte; Weiss-Gerlach, Edith; Spies, Claudia D

    2011-04-01

    The present study extends the previous research on the social influences on quitting by investigating inconsistencies between different types of social norms and their main and moderating effects on quitting intentions. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) served as the theoretical framework. Social influences were operationalised by subjective quitting norm (significant others' expectations that one should quit), descriptive quitting norm (significant others' quitting behaviour), and descriptive smoking norm (partner's smoking). Because gender differences had previously been reported, norm effects were also analysed with respect to gender. A total of 168 smokers who had a partner (47% men, mean age M=34, SD=16) completed measures of TPB variables (including subjective quitting norm), descriptive quitting norm, descriptive smoking norm, and smoking behaviour. Subjective and descriptive quitting norms were more inconsistent in women than in men. The descriptive quitting norm enhanced the TPB prediction of intention by 5%. A three-way interaction accounted for an additional 3% of the variance and revealed both that subjective and descriptive quitting norms interacted in their prediction and that gender moderated this effect: the subjective quitting norm correlated positively to quitting intention only in women with a strong descriptive quitting norm. All analyses were controlled for number of cigarettes per day. These findings confirmed that it is important to distinguish subjective and descriptive norms and that differences exist in how these norms motivate women and men to quit smoking. Consistent quitting norms such as quitting of significant others in combination with their expectations that one should quit appear to be less common but more important in women to form a corresponding intention.

  8. Relativistic Effects and the Chemistry of the Heaviest Main-Group Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, John S.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical properties of the heaviest main-group elements often show features not found in their lighter counterparts while relativistic effects play an important role in the chemistry of these elements. The unusual properties and their relation to relativistic effects with emphasis on the new research are emphasized.

  9. The effects of atmosphere and additives of coal slag viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.M.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    The viscosities of a Powder River Basin slag were measured in air, air + 10% water vapor, and a reducing atmosphere. The temperature of critical viscosity (T), below which the viscosity increases dramatically, was approximately 1250{degrees}C in air and air + water vapor, but dropped to 1180{degrees}C when measured in the reducing atmosphere. Since the corrosivity of the slag is much higher when its viscosity is low, the slag will be highly corrosive at the substantially lower temperature in reducing gas. The addition of alumina increased viscosity and T{sub c} making the slag less corrosive, while magnesia additions dropped viscosity but increased T{sub c}. These changes imply that magnesia additions will make the slag slightly more corrosive in its liquid range, but that the slag will harden and become less corrosive at a higher temperature than without the magnesia addition. The changes in T{sub c} were more substantial when measured in the presence of water vapor in the case of alumina additions, but less substantial in the case of magnesia additions.

  10. Independent effects of warming and nitrogen addition on plant phenology in the Inner Mongolian steppe

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Phenology is one of most sensitive traits of plants in response to regional climate warming. Better understanding of the interactive effects between warming and other environmental change factors, such as increasing atmosphere nitrogen (N) deposition, is critical for projection of future plant phenology. Methods A 4-year field experiment manipulating temperature and N has been conducted in a temperate steppe in northern China. Phenology, including flowering and fruiting date as well as reproductive duration, of eight plant species was monitored and calculated from 2006 to 2009. Key Results Across all the species and years, warming significantly advanced flowering and fruiting time by 0·64 and 0·72 d per season, respectively, which were mainly driven by the earliest species (Potentilla acaulis). Although N addition showed no impact on phenological times across the eight species, it significantly delayed flowering time of Heteropappus altaicus and fruiting time of Agropyron cristatum. The responses of flowering and fruiting times to warming or N addition are coupled, leading to no response of reproductive duration to warming or N addition for most species. Warming shortened reproductive duration of Potentilla bifurca but extended that of Allium bidentatum, whereas N addition shortened that of A. bidentatum. No interactive effect between warming and N addition was found on any phenological event. Such additive effects could be ascribed to the species-specific responses of plant phenology to warming and N addition. Conclusions The results suggest that the warming response of plant phenology is larger in earlier than later flowering species in temperate grassland systems. The effects of warming and N addition on plant phenology are independent of each other. These findings can help to better understand and predict the response of plant phenology to climate warming concurrent with other global change driving factors. PMID:23585496

  11. Effectiveness of iron-based fuel additives for diesel soot control

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, H.W.; Westphal, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluated the effects of two iron-based fuel additives on diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions. The 5.6-L, six-cylinder test engine is typical of engines used in underground mines. One additive, ferrous picrate, did not measurably affect exhaust emissions. This report is mainly about a ferrocene-based additive that reduced DPM between 4 and 45 pct, depending on engine operating conditions. The report concludes that the DPM reductions were caused by the catalytic oxidation properties of a ferric oxide coating that developed inside the engine's combustion chamber. The ferric oxide coating also decreased gas-phase hydrocarbons and O[sub 2], but it increased CO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. The increase in NO[sub x], of about 12 pct, is considered the only adverse effect of the ferrocene-based fuel additive. The results suggest that the effectiveness of ferrocene was partially offset by increased sulfates because of the high-sulfur fuel used. Recommendations for continuing fuel additive research are presented.

  12. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  13. Effects of palladium addition on properties of dental amalgams.

    PubMed

    Chung, K

    1992-05-01

    Palladium-containing amalgam alloys were developed utilizing the atomization method. Single-compositional type alloys were fabricated and palladium was substituted for silver in concentrations up to 5 w/o. Alloy powder with a particle size of less than 45 microns was collected and triturated with mercury. Creep, compressive strength and dimensional change tests were performed according to ADA Specification No. 1 along with controls of Tytin, Valiant and Valiant-Ph.D. Values for creep decreased and compressive strength increased markedly with additions of palladium. Current densities of the experimental amalgams containing palladium were determined to be an order of magnitude less than the original amalgams in the electrochemical test. A trend of positive relationships between properties and palladium additions was indicated.

  14. Effects of additives on thermal stability of Li ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Roth, E. Peter; Crafts, Chris C.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Henriksen, Gary; Amine, Khalil

    Li ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles, because these cells offer superior combination of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are proposed for battery systems in both internal combustion engine and fuel cell-powered hybrid electric vehicles. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial applications. The thermal-abuse response of Li ion cells has been improved by the incorporation of more stable anode carbons and electrolyte additives. Electrolyte solutions containing vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(trifluoroethyl)phosphate (TFP) as well as some proprietary flame-retardant additives were evaluated. Test cells in the 18,650 configuration were built at Sandia National Laboratories using new stable electrode materials and electrolyte additives. A special test fixture was designed to allow determination of self-generated cell heating during a thermal ramp profile. The flammability of vented gas and expelled electrolyte was studied using a novel arrangement of a spark generator placed near the cell to ignite vent gas if a flammable gas mixture was present. Flammability of vent gas was somewhat reduced by the presence of certain additives. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was also used to characterize 18,650-size test cell heat and gas generation. Gas composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and was found to consist of CO 2, H 2, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene and small amounts of C1-C4 organic molecules.

  15. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1992-03-06

    The objective of this research was to investigate the reaction mechanism of higher alcohol and aldehyde synthesis from syngas and the role of additives in the synthesis. An in situ IR reaction system and probe molecule technique were developed to study adsorbed species, active sites, and reaction pathway during reaction. The catalysts used for this study included silica-supported Rh, Ru, and Ni. (VC)

  16. [Effect of sequential biocatalyst addition on Anammox process].

    PubMed

    Tang, Chongjian; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jianwei

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is a high-rate nitrogen removal technology that has been applied in sludge dewatering effluents treatment with nitrogen removal rate as high as 9.5 kg/(m x d). However, due to the slow growth rate of the autotrophic Anammox bacteria and the susceptivity to environmental conditions, the start-up of Anammox process is very long; the operation is unstable; and the nitrogen removal from organic-containing and/or toxicant-containing ammonium-rich wastewaters using Anammox process becomes difficult. Thus, the application of this high-rate process is significantly limited. In this paper, a newly-developed Anammox process with sequential biocatalyst (Anammox biomass) addition was established based on the procedure in fermentation engineering. We introduced the Anammox process with sequential biocatalyst addition on start-up, stable operation and the treatment of organic-containing and toxicant-containing ammonium-rich wastewaters. Results show that supplementing high-activity Anammox biomass into reactors will increase the amount of as well as the ratio of Anammox bacteria. Thus, the innovative Anammox process with sequential biocatalyst addition not only accelerates the start-up course, but also enhances the stability of Anammox process. Furthermore, it overcomes the drawbacks of wastewaters containing high organic content and toxic substances. Therefore, the application of Anammox process may be further enlarged. PMID:21553484

  17. The Effect of Tungsten Additions on Disk Alloy CH98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2003-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickelbase superalloy disks with 1300 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, CH98, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines and is being studied in NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. For large disks, residual stresses generated during quenching from solution heat treatments are often reduced by a stabilization heat treatment, in which the disk is heated in the range of 1500 to 1600 F for several hours followed by a static air cool and age. The reduction in residual stress levels lessens distortion during machining of disks. Previous work on CH98 has indicated that stabilization treatments will decrease creep capability, however, tungsten additions appear to improve the creep capability of stabilized and aged CH98. In this study, a systematic variation of tungsten additions to CH98 was investigated. Specifically, the 1300 F tensile, creep, and fatigue crack growth properties of stabilized CH 98 were assessed with varying levels of tungsten additions.

  18. Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Flowers, Lamont; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research published in this journal found broad-based negative effects of Greek affiliation on standardized measures of cognitive development after 1 year of college. Following the same sample, and employing essentially the same research design and analytic model, the present study found that the negative effects of Greek affiliation were…

  19. Effects of chronic ammonium sulfate treatment on the forest at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine.

    PubMed

    Elvir, Jose Alexander; Wiersma, G Bruce; Bethers, Suzanne; Kenlan, Peter

    2010-12-01

    At the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM), the forest tree composition was characterized and the effects of the chronic ammonium sulfate ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) treatment on basal area growth, foliar chemistry, and gas exchange were investigated on forest species. The BBWM is a paired watershed forest ecosystem study with one watershed, West Bear (WB), treated since 1989 with 26.6 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 30 kg S ha(-1) year(-1)applied bimonthly as (NH(4))(2)SO(4), while the other watershed, East Bear (EB), serves as a reference. Tree species richness, density, and mortality were found to be similar between watersheds. Basal area increment was estimated from red spruce and sugar maple, showing that, for the first 7 years of treatment, it was significantly higher for sugar maple growing in WB compared to EB, but no differences were observed for red spruce between watersheds. However, the initial higher sugar maple basal area growth in WB subsequently decreased after 8 years of treatment. Foliar chemical analysis performed in trees, saplings, and ground flora showed higher N concentrations in the treated WB compared to the reference EB. But, foliar cation concentrations, especially Ca and Mg, were significantly lower for most of the species growing in WB compared with those growing in EB. For sugar maple, foliar N was higher on WB, but there were no differences in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations between treated and reference watersheds. In addition, only sugar maple trees in the treated WB showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates compared to reference EB trees.

  20. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Allan Kardec

    2015-09-15

    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  1. Ordinary Social Interaction and the Main Effect Between Perceived Support and Affect.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Brian; Vander Molen, Randy J; Fles, Elizabeth; Andrews, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Relational regulation theory hypothesizes that (a) the main effect between perceived support and mental health primarily reflects ordinary social interaction rather than conversations about stress and how to cope with it, and (b) the extent to which a provider regulates a recipient's mental health primarily reflects the recipient's personal taste (i.e., is relational), rather than the provider's objective supportiveness. In three round-robin studies, participants rated each other on supportiveness and the quality of ordinary social interaction, as well as their own affect when interacting with each other. Samples included marines about to deploy to Afghanistan (N = 100; 150 dyads), students sharing apartments (N = 64; 96 dyads), and strangers (N = 48; 72 dyads). Perceived support and ordinary social interaction were primarily relational, and most of perceived support's main effect on positive affect was redundant with ordinary social interaction. The main effect between perceived support and affect emerged among strangers after brief text conversations, and these links were partially verified by independent observers. Findings for negative affect were less consistent with theory. Ordinary social interaction appears to be able to explain much of the main effect between perceived support and positive affect.

  2. A MIXTURE OF SEVEN ANTIANDROGENIC COMPOUNDS ELICITS ADDITIVE EFFECTS ON THE MALE RAT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT THAT CORRESPOND TO MODELED PREDICTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objectives of this study were to: (1) determine whether dissimilar antiandrogenic compounds display additive effects when present in combination and (2) to assess the ability of modelling approaches to accurately predict these mixture effects based on data from single ch...

  3. Effective face recognition using bag of features with additive kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shicai; Bebis, George; Chu, Yongjie; Zhao, Lindu

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, many techniques have been used to improve face recognition performance. The most common and well-studied ways are to use the whole face image to build a subspace based on the reduction of dimensionality. Differing from methods above, we consider face recognition as an image classification problem. The face images of the same person are considered to fall into the same category. Each category and each face image could be both represented by a simple pyramid histogram. Spatial dense scale-invariant feature transform features and bag of features method are used to build categories and face representations. In an effort to make the method more efficient, a linear support vector machine solver, Pegasos, is used for the classification in the kernel space with additive kernels instead of nonlinear SVMs. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve very high recognition accuracy on the ORL, YALE, and FERET databases.

  4. Effects of NaOH addition on performance of the direct hydrazine fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wen Xia; Li, Zhou Peng; Zhu, Jing Ke; Qin, Hai Ying

    In this work, we suggested a figuration of the direct hydrazine fuel cell (DHFC) using non-precious metals as the anode catalyst, ion exchange membranes as the electrolyte and alkaline hydrazine solutions as the fuel. NaOH addition in the anolyte effectively improved the open circuit voltage and the performance of the DHFC. A power density of 84 mW cm -2 has been achieved when operating the cell at room temperature. It was found that the cell performance was mainly influenced by anode polarization when using alkaline N 2H 4 solutions with low NaOH concentrations. However, when using alkaline N 2H 4 solutions with high NaOH concentrations as the fuel, the cell performance was mainly influenced by cathode polarization.

  5. Effect of ionic additives on elasticity of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shuang; Cervenka, Adam J.; Singh, Yogesh; Tortora, Luana T.; Almasan, Carmen C.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2013-03-01

    Using a magnetic Frederiks transition technique, we determine how the splay K1 and bend K3 elastic constants of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal Sunset Yellow (SSY) depend on concentration of ionic additives, sodium chloride (NaCl) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). Both salts increase the ratio K1 /K3 , by mainly increasing K1 (MgSO4) or mainly decreasing K3 (NaCl). The effects are attributed to the screening of electrostatic repulsions of chromonic molecules, which is expected to increase the contour length (thus increasing K1) and to decrease the persistence length (thus decreasing K3) of the chromonic aggregates in which the molecules are stacked face-to-face. As in salt-free SSY, the ratio K1 /K3 increases when the temperature decreases. The work was supporeted by NSF grants DMR 1104850 and 11212878.

  6. Functional identity is the main driver of diversity effects in young tree communities.

    PubMed

    Tobner, Cornelia M; Paquette, Alain; Gravel, Dominique; Reich, Peter B; Williams, Laura J; Messier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Two main effects are proposed to explain biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships: niche complementarity and selection effects. Both can be functionally defined using the functional diversity (FD) and functional identity (FI) of the community respectively. Herein, we present results from the first tree diversity experiment that separated the effect of selection from that of complementarity by varying community composition in high-density plots along a gradient of FD, independent of species richness and testing for the effects of FD and community weighted means of traits (a proxy for FI) on stem biomass increment (a proxy for productivity). After 4 years of growth, most mixtures did not differ in productivity from the averages of their respective monocultures, but some did overyield significantly. Those positive diversity effects resulted mostly from selection effects, primarily driven by fast-growing deciduous species and associated traits. Net diversity effect did not increase with time over 4 years.

  7. Functional identity is the main driver of diversity effects in young tree communities.

    PubMed

    Tobner, Cornelia M; Paquette, Alain; Gravel, Dominique; Reich, Peter B; Williams, Laura J; Messier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Two main effects are proposed to explain biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships: niche complementarity and selection effects. Both can be functionally defined using the functional diversity (FD) and functional identity (FI) of the community respectively. Herein, we present results from the first tree diversity experiment that separated the effect of selection from that of complementarity by varying community composition in high-density plots along a gradient of FD, independent of species richness and testing for the effects of FD and community weighted means of traits (a proxy for FI) on stem biomass increment (a proxy for productivity). After 4 years of growth, most mixtures did not differ in productivity from the averages of their respective monocultures, but some did overyield significantly. Those positive diversity effects resulted mostly from selection effects, primarily driven by fast-growing deciduous species and associated traits. Net diversity effect did not increase with time over 4 years. PMID:27072428

  8. Quantifying Main Trends in Lysozyme Nucleation: The Effect of Precipitant Concentration and Impurities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Michael W.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Full factorial experiment design incorporating multi-linear regression analysis of the experimental data allows the main trends and effects to be quickly identified while using only a limited number of experiments. These techniques were used to identify the effect of precipitant concentration and the presence of an impurity, the physiological lysozyme dimer, on the nucleation rate and crystal dimensions of the tetragonal form of chicken egg white lysozyme. Increasing precipitant concentration was found to decrease crystal numbers, the magnitude of this effect also depending on the supersaturation. The presence of the dimer generally increased nucleation. The crystal axial ratio decreased with increasing precipitant concentration independent of impurity.

  9. Effects of the addition of dimer acid alkyl esters on the properties of ethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjun; Ko, Kwang-Hwan; Shin, Jihoon; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Kim, Young-Wun; Kim, Joon-Seop

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we synthesized dimer acid (DA) esters, having short to long alkyl chains, (DA-Cn) by the Diels-Alder reaction and subsequent esterification reaction of fatty acids that were prepared by the hydrolysis of waste vegetable oil. It was found that the DA-Cn were thermally more stable than common petroleum-based plasticizer DOP. When the DOP, DA, or DA-Cn with short alkyl chains were added to ethyl cellulose (EC), the optical clarity and SEM images of the samples showed their good miscibility with those additives in a micro-scale. It was also found that the rubbery modulus of the EC decreased with increasing amount of additives; the type of the additives did not affect the rates of the decrease in the rubbery modulus. The main transition temperatures of the EC containing either DA or DA-C1 or DA-C4 decreased with increasing amounts of those additives and were comparable to that of the DOP-containing EC. The above findings suggested that the DA and its esters with short alkyl chains could act as effective plasticizer and, thus, could be used instead of the DOP. In addition, the results obtained from tensile testing and leaching experiments implied that the DA might be better plasticizer than the DA-C1 and DA-C4, at least in some cases, because of hydrogen-bonding with the EC.

  10. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lianguang; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Yumei; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Liu, Fang; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton. PMID:27565885

  11. Main-Sequence Effective Temperatures from a Revised Mass-Luminosity Relation Based on Accurate Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Z.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Bilir, S.; Yaz Gökçe, E.; Steer, I.; Tüysüz, M.; Şenyüz, T.; Demircan, O.

    2015-04-01

    The mass-luminosity (M-L), mass-radius (M-R), and mass-effective temperature (M-{{T}eff}) diagrams for a subset of galactic nearby main-sequence stars with masses and radii accurate to ≤slant 3% and luminosities accurate to ≤slant 30% (268 stars) has led to a putative discovery. Four distinct mass domains have been identified, which we have tentatively associated with low, intermediate, high, and very high mass main-sequence stars, but which nevertheless are clearly separated by three distinct break points at 1.05, 2.4, and 7 {{M}⊙ } within the studied mass range of 0.38-32 {{M}⊙ }. Further, a revised mass-luminosity relation (MLR) is found based on linear fits for each of the mass domains identified. The revised, mass-domain based MLRs, which are classical (L\\propto {{M}α }), are shown to be preferable to a single linear, quadratic, or cubic equation representing an alternative MLR. Stellar radius evolution within the main sequence for stars with M\\gt 1 {{M}⊙ } is clearly evident on the M-R diagram, but it is not clear on the M-{{T}eff} diagram based on published temperatures. Effective temperatures can be calculated directly using the well known Stephan-Boltzmann law by employing the accurately known values of M and R with the newly defined MLRs. With the calculated temperatures, stellar temperature evolution within the main sequence for stars with M\\gt 1 {{M}⊙ } is clearly visible on the M-{{T}eff} diagram. Our study asserts that it is now possible to compute the effective temperature of a main-sequence star with an accuracy of ˜6%, as long as its observed radius error is adequately small (\\lt 1%) and its observed mass error is reasonably small (\\lt 6%).

  12. A simplified soil extraction sequence to monitor the main and trace element speciation in soil after compost and mineral fertilizer additions upon the composition of wheat grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Manfred; Erhart, Eva

    2016-04-01

    High quality biological waste treatment aims at producing compost in order to maintain a clean environment and to sustain soil organic carbon levels. Fertilization with compost as a source of organic carbon, nutrients, and accessory elements, as well as fertilization with mineral N- and PK fertilizer have been tested in a field experiment on a calcaric Fluvisol in the Danube wetlands, at 4 levels each. Yields of wheat were recorded, and grains and soils were sampled from each treatment, and analyzed for main and trace element composition. The corresponding soils were characterized by mobile phases, obtained by leaching with 0,16M acetic acid to cover exchangeables plus carbonates, and subsequently by 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3 to dissolve the pedogenic oxides. Total amounts were obtained from digests with perchloric- nitric-hydrofluoric acid. For quasi-total amounts, aqua regia was replaced by pressure decomposition with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid. The proposed extraction sequence permits to analyze and interpret soil for main elements, trace elements, nutrients and anions simultaneously. Factor analyses of soil extracts obtained from dilute acetic acid revealed Ba-Be-Cd-Cu-Li-S (traces), Ca-Mg-Mn (main carbonates), Al-Fe-B, Y, and P-K (nutrients) as chemically feasible principal components. Subsequent soil extracts from oxalate contained Al-B-Co-K-Na-Pb-Si-V-S (maybe acid silicate weathering), Cr-Li-Ni-Sr-Ti (maybe basic silicate weathering), Be-Cu-Fe-P, Co-Mg-Mn-Zn (Mn-oxides) and Ba-Sc as principal components. Factor analyses of total element data distinguished the principal components Ce-La-Li-Sc-Y-P (rare earths), Al-Ca-Fe-K-Mg-Na-P (main elements), Cd-Co-Cr-Cu-Ni-Zn (trace elements), As-Pb (contaminants), Ba-Mn-Sr, and Ti, which looks chemically feasible also. Factor analyses of those soil fractions which presumably form the main fractions of exchangeables, carbonates, pedogenic oxides and silicates, showed no cross connections, except for P. Oxalate

  13. Effects on Diagnostic Parameters After Removing Additional Synchronous Gear Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Harry J.

    2003-01-01

    Gear cracks are typically difficult to diagnose with sufficient time before catastrophic damage occurs. Significant damage must be present before algorithms appear to be able to detect the damage. Frequently there are multiple gear meshes on a single shaft. Since they are all synchronous with the shaft frequency, the commonly used synchronous averaging technique is ineffective in removing other gear mesh effects. Carefully applying a filter to these extraneous gear mesh frequencies can reduce the overall vibration signal and increase the accuracy of commonly used vibration metrics. The vibration signals from three seeded fault tests were analyzed using this filtering procedure. Both the filtered and unfiltered vibration signals were then analyzed using commonly used fault detection metrics and compared. The tests were conducted on aerospace quality spur gears in a test rig. The tests were conducted at speeds ranging from 2500 to 5000 revolutions per minute and torques from 184 to 228 percent of design load. The inability to detect these cracks with high confidence results from the high loading which is causing fast fracture as opposed to stable crack growth. The results indicate that these techniques do not currently produce an indication of damage that significantly exceeds experimental scatter.

  14. Effect of bovine lactoferrin addition to milk in yogurt manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Franco, I; Castillo, E; Pérez, M D; Calvo, M; Sánchez, L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of milk supplementation with lactoferrin of different iron saturation on the manufacturing and characteristics of yogurt. Bovine lactoferrin was added at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL in the holo (iron saturated) and apo (without iron) forms. Some physicochemical properties, such as pH, concentration of lactic acid, and texture of supplemented yogurts, were determined throughout the shelf-life period storage (28 d) at 4°C. We also evaluated the stability of lactoferrin in supplemented yogurt throughout the storage time. The supplementation of milk with bovine lactoferrin did not greatly affect the physical properties of the yogurt, though apo-lactoferrin slightly delayed the decrease of pH. This could be attributed to the partial inhibition observed on the growth of Streptococcus thermophilus. The integrity and immunoreactive concentration of lactoferrin, determined by Western blotting and noncompetitive ELISA, respectively, remained constant throughout the shelf life of yogurt.

  15. Effects of V addition on recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloy after simulative hot deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jing; Shi, Cangji; Chen, X.-Grant

    2014-10-15

    The effects of different V contents (0.01 to 0.19 wt.%) on the recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloys during post-deformation heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural evolutions at as-cast, as-homogenized conditions and after post-deformation annealing were studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes and using the electron backscattered diffraction technique. The precipitation of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids was observed in alloys containing 0.11 to 0.19 wt.% V after homogenization. The dispersoids were mainly distributed in the dendrite cells, and the precipitate-free zones occurred in the interdendritic regions and near grain boundaries. V addition could significantly enhance the recrystallization resistance during post-deformation annealing, particularly in the presence of a great number of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids. Recrystallized grain growth was effectively restricted because of the dispersoid pinning effect. The alloy containing 0.15 wt.% V exhibited the highest recrystallization resistance amongst all V-containing alloys studied. - Highlights: • Investigated the effect of V level on microstructure and flow stress of 7150 alloys • Characterized microstructures using optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and EBSD • Described the precipitation behavior of V-dispersoids in the dendritic structure • Studied the V effect on recrystallization resistance during post heat treatment • V addition greatly enhanced the recrystallization resistance during annealing.

  16. Pilot Study of Sublethal Effects on Fish of Pesticides Currently Used and Proposed for Use on Maine Blueberries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2007-01-01

    Blueberry pesticides have been detected consistently in some Down East Maine rivers, yet little is known about the sublethal effects of these pesticides on fish early life stages. The Maine blueberry industry is proposing to replace the insecticide ImidanTM (active ingredient phosmet) and the herbicide VelparTM (active ingredient hexazinone), two of the pesticides found in these rivers, with candidate alternatives SpinTor TM (active ingredient spinosad) and Callistso TM (active ingredient mesotrione). Our objective is to evaluate potential sublethal effects of these four formulations before the industry adopts the two candidate alternatives. We exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages, from fertilization through larval swim-up, to a range of pesticide concentrations and evaluated their response relative to untreated controls. In this report we provide preliminary data on immune function as well as on parameters in addition to those originally proposed: development and performance fitness. We also provide information on our progress towards optimizing chemical protocols for analyzing the concentration of active ingredient in each of our formulation dosing solutions, another new parameter we added to those originally proposed. Preliminary results indicate that at environmentally realistic concentrations, these pesticides may have no significant effect on innate immunity, development rate or behavior (spontaneous swimming), however further replication is needed to confirm these initial findings. We have also observed some degree of developmental abnormalities in both pesticide-treated and control zebrafish embryos; however, additional replication is underway to determine if these groups differ significantly.

  17. Performance effects resulting from plugged liquid oxygen posts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Trinh, H. P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the performance effects resulting from plugged LOX posts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Injector. The simulation was performed with the REFLEQS 2-D code. Analysis was performed axisymmetrically and injector surface was divided into several regions to account for the mixture ratio variation on the injector surface. The reduction of vaccum specific impulse was approximately 0.01 second per plugged LOX post. This reduction is an order of magnitude higher than the result of Space Shuttle flight reconstruction data. It is presumed that this overprediction is due to the axisymmetric simulation that smears local effects.

  18. Quantifying Main Trends in Lysozyme Nucleation: The Effects of Precipitant Concentration, Supersaturation and Impurities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Michael W.; Leardi, Riccardo; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Full factorial experimental design incorporating multi-linear regression analysis of the experimental data allows quick identification of main trends and effects using a limited number of experiments. In this study these techniques were employed to identify the effect of precipitant concentration, supersaturation, and the presence of an impurity, the physiological lysozyme dimer, on the nucleation rate and crystal dimensions of the tetragonal forin of chicken egg white lysozyme. Decreasing precipitant concentration, increasing supers aturation, and increasing impurity, were found to increase crystal numbers. The crystal axial ratio decreased with increasing precipitant concentration, independent of impurity.

  19. Internal additive noise effects in stochastic resonance using organic field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Matsubara, Kiyohiko; Asakawa, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon was observed in organic field effect transistor using poly(3-hexylthiophene), which enhances performance of signal transmission with application of noise. The enhancement of correlation coefficient between the input and output signals was low, and the variation of correlation coefficient was not remarkable with respect to the intensity of external noise, which was due to the existence of internal additive noise following the nonlinear threshold response. In other words, internal additive noise plays a positive role on the capability of approximately constant signal transmission regardless of noise intensity, which can be said "homeostatic" behavior or "noise robustness" against external noise. Furthermore, internal additive noise causes emergence of the stochastic resonance effect even on the threshold unit without internal additive noise on which the correlation coefficient usually decreases monotonically.

  20. Effects of beta-glucan addition to a probiotic containing yogurt.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, T; Kealy, T; Mishra, V K

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of addition of beta-glucan from 2 different cereal sources (oat and barley) on growth and metabolic activity of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (Bb-12) as determined by plating on a selective medium in yogurt during prolonged cold storage. These yogurt batches were compared to unsupplemented and inulin supplemented controls. All batches were also assessed for syneresis. Oat beta-glucan addition resulted in improved probiotic viability and stability comparable to that of inulin. It also enhanced lactic and propionic acid production. The barley beta-glucan addition suppressed proteolytic activity more than that from oat. These improvements were hindered by greater syneresis caused likely by thermodynamic incompatibility. Small amplitude oscillatory measurements of acidified model mixture of beta-glucan/skim milk solids showed formation of casein gel within the beta-glucan network. Binary mixtures of beta-glucan and skim milk solids had apparent pseudoplastic and non-Newtonian behavior governed mainly by beta-glucan contribution. Above critical concentrations, the mixtures underwent phase separation with the lower phase rich in protein. The phase diagram also showed that the addition of beta-glucan may be possible at or below 0.24 w/w%.

  1. Some effects of quiet geomagnetic field changes upon values used for main field modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of three methods of data selection upon the assumed main field levels for geomagnetic observatory records used in main field modeling were investigated for a year of very low solar-terrestrial activity. The first method concerned the differences between the year's average of quiet day field values and the average of all values during the year. For H these differences were 2-3 gammas, for D they were -0.04 to -0.12???, for Z the differences were negligible. The second method of selection concerned the effects of the daytime internal Sq variations upon the daily mean values of field. The midnight field levels when the Sq currents were a minimum deviated from the daily mean levels by as much as 4-7 gammas in H and Z but were negligible for D. The third method of selection was designed to avoid the annual and semi-annual quiet level changes of field caused by the seasonal changes in the magnetosphere. Contributions from these changes were found to be as much as 4-7 gammas in quiet years and expected to be greater than 10 gammas in active years. Suggestions for improved methods of improved data selection in main field modeling are given. ?? 1987.

  2. Formation of gold nanostructures on copier paper surface for cost effective SERS active substrate - Effect of halide additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmonda, Christa; Kar, Sudeshna; Tai, Yian

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report the simple fabrication of an active substrate assisted by gold nanostructures (AuNS) for application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using copier paper, which is a biodegradable and cost-effective material. As cellulose is the main component of paper, it can behave as a reducing agent and as a capping molecule for the synthesis of AuNS on the paper substrate. AuNS can be directly generated on the surface of the copier paper by addition of halides. The AuNS thus synthesized were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, SEM, XRD, and XPS. In addition, the SERS effect of the AuNS-paper substrates synthesized by using various halides was investigated by using rhodamine 6G and melamine as probe molecules.

  3. Side effects of antibiotics during bacterial infection: mitochondria, the main target in host cell.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rochika; Sripada, Lakshmi; Singh, Rajesh

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics are frontline therapy against microbial infectious diseases. Many antibiotics are known to cause several side effects in humans. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the main target of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis. According to the endosymbiont theory, mitochondrion is of bacterial origin and their molecular and structural components of the protein expression system are almost similar. It has been observed that the rate of mutations in mitochondrial rRNA is higher as compared to that of nuclear rRNA. The presence of these mutations may mimic prokaryotic rRNA structure and bind to antibiotics targeted to ribosomes of bacteria. Mitochondrial functions are compromised hence may be one of the major causes of side effects observed during antibiotic therapy. The current review had summarized the studies on the role of antibiotics on mitochondrial functions and its relevance to the observed side effects in physiological and pathological conditions.

  4. Child maltreatment and violent delinquency: disentangling main effects and subgroup effects.

    PubMed

    Mersky, Joshua P; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2007-08-01

    This study employs data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS) to investigate the relation between child maltreatment and the incidence and frequency of violent delinquency. The authors also examine if effects vary between physically abused and neglected children and if select indicators (sex, cumulative risk, public aid receipt) moderate the connections between maltreatment and violent outcomes. The CLS follows a cohort of 1,539 low-income, minority children who attended public kindergarten programs in 1985-1986. The primary sample includes 1,404 participants for whom maltreatment and delinquency status were verified. Maltreatment is significantly associated with all violent outcomes investigated. Effects are comparable for physically abused and neglected children. Results indicate that public assistance, particularly persistent receipt, moderates the association between maltreatment and multiple outcomes. Findings support the hypothesized connection between maltreatment and violent delinquency while highlighting certain subgroups that may be at elevated risk. Implications for research design and program development are discussed.

  5. Family support, physical impairment, and adherence in hemodialysis: an investigation of main and buffering effects.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A J; Smith, T W; Turner, C W; Holman, J M; Gregory, M C; Rich, M A

    1992-08-01

    Patient noncompliance is a pervasive problem among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Previous studies have implicated social support as an important correlate of adherence behavior in other chronic illness groups, but little research has examined this relationship in a hemodialysis population. The present study examined the main and interactive effects of social support in the family and illness-related physical impairment with regard to patient compliance in a sample of 78 hemodialysis patients. Results indicated that patients holding perceptions of a more supportive family environment exhibited significantly more favorable adherence to fluid-intake restrictions than did patients reporting less family support. Family support was not associated with adherence to dietary restrictions. The effect of family support on fluid-intake adherence was not moderated by level of physical impairment. This pattern suggests that the influence of support on adherence is more attributable to a main or direct effect, as opposed to a buffering process in the face of increased physical impairment.

  6. Effect of the geometric parameters of the EAF bath on the main characteristics of furnace operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkovskii, A. G.; Kats, Ya. L.

    2013-06-01

    The models of melting a semiproduct in an electric arc furnace (EAF) and metal mixing developed earlier are used to study the effect of the proportion of the bath sizes on the following main technicaleconomic characteristics of a heat: the expenditure of electric energy, the heat time, and the operating time under electric current. The range of the optimal values of the proportion of the EAF bath sizes is determined with allowance for bath stirring with CO bubbles during decarburization. It is useful to increase the bath depth of EAFs operating according to single-slag technology and to classify furnaces according to the type of charge and the method of its loading.

  7. Water extract of propolis and its main constituents, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, exert neuroprotective effects via antioxidant actions.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoshimi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Mishima, Satoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether water extract of Brazilian green propolis (WEP) and its main constituents [caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid) and cinnamic acid derivatives (p-coumaric acid, artepillin C, drupanin, baccharin)] exert neuroprotective effects against the retinal damage induced by oxidative stress. Additionally, their neuroprotective effects were compared with their antioxidant effects. WEP, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid (but not artepillin C, baccharin, or drupanin) concentration-dependently inhibited oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity [achieved using L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete glutathione in combination with glutamate to inhibit cystine uptake] in cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5, a rat ganglion cell line transformed using E1A virus). At their effective concentrations against oxidative stress-induced retinal damage, WEP, 3,4-di-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid, and chlorogenic acid (but not cinnamic acid derivatives) inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mouse forebrain homogenates. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of WEP and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives paralleled those against LPO. These findings indicate that WEP and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives have neuroprotective effects against retinal damage in vitro, and that these effects may be partly mediated via antioxidant effects.

  8. The effect of starspots on the radii of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. J.; Jeffries, R. D.

    2014-07-01

    A polytropic model is used to investigate the effects of dark photospheric spots on the evolution and radii of magnetically active, low-mass (M < 0.5 M⊙), pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. Spots slow the contraction along Hayashi tracks and inflate the radii of PMS stars by a factor of (1 - β)-N compared to unspotted stars of the same luminosity, where β is the equivalent covering fraction of dark starspots and N ≃ 0.45 ± 0.05. This is a much stronger inflation than predicted by Spruit & Weiss for main-sequence stars with the same β, where N ˜ 0.2-0.3. These models have been compared to radii determined for very magnetically active K- and M-dwarfs in the young Pleiades and NGC 2516 clusters, and the radii of tidally locked, low-mass eclipsing binary components. The binary components and zero-age main-sequence K-dwarfs have radii inflated by ˜10 per cent compared to an empirical radius-luminosity relation that is defined by magnetically inactive field dwarfs with interferometrically measured radii; low-mass M-type PMS stars, that are still on their Hayashi tracks, are inflated by up to ˜40 per cent. If this were attributable to starspots alone, we estimate that an effective spot coverage of 0.35 < β < 0.51 is required. Alternatively, global inhibition of convective flux transport by dynamo-generated fields may play a role. However, we find greater consistency with the starspot models when comparing the loci of active young stars and inactive field stars in colour-magnitude diagrams, particularly for the highly inflated PMS stars, where the large, uniform temperature reduction required in globally inhibited convection models would cause the stars to be much redder than observed.

  9. Measurements of beam pipe eddy current effects in Main Injector dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, D.G.C.; Bleadon, M.E.; Brown, B.C.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Sim, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    The dipole magnets for the proposed Main Injector project at Fermilab are designed to ramp to maximum field (1.7 T) at rates over 2.5 T/s. These ramp rates will produce eddy current effects which degrade overall field quality. A harmonics probe was constructed for the purpose of measuring eddy current field components during the ramp cycle. Three separate ramp rates were employed ranging from 1.3 T/s to 2.7 T/s. Tests were performed using beam pipes with two different resistivities. The dominant multipole contribution resulting from eddy current effects in each beam pipe was sextupole. The sextupole component closely matched the calculated prediction.

  10. Contrasting effects of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on soil respiration in an alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Fei; Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Huakun; Zhu, Wenyan; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chen, Litong; Cao, Guangmin; He, Jin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    High soil organic carbon content, extensive root biomass, and low nutrient availability make alpine grasslands an important ecosystem for assessing the influence of nutrient enrichment on soil respiration (SR). We conducted a four-year (2009–2012) field experiment in an alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to examine the individual and combined effects of nitrogen (N, 100 kg ha−1year−1) and phosphorus (P, 50 kg ha−1year−1) addition on SR. We found that both N and P addition did not affect the overall growing-season SR but effects varied by year: with N addition SR increased in the first year but decreased during the last two years. However, while P addition did not affect SR during the first two years, SR increased during the last two years. No interactive effects of N and P addition were observed, and both N addition and P addition reduced heterotrophic respiration during the last year of the experiment. N and P addition affected SR via different processes: N mainly affected heterotrophic respiration, whereas P largely influenced autotrophic respiration. Our results highlight the divergent effects of N and P addition on SR and address the important potential of P enrichment for regulating SR and the carbon balance in alpine grasslands. PMID:27721415

  11. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  12. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Mégarbane, Bruno; Rezaee, Ramin; Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Ranunculacea) has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone. PMID:27247918

  13. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Mégarbane, Bruno; Rezaee, Ramin; Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Ranunculacea) has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone. PMID:27247918

  14. Cost-effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Maine; a prototype for nationwide implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.; Moss, M.E.; Smath, J.A.; Thomas, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents the results of a cost-effectiveness study of the stream-gaging program in Maine. Data uses and funding sources were identified for the 51 continuous stream gages currently being operated in Maine with a budget of $211,000. Three stream gages were identified as producing data no longer sufficiently needed to warrant continuing their operation. Operation of these stations should be discontinued. Data collected at three other stations were identified as having uses specific only to short-term studies; it is recommended that these stations be discontinued at the end of the data-collection phases of the studies. The remaining 45 stations should be maintained in the program for the foreseeable future. The current policy for operation of the 45-station program would require a budget of $180,300 per year. The average standard error of estimation of streamflow records is 17.7 percent. It was shown that this overall level of accuracy at the 45 sites could be maintained with a budget of approximately $170,000 if resources were redistributed among the gages. A minimum budget of $155,000 is required to operate the 45-gage program; a smaller budget would not permit proper service and maintenance of the gages and recorders. At the minimum budget, the average standard error is 25.1 percent. The maximum budget analyzed was $350,000, which resulted in an average standard error of 8.7 percent. Large parts of Maine's interior were identified as having sparse streamflow data. It was determined that this sparsity be remedied as funds become available.

  15. Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwen, J.A. van Son, O. van; Piersma, A.H.; Jong, P.C. de; Berg, M. van den

    2008-08-01

    There is concern widely on the increase in human exposure to exogenous (anti)estrogenic compounds. Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are considered to undergo rapid metabolism, are present at low levels. In this in vitro research individual compounds and combinations of parabens and endogenous estradiol (E{sub 2}) were investigated in the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. The experimental design applied a concentration addition model (CA). Data were analyzed with the estrogen equivalency (EEQ) and method of isoboles approach. In addition, the catalytic inhibitory properties of parabens on an enzyme involved in a rate limiting step in steroid genesis (aromatase) were studied in human placental microsomes. Our results point to an additive estrogenic effect in a CA model for parabens. In addition, it was found that parabens inhibit aromatase. Noticeably, the effective levels in both our in vitro systems were far higher than the levels detected in human samples. However, estrogenic compounds may contribute in a cumulative way to the circulating estrogen burden. Our calculation for the extra estrogen burden due to exposure to parabens, phthalates and polycyclic musks indicates an insignificant estrogenic load relative to the endogenous or therapeutic estrogen burden.

  16. Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    van Meeuwen, J A; van Son, O; Piersma, A H; de Jong, P C; van den Berg, M

    2008-08-01

    There is concern widely on the increase in human exposure to exogenous (anti)estrogenic compounds. Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are considered to undergo rapid metabolism, are present at low levels. In this in vitro research individual compounds and combinations of parabens and endogenous estradiol (E(2)) were investigated in the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. The experimental design applied a concentration addition model (CA). Data were analyzed with the estrogen equivalency (EEQ) and method of isoboles approach. In addition, the catalytic inhibitory properties of parabens on an enzyme involved in a rate limiting step in steroid genesis (aromatase) were studied in human placental microsomes. Our results point to an additive estrogenic effect in a CA model for parabens. In addition, it was found that parabens inhibit aromatase. Noticeably, the effective levels in both our in vitro systems were far higher than the levels detected in human samples. However, estrogenic compounds may contribute in a cumulative way to the circulating estrogen burden. Our calculation for the extra estrogen burden due to exposure to parabens, phthalates and polycyclic musks indicates an insignificant estrogenic load relative to the endogenous or therapeutic estrogen burden.

  17. Effect of Catnip Charcoal on the In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Main Alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis.

    PubMed

    He, Yanfei; Chen, Siyu; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Long; Liu, Yayun; Han, Chunyang; Liu, Cuiyan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of catnip Nepeta cataria (CNC) charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis in vivo. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and given oral administration of an aqueous extract of Rhizoma Coptidis (RCAE), RCAE plus CNC, RCAE plus activated carbon (AC), or distilled water, respectively. Plasma samples were collected after administration. The concentrations of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pharmacokinetics data were calculated using pharmacokinetic DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine increased, while the AUC of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the rabbits that received RCAE plus CNC. Meanwhile, the AUC of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the group given RCAE plus AC. The difference of main pharmacokinetics parameters among the four groups was significant (P < 0.05). This study showed that CNC improved the bioavailability of berberine in comparison to AC and prolonged its release in comparison to RCAE alone. However, it decreased the bioavailability of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. In comparison, AC uniformly declined the bioavailability of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine.

  18. The effects of breathing with mainly inspiration or expiration on pulmonary function and chest expansion

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seong-Dae; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of inspiration- and expiration-oriented breathing on pulmonary function and chest expansion. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy male university students were divided randomly into inspiration-oriented and expiration-oriented breathing groups. Their pulmonary function and chest size during inspiration or expiration were evaluated and then re-evaluated after 15 minutes of breathing exercise five times a week for four weeks. [Results] The breathing with mainly inspiration group (BMIG) showed significant differences in chest size during inspiration (CSI), chest expansion values (CEVs), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) after four weeks. The breathing with mainly expiration group (BMEG) showed significant differences in all measured variables except CSI. Comparison of the groups after exercise showed that the BMEG demonstrated differences from the BMIG in chest size during expiration (CSE), CEV, and PEF. Comparison of the changes in variables after exercise showed that the BMEG demonstrated significantly different changes in CSE, CEV, FEV1/FVC, and PEF. The BMIG showed a significantly different change in FVC. [Conclusion] Although both groups demonstrated improvements in pulmonary function and chest expansion, inter-group differences were observed. Therefore, inspiration- or expiration-oriented breathing may be recommended differently according to the desired outcome. PMID:27134386

  19. Effect of Catnip Charcoal on the In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Main Alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis.

    PubMed

    He, Yanfei; Chen, Siyu; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Long; Liu, Yayun; Han, Chunyang; Liu, Cuiyan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of catnip Nepeta cataria (CNC) charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis in vivo. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and given oral administration of an aqueous extract of Rhizoma Coptidis (RCAE), RCAE plus CNC, RCAE plus activated carbon (AC), or distilled water, respectively. Plasma samples were collected after administration. The concentrations of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pharmacokinetics data were calculated using pharmacokinetic DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine increased, while the AUC of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the rabbits that received RCAE plus CNC. Meanwhile, the AUC of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the group given RCAE plus AC. The difference of main pharmacokinetics parameters among the four groups was significant (P < 0.05). This study showed that CNC improved the bioavailability of berberine in comparison to AC and prolonged its release in comparison to RCAE alone. However, it decreased the bioavailability of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. In comparison, AC uniformly declined the bioavailability of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. PMID:27313645

  20. Effect of Catnip Charcoal on the In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Main Alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yanfei; Chen, Siyu; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Long; Liu, Yayun; Han, Chunyang; Liu, Cuiyan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of catnip Nepeta cataria (CNC) charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis in vivo. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and given oral administration of an aqueous extract of Rhizoma Coptidis (RCAE), RCAE plus CNC, RCAE plus activated carbon (AC), or distilled water, respectively. Plasma samples were collected after administration. The concentrations of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pharmacokinetics data were calculated using pharmacokinetic DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine increased, while the AUC of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the rabbits that received RCAE plus CNC. Meanwhile, the AUC of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the group given RCAE plus AC. The difference of main pharmacokinetics parameters among the four groups was significant (P < 0.05). This study showed that CNC improved the bioavailability of berberine in comparison to AC and prolonged its release in comparison to RCAE alone. However, it decreased the bioavailability of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. In comparison, AC uniformly declined the bioavailability of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. PMID:27313645

  1. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Peganum harmala and its main alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Moloudizargari, Milad; Mikaili, Peyman; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Shayegh, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Wild Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L. family Zygophyllaceae) is well-known in Iran and various parts of this plant including, its seeds, bark, and root have been used as folk medicine. Recent years of research has demonstrated different pharmacological and therapeutic effects of P. harmala and its active alkaloids, especially harmine and harmaline. Analytical studies on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are beta-carboline alkaloids such as harmalol, harmaline, and harmine. Harmine is the most studied among these naturally occurring alkaloids. In addition to P. harmala (Syrian rue), these beta-carbolines are present in many other plants such as Banisteria caapi and are used for the treatment of different diseases. This article reviews the traditional uses and pharmacological effects of total extract and individual active alkaloids of P. harmala (Syrian rue). PMID:24347928

  2. Sand and gravel mining: effects on ground water resources in Hancock county, Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckenham, John M.; Thornton, Teresa; Whalen, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Based on this preliminary study, existing sand and gravel mining regulations (in Maine, USA) can be inferred to provide some protection to water resources. Sand and gravel deposits are important natural resources that have dual uses: mining for construction material and pumping for drinking water. How the mining of sand and gravel affects aquifers and change aquifer vulnerability to contamination is not well documented. Mining regulations vary greatly by state and local jurisdiction. This study test metrics to measure the effectiveness of mining regulations. The sand and gravel aquifer system studied is covered with former and active gravel pits to nearly 25% of its areal extent. Data from homeowner interviews and field measurements found scant evidence of changes in water quantity. Water quality analyses collected from springs, streams, ponds and wells indicate that the aquifer was vulnerable to contamination by chloride and nitrate. However, water quality changes can not be related directly to mining activities.

  3. Vibration effects of the space shuttle main engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump bellows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A welded metal bellows was subjected to a series of vibration tests in a 400 psi oxygen environment to evaluate the effects of the bellows convolutes rubbing on the damper ring in the high pressure oxidizer turbopump of the space shuttle main engine. The bellows was subjected to approximately 2 million cycles at 0.007 in. double amplitude displacement during this series of tests, at a frequency of 400 Hz. Intrumentation of the test specimen revealed no significant heat buildup caused by the rubbing of the bellows convolutes on the damper ring. A final destruct test was made to determine if a fire would result if the bellows ruptured in the 400 psi oxygen environment, thus exposing a fresh metal surface. The vibration input was changed to 0.8 in. double amplitude displacement at 20 Hz to intentionally rupture the bellows. Failure occurred after 2.5 sec; no fire or heat buildup was encountered.

  4. Non-additive and Additive Genetic Effects on Extraversion in 3314 Dutch Adolescent Twins and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in 1,689 Dutch twin pairs, 1,505 mothers and 1,637 fathers of the twins. The twins were on average 15.5 years (range 12–18 years). To increase statistical power to detect non-additive genetic influences, data on extraversion were also collected in parents and simultaneously analyzed. Genetic modeling procedures incorporating age as a potential modifier of heritability showed significant influences of additive (20–23%) and non-additive genetic factors (31–33%) in addition to unshared environment (46–48%) for adolescents and for their parents. The additive genetic component was slightly and positively related to age. No significant sex differences were found for either extraversion means or for the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences. There was no evidence of non-random mating for extraversion in the parental generation. Results show that in addition to additive genetic influences, extraversion in adolescents is influenced by non-additive genetic factors. PMID:18240014

  5. Radiation processing of thermoplastic starch by blending aromatic additives: Effect of blend composition and radiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Coqueret, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on poly α-1,4-glucose oligomers (maltodextrins) in the presence of water and of various aromatic additives, as model blends for gaining a better understanding at a molecular level the modifications occurring in amorphous starch-lignin blends submitted to ionizing irradiation for improving the properties of this type of bio-based thermoplastic material. A series of aromatic compounds, namely p-methoxy benzyl alcohol, benzene dimethanol, cinnamyl alcohol and some related carboxylic acids namely cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, was thus studied for assessing the ability of each additive to counteract chain scission of the polysaccharide and induce interchain covalent linkages. Gel formation in EB-irradiated blends comprising of maltodextrin was shown to be dependent on three main factors: the type of aromatic additive, presence of glycerol, and irradiation dose. The chain scission versus grafting phenomenon as a function of blend composition and dose were studied using Size Exclusion Chromatography by determining the changes in molecular weight distribution (MWD) from Refractive Index (RI) chromatograms and the presence of aromatic grafts onto the maltodextrin chains from UV chromatograms. The occurrence of crosslinking was quantified by gel fraction measurements allowing for ranking the cross-linking efficiency of the additives. When applying the method to destructurized starch blends, gel formation was also shown to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the sample submitted to irradiation. The results demonstrate the possibility to tune the reactivity of tailored blend for minimizing chain degradation and control the degree of cross-linking.

  6. Teratogenic Effect of Verbascoside, Main Constituent of Lippia citriodora Leaves, in Mice.

    PubMed

    Etemad, Leila; Zafari, Reza; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Naser; Skouei Shirvan, Zahra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Verbascoside (acteoside), a phenyl propanoid glycoside, comprises 0.5 to 3.5 % dry weight of Lippia citriodora leaves. A wide range of biological activities are attributed to verbascoside including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-fungal, photoprotective as well as chelating effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of verbascoside on pregnancy outcome in mice. Timed-pregnant mice received doses of 1g/kg/day verbascoside or the vehicle control during organogenesis, intraperitoneally. Maternal body weights were measured throughout pregnancy. The litters were examined for external malformations and skeletal abnormalities. Then they were stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue. Maternal exposure to verbascoside throughout pregnancy did not influence the mean of maternal weight gain. Statistically significant difference was not found in mean number of implantation sites, live and resorbed fetuses between control and experiment groups. Our data demonstrate that the main component of L. citriodora, verbascoside using during organogenesis possesses no risk to fetuses. However, more research projects are needed to confirm these findings and determine the exact effects of verbascoside on human embryo development. PMID:27642323

  7. A review of Neuropharmacology Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Main Component, Thymoquinone.

    PubMed

    Javidi, Soheila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Neuropharmacology is the scientific study of drug effect on nervous system. In the last few years, different natural plants and their active constituents have been used in neurological therapy. The availability, lower price, and less toxic effects of herbal medicines compared with synthetic agents make them as simple and excellent choice in the treatment of nervous diseases. Nigella sativa, which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. In traditional and modern medicines several beneficial properties have been attributed to N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone (TQ). In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the neuropharmacological aspects of N. sativa and TQ have been introduced. Results of these studies showed that N. sativa and TQ have several properties including anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-ischemic, analgesic, antipsychotic, and memory enhancer. Furthermore, its protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and multiple sclerosis have been discussed. Although there are many studies indicating the beneficial actions of this plant in nervous system, the number of research projects relating to the human reports is rare. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27169925

  8. Teratogenic Effect of Verbascoside, Main Constituent of Lippia citriodora Leaves, in Mice.

    PubMed

    Etemad, Leila; Zafari, Reza; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Naser; Skouei Shirvan, Zahra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Verbascoside (acteoside), a phenyl propanoid glycoside, comprises 0.5 to 3.5 % dry weight of Lippia citriodora leaves. A wide range of biological activities are attributed to verbascoside including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-fungal, photoprotective as well as chelating effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of verbascoside on pregnancy outcome in mice. Timed-pregnant mice received doses of 1g/kg/day verbascoside or the vehicle control during organogenesis, intraperitoneally. Maternal body weights were measured throughout pregnancy. The litters were examined for external malformations and skeletal abnormalities. Then they were stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue. Maternal exposure to verbascoside throughout pregnancy did not influence the mean of maternal weight gain. Statistically significant difference was not found in mean number of implantation sites, live and resorbed fetuses between control and experiment groups. Our data demonstrate that the main component of L. citriodora, verbascoside using during organogenesis possesses no risk to fetuses. However, more research projects are needed to confirm these findings and determine the exact effects of verbascoside on human embryo development.

  9. Teratogenic Effect of Verbascoside, Main Constituent of Lippia citriodora Leaves, in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Etemad, Leila; Zafari, Reza; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Naser; Skouei Shirvan, Zahra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Verbascoside (acteoside), a phenyl propanoid glycoside, comprises 0.5 to 3.5 % dry weight of Lippia citriodora leaves. A wide range of biological activities are attributed to verbascoside including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-fungal, photoprotective as well as chelating effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of verbascoside on pregnancy outcome in mice. Timed-pregnant mice received doses of 1g/kg/day verbascoside or the vehicle control during organogenesis, intraperitoneally. Maternal body weights were measured throughout pregnancy. The litters were examined for external malformations and skeletal abnormalities. Then they were stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue. Maternal exposure to verbascoside throughout pregnancy did not influence the mean of maternal weight gain. Statistically significant difference was not found in mean number of implantation sites, live and resorbed fetuses between control and experiment groups. Our data demonstrate that the main component of L. citriodora, verbascoside using during organogenesis possesses no risk to fetuses. However, more research projects are needed to confirm these findings and determine the exact effects of verbascoside on human embryo development. PMID:27642323

  10. A review of Neuropharmacology Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Main Component, Thymoquinone.

    PubMed

    Javidi, Soheila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Neuropharmacology is the scientific study of drug effect on nervous system. In the last few years, different natural plants and their active constituents have been used in neurological therapy. The availability, lower price, and less toxic effects of herbal medicines compared with synthetic agents make them as simple and excellent choice in the treatment of nervous diseases. Nigella sativa, which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. In traditional and modern medicines several beneficial properties have been attributed to N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone (TQ). In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the neuropharmacological aspects of N. sativa and TQ have been introduced. Results of these studies showed that N. sativa and TQ have several properties including anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-ischemic, analgesic, antipsychotic, and memory enhancer. Furthermore, its protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and multiple sclerosis have been discussed. Although there are many studies indicating the beneficial actions of this plant in nervous system, the number of research projects relating to the human reports is rare. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Ecotoxicological effects of the antioxidant additive propyl gallate in five aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jorge L; Jos, Angeles; del Peso, Ana; Salguero, Manuel; López-Artíguez, Miguel; Repetto, Guillermo

    2007-06-01

    Propyl gallate is an antioxidant widely used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The occurrence and fate of additives in the aquatic environment is an emerging issue in environmental chemistry. To date, there is little available information about the adverse effects of propyl gallate on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the toxic effects were investigated, using five model systems from four trophic levels. The most sensitive system was the hepatoma fish cell line PLHC-1 according to total protein content, with an EC(50) of 10 microM and a NOAEL of 1 microM at 72 h, followed by the immobilization of Daphnia magna, the inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri, the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2 and the inhibition of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Although protein content, neutral red uptake, methylthiazol metabolization and acetylcholinesterase activity were reduced in PLHC-1 cells, stimulations were observed for lysosomal function, succinate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities. No changes were observed in metallothionein levels. The main morphological observations were the loss of cells and the induction of cell death mainly by necrosis but also by apoptosis. The protective and toxic effects of propyl gallate were evaluated. General antioxidants and calcium chelators did not modify the toxicity of propyl gallate, but an iron-dependent lipid peroxidation inhibitor gave 22% protection. The results also suggest that propyl gallate cytotoxicity is dependent on glutathione levels, which were modulated by malic acid diethyl ester and 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. According to the results, propyl gallate should be classified as toxic to aquatic organisms. PMID:17382989

  12. Long-term effects of precommercial thinning on small mammals in northern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homyack, J.A.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    Precommercial thinning (PCT) is being practiced increasingly throughout the Acadian forest of eastern North America to meet silvicultural objectives; however, effects of this practice on wildlife, both immediately and several years post-treatment are not well understood. Forest dependent small mammals have ecological roles as prey for numerous avian and mammalian predators, dispersers of seeds, fruit, and spores, and contribute to nutrient cycling. Researchers in the northwestern USA have suggested that thinning of young, regenerating clearcuts may increase the abundance and diversity of some forest-dependent small mammals by increasing rates of forest development and enhancing the ecological representation of mid-successional stands across managed landscapes. We examined the effects of PCT within conifer-dominated forest stands 1-, 6-, 11-, and 16-years post-treatment, on abundances of mice, voles, and shrews, and on within-stand structure in the commercially managed, Acadian forests of northern Maine. We live-trapped small mammals on 24 herbicide-treated clearcuts treated with PCT and on 13 similar, unthinned stands during summers of 2000 and 2001. Thinning of mid-successional conifer stands resulted in increased abundances, (red-backed voles, Clethrionomys gapperi, P = 0.008; masked shrews, Sorex cinereus, P < 0.001) or had no detectable effect on (deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, P = 0.544; short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, P = 0.517) the 4 most common species of Muridae and Soricidae in northern Maine. In general, abundance of deer mice responded more positively to increasing development class and to the number of years since thinning than other species of small mammals. Several within-stand habitat characteristics associated with stand maturity, such as larger stem diameters and a partially open canopy, occurred in thinned stands. Thus, PCT may accelerate the development of habitat attributes typical of mid-successional conifer stands in intensively

  13. The effect of disc inclination on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morselli, L.; Renzini, A.; Popesso, P.; Erfanianfar, G.

    2016-11-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al.) data base to explore the effect of the disc inclination angle on the derived star formation rate (SFR), hence on the slope and width of the main-sequence (MS) relation for star-forming galaxies. We find that SFRs for nearly edge-on discs are underestimated by factors ranging from ˜0.2 dex for low-mass galaxies up to ˜0.4 dex for high-mass galaxies. This results in a substantially flatter MS relation for high-inclination discs compared to that for less inclined ones, though the global effect over the whole sample of star-forming galaxies is relatively minor, given the small fraction of high-inclination discs. However, we also find that galaxies with high-inclination discs represent a non-negligible fraction of galaxies populating the so-called green valley, with derived SFRs intermediate between the MS and those of quenched, passively evolving galaxies.

  14. Determining the Effects of EMIC Waves on Precipitating MeV Electrons during Strom Main Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretic studies have suggested that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can cause significant precipitation of ~MeV electrons, supposedly accounting for the fast dropouts of outer-belt electrons during storm main phases. Usually the resonance between left-hand polarized EMIC with electrons with moderate energy is unlikely due to their opposite polarizations, while resonance with highly relativistic electrons do occur and cause electrons to precipitate into the atmosphere through pitch-angle scattering. Several previous studies on observations find a close relation between the two phenomena, e.g., Cliverd et al. [2007], Sandanger et al. [2007], and Miyoshi et al. [2008], while others find otherwise, e.g., Meredith et al. [2011]; recently, more observational evidence supporting the connection has been reported (e.g., Li et al. [2014] and Blum et al. [2015]). However, whether and under what favoring conditions EMIC waves cause rapid dropouts of relativistic electrons during storm main phases remain unresolved questions. Here, using latest wave and electron data from multiple missions including Van Allen Probes, BARREL, and NOAA POES, we systemically examine the relation between EMIC waves and MeV electron precipitation. We first construct two independent event lists for intensified EMIC waves and enhancements of MeV electron precipitation, respectively. Then we cross check the two lists to identify if any significant correlation exists in between, and further characterize the wave effectiveness in terms of L-shell, MLT, resonance energy, as well as the background plasma conditions. Results from this study will advance our knowledge about the loss mechanism of outer-belt electrons, thus laying down another stepping stone towards high-fidelity physics-based models for radiation belts.

  15. Effect of Dreissena mussels on the distribution of zooplankton as exemplified by the Main Kakhovka Canal

    SciTech Connect

    Grigorovich, I.A.; Shevtsova, L.V.

    1995-06-01

    In summer the abundance of zooplankton in the Main Kakhovka Canal varied in the range of 1,500-18,500 indiv.m{sup -3}, with a biomass of 15-240 mg m{sup -3}. From the upper reach of the canal to the end, the zooplankton become less diverse and there is a decrease in both abundance and biomass. In the initial sections of the canal, copepods predominated, owing to their considerable influxes from other sources, i.e., Kakhovka Reservoir. Whereas in the second half of the canal, the dominant complexes of zooplankton changed and consisted primarily of cladocerans and Dreissena veligers. With high abundance of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and D. bugensis (Andrusov) (mean biomass was 4.2 kg m{sup -2}), with the maximum ca. 17.8 kg m{sup -2}, mussels had a significant effect on the spatial distribution of planktonic invertebrates. In different areas of the canal the measurable quantitive replenishment of zooplankton was proceeded by planktonic larvae of Dreissena. Being active filterers, Dreissena mollusks undermine food resources of filter-feeding zooplankton by accelerating sedimentation of suspended matter, including organic substances, by a factor of 1.4-3.0. Dreissena can control zooplankton density by consumption of some of the species. With predominating rotifers and juveniles cladocerans in the plankton, the total abundance of zooplankton influenced by Dreissena bugensis had decreased by 53% after 12 h, whereas the amount of dominant species, Euchlanis dilatata and Bosmina longirostris, had declined respectively by 92% and 64%. Dreissena individuals 14-18 mm long, are the predominant size group of mussels in the Main Kakhovka Canal and can filter off planktonic invertebrates with body lengths between 20 and 400 m. Zooplankton species of such size can pass through the bronchial siphon of Dreissena and so they are vulnerable to consumption by mussels. There is an inverse relationship between the biomass of zooplankton and the biomass of adult Dreissena mussels.

  16. Superior efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for urban crack cocaine abusers: main and matching effects.

    PubMed

    Maude-Griffin, P M; Hohenstein, J M; Humfleet, G L; Reilly, P M; Tusel, D J; Hall, S M

    1998-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and 12-step facilitation (12SF) in treating cocaine abuse. Participants (N = 128) were randomly assigned to treatment conditions and assessed at baseline and at Weeks 4, 8, 12, and 26. Treatment lasted for 12 weeks. It was hypothesized that participants treated with CBT would be significantly more likely to achieve abstinence from cocaine than participants treated with 12SF. A series of patient-treatment matching hypotheses was also proposed. Across 2 different outcome variables, it was found that participants in CBT were significantly more likely to achieve abstinence than participants in 12SF. In addition, some support for matching hypotheses was found, suggesting that both psychotherapies may be differentially effective for identified subgroups of persons that abuse cocaine. PMID:9803702

  17. Effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to soil on nitrate leaching in calcaric soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Shinogi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrate leaching in soils is often an important aspect in agriculture. Nitrate is leached from the root zone, where plants can utilize them, by surplus rainfall because little nitrate is absorbed by soil colloids. Miyako Island (target area) is located in the subtropical zone and comprised of coral limestone with high permeability. Land surface is covered with calcaric dark red soil that is called “Shimajiri-Maji”. Since the soil has low water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity, fertilizer-derived nitrogen easily leaches from the root zone during surplus rainfall and the nitrogen utilization efficiency of crops is relatively low. Biochars, charcoal produced from pyrolysis of biomass, are known to adsorb dissolved nitrate. Sugarcane bagasse is the main biomass resource on the island because agriculture is the main industry on the island and sugarcane is cultivated in approximately 70% of the farmland. However, the adsorption characteristics of bagasse-charcoals for nitrate have not yet been clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dependency of carbonization temperatures on the nitrate adsorption properties of bagasse-charcoals and the effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to the soil on NO3-N transport in the soil for optimal use of bagasse-charcoal as a soil amendment in Miyako Island. Sugarcane bagasse were air-dried and heated in a batch-type carbonization furnace at five different carbonization temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) with a holding time of 2 h. Nitrate adsorption by soil and bagasse-charcoals at each carbonization temperature was measured by the batch equilibrium technique. NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils (rates of charcoal addition: 0, 5 and 10 wt %) was evaluated in the column experiments. The breakthrough curves of NO3-N concentrations in the effluents from the bottom of the columns were analyzed with a convective-dispersion model. The model described one-dimensional transport of a sorbing solute

  18. Reproductive stage-dependent effects of additional cryoprotectant agents for the cryopreservation of stallion germ cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Heejun; Kim, Namyoung; Yoon, Minjung

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an additional cryoprotectant in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on cryopreserving germ cells from stallions at different reproductive stages. Testicular samples were obtained from pre-pubertal (1-1.5 yr, n=6) and post-pubertal (3-7 yr, n=5) stallions. Germ cells were isolated using a two-enzyme digestion procedure and cryopreserved in minimal essential medium alpha containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 10% DMSO with or without addition of trehalose (50, 100, or 200mM) or polyethylene glycol (PEG, 2.5, 5, or 10%). Viability, cell population, and viable population were assessed after 1 and 3 months of cryopreservation. The viable UTF1-positive population of pre-pubertal stallion germ cells was also measured using immunocytochemistry after 1 and 3 months of cryopreservation. As expected, the viability, cell population, and viable cell population were significantly reduced after 1 and 3 months of cryopreservation. At the pre-pubertal stage, the addition of trehalose or PEG to 10% DMSO did not show any effect on the viability, cell population, viable cell population, or viable UTF1-positive germ cells at either 1 or 3 months after cryopreservation. However, at the post-pubertal stage, the viable population was significantly higher in germ cells that were cryopreserved with 5% or 10% PEG, than in the cells cryopreserved with 10% DMSO only. In conclusion, PEG at 5% or 10% added to 10% DMSO serves as an optimal cryoprotectant agent for the cryopreservation of germ cells from post-pubertal stallions. PMID:27546795

  19. Response additivity: effects of superimposed free reinforcement on a variable-interval baseline.

    PubMed

    Boakes, R A; Halliday, M S; Poli, M

    1975-03-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of superimposing free reinforcement (Free VI 30-sec) on behavior maintained by a response dependent mult VI 2-min VI 2-min schedule of reinforcement. Experiment I used pigeons as subjects, key pecking as the response, and colors of response key as the stimuli associated with the multiple-schedule components. When free reinforcement was added during only one component (Differential condition) a large and highly significant increase in response rate developed in this component. Adding free reinforcement during both components (Nondifferential condition) produced smaller and far less-consistent effects. An entirely different pattern of results was obtained in two subsequent experiments, where similar procedures and reinforcement conditions were used with rats as subjects and bar pressing as the response. In both Experiments II and III, response rates decreased to the stimulus associated with added free reinforcement in the Differential condition. These findings are interpreted as the result of interactions between behavior maintained by response-reinforcer contingencies and behavior maintained by stimulus-reinforcer contingencies. As such, they support the main assumption of an autoshaping theory of behavioral contrast, that additivity of responding generated by the two kinds of contingency can occur only in situations favorable to autoshaping.

  20. Effects of the main extraction parameters on chemical and microbial characteristics of compost tea.

    PubMed

    Islam, M K; Yaseen, T; Traversa, A; Ben Kheder, M; Brunetti, G; Cocozza, C

    2016-06-01

    The rising popularity of compost tea as fertilizer or foliar spray against pathogens has encouraged many researchers to evaluate its performance without standardizing its quality, so obtaining inconsistent and controversial results. The fertilizing and pesticide-like effects of compost tea are due to its chemical and microbiological properties. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the best combination of the compost tea extraction parameters for exalting both chemical and microbiological features. A factorial design was adopted to evaluate the effects of compost/water ratio, extraction time, storage duration and storage temperature in different combination on physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of compost tea, and the results were elaborated through different statistical analyses. Compost tea nutrients and microorganisms were influenced by compost/water ratio and extraction time. In addition, the storage duration affected the microbial populations, whereas the storage temperature influenced only the fungal population of compost tea. Results suggested that the best combination of the studied parameters was: 1:2.5 compost/water ratio, 2days of extraction time and the compost tea should be utilized immediately after the extraction, since the storage reduced the microbial populations. PMID:27040088

  1. THE EFFECT OF SEED TREATMENT ON THE MAIN PATHOGENS PRESENT IN WHEAT AGROECOSYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    Stef, R; Grozea, I; Puia, C; Carabet, A; Vlad, M; Manea, D

    2014-01-01

    Wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.) from Poaceae family is affected by many diseases that cause yield losses. The present paper addresses a topic of economic, agrotechnics and social importance of wheat crop (occupying the first place among the Romanian cultivated crop, feeding 35 to 40% of world population). The study had as main objective product testing like Yunta 246 FS (imidacloprid 233 g/l + tebuconazol 13 g/l), Team Micorriza Plus (Glomus intraradices 150 spore/g + Glomus mosseae 150 spore/g + organic matter 56% and Rhizosphere Bacteria 107 UFC/g) and Condor (Trichoderma spp. 1 x 109 spore/g + Glomus sp. 10 spore/g + Rhizosphere Bacteria 1 x 107 UFC/g and organic matter 7%) applied in the pathosystem wheat/pathogens. The research was conducted in the western part of Romania, in 2010-2012, experience was placed after Latin rectangle method with 10 variants (they are different by product and dose applied) and the data were statistically interpreted. Results showed the presence of pathogens Septoria tritici, Drechslera tritici repentis and Drechslera teres in experimental variants. Statistical analysis showed that the most effective chemical mixture was imidacloprid + tebuconazol at the highest dose tested (3 l/t). Regarding the non-chemical product testing, the product Condor gave positive results. The highest values of quality parameters (protein and gluten) were obtained in the variants treated with Yunta 246 FS.

  2. Trust and team performance: A meta-analysis of main effects, moderators, and covariates.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Bart A; Dirks, Kurt T; Gillespie, Nicole

    2016-08-01

    Cumulating evidence from 112 independent studies (N = 7,763 teams), we meta-analytically examine the fundamental questions of whether intrateam trust is positively related to team performance, and the conditions under which it is particularly important. We address these questions by analyzing the overall trust-performance relationship, assessing the robustness of this relationship by controlling for other relevant predictors and covariates, and examining how the strength of this relationship varies as a function of several moderating factors. Our findings confirm that intrateam trust is positively related to team performance, and has an above-average impact (ρ = .30). The covariate analyses show that this relationship holds after controlling for team trust in leader and past team performance, and across dimensions of trust (i.e., cognitive and affective). The moderator analyses indicate that the trust-performance relationship is contingent upon the level of task interdependence, authority differentiation, and skill differentiation in teams. Finally, we conducted preliminary analyses on several emerging issues in the literature regarding the conceptualization and measurement of trust and team performance (i.e., referent of intrateam trust, dimension of performance, performance objectivity). Together, our findings contribute to the literature by helping to (a) integrate the field of intrateam trust research, (b) resolve mixed findings regarding the trust-performance relationship, (c) overcome scholarly skepticism regarding the main effect of trust on team performance, and (d) identify the conditions under which trust is most important for team performance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. The effect of runway surface and braking on Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented. Also, in an ongoing program to evaluate the origin of various tire wear phenomenon, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of braking on tire wear. Finally, a modified tire is discussed in terms of its wear performance under rollout and braking operations.

  4. The effect of runway surface and braking on Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1992-10-01

    In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented. Also, in an ongoing program to evaluate the origin of various tire wear phenomenon, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of braking on tire wear. Finally, a modified tire is discussed in terms of its wear performance under rollout and braking operations.

  5. THE EFFECT OF SEED TREATMENT ON THE MAIN PATHOGENS PRESENT IN WHEAT AGROECOSYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    Stef, R; Grozea, I; Puia, C; Carabet, A; Vlad, M; Manea, D

    2014-01-01

    Wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.) from Poaceae family is affected by many diseases that cause yield losses. The present paper addresses a topic of economic, agrotechnics and social importance of wheat crop (occupying the first place among the Romanian cultivated crop, feeding 35 to 40% of world population). The study had as main objective product testing like Yunta 246 FS (imidacloprid 233 g/l + tebuconazol 13 g/l), Team Micorriza Plus (Glomus intraradices 150 spore/g + Glomus mosseae 150 spore/g + organic matter 56% and Rhizosphere Bacteria 107 UFC/g) and Condor (Trichoderma spp. 1 x 109 spore/g + Glomus sp. 10 spore/g + Rhizosphere Bacteria 1 x 107 UFC/g and organic matter 7%) applied in the pathosystem wheat/pathogens. The research was conducted in the western part of Romania, in 2010-2012, experience was placed after Latin rectangle method with 10 variants (they are different by product and dose applied) and the data were statistically interpreted. Results showed the presence of pathogens Septoria tritici, Drechslera tritici repentis and Drechslera teres in experimental variants. Statistical analysis showed that the most effective chemical mixture was imidacloprid + tebuconazol at the highest dose tested (3 l/t). Regarding the non-chemical product testing, the product Condor gave positive results. The highest values of quality parameters (protein and gluten) were obtained in the variants treated with Yunta 246 FS. PMID:26080483

  6. Therapeutic effect of interventional therapy for unprotected left main coronary artery lesions in aged patients

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhong-Hai; Song, Jie; Wang, Lian; Zhang, Jing-Mei; Huang, Wei; Xu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assesse the therapeutic effect of interventional therapy in aged patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (UPLM) lesions. Methods A total of 61 patients who were over 60 years and accepted interventional therapy of UPLM from January 2012 to November 2013 in our hospital were followed up for average 14.6 months by telephone call or outpatient visits. We analyzed the clinical features data of the interventional therapy and assessed the factors that likely influenced the clinical prognosis. Results The average age of the 61 patients was 73.9 years. The average left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 47.7%. The median of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 52 mL/min per 1.73 mm2. The average SYNTAX score was 27.4 and the median of stent length was 36 mm. The cumulative incidence of cardiac death at 30 days and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after one year was 6.6% and 32.5% estimated by Kaplan-Meier plots respectively. No severe hemorrhagic complications were observed during follow-up period. On multivariate regression analysis with a COX proportional hazards model, LVEF was an independent predictor of cardiac death at 30 days [Hazard ratio (HR): 0.7, P = 0.01]. As for MACE after one year, LVEF and eGFR were both independent predictors (HR: 0.91, P = 0.06 for LVEF, HR: 0.03, P = 0.097 for eGFR). Conclusions The interventional therapy for UPLM was effective and safe in aged patients. LVEF was the only predictor of cardiac death at 30 days, while LVEF and eGFR were both independent predictors of MACE after one year. PMID:26788040

  7. Antispasmodic effects of Prangos ferulacea acetone extract and its main component osthole on ileum contraction

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H; Shokoohinia, Y; Sajjadi, S E; Mozafari, M

    2013-01-01

    Prangos ferulacea is a plant found in the Mediterranean and Middle-east regions used as carminative, anti-flatulent, emollient and antibacterial herb. It is believed that the coumarins are responsible for some of known effects of Prangos. In this research the relaxant effects of P. ferulacea coumrin rich extract as well as osthole as its main prenylated coumarins were investigated on rat ileum contraction in vitro. Relaxant effect of osthole and P. ferulacea extract were examined on contraction induced by KCl, acetylcholine (ACh) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) and compared with propantheline and nifedipine. The acetone extract of P. ferulacea concentration-dependently relaxed ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=1.3 ± 0.25 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=7.7 ± 1.1 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=8.8 ± 1.4 μg/ml), while, the extract at lower concentration (4 μg/ml) potentiated the ACh and EFS responses. Unlike the extract, osthole did not potentiate the ileum contraction but concentration-dependently inhibited ileum contractile responses to KCl (IC50=2.2 ± 0.7 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=2.5 ± 0.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=2.8 ± 0.24 μg/ml). Propantheline concentration dependently inhibited the ileum response to ACh, with IC50 value of 0.61 ± 0.09nM without affecting the KCl response. As expected, the EFS response was only partially reduced. Nifedipine (0.2-50 nM) inhibited tonic contraction induced by KCl with IC50 value of 2.5 ± 0.8 nM but only partially inhibited the response to ACh. However, the response to EFS was reduced only by 33%. These results confirmed both potentiatory and inhibitory action of P. ferulacea extract on rat ileum contractile activity. Osthole is responsible for the inhibitory effect but potentiating components are not yet known. PMID:24019823

  8. Additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects on preweaning weight gain of crossbred beef cattle from different Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Roso, V M; Schenkel, F S; Miller, S P; Wilton, J W

    2005-08-01

    (Co)variance components, direct and maternal breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects on preweaning weight gain of beef cattle were estimated. Data were from 478,466 animals in Ontario, Canada, from 1986 to 1999, including records of both purebred and crossbred animals from Angus, Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Salers, Shorthorn, and Simmental breeds. The genetic model included fixed direct and maternal breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects, fixed environmental effects of age of the calf, contemporary group, and age of the dam x sex of the calf, random additive direct and maternal genetic effects, and random maternal permanent environment effects. Estimates of direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and residual variances, expressed as proportions of the phenotypic variance, were 0.32, 0.20, 0.12, and 0.52, respectively. Correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects was -0.63. Breed ranking was similar to previous studies, but estimates showed large SE. The favorable effects of direct and maternal dominance (P < 0.05) on preweaning gain were equivalent to 1.3 and 2.3% of the phenotypic mean of purebred calves, respectively. The same features for direct and maternal epistatic loss effects were -2.2% (P < 0.05) and -0.1% (P > 0.05). The large SE of breed effects were likely due to multicollinearity among predictor variables and deficiencies in the dataset to separate direct and maternal effects and may result in a less reliable ranking of the animals for across breed comparisons. Further research to identify the causes of the instability of estimates of breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss genetic effects, and application of alternative statistical methods is recommended.

  9. Additive Effects of Word Frequency and Stimulus Quality: The Influence of Trial History and Data Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, David A.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Yap, Melvin J.

    2013-01-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear…

  10. Modulation of Additive and Interactive Effects in Lexical Decision by Trial History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model…

  11. The Additional-Mass Effect of Plates as Determined by Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William

    1941-01-01

    The apparent increase in the inertia properties of a body moving in a fluid medium has been called the additional-mass effect. This report presents a resume of test procedures and results of experimental determinations of the additional-mass effect of flat plates. In addition to data obtained from various foreign sources and from a NACA investigation in 1933, the results of tests recently conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are included.

  12. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    -specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of three categories as described above:Core Panel;Secondary Targets (conditions that are part of the differential diagnosis of a core panel condition.); andNot Appropriate for Newborn Screening (either no newborn screening test is available or there is poor performance with regard to multiple other evaluation criteria). ACMG also considered features of optimal newborn screening programs beyond the tests themselves by assessing the degree to which programs met certain goals (e.g., availability of educational programs, proportions of newborns screened and followed up). Assessments were based on the input of experts serving in various capacities in newborn screening programs and on 2002 data provided by the programs of the National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center (NNSGRC). In addition, a brief cost-effectiveness assessment of newborn screening was conducted. Results: Uniform panel A total of 292 individuals determined to be generally representative of the regional distribution of the United States population and of areas of expertise or involvement in newborn screening provided a total of 3,949 evaluations of 84 conditions. For each condition, the responses of at least three experts in that condition were compared with those of all respondents for that condition and found to be consistent. A score of 1,200 on the data collection instrument provided a logical separation point between high scoring conditions (1,200–1,799 of a possible 2,100) and low scoring (<1,000) conditions. A group of conditions with intermediate scores (1,000–1,199) was identified, all of which were part of the differential diagnosis of a high scoring condition or apparent in the result of the multiplex assay. Some are identified by screening laboratories and others by diagnostic laboratories. This group was designated as a “secondary target” category for which the program must report the diagnostic result

  13. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingping; An, Qi; Song, Shanshan; Gao, Dongni; Ping, Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%), and significantly higher than the control group (50%). The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases. PMID:26167907

  14. Dopaminergic, Serotonergic, and Oxytonergic Candidate Genes Associated with Infant Attachment Security and Disorganization? In Search of Main and Interaction Effects

    PubMed Central

    Luijk, Maartje P. C. M.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.; Tiemeier, Henning; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Belsky, Jay; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tharner, Anne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and methods In two birth cohort studies with genetic, sensitive parenting, and attachment data of more than 1,000 infants in total, we tested main and interaction effects of candidate genes involved in the dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin systems (DRD4, DRD2, COMT, 5-HTT, OXTR) on attachment security and disorganization. Parenting was assessed using observational rating scales for parental sensitivity (Ainsworth, Bell, & Stayton, 1974), and infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure. Results We found no consistent additive genetic associations for attachment security and attachment disorganization. However, specific tests revealed evidence for a co-dominant risk model for COMT Val158Met, consistent across both samples. Children with the Val/Met genotype showed higher disorganization scores (combined effect size d = 0.22, CI = 0.10; 0.34, p < .001). Gene-by-environment interaction effects were not replicable across the two samples. Conclusions This unexpected finding might be explained by a broader range of plasticity in heterozygotes, which may increase susceptibility to environmental influences or to dysregulation of emotional arousal. This study is unique in combining the two largest attachment cohorts with molecular genetic and observed rearing environment data to date. PMID:21749372

  15. Effects of late holocene forest disturbance and vegetation change on acidic mud pond, Maine, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, T.E.; Davis, R.B.

    1995-04-01

    The limnological effects of natural forest disturbance and succession were studied by analyzing the chemistry, charcoal, pollen, chrysophytes, and diatoms in sediments deposited from {approx}3500 to {approx}700 yr BP in Mud Pond, Maine. Fine-grained sediments rich in organic matter are interrupted every 100-500 yr ({bar X} = 280) by coarser, more minerogenic sediments, reflecting soil erosion. The disturbance horizons contain high concentrations of charcoal, indicating forest fires, low percentages of pollen of late-successional trees such as Tsuga, and high percentages of pollen and spores of early-successional plants such as shrubs and ferns. Within a few decades, pollen percentages of Alnus peak, followed by Betula. Tsuga pollen percentages increase for 200-400 yr after disturbances, and generally stabilize or decrease several decades before the next disturbance. Limnological responses to these changes are indicated by high percentages of diatoms and chrysophytes of waters of near neutral pH. Diatom-inferred pH typically increases abruptly from {approx}5.0 to {approx}6.1, and chrysophyte-inferred pH from {approx}5.5 to {approx}5.8 at disturbance horizons. These increases may be caused by increased wood ash and mineral soils after disturbances. This pulse is followed by a two-step recovery. First the inferred pH decreases nearly to the pre-disturbance condition. This response likely results from soil stabilization and uptake of base cations by successional vegetation. Second, a slower acidification of {approx}0.1 pH unit per century occurs as early successional shrubs and hardwood forest are replaced by old-growth conifer forest. Increasing percentages of pollen of Picea, Alnus, and Salix by 1350 yr BP, and decreasing percentages of hemlock and beech around 1350 yr BP imply cooler conditions. Large changes in diatom and chrysophyte assemblages in approximately this period may be related. 64 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Non-additive effects of litter diversity on greenhouse gas emissions from alpine steppe soil in Northern Tibet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youchao; Sun, Jian; Xie, Fangting; Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiaodan; Cheng, Genwei; Lu, Xuyang

    2015-12-04

    While litter decomposition is a fundamental ecological process, previous studies have mainly focused on the decay of single species. In this study, we conducted a litter-mixing experiment to investigate litter diversity effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an alpine steppe soil in Northern Tibet. Significant non-additive effects of litter diversity on GHG dynamics can be detected; these non-additive effects were the result of species composition rather than species richness. Synergistic effects were frequent for CO2 and N2O emissions, as they were found to occur in 70.5% and 47.1% of total cases, respectively; antagonistic effects on CH4 uptake predominated in 60.3% of the cases examined. The degree of synergism and antagonism may be significantly impacted by litter chemical traits, such as lignin and N, lignin:N ratio, and total phenols during decomposition (P < 0.05). In addition, the relationship between chemical traits and litter-mixing effects changed over incubation time. Our study provides an opportunity to gain insight into the relationship between litter diversity and soil ecological processes. The results indicate that higher plant diversity may generally enhance CO2 and N2O emissions while inhibiting CH4 uptake; meanwhile, the direction and strength of non-additive effects appear to be related to litter chemical traits.

  17. Non-additive effects of litter diversity on greenhouse gas emissions from alpine steppe soil in Northern Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Youchao; Sun, Jian; Xie, Fangting; Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiaodan; Cheng, Genwei; Lu, Xuyang

    2015-01-01

    While litter decomposition is a fundamental ecological process, previous studies have mainly focused on the decay of single species. In this study, we conducted a litter-mixing experiment to investigate litter diversity effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an alpine steppe soil in Northern Tibet. Significant non-additive effects of litter diversity on GHG dynamics can be detected; these non-additive effects were the result of species composition rather than species richness. Synergistic effects were frequent for CO2 and N2O emissions, as they were found to occur in 70.5% and 47.1% of total cases, respectively; antagonistic effects on CH4 uptake predominated in 60.3% of the cases examined. The degree of synergism and antagonism may be significantly impacted by litter chemical traits, such as lignin and N, lignin:N ratio, and total phenols during decomposition (P < 0.05). In addition, the relationship between chemical traits and litter-mixing effects changed over incubation time. Our study provides an opportunity to gain insight into the relationship between litter diversity and soil ecological processes. The results indicate that higher plant diversity may generally enhance CO2 and N2O emissions while inhibiting CH4 uptake; meanwhile, the direction and strength of non-additive effects appear to be related to litter chemical traits. PMID:26634911

  18. The Effect of Acoustic Disturbances on the Operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Fuel Flowmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Szabo, Roland; Dorney, Dan; Zoladz, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) uses a turbine fuel flowmeter (FFM) in its Low Pressure Fuel Duct (LPFD) to measure liquid hydrogen flowrates during engine operation. The flowmeter is required to provide accurate and robust measurements of flow rates ranging from 10000 to 18000 GPM in an environment contaminated by duct vibration and duct internal acoustic disturbances. Errors exceeding 0.5% can have a significant impact on engine operation and mission completion. The accuracy of each sensor is monitored during hot-fire engine tests on the ground. Flow meters which do not meet requirements are not flown. Among other parameters, the device is screened for a specific behavior in which a small shift in the flow rate reading is registered during a period in which the actual fuel flow as measured by a facility meter does not change. Such behavior has been observed over the years for specific builds of the FFM and must be avoided or limited in magnitude in flight. Various analyses of the recorded data have been made prior to this report in an effort to understand the cause of the phenomenon; however, no conclusive cause for the shift in the instrument behavior has been found. The present report proposes an explanation of the phenomenon based on interactions between acoustic pressure disturbances in the duct and the wakes produced by the FFM flow straightener. Physical insight into the effects of acoustic plane wave disturbances was obtained using a simple analytical model. Based on that model, a series of three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the MSFC PHANTOM turbomachinery code. The code was customized to allow the FFM rotor speed to change at every time step according to the instantaneous fluid forces on the rotor, that, in turn, are affected by acoustic plane pressure waves propagating through the device. The results of the simulations show the variation in the rotation rate of the flowmeter

  19. Effect of Trolox addition to cryopreservation media on human sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Mohammad Baqer; Barbarestani, Mohammad; Nekoonam, Saeid; Abdolvahabi, Mir Abbas; Takzare, Nasrin; Asadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hedayatpour, Azim; Amidi, Fardin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sperm parameters and motion kinetics are affected by cryopreservation. Objective: The main purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of Trolox as an antioxidant to freezing-thawing procedure on human sperm kinematic parameter. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected from 20 normal donors and divided into five aliquots prior to cryopreservation. The first aliquot was analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Other aliquots were mixed with cryo-protective agent containing 0, 20, 40, and 80 µmol Trolox and treated samples were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. After two weeks samples were thawed and sperm motion kinematics was measured by CASA. Percent motility (Mot), curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) were compared before and after freeze. Results: Addition of 40µmol Trolox resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) post thaw VCL, VSL and VAP compared to other groups. Therefore the percentage of post thaw motile spermatozoa were significantly higher (p<0.01). Conclusion: The supplementation of Trolox significantly improved the post-thawed human semen quality, especially progressive motility and average path velocity. PMID:25242981

  20. Effect of two natural light regimes and nutrient addition on the forest herb Begonia decandra (Begoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Cordero, R A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of two natural light-growing conditions (understory versus light gaps) and the interaction with nutrient availability (through fertilization) were studied in the understory herb Begonia decandra, in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Sixteen potted plants obtained from cuttings were randomly chosen and distributed in each of eighth forest environments (four light gaps and four understories), for a total of 128 plants. Fertilizer was applied to half of the plants in each site. After seven months in the two given microenvironments, increased light and fertilization resulted in greater growth and some changes in the biomass allocation patterns. All measured variables responded similarly to reported changes for tree seedlings and saplings from other tropical and subtropical regions. Total growth parameters (height, biomass and leaf area) were very sensitive to increases in the main resource (light). The addition of nutrients was less important in producing changes in the allocation variables (root to shoot ratio, leaf area ratio, and specific leaf mass) under conditions of high light availability. Changes due to nutrient levels were relatively greater on plants grown under under-story conditions. Also, small light differences among sites can cause significant changes in the variables related to total growth. Lastly, plant mortality in the nutrient treatments was found to be independent of mortality in two forest light environments. Some hypotheses about resource acquisition and plant growth are not supported by this data.

  1. Temperature and Atomic Oxygen Effects on Helium Leak Rates of a Candidate Main Interface Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penney, Nicholas; Wasowski, Janice L.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Helium leak tests were completed to characterize the leak rate of a 54 in. diameter composite space docking seal design in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). The evaluated seal design was a candidate for the main interface seal on the LIDS, which would be compressed between two vehicles, while docked, to prevent the escape of breathable air from the vehicles and into the vacuum of space. Leak tests completed at nominal temperatures of -30, 20, and 50 C on untreated and atomic oxygen (AO) exposed test samples were examined to determine the influence of both test temperature and AO exposure on the performance of the composite seal assembly. Results obtained for untreated seal samples showed leak rates which increased with increased test temperature. This general trend was not observed in tests of the AO exposed specimens. Initial examination of collected test data suggested that AO exposure resulted in higher helium leak rates, however, further analysis showed that the differences observed in the 20 and 50 C tests between the untreated and AO exposed samples were within the experimental error of the test method. Lack of discernable trends in the test data prevented concrete conclusions about the effects of test temperature and AO exposure on helium leak rates of the candidate seal design from being drawn. To facilitate a comparison of the current test data with results from previous leak tests using air as the test fluid, helium leak rates were converted to air leak rates using standard conversion factors for viscous and molecular flow. Flow rates calculated using the viscous flow conversion factor were significantly higher than the experimental air leakage values, whereas values calculated using the molecular flow conversion factor were significantly lower than the experimentally obtained air leak rates. The difference in these sets of converted flow rates and their deviation from the

  2. Effects of genotype, wilting, and additives on the nutritive value and fermentation of bermudagrass silage.

    PubMed

    Vendramini, J M B; Aguiar, A D; Adesogan, A T; Sollenberger, L E; Alves, E; Galzerano, L; Salvo, P; Valente, A L; Arriola, K G; Ma, Z X; Oliveira, F C L

    2016-07-01

    Bermudagrass is the main warm-season grass species used for livestock production in the southeastern United States; however, when it is ensiled, the silage fermentation parameters are often less than desirable. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of management practices on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of bermudagrass silage. In Exp. 1, treatments were the factorial combinations of 2 bermudagrass genotypes, 'Jiggs' () and 'Tifton 85' ( sp.), 4 additives, and 2 DM concentrations at ensiling. The additives were 1) untreated control (deionized water), 2) Ecosyl, 3) B500, or 4) sugarcane molasses. The 2 DM concentrations at ensiling were low DM (22% DM) or high DM (53% DM). Treatments were replicated 3 times in a completely randomized design. Silage treated with molasses had a lesser ( < 0.05) pH and greater ( < 0.01) lactate concentrations than the control, Ecosyl, and B500 in silage with low DM concentrations and greater ( < 0.01) in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) and lesser ( < 0.01) ADF concentrations than the other treatments at either DM concentration. Silage treated with B500 had the greatest ( < 0.01) aerobic stability, whereas that treated with molasses had the least aerobic stability. However, all treatments presented long aerobic stability (≥150 h). Jiggs had lesser ( < 0.01) ADF and NDF and NDF digestibility (NDFD) concentrations than Tifton 85 and Tifton 85 had greater ( < 0.01) IVTD than Jiggs in the silage with a high DM concentration. In Exp. 2, Jiggs silage treated with either molasses (20 g molasses [DM]/kg forage [as-fed basis]) or nothing (control, untreated silage) was fed to 16 beef heifers ( sp.) in individual drylot pens in a completely randomized design with 8 replicates for voluntary DMI, in vivo apparent DM digestibility, and NDFD evaluations. There were no differences ( = 0.36) among treatments in NDFD; however, there was a trend ( < 0.08) for greater in vivo apparent DM digestibility and DMI

  3. Effects of genotype, wilting, and additives on the nutritive value and fermentation of bermudagrass silage.

    PubMed

    Vendramini, J M B; Aguiar, A D; Adesogan, A T; Sollenberger, L E; Alves, E; Galzerano, L; Salvo, P; Valente, A L; Arriola, K G; Ma, Z X; Oliveira, F C L

    2016-07-01

    Bermudagrass is the main warm-season grass species used for livestock production in the southeastern United States; however, when it is ensiled, the silage fermentation parameters are often less than desirable. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of management practices on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of bermudagrass silage. In Exp. 1, treatments were the factorial combinations of 2 bermudagrass genotypes, 'Jiggs' () and 'Tifton 85' ( sp.), 4 additives, and 2 DM concentrations at ensiling. The additives were 1) untreated control (deionized water), 2) Ecosyl, 3) B500, or 4) sugarcane molasses. The 2 DM concentrations at ensiling were low DM (22% DM) or high DM (53% DM). Treatments were replicated 3 times in a completely randomized design. Silage treated with molasses had a lesser ( < 0.05) pH and greater ( < 0.01) lactate concentrations than the control, Ecosyl, and B500 in silage with low DM concentrations and greater ( < 0.01) in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) and lesser ( < 0.01) ADF concentrations than the other treatments at either DM concentration. Silage treated with B500 had the greatest ( < 0.01) aerobic stability, whereas that treated with molasses had the least aerobic stability. However, all treatments presented long aerobic stability (≥150 h). Jiggs had lesser ( < 0.01) ADF and NDF and NDF digestibility (NDFD) concentrations than Tifton 85 and Tifton 85 had greater ( < 0.01) IVTD than Jiggs in the silage with a high DM concentration. In Exp. 2, Jiggs silage treated with either molasses (20 g molasses [DM]/kg forage [as-fed basis]) or nothing (control, untreated silage) was fed to 16 beef heifers ( sp.) in individual drylot pens in a completely randomized design with 8 replicates for voluntary DMI, in vivo apparent DM digestibility, and NDFD evaluations. There were no differences ( = 0.36) among treatments in NDFD; however, there was a trend ( < 0.08) for greater in vivo apparent DM digestibility and DMI

  4. Effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and subsequent methane production by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Ge, Xumeng; Liew, Lo Niee; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yebo

    2015-09-01

    The effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and sequential anaerobic digestion (AD) of the ensiled giant reed was evaluated. The dry matter loss during ensilage (up to 90 days) with or without urea addition was about 1%. Addition of 2% urea enhanced production of lactic acid by about 4 times, and reduced production of propionic acid by 2-8 times. Besides, urea addition reduced degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and increased degradation of lignin in giant reed during ensilage. Ensilage with or without urea addition had no significant effects on the enzymatic digestibility of giant reed, but ensilage with urea addition achieved a cumulative methane yield of 173 L/kg VS, which was 18% higher than that of fresh giant reed. The improved methane yield of giant reed could be attributed to the production of organic acids and ethanol during ensilage.

  5. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  6. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition between two larval salamanders.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Thomas L; Whiteman, Howard H

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of the relative strengths of intra- and interspecific competition has increased in recent years and is critical to understanding the importance of competition. Yet, whether intra- and interspecific competition can have non-additive effects has rarely been tested. The resulting fitness consequences of such non-additive interactions are important to provide the context necessary to advance our understanding of competition theory. We compared the strength of additive and non-additive intra- and interspecific competition by manipulating densities of a pair of larval salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum) in experimental mesocosms within a response surface design. Intraspecific density had the strongest effect on the strength of competition for both species, and few observed comparisons indicated interspecific competition was an important factor in predicting body size, growth or larval period length of either species. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition influenced some response variables, including size and mass at metamorphosis in A. maculatum, but at a reduced strength compared to intraspecific effects alone. Intraspecific competition was thus the dominant biotic interaction, but non-additive effects also impact the outcome of competition in these species, validating the importance of testing for and incorporating non-additive density effects into competition models.

  7. [Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions.

  8. Effectiveness of the Touch Math Technique in Teaching Basic Addition to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yikmis, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to reveal whether the touch math technique is effective in teaching basic addition to children with autism. The dependent variable of this study is the children's skills to solve addition problems correctly, whereas teaching with the touch math technique is the independent variable. Among the single-subject research models, a…

  9. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examination of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents…

  10. Effects of biological pit additives on microbial ecology of stored pig manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of biological pit additives on microbial ecology in stored pig manure were investigated using a dynamic manure storage system, which allowed for continual addition of swine feces and urine. After 13 weeks of manure collection and storage, four treatments were added to tanks (900 L capaci...

  11. 75 FR 34360 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... (75 FR 14491), FDA amended the color additive regulations in Sec. 73.2110 (21 CFR 73.2110) by...: The effective date for the final rule published in the Federal Register of March 26, 2010 (75 FR 14491... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt...

  12. The Effect of the Heat of Impact on the Activation of Main Belt Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, J.; Maindl, T. I.; Haghighipour, N.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.; Kley, W.

    2016-08-01

    Main Belt Comets' activity is assumed to be driven by the sublimation of volatiles, making them candidates for the delivery of a part of Earth's water. We simulate impacts of smaller objects that could have played a major role in activating them.

  13. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  14. Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Ozturk, Mustafa; Gultekin, Fatih

    2013-08-01

    Artificial food colourings and additives (AFCAs) have long been suggested to adversely affect the learning and behaviour in children. In this study, we aimed to provide additional data to clarify the possible side effects of colouring additives on behaviour and memory. We administered acceptable daily intake values of AFCAs as a mixture (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation and then tested their effects on behaviour and on spatial working memory in their offspring. Effects on spatial learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze, behavioural effects were evaluated by open-field test and forced swim test. Our results showed that commonly used artificial food colourings have no adverse effects on spatial working memory and did not create a depressive behaviour in offspring. But they showed a few significant effects on locomotor activity as AFCAs increased some parameters of locomotor activity. PMID:22323474

  15. A New Semi-Empirical Technique For Computing Effective Temperatures For Main Sequence Stars From Their Mass And Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Gürkan; Soydugan, Faruk; Eker, Zeki; Bilir, Selçuk; Bakış, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    A semi-empirical technique of improving effective temperature for main sequence stars from their observed mass and radius based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law, was introduced and applied to 450 main-sequence stars with accurate parameters. The method requires a mass-luminosity relation (MLR) and theoretical predictions of radius and effective temperature for stars at zero age main-sequence and at terminal age main-sequence. The MLRs, which act as if a catalyst, are necessary but have no effect on the final result. The present sample of main-sequence stars, which are members of the detached double-lined eclipsing binaries in the solar neighborhood chosen from Eker et al. (2014), have an error histogram for the observed effective temperatures with a peak at 2-3%. Errors of refined effective temperatures by the present method are the propagated errors of the observed masses and radii, that is, the refined temperatures and associated errors are independent of the observational temperatures and their associated errors. The histogram of the refined temperature errors shows a peak at less than 1%. A refined sample of stars (270 out of 450) with masses and radii accurate up to 3% and their refined effective temperatures has been used in this study to improve the classical MLRs. One may prefer, however, to use improved classical MLRs, which allows one to compute effective temperatures as accurate as 3.5%.

  16. Effects of Roundup formulations, nutrient addition, and Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) on aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Rebecca L; Smith, Geoffrey R; Rettig, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Aquatic communities can be affected by herbicides, nutrient addition, and non-native fish species. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to examine the direct and interactive effects of three stressors: (1) Roundup formulations (Roundup Weed and Grass Killer(®) and Roundup Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer Plus(®)), (2) nutrient addition, and (3) the presence of the non-native Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), on experimental pond communities. Roundup formulations had the most widespread effects on the zooplankton community, but effects varied between formulations and among taxa. The only significant effect of nutrient addition was a lowering of Daphnia abundance in the nutrient addition treatments. The abundances of Daphnia, mid-sized cladocerans, and total zooplankton were lowered by mosquitofish, but no other taxa showed significant mosquitofish effects. We found several two-way and three-way interactions among the stressors, but these varied among zooplankton taxa. Chlorophyll a levels were higher with nutrient addition but were not significantly affected by Roundup formulation or mosquitofish. Our results suggest toxicity of Roundup formulations varies among taxa, and Roundup formulations differ in their toxicity to zooplankton, but with no cascading effects on primary producers. In addition, interactions among stressors affected the zooplankton community.

  17. Effects of Roundup formulations, nutrient addition, and Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) on aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Rebecca L; Smith, Geoffrey R; Rettig, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Aquatic communities can be affected by herbicides, nutrient addition, and non-native fish species. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to examine the direct and interactive effects of three stressors: (1) Roundup formulations (Roundup Weed and Grass Killer(®) and Roundup Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer Plus(®)), (2) nutrient addition, and (3) the presence of the non-native Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), on experimental pond communities. Roundup formulations had the most widespread effects on the zooplankton community, but effects varied between formulations and among taxa. The only significant effect of nutrient addition was a lowering of Daphnia abundance in the nutrient addition treatments. The abundances of Daphnia, mid-sized cladocerans, and total zooplankton were lowered by mosquitofish, but no other taxa showed significant mosquitofish effects. We found several two-way and three-way interactions among the stressors, but these varied among zooplankton taxa. Chlorophyll a levels were higher with nutrient addition but were not significantly affected by Roundup formulation or mosquitofish. Our results suggest toxicity of Roundup formulations varies among taxa, and Roundup formulations differ in their toxicity to zooplankton, but with no cascading effects on primary producers. In addition, interactions among stressors affected the zooplankton community. PMID:26944427

  18. An atomic view of additive mutational effects in a protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, M.M.; Terwilliger, T.C.

    1996-04-01

    Substitution of a single amino acid in a protein will often lead to substantial changes in properties. If these properties could be altered in a rational way then proteins could be readily generated with functions tailored to specific uses. When amino acid substitutions are made at well-separated locations in a single protein, their effects are generally additive. Additivity of effects of amino acid substitutions is very useful because the properties of proteins with any combination of substitutions can be inferred directly from those of the proteins with single changes. It would therefore be of considerable interest to have a means of knowing whether substitutions at a particular pair of sites in a protein are likely to lead to additive effects. The structural basis for additivity of effects of mutations on protein function was examined by determining crystal structures of single and double mutants in the hydrophobic core of gene V protein. Structural effects of mutations were found to be cumulative when two mutations were made in a single protein. Additivity occurs in this case because the regions structurally affected by mutations at the two sites do not overlap even though the sites are separated by only 9 {angstrom}. Structural distortions induced by mutations in gene V protein decrease rapidly, but not isotropically, with distance from the site of mutation. It is anticipated that cases where structural and functional effects of mutations will be additive could be identified simply by examining whether the regions structurally affected by each component mutation overlap.

  19. Negative effects of commercial mussel dragging on eelgrass beds in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neckles, H.A.; Short, F.T.; Barker, S.; Kopp, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    A study by the US Geological Survey, the University of New Hampshire, and the Maine Department of Marine Resources showed that commercial mussel dragging poses a severe and long-lasting threat to eelgrass (Zostera marina). Dragging can damage large areas, with individual drag scars up to 79 acres in size found in Maine eelgrass beds. Dragging activity uproots eelgrass plants completely, removing leaves, rhizomes, and roots. Two independent methods were used to predict the rate of eelgrass recovery in heavily dragged areas. Under the best environmental conditions, complete revegetation of a dragged area would require an average of 11 years. Under conditions less favorable for eelgrass growth, such as reduced water quality, dragged areas could require more than 20 years to recover. Protection of eelgrass from commercial shellfish dragging will preserve important coastal habitat.

  20. Effect of a chromium-containing fuel additive on hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Four superalloys were tested at 900 C in high velocity combustion gases containing synthetic sea salt and, in some cases, a chromium containing fuel additive. While the additive reduced hot corrosion of the alloys over the 100 hour test period, the attack was not eliminated nor was the mode of attack changed. Reduction of the number of thermal cycles had as large a beneficial effect as the Cr additive. Intermittent washing during testing had either small beneficial or adverse effects depending on the alloy.

  1. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  2. Doping Effect of Nano-Ybco Additive on MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, X. F.; Sun, X. F.; Xu, X. L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, H.

    The effect of YBCO nanoparticles added into MgB2 on Tc, Jc, and flux pinning was studied for MgB2(YBCO)x with x=0, 5, 10, 15 wt%. Phase analysis shows that none of elements are doped into the MgB2 lattice in the samples with YBCO addition. For the samples with YBCO addition, the Jc-H characteristics behave poorly in comparison with the pure sample. Our experimental results show that the nanoscale size of addition dosen't comprise the only condition for its effectiveness as pinning centers.

  3. THE EFFECTS AND POSSIBLE ORIGINS OF MAINS RIPPLE IN THE VICINITY OF THE BETATRON SPECTRUM.

    SciTech Connect

    CAMERON, P.; GASIOR, M.; JONES, R.; TAN, C.

    2005-06-06

    With the advent of significant improvement in the sensitivity of observation of the betatron spectrum, the appearance of spectral lines at harmonics of the mains power frequency has been observed in the PS and SPS at CERN, the Tevatron at FNAL, and RHIC at BNL. These lines are potentially problematic for accurate tune tracking and the implementation of tune feedback We discuss the possible origins of these lines, and present data to support our discussion.

  4. Some Thoughts about Resilience versus Positive Development, Main Effects versus Interactions, and the Value of Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies interaction effects as the defining feature of resilience and resilience research. Maintains that interaction effects are responsible for the unique contributions of this field of study to the understanding of human development. Suggests that the methodological and statistical challenges posed by interaction effects do not, by…

  5. [Effects of nitrogen addition on red soil microbes in the Cinnamomum camphora plantation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Pei-Yi; Zhu, Fan; Su, Shao-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Wen-De

    2013-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen addition on the red soil microbial communities in Cinnamomum camphora plantation, three treatments of nitrogen addition were designated as control (N0: 0 g x m(-2)), low nitrogen (N1: 5 g x m(-2)) and high nitrogen (N2 :15 g x m(-2)). Soil microbial numbers, microbial biomass carbon (C), biomass N and microbial community functional diversity were analyzed using the methods of plate counting, chloroform fumigation and BIOLOG system, respectively. The results showed that the numbers of bacteria in N1 and N2 were significantly higher than the control 1 month after nitrogen addition, but significantly lower than the control 13 months after nitrogen addition, and the number of fungi and actinomycetes were not significantly changed after nitrogen addition. The soil microbial biomass C, N increased with the increase of nitrogen at 1 month, but the soil microbial biomass C increased significantly 13 months after nitrogen addition when compared with 1 month after nitrogen addition. The soil microbial biomass N was lower 13 months after nitrogen addition when compared with 1 month after nitrogen addition, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The variation of the carbon utilization efficiency of soil microbial communities was resulted from the nitrogen addition. The indices of Shannon index, Simpson index and McIntosh index were calculated to show the differences in nitrogen treatments and in times, which turned out to be insignificant.

  6. Nitrogen Addition Altered the Effect of Belowground C Allocation on Soil Respiration in a Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    He, Tongxin; Wang, Qingkui; Wang, Silong; Zhang, Fangyue

    2016-01-01

    The availabilities of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil play an important role in soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. However, the variation in the soil respiration (Rs) and response of microbial community to the combined changes in belowground C and N inputs in forest ecosystems are not yet fully understood. Stem girdling and N addition were performed in this study to evaluate the effects of C supply and N availability on Rs and soil microbial community in a subtropical forest. The trees were girdled on 1 July 2012. Rs was monitored from July 2012 to November 2013, and soil microbial community composition was also examined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) 1 year after girdling. Results showed that Rs decreased by 40.5% with girdling alone, but N addition only did not change Rs. Interestingly, Rs decreased by 62.7% under the girdling with N addition treatment. The reducing effect of girdling and N addition on Rs differed between dormant and growing seasons. Girdling alone reduced Rs by 33.9% in the dormant season and 54.8% in the growing season compared with the control. By contrast, girdling with N addition decreased Rs by 59.5% in the dormant season and 65.4% in the growing season. Girdling and N addition significantly decreased the total and bacterial PLFAs. Moreover, the effect of N addition was greater than girdling. Both girdling and N addition treatments separated the microbial groups on the basis of the first principal component through principal component analysis compared with control. This indicated that girdling and N addition changed the soil microbial community composition. However, the effect of girdling with N addition treatment separated the microbial groups on the basis of the second principal component compared to N addition treatment, which suggested N addition altered the effect of girdling on soil microbial community composition. These results suggest that the increase in soil N availability by N deposition alters the effect of

  7. Effect of HLB of additives on the properties and drug release from the glyceryl monooleate matrices.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manish H; Paradkar, Anant

    2007-08-01

    Glyceryl monooleate (GMO) is an amphiphilic surfactant, which as such can solubilize hydrophilic, lipophilic and amphiphilic drug molecules in its different polarity regions. Addition of additives with different polarities in GMO leads to change in phase behavior and related properties of GMO. Effect of the additives with different hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB; 1.5, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 11) in GMO matrices on its phase transformation, rheological properties, mechanical properties, wetting and release behavior was investigated. Polarizing light microscopy showed that the GMO matrices incorporated with lower HLB additive (1.5, 3, 4 and 5) form cubic phase at higher rate while lamellar phase was prominent for matrices with additive of HLB 7, 10 and 11. The diametrical crushing strength and viscosity was decreased with increased HLB of additive. Lower HLB additives enhanced contact angle as compared to plain matrices and high HLB additives induced change in solid-liquid interface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic leading to decline in contact angle. Percent swelling of matrices was increased linearly with increase in HLB of additives. Tensiometric method was used for determination of bioadhesive strength of hydrated matrices and it was observed that matrices with additives of HLB 10 presented highest bioadhesion due to higher rate of hydration and formation of lamellar phase. As the HLB of additives in matrix increased, release was shifted from anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion and/or partially erosion-controlled release to Fickian diffusion. Initial lag was observed for drug released from matrices with additive of HLB 1.5, 3, 4 and 5. Thus incorporation of the additives of different HLB changed molecular packing, which significantly affected drug release pattern.

  8. Thermal conditions on the International Space Station: Effects of operations of the station Main Radiators on the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Min; Burger, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    A thermal model of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station (ISS) has been developed, and Thermal Desktop® (with RadCAD®) and SINDA/FLUINT software have been used to calculate the effects of the operations of the ISS Main Radiators on AMS temperatures. We find that the ISS Starboard Main Radiator has significant influence on temperatures on the port side of AMS. The simulation results are used in AMS thermal control operations.

  9. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tobias L; Deutsch, Aaron J; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W J; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P; Nöthen, Markus M; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E; Tsoi, Lam C; van Heel, David A; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T; Gregersen, Peter K; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-09-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer substantial risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen-binding repertoires between a heterozygote's two expressed HLA variants might result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested the non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (ncases = 5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D; ncases = 5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (ncases = 3,089), idiopathic achalasia (ncases = 727) and celiac disease (ncases = 11,115). In four of the five diseases, we observed highly significant, non-additive dominance effects (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 2.5 × 10(-12); T1D, P = 2.4 × 10(-10); psoriasis, P = 5.9 × 10(-6); celiac disease, P = 1.2 × 10(-87)). In three of these diseases, the non-additive dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 1.8 × 10(-3); T1D, P = 8.6 × 10(-27); celiac disease, P = 6.0 × 10(-100)). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (rheumatoid arthritis, 1.4%; T1D, 4.0%; celiac disease, 4.1%) beyond a simple additive model. PMID:26258845

  10. Effects of soil warming and nitrogen addition on soil respiration in a New Zealand tussock grassland.

    PubMed

    Graham, Scott L; Hunt, John E; Millard, Peter; McSeveny, Tony; Tylianakis, Jason M; Whitehead, David

    2014-01-01

    Soil respiration (RS) represents a large terrestrial source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Global change drivers such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition are expected to alter the terrestrial carbon cycle with likely consequences for RS and its components, autotrophic (RA) and heterotrophic respiration (RH). Here we investigate the impacts of a 3°C soil warming treatment and a 50 kg ha(-1) y(-1) nitrogen addition treatment on RS, RH and their respective seasonal temperature responses in an experimental tussock grassland. Average respiration in untreated soils was 0.96±0.09 μmol m(-2) s(-1) over the course of the experiment. Soil warming and nitrogen addition increased RS by 41% and 12% respectively. These treatment effects were additive under combined warming and nitrogen addition. Warming increased RH by 37% while nitrogen addition had no effect. Warming and nitrogen addition affected the seasonal temperature response of RS by increasing the basal rate of respiration (R10) by 14% and 20% respectively. There was no significant interaction between treatments for R10. The treatments had no impact on activation energy (E0). The seasonal temperature response of RH was not affected by either warming or nitrogen addition. These results suggest that the additional CO2 emissions from New Zealand tussock grassland soils as a result of warming-enhanced RS constitute a potential positive feedback to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  11. Additive and Interactive Effects on Response Time Distributions in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Across 3 different word recognition tasks, distributional analyses were used to examine the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency on underlying response time distributions. Consistent with the extant literature, stimulus quality and word frequency produced additive effects in lexical decision, not only in the means but also in the…

  12. Cost-effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.; Moss, M.E.; Smath, J.A.; Thomas, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    Data uses and funding sources were identified for the 51 continuous stream gages currently being operated in Maine. Three stream-gages were identified as having insufficient reason to continue their operation. Operation of these stations were identified as having uses specific only to short-term studies; it is recommended that these stations be discontinued at the end of the data-collection phases of the studies. The remaining 45 stations should be maintained in the program for the foreseeable future. The current policy for operation of the 45-station program would require $180,300 per year. The average standard error of estimation of streamflow record is 18.5 percent. It was shown that this overall level of accuracy at the 45 sites could be maintained with a budget of $170,000 if the gaging resources were redistributed among the gages. A minimum budget of $155,000 is required to operate the 45-gage program; a budget less than this does not permit proper service and maintenance of the gages and recorders. At the minimum budget, the average standard error is 26.0 percent. The maximum budget analyzed was $350,000, which resulted in an average standard error of 9.2 percent. Large parts of Maine 's interior were identified as having sparse stream-flow data. It was recommended that this sparsity should be remedied as funds can be made available. (USGS)

  13. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on the turnoff ages of globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Willson, Bowen, and Struck-Marcell have proposed that globular cluster main-sequence turnoff ages can be reconciled with the lower ages of the Galaxy and universe deduced from other methods by incorporating an epoch of early main-sequence mass-loss by stars of spectral types A through early-F. The proposed mass loss is pulsation-driven, and facilitated by rapid rotation. This paper presents stellar evolution calculations of Pop. II (Z = 0.001) mass-losing stars of initial mass 0.8 to 1.6 M/sub /circle dot//, with exponentially-decreasing mass loss rates of e-folding times 0.5 to 2.0 Gyr, evolving to a final mass of 0.7 M/sub /circle dot//. The calculations indicate that a globular cluster with apparent turnoff age 18 Gyr could have an actual age as low as /approximately/12 Gyr. Observational implications that may help to verify the hypothesis, e.g. low C/N abundance ratios among red giants following first dredge-up, blue stragglers, red giant deficiencies, and signatures in cluster mass/luminosity functions, are also discussed.25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Effect of flange bolt preload on Space Shuttle main engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump housing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Johnston, L. M.; Czekalski, B.

    1991-01-01

    Cracks at the seal fillet flange and the strut pilot groove of primary turbine drain passage of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) were observed and reported. Stress information for critical structural components in the SSME under actual conditions is necessary for design and life prediction analysis. However, little information is available about the stress distribution at this location under various combinations of loadings and environments. Thus, a stress analysis was conducted to determine an influence of the various operation and installation loads on the stresses of the HPOTP main mounting flange. To do this, a 3-D finite element model of the HPOTP housing was generated. A fairly comfortable margin of stresses at the flange fillet with respect to the yield stress of Inconel 718 is shown. However, it was revealed that the bending stress arising from the housing flange bolt preloads could significantly affect the stress distribution at the strut pilot groove of primary turbine drain passage in the HPOTP housing. Consequently, the information obtained from the present 3-D analysis results should be useful in guiding the development of the SSME HPOTP.

  15. Interactive effects between N addition and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Annika; Strengbom, Joachim; From, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    In management of boreal forests, nitrogen (N) enrichment from atmospheric deposition or from forest fertilization can appear in combination with land-use related disturbances, i.e. tree harvesting by clear-felling. Long-term interactive effects between N enrichment and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function are, however, poorly known. We investigated effects of N enrichment by forest fertilization done > 25 years ago on forest understory species composition in old-growth (undisturbed) forests, and in forests clear-felled 10 years ago (disturbed). In clear-felled forests we also investigated effects of the previous N addition on growth of tree saplings. The results show that the N enrichment effect on the understory species composition was strongly dependent on the disturbance caused by clear-felling. In undisturbed forests, there were small or no effects on understory species composition from N addition. In contrast, effects were large in forests first exposed to N addition and subsequently disturbed by clear-felling. Effects of N addition differed among functional groups of plants. Abundance of graminoids increased (+232%) and abundance of dwarf shrubs decreased (-44%) following disturbance in N fertilized forests. For vascular plants, the two perturbations had contrasting effects on α-(within forests) and β-diversity (among forests): in disturbed forests, N addition reduced, or had no effect on α-diversity, while β-diversity increased. For bryophytes, negative effects of disturbance on α-diversity were smaller in N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized, while neither N addition nor disturbance had any effects on β-diversity. Moreover, sapling growth in forests clear-felled 10 years ago was significantly higher in previously N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized. Our study show that effects of N addition on plant communities may appear small, short-lived, or even absent until exposed to a disturbance. This

  16. Comparing Main and Collateral Effects of Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be…

  17. Comparing main and collateral effects of extinction and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior.

    PubMed

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be outweighed by the reported negative side effects that result. However, these collateral effects have rarely been measured or reported. DRA produced the most rapid reductions in behavior for 4 of the 5 participants. Other behaviors were measured for changes and showed that the desirable collateral effect of academic engagement tended to be higher during EXT than DRA. No evidence of EXT bursts was present with any participant, although EXT-induced aggression occurred with 1 participant.

  18. Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato.

    PubMed

    Sit, Nandan; Agrawal, U S; Deka, Sankar C

    2014-05-01

    Enzymatic treatment process for starch extraction from potato was investigated using cellulase enzyme and compared with conventional process. The effects of three parameters, cellulase enzyme concentration, incubation time and addition of water were evaluated for increase in starch yield as compared to the conventional process i.e., without using enzyme. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the process. The results indicated that all the main parameters and their interactions are statistically significant. Enzyme concentration and incubation time had a positive effect on the increase in starch yield while addition of water had a negative effect. The increase in starch yield ranged from 1.9% at low enzyme concentration and incubation time and high addition of water to a maximum of 70% increase from conventional process in starch yield was achieved when enzyme concentration and incubation time were high and addition of water was low suggesting water present in the ground potato meal is sufficient for access to the enzyme with in the slurry ensuring adequate contact with the substrate. PMID:24803713

  19. [Effects of nitrogen addition on grassland species diversity and productivity in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Jun; Zeng, De-Hui; Yu, Zhan-Yuan; Ai, Gui-Yan; Yang, Dan; Mao, Rong

    2009-08-01

    Species diversity and productivity are the important indices of the structure and functioning of ecosystems. With Keerqin sandy grassland as test object, this paper studied its species composition, species diversity, and productivity under effects of different level nitrogen (N) addition. Nitrogen addition altered the species composition and the dominant species in the community, increased the vegetation height and coverage, and decreased vegetation light penetration. With the increase of N addition, both the species richness and the diversity decreased. Nitrogen addition increased the aboveground biomass significantly (P<0.01). There was a significant positive relationship between species richness and vegetation light penetration (P<0.01), and a significant negative relationship between species richness and vegetation coverage (P<0.01). It was suggested that nitrogen deposition and artificial nitrogen addition would affect the species composition, species diversity, and productivity of sandy grassland ecosystem.

  20. Effects of additives on volume change on melting, surface tension, and viscosity of liquid aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. L.; Rasmussen, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of various oxide additives on the volume change on melting, the surface tension, and the viscosity of liquid Al2O3 were studied. Additives of Sm2O3, MgO, and Y2O3 which form solid solutions, compounds, and multiphase solids with Al2O3 were studied. A review of the property data for Al2O3 and Al2O3 containing oxide additives is presented. Oxide additives to Al2O3 reduce the volume change on melting and with the exception of SiO2 lower the viscosity; surface tensions change with oxide additives, but changes vary with different container material. Viscosity and volume change on melting appeared to be significantly more important for studying the properties of liquid oxides than surface tension. Supercooling of 270 K of yttrium aluminum garnet was observed.

  1. Main-Chain and Side-Chain Sequence-Regulated Vinyl Copolymers by Iterative Atom Transfer Radical Additions and 1:1 or 2:1 Alternating Radical Copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takamasa; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami

    2016-01-27

    Main- and side-chain sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers were prepared by a combination of iterative atom transfer radical additions (ATRAs) of vinyl monomers for side-chain control and 1:1 or 2:1 alternating radical copolymerization of the obtained side-chain sequenced "oligomonomers" and vinyl comonomers for main-chain control. A complete set of sequence-regulated trimeric vinyl oligomers of styrene (S) and/or methyl acrylate (A) were first synthesized via iterative ATRAs of these monomers to a halide of monomeric S or A unit (X-S or X-A) under optimized conditions with appropriate ruthenium or copper catalysts, which were selected depending on the monomers and halides. The obtained halogen-capped oligomers were then converted into a series of maleimide (M)-ended oligomonomers with different monomer compositions and sequences (M-SSS, M-ASS, M-SAS, M-AAS, M-SSA, M-ASA, M-SAA, M-AAA) by a substitution reaction of the halide with furan-protected maleimide anion followed by deprotection of the furan units. These maleimide-ended oligomonomers were then radically copolymerized with styrene or limonene to enable the 1:1 or 2:1 monomer-sequence regulation in the main chain and finally result in the main- and side-chain sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers with high molecular weights in high yield. The properties of the sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers depended on not only the monomer compositions but also the monomer sequences. The solubility was highly affected by the outer monomer units in the side chains whereas the glass transition temperatures were primarily affected by the two successive monomer sequences. PMID:26761148

  2. Effective Temperatures of Selected Main-Sequence Stars with the Most Accurate Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soydugan, F.; Eker, Z.; Soydugan, E.; Bilir, S.; Gökçe, E. Y.; Steer, I.; Tüysüz, M.; Šenyüz, T.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigate the distributions of the properties of detached double-lined binaries (DBs) in the mass-luminosity, mass-radius, and mass-effective temperature diagrams. We have improved the classical mass-luminosity relation based on the database of DBs by Eker et al. (2014a). Based on the accurate observational data available to us we propose a method for improving the effective temperatures of eclipsing binaries with accurate mass and radius determinations.

  3. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide addition on ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakage, Kaho; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Naya, Masakazu; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shimada, Yuichiro; Otake, Katsuto; Shono, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue was carried out in the absence and presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a radical scavenger for various frequencies, and the effects of DMSO addition on the degradation rate constant estimated by assuming first-order kinetics were investigated. The degradation reaction rate decreased with DMSO addition, and hydroxyl radicals were observed to play important roles in the degradation of methylene blue. However, the degradation reaction did not stop with DMSO addition, and the degradation rate constant in the presence of DMSO was not affected by ultrasonic frequency.

  4. Effect of ionic additive on pool boiling critical heat flux of titania/water nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jung-Yeul; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2013-01-01

    TiO2/water nanofluids were prepared and tested to investigate the effects of an ionic additive (i.e., nitric acid in this study) on the critical heat flux (CHF) behavior in pool boiling. Experimental results showed that the ionic additive improved the dispersion stability but reduced the CHF increase in the nanofluid. The additive affected the self-assembled nanoparticle structures formed on the heater surfaces by creating a more uniform and smoother structure, thus diminishing the CHF enhancement in nanofluids.

  5. Effects of additional food in a delayed predator-prey model.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effects of supplying additional food to predator in a gestation delay induced predator-prey system with habitat complexity. Additional food works in favor of predator growth in our model. Presence of additional food reduces the predatory attack rate to prey in the model. Supplying additional food we can control predator population. Taking time delay as bifurcation parameter the stability of the coexisting equilibrium point is analyzed. Hopf bifurcation analysis is done with respect to time delay in presence of additional food. The direction of Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the model is simulated using experimental parameter values. It is observed that fluctuations of the population size can be controlled either by supplying additional food suitably or by increasing the degree of habitat complexity. It is pointed out that Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system when the delay crosses some critical value. This critical value of delay strongly depends on quality and quantity of supplied additional food. Therefore, the variation of predator population significantly effects the dynamics of the model. Model results are compared with experimental results and biological implications of the analytical findings are discussed in the conclusion section.

  6. Effect of additives on isothermal crystallization kinetics and physical characteristics of coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Chaleepa, Kesarin; Szepes, Anikó; Ulrich, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The effect of lauric acid and low-HLB sucrose esters (L-195, S170) on the isothermal crystallization of coconut oil was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The fundamental crystallization parameters, such as induction time of nucleation and crystallization rate, were obtained by using the Gompertz equation. The Gibb's free energy of nucleation was calculated via the Fisher-Turnbull equation based on the equilibrium melting temperature. All additives, investigated in this work, proved to have an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of coconut oil. Our results revealed that the inhibition effect is related to the dissimilarity of the molecular characteristics between coconut oil and the additives. The equilibrium melting temperature (T(m) degrees ) of the coconut oil-additive mixtures estimated by the Hoffman-Weeks method was decreased with the addition of lauric acid and increased by using sucrose esters as additives. Micrographs showing simultaneous crystallization of coconut oil and lauric acid indicated that strong molecular interaction led to the increase in lamellar thickness resulting in the T(m) degrees depression of coconut oil. The addition of L-195 modified the crystal morphology of coconut oil into large, dense, non-porous crystals without altering the polymorphic occurrence of coconut oil. The enhancement in lamellar thickness and crystal perfection supported the T(m) degrees elevation of coconut oil.

  7. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  8. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer. PMID:25985667

  9. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  10. Effect of exogenous phosphorus addition on soil respiration in Calamagrostis angustifolia freshwater marshes of Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changchun; Liu, Deyan; Song, Yanyu; Yang, Guisheng; Wan, Zhongmei; Li, Yingchen; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2011-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to wetland ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration in these ecosystems. To understand the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration, we conducted a field experiment in Calamagrostis angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes, the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. We investigated soil respiration in the first growing season after P addition at four rates (0, 1.2, 4.8 and 9.6 g P m-2 year-1). In addition, we also examined aboveground biomass, soil labile C fractions (dissolved organic C, DOC; microbial biomass C, MBC; easily oxidizable C, EOC) and enzyme activities (invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities) following one year of P addition. P addition decreased soil respiration during the growing season. Dissolved organic C in soil pore water increased after P addition at both 5 and 15 cm depths. Moreover, increased P input generally inhibited soil MBC and enzyme activities, and had no effects on aboveground biomass and soil EOC. Our results suggest that, in the short-term, soil respiration declines under P enrichment in C. angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes of Northeast China, and its extent varies with P addition levels.

  11. The effects of Na/K additives and flyash on NO reduction in a SNCR process.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiangtao; Yu, Wei; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Yufei; Zhu, Xiuming

    2015-03-01

    An experimental study of Na/K additives and flyash on NO reduction during the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process were carried out in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The effects of reaction temperature (Tr), water vapor, Na/K additives (NaCl, KCl, Na2CO3) and flyash characteristics on NO reduction were analyzed. The results indicated that NO removal efficiency shows a pattern of increasing first and decreasing later with the increase of the temperature at Tr=850-1150°C. Water vapor can improve the performance of NO reduction, and the NO reduction of 70.5% was obtained while the flue gas containing 4% water vapor at 950°C. Na/K additives have a significant promoting effect on NO reduction and widen the SNCR temperature window, the promoting effect of the test additives is ordered as Na2CO3>KCl>NaCl. NO removal efficiency with 125ppm Na2CO3 and 4% water vapor can reach up to 84.9% at the optimal reaction temperature. The additive concentration has no significant effects on NO reduction while its concentration is above 50ppm. Addition of circulating fluidized combustion (CFB) flyash deteriorates NO reduction significantly. However, CFB flyash and Na/K additives will get a coupling effect on NO reduction during the SNCR process, and the best NO reduction can reach 72.3% while feeding Na2CO3-impregnated CFB flyash at 125ppm Na2CO3 and Tr=950°C.

  12. CO hydrogenation on nickel-based catalysts: Effects of copper addition

    SciTech Connect

    Agnelli, M.; Mirodatos, C.

    2000-05-15

    The effect of copper addition on the catalytic properties of silica-supported nickel catalysts for the reaction of CO hydrogenation in the temperature range of 200--500 C has been investigated. Different effects, positive or negative, depending on the temperature and the copper content, are described and explained. At low temperature (230 C), the addition of low copper content prevents the loss of the active surface by sintering without inhibiting the rate of CO hydrogenation too much. At high temperatures (450 C), high copper content is necessary to limit the accumulation of poisonous carbon products, but at the expense of CO conversion. On the basis of the various kinetic and morphologic effects of copper addition, an advanced description of the CO hydrogenation mechanism is also provided, assuming an active site formed by 2--3 adjacent Ni atoms, whatever the temperature or the copper content may be.

  13. Mechanisms and modeling of the effects of additives on the nitrogen oxides emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Krishna P.; Nguyen, H. Lee; Kang, M. Paul

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical study on the emission of the oxides of nitrogen in the combustion of hydrocarbons is presented. The current understanding of the mechanisms and the rate parameters for gas phase reactions were used to calculate the NO(x) emission. The possible effects of different chemical species on thermal NO(x), on a long time scale were discussed. The mixing of these additives at various stages of combustion were considered and NO(x) concentrations were calculated; effects of temperatures were also considered. The chemicals such as hydrocarbons, H2, CH3OH, NH3, and other nitrogen species were chosen as additives in this discussion. Results of these calculations can be used to evaluate the effects of these additives on the NO(x) emission in the industrial combustion system.

  14. [Effects of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and the need for regulation].

    PubMed

    Kahnert, S; Nair, U; Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2012-03-01

    Menthol is the most widely used and the most prominent tobacco additive in tobacco products advertised and marketed by the tobacco industry. Besides its characteristic flavor, it possesses a variety of pharmacological properties facilitating tobacco smoke inhalation and potentiating dependence. These properties of menthol not only favor tobacco initiation and consumption but can also prevent smoking cessation. This article summarizes the effect of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and its effect on tobacco consumption that causes a number of chronic diseases and premature death and, therefore, counteracts tobacco control measures. Currently, there is no legislative regulation in Germany that considers the health hazard, addiction-enhancing and attractiveness-increasing properties of additives permitted in tobacco products. Effective regulation or even a ban could contribute to a reduction of tobacco consumption and, hence, save many people from a long-lasting tobacco dependence. PMID:22373857

  15. Maine Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

  16. Effect of high energy β-radiation and addition of triallyl isocyanurate on the selected properties of polylactide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Rafał

    2016-06-01

    Comparison of some changes occurring in polylactide (PLA) due to high energy β-radiation and addition of triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) was the main objective of the present study. It was found that irradiation of PLA by high energy β-radiation causes essential changes in its properties, that undergoes mainly degradation, to form a porous structure. The PLA degradation can be diminished by introduction into the polymer matrix of a low-molecular mass multifunctional compound like TAIC. Upon the electron radiation, effective crosslinking of PLA by TAIC occurs. Application of TAIC favorably influences hindering of the PLA degradation or, when the doses are very large, diminishes worsening of the PLA functional qualities. It was also found that the optimum crosslinking of PLA is obtained when the electron radiation doses of the range of 40-200 kGy are applied and the amount of TAIC equal 3-5 wt% is used.

  17. Effects of conifer release with glyphosate on summer forage abundance for deer in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vreeland, J.K.; Servello, F.A.; Griffith, B.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of conifer release with glyphosate on summer forage availability for large herbivores in northern forests have received relatively little study. We determined effects of glyphosate treatment of clearcuts on abundance of summer foods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at 1 and 7-10 years posttreatment. We measured the abundance (percent cover in a 0- to 1.8-m height stratum) of five forage classes for deer (leaves of deciduous trees, leaves of deciduous shrubs, forbs, grasses, ferns) on 12 clearcuts (six treated, six untreated) to determine 1-year effects and on 10 clearcuts (five treated, five untreated) to determine 7- to 10-year effects. Abundance of leaves of deciduous trees was greater on untreated sites (38 versus 11%) at 1 year posttreatment, but the difference was less (18 versus 12%) at 7-10 years posttreatment (age x treatment interaction, P = 0.005). Leaves of deciduous shrubs exhibited a similar pattern. Abundance of forbs was similar (13-14%) at 1 year posttreatment but greater on treated sites (29 versus 15%) at 7-10 years posttreatment (P = 0.03). Grasses and ferns were less abundant than other forage classes. Overall, glyphosate application initially decreased the abundance of leaves of deciduous trees and shrubs used as food in summer, but the longer term positive effects on forb abundance may result in little net change in overall habitat value.

  18. Bioremediation of high organic load lagoon sediments: compost addition and priming effects.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, G; Giovannelli, D; Montano, C; Milanovic, V; Ciani, M; Manini, E

    2013-03-01

    Lagoons are often affected by eutrophication phenomena, due to their shallow nature, high productivity, weak hydrodynamism and anthropic exploitation. Bioremediation techniques have been widely used in the treatment of chemical pollution; however, no information is available on the use of bioremediation of organic-rich sediments. In the present study, we investigated the priming effects following compost addition to organic-rich lagoon sediments, and the effects of this compost addition on degradation and cycling of organic detritus, transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels, and in situ prokaryotic community structure. There was a positive response to treatment, particularly during the first days after compost addition. The compost had a stimulating effect on degradation activity of the prokaryotic community. This occurred despite an increase in available organic matter, as the community was more efficient at removing it. These data are supported by the prokaryotic community structure analysis, which revealed no changes in the in situ community following compost addition. This priming effect enhancement through compost addition represents an efficient method to treat organic-rich sediments. PMID:23273326

  19. RORA and posttraumatic stress trajectories: main effects and interactions with childhood physical abuse history

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Galea, Sandro; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek E; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies of posttraumatic stress (PTS) have documented environmental factors as predictors of trajectories of higher, versus lower, symptoms, among them experiences of childhood physical abuse. Although it is now well-accepted that genes and environments jointly shape the risk of PTS, no published studies have investigated genes, or gene-by-environment interactions (GxEs), as predictors of PTS trajectories. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap. Methods and Materials We examined associations between variants of the retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene and trajectory membership among a sample of predominantly non-Hispanic Black urban adults (N = 473). The RORA gene was selected based on its association with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the first PTSD genome wide association study. Additionally, we explored GxEs between RORA variants and childhood physical abuse history. Results We found that the minor allele of the RORA SNP rs893290 was a significant predictor of membership in a trajectory of consistently high PTS, relatively to a trajectory of consistently low PTS. Additionally, the GxE of rs893290 with childhood physical abuse was significant. Decomposition of the interaction showed that minor allele frequency was more strongly associated with membership in consistently high or decreasing PTS trajectories, relative to a consistently low PTS trajectory, among participants with higher levels of childhood physical abuse. Conclusion The results of the study provide preliminary evidence that variation in the RORA gene is associated with membership in trajectories of higher PTS and that these associations are stronger among persons exposed to childhood physical abuse. Replication and analysis of functional data are needed to further our understanding of how RORA relates to PTS trajectories. PMID:25798337

  20. Muonium Addition Reactions and Kinetic Isotope Effects in the Gas Phase: k∞ Rate Constants for Mu + C2H2.

    PubMed

    Arseneau, Donald J; Garner, David M; Reid, Ivan D; Fleming, Donald G

    2015-07-16

    The kinetics of the addition reaction of muonium (Mu) to acetylene have been studied in the gas phase at N2 moderator pressures mainly from ∼800 to 1000 Torr and over the temperature range from 168 to 446 K, but also down to 200 Torr at 168 K and over a much higher range of pressures, from 10 to 44 bar at 295 K, demonstrating pressure-independent rate constants, kMu(T). Even at 200 Torr moderator pressure, the kinetics for Mu + C2H2 addition behave as if effectively in the high-pressure limit, giving k∞ = kMu due to depolarization of the muon spin in the MuC2H2 radical formed in the addition step. The rate constants kMu(T) exhibit modest Arrhenius curvature over the range of measured temperatures. Comparisons with data and with calculations for the corresponding H(D) + C2H2 addition reactions reveal a much faster rate for the Mu reaction at the lowest temperatures, by 2 orders of magnitude, in accord with the propensity of Mu to undergo quantum tunneling. Moreover, isotopic atom exchange, which contributes in a major way to the analogous D atom reaction, forming C2HD + H, is expected to be unimportant in the case of Mu addition, a consequence of the much higher zero-point energy and hence weaker C-Mu bond that would form, meaning that the present report of the Mu + C2H2 reaction is effectively the only experimental study of kinetic isotope effects in the high-pressure limit for H-atom addition to acetylene.

  1. Muonium Addition Reactions and Kinetic Isotope Effects in the Gas Phase: k∞ Rate Constants for Mu + C2H2.

    PubMed

    Arseneau, Donald J; Garner, David M; Reid, Ivan D; Fleming, Donald G

    2015-07-16

    The kinetics of the addition reaction of muonium (Mu) to acetylene have been studied in the gas phase at N2 moderator pressures mainly from ∼800 to 1000 Torr and over the temperature range from 168 to 446 K, but also down to 200 Torr at 168 K and over a much higher range of pressures, from 10 to 44 bar at 295 K, demonstrating pressure-independent rate constants, kMu(T). Even at 200 Torr moderator pressure, the kinetics for Mu + C2H2 addition behave as if effectively in the high-pressure limit, giving k∞ = kMu due to depolarization of the muon spin in the MuC2H2 radical formed in the addition step. The rate constants kMu(T) exhibit modest Arrhenius curvature over the range of measured temperatures. Comparisons with data and with calculations for the corresponding H(D) + C2H2 addition reactions reveal a much faster rate for the Mu reaction at the lowest temperatures, by 2 orders of magnitude, in accord with the propensity of Mu to undergo quantum tunneling. Moreover, isotopic atom exchange, which contributes in a major way to the analogous D atom reaction, forming C2HD + H, is expected to be unimportant in the case of Mu addition, a consequence of the much higher zero-point energy and hence weaker C-Mu bond that would form, meaning that the present report of the Mu + C2H2 reaction is effectively the only experimental study of kinetic isotope effects in the high-pressure limit for H-atom addition to acetylene. PMID:25664674

  2. [Study on main pharmacodynamic effects for Schisandra lignans based upon network pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hong-tao; Zhao, Xiao-ping; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lin-li; Wang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we focused on the study of pharmacodynamic effects for 6 major bioactive lignans of Schisandra chinensis, namely deoxyschizandrin, schisandrin B, schisandrin C, schisandrin, schizandrol B and schisantherin A. A compound-gene-pathway network, which contained 124 related genes and 88 pathways, was constructed by collecting drug genes through mining relevant literatures and network pharmacology analysis. Based on the network analysis, 32 pathways and 80 related genes were associated with inflammation, which implied that anti-inflammatory might be the major pharmacodynamic effects of these compounds. All lignans except schizandrol B reduced LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells, which validated the anti-inflammatory hypothesis generated from network analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of deoxyschizandrin, schisandrin C, schisandrin and schisantherin A on the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2. As a result, deoxyschizandrin showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity with inhibitory effect on all 4 inflammatory cytokines secretions and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2. This study provided evidences for systematic exploration on the pharmacolgical actions and mechanisms of schisandra.

  3. A Social Support Intervention to Ease the College Transition: Exploring Main Effects and Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Ayers, Jean F.; Brand, Bethany L.; Brooks, Leonie J.; Quimby, Julie L.; McNary, Scot W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of a peer-led social support group intervention on college adjustment. Ninety first-year students, randomly assigned to participate in the intervention, reported higher levels of perceived social support and reduced loneliness when compared to controls (n = 94), after accounting for preintervention levels on these…

  4. Sodium Perchlorate Effects on the Helical Stability of a Mainly Alanine Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Asciutto, Eliana K.; General, Ignacio J.; Xiong, Kang; Asher, Sanford A.; Madura, Jeffry D.

    2010-01-01

    Sodium perchlorate salt (NaClO4) is commonly used as an internal intensity standard in ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy experiments. It is well known that NaClO4 can have profound effects on peptide stability. The impact of NaClO4 on protein stability in UVRR experiments has not yet been fully investigated. It is well known from experiment that protein stability is strongly affected by the solution composition (water, salts, osmolytes, etc.). Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to understand the physical basis on which the presence of salts and osmolytes in the solution impact protein structure and stability. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of NaClO4, on the helical stability of an alanine peptide in water. Based upon replica-exchange molecular dynamics data, it was found that NaClO4 solution strongly stabilizes the helical state and that the number of pure helical conformations found at room temperature is greater than in pure water. A thorough investigation of the anion effects on the first and second solvation shells of the peptide, along with the Kirkwood-Buff theory for solutions, allows us to explain the physical mechanisms involved in the observed specific ion effects. A direct mechanism was found in which ClO4− ions are strongly attracted to the folded backbone. PMID:20338840

  5. Effects of magma mingling in the granites of Mount Desert Island, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, S.J.; Ramsey, P.C. )

    1992-07-01

    Textures and compositional relationships associated with dark-colored, fine-grained enclaves in the Cadillac Mountain and Somesville granites, Mount Desert Island, Maine, preserve abundant evidence for contamination of host granitic magmas by enclave liquids. Fine-grained enclaves, which apparently represent chilled magmatic droplets, have affected the composition and texture of the host granites by three possible mechanisms: (1) crystallization of feldspar-quartz-hornblende pegmatite pods from fluids of enclave origin in the granite surrounding enclaves, and the disaggregation of the pods and dispersion of crystals into the granite; (2) ionic exchange between enclaves and granitic magmas; (3) the generation around enclaves of rinds consisting of an inner alkali feldspar-quartz zone and an outer zone of hornblende-enriched granite. Thermal calculations suggest that the alkali feldspar-quartz zones of the rinds surrounding enclaves may result from resorption of alkali feldspar and quartz crystals in the granitic magma by heat of cooling and crystallization of enclave material. The interaction between the hot enclave and the alkali feldspar-quartz composition liquid may be analogous to that between a pluton and meteoric water in a hydrothermal system. The segregation of alkali feldspar-quartz and hornblende-rich zones may result from the minimum melt composition fluid migrating toward the enclave, leaving behind unmelted hornblende, as part of a convection circuit set up by the enclave. Alternatively, hornblende-rich zones concentric to and outside of the alkali feldspar-quartz rinds may record limit of movement of a front of hydrous fluid driven from the enclave boundary down a thermal gradient.

  6. Potential effects of climate change on the distribution range of the main silicate sinker of the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Pinkernell, Stefan; Beszteri, Bánk

    2014-01-01

    Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, a dominant diatom species throughout the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, is coined to be one of the main drivers of the biological silicate pump. Here, we study the distribution of this important species and expected consequences of climate change upon it, using correlative species distribution modeling and publicly available presence-only data. As experience with SDM is scarce for marine phytoplankton, this also serves as a pilot study for this organism group. We used the maximum entropy method to calculate distribution models for the diatom F. kerguelensis based on yearly and monthly environmental data (sea surface temperature, salinity, nitrate and silicate concentrations). Observation data were harvested from GBIF and the Global Diatom Database, and for further analyses also from the Hustedt Diatom Collection (BRM). The models were projected on current yearly and seasonal environmental data to study current distribution and its seasonality. Furthermore, we projected the seasonal model on future environmental data obtained from climate models for the year 2100. Projected on current yearly averaged environmental data, all models showed similar distribution patterns for F. kerguelensis. The monthly model showed seasonality, for example, a shift of the southern distribution boundary toward the north in the winter. Projections on future scenarios resulted in a moderately to negligibly shrinking distribution area and a change in seasonality. We found a substantial bias in the publicly available observation datasets, which could be reduced by additional observation records we obtained from the Hustedt Diatom Collection. Present-day distribution patterns inferred from the models coincided well with background knowledge and previous reports about F. kerguelensis distribution, showing that maximum entropy-based distribution models are suitable to map distribution patterns for oceanic planktonic organisms. Our scenario projections indicate

  7. The positive effects of waste leachate addition on methane fermentation from food waste in batch trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanli; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of waste leachate (WL) addition on batch anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW), and to examine the influence of mixture ratio on the co-digestion process. The results showed that anaerobic digestion of FW was greatly enhanced by WL addition, as indicated by the higher methane yield, higher methane content, more volatile solids (VS) destruction, and higher stability. Although WL was rich in volatile fatty acids (VFA), its addition did not cause VFA inhibition. It was found that WL addition was beneficial to accelerate the start-up and shorten the long reaction time of the batch anaerobic process. The time to reach the peak methane yield was reduced by 1, 2, and 4 days with WL addition. The optimum FW to WL ratio was 77.9:22.1 with the highest methane yield (416 mL/g VS), the highest methane content (64.3%), the greatest VS removal (77.6%), and stable performance. These results confirmed the positive effects of WL addition on methane fermentation from FW.

  8. [Effects of metadoxine on main biohumoral changes induced by chronic alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Corsini, G; Gelso, E; Giuliano, G

    1992-03-01

    The paper aims to evaluate the effects of metadoxine on liver function tests in chronic alcohol abusers without a clear alcohol dependence, by means of an open trial carried out in 7 hospitals in Tuscany. The study comprised 72 patients with a daily alcohol intake of at least 80 g for men and 30 g for women, over a period of at least 5 years. The patients were urgently requested to stop drinking, and were randomly divided into 2 groups, of which the first (52 subjects) was treated with metadoxine (500 mg twice a day) and the second (20 subjects) received only some vitamins. Interviews and blood tests were performed 1 and 2 months after the trial began. Statistical calculations were made using the chi-square and Student's tests. Metadoxine induced a more rapid reduction of SGOT and SGPT and, possibly, of Gammagt; these effects were especially evident, and were associated with a significant reduction of MCV, in 20 patients (12 in the first group and 8 in the second) in whom blood test abnormalities were greatest. No unfavorable side effects were observed that could be attributed to the drug. Metadoxine can therefore be considered a valuable resource in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:1568369

  9. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials. PMID:26429595

  10. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials.

  11. Effects of cultivar, pelleting and enzyme addition on nutritive value of barley in poultry diets.

    PubMed

    Francesch, M; Perez-Vendrell, A M; Esteve-Garcia, E; Brufau, J

    1994-05-01

    1. The effect of pelleting process and Trichoderma viride enzymes (TVE) addition on apparent metabolisable energy, corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) and on productive value of practical diets containing 40 and 45% of three different barley cultivars and one wheat were studied in poultry. 2. The effect of the pelleting process on AMEn was inconsistent and was dependent on the cereal included and the addition of enzyme. 3. The growth trial showed a significant effect of enzyme addition to pelleted diets over the whole growth period (0 to 42 d). Addition of TVE improved weight gain and food efficiency by 1.3% and 2.9%, respectively and decreased food intake by 1.6% between 0 and 22 d. In the finisher period (23 to 42 d) TVE improved efficiency by 2.8% and reduced food intake by 2.9%. 4. The incidence of sticky droppings was related to the viscosity of barley used, and enzyme supplementation reduced it. Both pelleting and enzyme addition increased dry matter content of excreta. 5. At the end of the experiment, 14 animals per treatment were slaughtered and carcass yield, viscera weight and abdominal fat were determined.

  12. Effect of organometallic fuel additives on nanoparticle emissions from a gasoline passenger car.

    PubMed

    Gidney, Jeremy T; Twigg, Martyn V; Kittelson, David B

    2010-04-01

    Particle size measurements were performed on the exhaust of a car operating on a chassis dynamometer fueled with standard gasoline and gasoline containing low levels of Pb, Fe, and Mn organometallic additives. When additives were present there was a distinct nucleation mode consisting primarily of sub-10 nm nanoparticles. At equal molar dosing Mn and Fe gave similar nanoparticle concentrations at the tailpipe, whereas Pb gave a considerably lower concentration. A catalytic stripper was used to remove the organic component of these particles and revealed that they were mainly solid and, because of their association with inorganic additives, presumably inorganic. Solid nucleation mode nanoparticles of similar size and concentration to those observed here from a gasoline engine with Mn and Fe additives have also been observed from modern heavy-duty diesel engines without aftertreatment at idle, but these solid particles are a small fraction of the primarily volatile nucleation mode particles emitted. The solid nucleation mode particles emitted by the diesel engines are likely derived from metal compounds in the lubrication oil, although carbonaceous particles cannot be ruled out. Significantly, most of these solid nanoparticles emitted by both engine types fall below the 23 nm cutoff of the PMP number regulation.

  13. Additive Effects on Si3n4 Oxidation/Volatilization in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, R. Craig; Fox, Dennis S.; Wenglarz, Richard A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    2002-01-01

    Two commercially available additive-containing silicon nitride materials were exposed in four environments which range in severity from dry oxygen at 1 atm pressure, and low gas velocity to an actual turbine engine. Oxidation and volatilization kinetics were monitored at temperatures ranging from 1066 to 1400 C. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the surface oxide morphology resulting from the exposures. It was found that the material surface was enriched in rare earth silicate phases in combustion environments when compared to the oxides formed on materials exposed in dry oxygen. However, the in situ formation of rare earth disilicate phases offered little additional protection from the volatilization of silica observed in combustion environments. It was concluded that externally applied environmental barrier coatings are needed to protect additive-containing silicon nitride materials from volatilization reactions in combustion environments. Introduction Si3N4 is proposed for use as components, such as vanes, in turbine applications. Tens of thousands of hours of life are needed for both land-based turbines and aeropropulsion applications. Additive-containing SisN4 materials are

  14. Effect of additives on the digestibility of corn stover solids following pretreatment by leading technologies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-04-15

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), Tween-20, and polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) were added to washed corn stover solids produced by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), lime, controlled pH, and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) pretreatments and to untreated corn stover (UT) and pure Avicel glucan prior to adding cellulase supplemented with beta-glucosidase at an activity ratio of 1:2/g and a moderate enzyme loading of 16.1 mg/g glucan in the raw corn stover. The additives were applied individually at 150, 300, and 600 mg/g glucan in the pretreated solids and in combinations of equal amounts of each that totaled 600 mg/g. The greatest increase in total sugar release was by Tween-20 with SO(2) pretreated solids followed by PEG6000 with ARP solids and Tween-20 with lime solids. The effectiveness of the additives was observed to depend on the type of sugars left in the solids, suggesting that it may be more beneficial to use the mixture of these additives to realize a high total sugar yield. In addition, little enhancement in sugar release was possible beyond a loading of 150 mg additives/g glucan for most pretreatments, and combinations did not improve sugar release much over use of additives alone for all except SO(2). Additives were also found to significantly increase concentrations of cellobiose and cellooligomers after 72 h of Avicel hydrolysis.

  15. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  16. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb.

  17. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. PMID:27451167

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of post-common-envelope white dwarf + main sequence binaries: The effects of including recombination energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorotovic, M.; Schreiber, M. R.; García-Berro, E.; Camacho, J.; Torres, S.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Detached white dwarf + main sequence (WD+MS) post-common-envelope binaries (PCEBs) are perhaps the most suitable objects for testing predictions of close-compact binary-star evolution theories, in particular, common-envelope (CE) evolution. Consequently, the population of WD+MS PCEBs has been simulated by several authors in the past and the predictions have been compared with the observations. However, most of those theoretical predictions did not take into account the possible contributions to the envelope ejection from additional sources of energy (mostly recombination energy) stored in the envelope. Aims: Here we update existing binary population models of WD+MS PCEBs by assuming that in addition to a fraction αCE of the orbital energy, a fraction αrec of the recombination energy available within the envelope contributes to ejecting the envelope. Methods: We performed Monte Carlo simulations of 107 MS+MS binaries for 9 different combinations of αCE and αrec using standard assumptions for the initial primary mass function, binary separations, and initial-mass-ratio distribution and evolved these systems using the publicly available binary star evolution (BSE) code. Results: Including a fraction of the recombination energy leads to a clear prediction of a large number of long orbital period (≳10 days) systems mostly containing high-mass WDs. The fraction of systems with He-core WD primaries (MWD ≲ 0.5 M⊙) increases with the CE efficiency and the existence of very low-mass He WDs (≲0.3 M⊙) is only predicted for high values of the CE efficiency, i.e. αCE ≳ 0.5. All models predict on average longer orbital periods for PCEBs containing C/O-core WDs (MWD ≳ 0.5 M⊙) than for PCEBs containing He WDs. This effect increases with increasing values of both efficiencies, i.e., αCE and αrec. Longer periods after the CE phase are also predicted for systems containing more massive secondary stars. The initial-mass-ratio distribution affects the

  19. Dopaminergic, Serotonergic, and Oxytonergic Candidate Genes Associated with Infant Attachment Security and Disorganization? In Search of Main and Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luijk, Maartje P. C. M.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.; Tiemeier, Henning; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Belsky, Jay; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tharner, Anne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and methods: In two birth cohort studies with genetic, sensitive parenting, and attachment data of more than 1,000 infants in total, we tested main and interaction effects of candidate genes involved in the dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin systems ("DRD4", "DRD2", "COMT", "5-HTT", "OXTR") on attachment security and disorganization.…

  20. Comparison of Effectiveness of Collaborative Learning Methods and Traditional Methods in Physics Classes at Northern Maine Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overlock, Terrence H., Sr.

    To determine the effect of collaborative learning methods on the success rate of physics students at Northern Maine Technical College (NMTC), a study was undertaken to compare the mean final exam scores of a students in a physics course taught by traditional lecture/lab methods to those in a group taught by collaborative techniques. The…

  1. Demographic Characteristics of a Maine Woodcock Population and Effects of Habitat Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, T.J.; Sepik, G.F.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A population of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was studied on a 3,401-ha area of the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Maine from 1976 through 1985. During 1976-83, from 4 to 64 clearcuts were created each year, opening up large contiguous blocks of forest. A combination of mist nets, ground traps, nightlighting techniques, and trained dogs were used to capture and band 1,884 birds during the first 5 years. Capture and recapture data (totaling 3,009 observations) were used with both demographically closed and open population models to estimate population size and, for open population models, summer survival. Flying young, especially young males, represented the greatest proportion of all captures; analysis showed that young males were more prone to capture than young females. Male courtship began about 24 March each year, usually when there was still snow in wooded areas. Males ~2 years old dominated singing grounds during April each year, but this situation changed and first-year males dominated singing grounds in May. Singing males shifted from older established singing grounds to new clearcuts soon after we initiated forest management. Many males were subdominant at singing grounds despite an abundance of unoccupied openings. Three hundred adult females were captured and, except for 1978, the majority were ~2 years old. The year in which female homing rate was lowest(1979) was preceded by the year with the largest number of l-year-old brood female captures and a summer drought. Summer survival of young was lowest in 1978 and was attributed to summer drought. The year 1979 had an abnormally cool and wet spring, and was the poorest for production of young. Capture ratios of young-to-adult females obtained by nightlighting could be used to predict production on our study area. Closed population model estimates did not seem to fit either young or adult data sets well. Instead, a partially open capture-recapture model that allowed death but no

  2. The effects of storms and storm-generated currents on sand beaches in Southern Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, H.W.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.; Dickson, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Storms are one of the most important controls on the cycle of erosion and accretion on beaches. Current meters placed in shoreface locations of Saco Bay and Wells Embayment, ME, recorded bottom currents during the winter months of 2000 and 2001, while teams of volunteers profiled the topography of nearby beaches. Coupling offshore meteorological and beach profile data made it possible to determine the response of nine beaches in southern Maine to various oceanographic and meteorological conditions. The beaches selected for profiling ranged from pristine to completely developed and permitted further examination of the role of seawalls on the response of beaches to storms. Current meters documented three unique types of storms: frontal passages, southwest storms, and northeast storms. In general, the current meter results indicate that frontal passages and southwest storms were responsible for bringing sediment towards the shore, while northeast storms resulted in a net movement of sediment away from the beach. During the 1999-2000 winter, there were a greater percentage of frontal passages and southwest storms, while during the 2000-2001 winter, there were more northeast storms. The sediment that was transported landward during the 1999-2000 winter was reworked into the berm along moderately and highly developed beaches during the next summer. A northeast storm on March 5-6, 2001, resulted in currents in excess of 1 m s-1 and wave heights that reached six meters. The storm persisted over 10 high tides and caused coastal flooding and property damage. Topographic profiles made before and after the storm demonstrate that developed beaches experienced a loss of sediment volume during the storm, while sediment was redistributed along the profile on moderately developed and undeveloped beaches. Two months after the storm, the profiles along the developed beaches had not reached their pre-storm elevation. In comparison, the moderately developed and undeveloped beaches

  3. Effects of Ga Addition on Interfacial Reactions Between Sn-Based Solders and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-Hong; Li, Kuan-Ting

    2016-07-01

    The use of Ga as a micro-alloying element in Sn-based solders can change the microstructure of solder joints to improve the mechanical properties, and even suppress the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) growth. This research investigated the effects of Ga addition (0.2-1 wt.%Ga) on the IMC formation and morphological evolution in the Sn-based solder joints with Ni substrate. In the soldering reaction at 250°C and with less than 0.2 wt.%Ga addition, the formed phase was Ni3Sn4. When the Ga addition increased to 0.5 wt.%, it changed to a thin Ni2Ga3 layer of ˜1 μm thick, which stably existed at the interface in the initial 1-h reaction. Subsequently, the whole Ni2Ga3 layer detached from the Ni substrate and drifted into the molten solder. The Ni3Sn4 phase became dominant in the later stage. Notably, the Ga addition significantly reduced the grain size of Ni3Sn4, resulting in the massive spalling of Ni3Sn4 grains. With 1 wt.%Ga addition, the Ni2Ga3 layer remained very thin with no significant growth, and it stably existed at the interface for more than 10 h. In addition, the solid-state reactions were examined at temperatures of 160°C to 200°C. With addition of 0.5 wt.%Ga, the Ni3Sn4 phase dominated the whole reaction. By contrast, with increasing to 1 wt.%Ga, only a thin Ni2Ga3 layer was found even after aging at 160°C for more than 1200 h. The 1 wt.%Ga addition in solder can effectively inhibit the Ni3Sn4 formation in soldering and the long-term aging process.

  4. Additive and synergistic effects on plant growth from polymers and organic matter applied to soil simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of applying to soil combinations of organic sources was tested and an anionic polyacrylamide and both singly on emergence and growth of tomato and wheat plants. The interactions were generally additive and synergistic. The organic sources and polyacrylamide often had a sparing effect on the need for the other. In one test with an organic source high in N (6%), there was a negative interaction on growth of tomato plants between the polyacrylamide and the organic source. In a test in which the polyacrylamide was applied to soil in solution with a high application of composted manure, the interaction on growth of tomato seedlings was additive. Maximum response for tomatoes for soils low in soil organic matter to polyacrylamide was obtained for low 224 kg ha/sup -1/) rather than high (448 and 1120 kg ha/sup -1/) application levels with or without addition of other organics. Interaction between polyacrylamide and organics on plant growth varied with soil characteristics.

  5. Hypolipidemic effects of Myrica rubra extracts and main compounds in C57BL/6j mice.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Li, Xuegang; Xiao, Yubo; Yong, Yang; Zhang, Zaiqi; Li, Shuping; Zhou, Taimei; Yang, Daqing; Gao, Pincao; Xin, Xiaoliang

    2016-08-10

    The present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activity of myricetin, myricetrin, the alcohol fraction (AF) and the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) obtained from the bark of Myrica rubra (MR) in high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) induced hyperlipidemic C57BL/6j mice. Mice were treated with myricetin, myricetrin, AF and EF with a dose of 130 mg per kg per day for 35 days. After treatment, serum parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acids (TBA), etc., were examined. The results revealed that EF showed the highest weight lowering activity (P < 0.01). All tested samples decreased the levels of the TC, TG, LDL-C, TBA and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) content in the serum of mice to different extents. Liver fat deposition was significantly reduced after myricetin, myricetrin, AF and EF therapy (P < 0.01). Additionally, the cell size of epididymal adipose tissue was also decreased in myricetin, AF and EF groups (P < 0.05). The antihyperlipidemic activity of these samples may be attributed to the inhibition of lipid synthesis via suppressing the expression of HMGCR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase) and ACC1 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), promoting the metabolism and excretion of lipids via up-regulating the expression of SREBP2 (sterol regulatory element binding proteins), LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor), UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) and CYP7A1 (cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase). These results may provide a powerful foundation for seeking and utilizing Myrica rubra bio-active compounds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27459037

  6. Satellites are the main drivers of environmental effects at least to z = 0.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač, Katarina

    2016-10-01

    We study the role of environment in the evolution of galaxies up to z = 0.7 using the final zCOSMOS-bright data set. We use the colour as a proxy for the quenched population, and measure the dependence of the red fraction of galaxies on stellar mass and two environmental indicators: the local overdensity of galaxies δ and a demarcation of galaxies to centrals and satellites. The analysis is carried out by quantifying the role of different quenching processes. We find that the measured dependence of the red fraction of galaxies on stellar mass and environment can be well described by two quenching processes: one related only to stellar mass (mass quenching) and the other related to the local environment (environment quenching). Within the errors, these processes are independent of each other, and consistent with the z ~ 0 measurement. Moreover, the red fraction of centrals fr,cen (both singleton centrals and centrals in the groups) does not show any trend with δ and more than 95% of fr,cen is consistent with being produced through the mass quenching alone. The satellite galaxies are redder than the centrals at the same stellar mass and δ, requiring additional environment quenching. Given the observed fractional distribution of satellites at different overdensities, the normalized excess in the red fraction of satellites with respect to the red fraction of centrals is consistent with a scenario in which the satellites account for most of the δ-dependences observed in the overall population of galaxies covering 0.1 < z < 0.7.

  7. Quantification of Treatment Effect Modification on Both an Additive and Multiplicative Scale

    PubMed Central

    Girerd, Nicolas; Rabilloud, Muriel; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Roy, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background In both observational and randomized studies, associations with overall survival are by and large assessed on a multiplicative scale using the Cox model. However, clinicians and clinical researchers have an ardent interest in assessing absolute benefit associated with treatments. In older patients, some studies have reported lower relative treatment effect, which might translate into similar or even greater absolute treatment effect given their high baseline hazard for clinical events. Methods The effect of treatment and the effect modification of treatment were respectively assessed using a multiplicative and an additive hazard model in an analysis adjusted for propensity score in the context of coronary surgery. Results The multiplicative model yielded a lower relative hazard reduction with bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in older patients (Hazard ratio for interaction/year = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.05) whereas the additive model reported a similar absolute hazard reduction with increasing age (Delta for interaction/year = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.46, p = 0.61). The number needed to treat derived from the propensity score-adjusted multiplicative model was remarkably similar at the end of the follow-up in patients aged < = 60 and in patients >70. Conclusions The present example demonstrates that a lower treatment effect in older patients on a relative scale can conversely translate into a similar treatment effect on an additive scale due to large baseline hazard differences. Importantly, absolute risk reduction, either crude or adjusted, can be calculated from multiplicative survival models. We advocate for a wider use of the absolute scale, especially using additive hazard models, to assess treatment effect and treatment effect modification. PMID:27045168

  8. Genome scan for nonadditive heterotic trait loci reveals mainly underdominant effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Laiba, Efrat; Glikaite, Ilana; Levy, Yael; Pasternak, Zohar; Fridman, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The overdominant model of heterosis explains the superior phenotype of hybrids by synergistic allelic interaction within heterozygous loci. To map such genetic variation in yeast, we used a population doubling time dataset of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 16 × 16 diallel and searched for major contributing heterotic trait loci (HTL). Heterosis was observed for the majority of hybrids, as they surpassed their best parent growth rate. However, most of the local heterozygous loci identified by genome scan were surprisingly underdominant, i.e., reduced growth. We speculated that in these loci adverse effects on growth resulted from incompatible allelic interactions. To test this assumption, we eliminated these allelic interactions by creating hybrids with local hemizygosity for the underdominant HTLs, as well as for control random loci. Growth of hybrids was indeed elevated for most hemizygous to HTL genes but not for control genes, hence validating the results of our genome scan. Assessing the consequences of local heterozygosity by reciprocal hemizygosity and allele replacement assays revealed the influence of genetic background on the underdominant effects of HTLs. Overall, this genome-wide study on a multi-parental hybrid population provides a strong argument against single gene overdominance as a major contributor to heterosis, and favors the dominance complementation model.

  9. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  10. 75 FR 66752 - ILP Effectiveness Evaluation 2010; Additional Notice of Multi-Stakeholder Technical Conference on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ILP Effectiveness Evaluation 2010; Additional Notice of Multi- Stakeholder....m. (EST) to 3 p.m. (EST) in the Commission Meeting Room at the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  11. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  12. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  13. Additive Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency on Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pingping; Li, Xingshan; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were recorded for sentences in which high- and low-frequency target words were presented normally or with reduced stimulus quality in two experiments. We found stimulus quality and word frequency produced strong additive effects on fixation durations for target words. The results demonstrate that stimulus quality…

  14. 20 CFR 725.309 - Additional claims; effect of a prior denial of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional claims; effect of a prior denial..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Filing of Claims §...

  15. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Harper, F.T.; Hora, S.C.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Harper, F.T.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Grupa, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models.

  17. Main and interactive effects of arsenic and selenium on mallard reproduction and duckling growth and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, T.R.; Spann, J.W.; Smith, G.J.; Rosscoe, R.

    1994-01-01

    Arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) occur together in high concentrations in the environment and can accumulate in aquatic plants and invertebrates consumed by waterfowl. Ninety-nine pairs of breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets supplemented with As (sodium arsenate) at 0, 25, 100, or 400 ug/g, in combination with Se (seleno-DL-methionine) at 0 or 10 ug/g, in a replicated factorial experiment. Ducklings produced were placed on the same treatment combination as their parents. Arsenic accumulated in adult liver and egg, reduced adult weight gain and liver weight, delayed the onset of egg laying, decreased whole egg weight, and caused eggshell thinning. Arsenic did not affect hatching success and was not teratogenic. In ducklings, As accumulated in the liver and reduced body weight, growth, and liver weight. Arsenic did not increase duckling mortality, but it did decrease overall duckling production. Selenium accumulated in adult liver and egg, was teratogenic, and decreased hatching success. Selenium did not affect adult weight, liver weight, survival, onset of egg laying, egg fertility, egg weight, or eggshell thickness. In ducklings, Se accumulated in the liver and reduced body weight and growth, and increased liver weight. Selenium increased duckling mortality and decreased overall duckling production. Antagonistic interactions between As and Se occurred whereby As reduced Se accumulation in liver and egg, and alleviated the effects of Se on hatching success and embryo deformities. It was demonstrated that As and Se, in the chemical forms and at the dietary levels administered in this study, can adversely affect mallard reproduction and duckling growth and survival, and that As can alleviate toxic effects of Se.

  18. Additive effects of glyburide and antidepressants in the forced swimming test: evidence for the involvement of potassium channel blockade.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Todd, K; Bourin, M; Hascoet, M; Kouadio, F

    1996-08-01

    Evidence in the literature suggests that the modulatory effects of antidepressant drugs (ADS) on neuronal excitability, via the inhibition of K+ channels, may be the final common pathway of pharmacological action. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that combining the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glyburide with a variety of ADS would produce an additive effect and decrease the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test (FST). Glyburide (GLY, IP, 30 and 50 mg/kg) and subactive doses of ADS were administered 45 and 30 min, respectively, prior to behavioral testing. Results showed that when combined with GLY, ADS whose main pharmacological effect is one of 5-HT uptake blockade (imipramine, amitriptyline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, and fluvoxamine) were more effective in decreasing the amount of time mice were immobile, than when these drugs were administered alone. Some noradrenaline uptake inhibiting ADS (desipramine and viloxazine, but not maprotiline) were also significantly more effective in decreasing immobility time when combined with GLY than when administered alone. Pretreatment with GLY was found to have no effect on the dopamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and out of the atypical ADS tested (trazodone, mianserine and iprindole), only coadministration with iprindole decreased the immobility time. Only the specific MAO-A inhibitor moclobemide was observed to have an antiimmobility effect when combined with GLY. Neither MAO-B specific (RO 16 6491) nor mixed MAO inhibitors (nialamide and pargyline) interacted with GLY to produce antiimmobility effects. These results corroborate and extend our previous report of the ADS enhancing effects of quinine in the same behavioral model, and suggest that the additive effects of quinine and GLY on ADS in FST are a result of K+ channel blockade.

  19. Towards understanding the effects of additives on the vermicomposting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xing, Meiyan; Lv, Baoyi; Zhao, Chunhui; Yang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    This work evaluated the effects of additives on the chemical properties of the final products (vermicompost) from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and the adaptable characteristics of Eisenia fetida during the process. An experimental design with different ratios of sewage sludge and the additives (cattle dung or pig manure) was conducted. The results showed that the vermicomposting reduced total organic carbon and the quotient of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N ratio) of the initial mixtures and enhanced the stability and agronomical value of the final products. Notably, principal component analysis indicated that the additives had significant effects on the characteristics of the vermicomposts. Moreover, the vermibeds containing cattle dung displayed a better earthworm growth and reproduction than those with pig manure. Additionally, redundancy analysis demonstrated that electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N ratio played crucial roles on earthworm growth and reproduction. In all, the additives with high C/N ratio, pH buffering capacity, and low EC are recommended to be used for vermicomposting of sewage sludge. PMID:25328094

  20. Effects of water addition on soil arthropods and soil characteristics in a precipitation-limited environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikoski, Jennifer M.; Ferguson, Steven H.; Meyer, Lense

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the effect of water addition and season on soil arthropod abundance and soil characteristics (%C, %N, C:N, moisture, pH). The experimental design consisted of 24 groups of five boxes distributed within a small aspen stand in Saskatchewan, Canada. The boxes depressed the soil to create a habitat with suitable microclimate for soil arthropods, and by overturning boxes we counted soil arthropods during weekly surveys from April to September 1999. Soil samples were collected at two-month intervals and water was added once per week to half of the plots. Of the eleven recognizable taxonomic units identified, only mites (Acari) and springtails (Collembola) responded to water addition by increasing abundance, whereas ants decreased in abundance with water addition. During summer, springtail numbers increased with water addition, whereas pH was a stronger determinant of mite abundance. In autumn, springtails were positively correlated with water and negatively correlated with mites, whereas mite abundance was negatively correlated with increasing C:N ratio, positively correlated to water addition, and negatively correlated with springtail abundance. Although both mite and springtail numbers decreased in autumn with a decrease in soil moisture, mites became more abundant than springtails suggesting a predator-prey (mite-springtail) relationship. Water had a significant effect on both springtails and mites in summer and autumn supporting the assertion that prairie soil communities are water limited.

  1. Biochar mitigates negative effects of salt additions on two herbaceous plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sean C; Frye, Susan; Gale, Nigel; Garmon, Matthew; Launchbury, Rebecca; Machado, Natasha; Melamed, Sarah; Murray, Jessica; Petroff, Alexandre; Winsborough, Carolyn

    2013-11-15

    Addition of pyrolyzed biomass ("biochar") to soils has commonly been shown to increase crop yields and alleviate plant stresses associated with drought and exposure to toxic materials. Here we investigate the ability of biochar (at two dosages: 5 and 50 t ha(-1)) to mitigate salt-induced stress, simulating road salt additions in a factorial glasshouse experiment involving the broadleaved herbaceous plants Abutilon theophrasti and Prunella vulgaris. Salt additions of 30 g m(-2) NaCl to unamended soils resulted in high mortality rates for both species. Biochar (Fagus grandifolia sawdust pyrolyzed at 378 °C), when applied at 50 t ha(-1) as a top dressing, completely alleviated salt-induced mortality in A. theophrasti and prolonged survival of P. vulgaris. Surviving A. theophrasti plants that received both 50 t ha(-1) biochar and salt addition treatments showed growth rates and physiological performance similar to plants without salt addition. Biochar treatments alone also substantially increased biomass of P. vulgaris, with a ∼50% increase relative to untreated controls at both biochar dosages. Biochar did not significantly affect photosynthetic carbon gain (Amax), water use efficiency, or chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) in either species. Our results indicate that biochar can ameliorate salt stress effects on plants through salt sorption, suggesting novel applications of biochar to mitigate effects of salinization in agricultural, urban, and contaminated soils.

  2. Risk assessment of combined photogenotoxic effects of sunlight and food additives.

    PubMed

    Salih, Fadhil M

    2006-06-01

    The presence of flavored colorants (peach and raspberry), flavors (caramel, citric acid and vanilla) and food preservatives (sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium benzoate, benzoic acid, potassium sorbate and sodium chloride) in Escherichia coli suspension during exposure to sunlight did not change the extent of cell survival. No effect on viability and mutation induction (kanamycin resistant) was also seen when cells were kept in contact with any of the additives for 80 min in the dark. However, when the relevant additive was present in cell suspension during sunlight exposure the number of induced mutations was increased to varying extents over that seen with sunlight alone. Raspberry and peach increased the number of mutations in a dose dependent manner, while vanilla produced mutations in an additive fashion. Nitrite, nitrate, benzoate, sorbate and benzoic acid increased mutation somewhat additively over that of sunlight. Sodium chloride and citric acid were not effective. The impact of this investigation reflects the significance of combination of sunlight and chemical food additives as potential risk, which requires special attention and necessitates further investigations to evaluate the risk.

  3. Effects of aluminum additions to gas atomized reaction synthesis produced oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicher, Alexander Lee

    The production of an aluminum containing ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy was investigated. The production method used in this study was gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). GARS was chosen over the previously commercial method of mechanical alloying (MA) process due to complications from this process. The alloy compositions was determined from three main components; corrosion resistance, dispersoid formation, and additional elements. A combination of Cr and Al were necessary in order to create a protective oxide in the steam atmosphere that the boiler tubing in the next generation of coal-fired power plants would be exposed to. Hf and Y were chosen as dispersoid forming elements due to their increased thermal stability and potential to avoid decreased strength caused by additions of Al to traditional ODS materials. W was used as an additive due to benefits as a strengthener as well as its benefits for creep rupture time. The final composition chosen for the alloy was Fe-16Cr-12Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.2Y at%. The aforementioned alloy, GA-1-198, was created through gas atomization with atomization gas of Ar-300ppm O2. The actual composition created was found to be Fe-15Cr-12.3Al-0.9W-0.24Hf-0.19Y at%. An additional alloy that was nominally the same without the inclusion of aluminum was created as a comparison for the effects on mechanical and corrosion properties. The actual composition of the comparison alloy, GA-1-204, was Fe-16Cr-0Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.24Y at%. An investigation on the processing parameters for these alloys was conducted on the GA-1-198 alloy. In order to predict the necessary amount of time for heat treatment, a diffusion study was used to find the diffusion rate of oxygen in cast alloys with similar composition. The diffusion rate was found to be similar to that of other GARS compositions that have been created without the inclusion of aluminum. The effect of heat treatment time was investigated with temperatures of 950°C, 1000

  4. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Park, J H

    2013-12-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a(*) values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages.

  5. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  6. The Effect of the Diesel Cetane Number on Exhaust Emissions Characteristics by Various Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yunsung; Seo, Choongyeol; Lee, Jongtae; Kang, Daeil; Kim, Jeong Soo; Kim, Hyung Jun

    This paper described the effect of the diesel cetane number on exhaust emissions characteristics according to various additives. In addition, the emission characteristics of test fuels blended with three additives (GTL, biodiesel and additive for improving CN) were analyzed and the potential for uses of these additives were evaluated in this study. To achieve this purpose, the test diesel vehicle with a two-thousand cubic centimeter displacement was used to analyze the emission characteristics according to the CN. Also, the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) was applied as the test mode which is widely used as the test method for environmental certification of diesel vehicles. To analyze the characteristics of HAPs, the VOCs and PAHs were analyzed from the BTEX and the particulate matter, respectively. The analysis results revealed that the CO emissions show the largest reduction rate while the NOx+THC emissions are reduced at a low as the CN got higher. In the NEDC mode, the PM emissions in the EUDC mode were found to be at a lower level than those in the UDC mode. As for the VOCs and PAHs characteristics, the VOCs of the CN 58 show the lowest amounts. Also, the PAHs of diesel blended with GTL show the highest level, followed by those of diesel blended with biodiesel and diesel blended with cetane additive.

  7. Evidence for dose-additive effects of a type II pyrethroid mixture. In vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Ares, I; Ramos, E; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides that led to common exposure in the population, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess dose-additive effects of pyrethroids using a funcional measure involved in the common toxic mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency and efficacy of 6 Type II pyretroids (α-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, cyphenothrin and esfenvalerate) to evoke induction of both nitric oxide and lipid peroxides levels measured as malondialdehyde in three in vitro models (SH-SY5Y, HepG2 and Caco-2 human cells) as well as to test the hypothesis of dose additivity for mixtures of these same 6 pyrethroids. Concentration-responses for 6 pyrethroids were determined as well as the response to mixtures of all 6 pyrethroids. Additivity was tested assuming a dose-additive model. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was the most sensitive in vitro model. The rank order of potency for cell SH-SY5Y viability MTT assay was deltamethrin>cyphenothrin>λ-cyhalothrin>cyfluthrin>esfenvalerate>α-cypermethrin. When 6 pyrethroids were present in the mixture at an equitoxic mixing ratio, the action on nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) production was consistent with a dose-additive model. The results of the present study are consistent with previous reports of additivity of pyrethroids in vivo e in vitro.

  8. Effect of additives on the structure, nanomorphology and efficiency of PCPDTBT: PC71BM solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Shogo; Palanisamy, Kumar; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Ochiai, Shizuyasu

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effect of additives on the morphology of a poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT):(6,6)-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blended onto a surface of poly (3, 4-ethylendioxythiophene): poly(styrensulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) to form photoactive films. Films of PCPDTBT: PC71-BM bulk heterojunctions were prepared by spin-coating from a solution in chlorobenzene (CB) and were processed with and without the addition of 2%, 4%, and 6 vol% 1-chloro naphthalene (CN) or 1, 8-octanedithiol (ODT) as additives. For all samples, the PCPDTBT:PC71BM molar ratio was 1:2 (wt%), and the additives in 1 ml were prepared with a concentration of 30 mg of PCPDTBT:PC71BM. Optical absorption spectroscopy measurements of the films indicated shifts in the absorption peaks in the range from 500-800 nm which was attributed to PCPDTBT. XRay diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the nature of the molecular stacking in the polymer thin films. Topographic images which were obtained by using an atomic force microscope, of the PCPDTBT:PC71BM layers with 2 vol% ODT additive, were found to have the highest surface roughness. The best performing device shows a power conversion efficiency of 2.15% for a 2-vol% ODT additive.

  9. [Effect of magnesium salt addition on nutrients conservation during swine manure composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Wei, Yuan-song; Liu, Jun-xin

    2008-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of magnesium chloride addition on nutrients conservation in the thermophilic stage of swine manure composting. The results indicated that in the end of thermophilic stage of composting, the ammonia nitrogen loss of the pile with Mg-salt addition was 24.25 g, reduced by 58%, compared with 56.60 g of the control. And the total nitrogen (TN) concentration of the pile with magnesium chloride addition was higher by 18% than that of the control pile. Sequential extraction phosphorus results showed that the total phosphorus (TP) in both piles were similar (14.2 g/kg TP of the pile with Mg-salt addition and 12.0 g/kg TP of the control). However, the addition of Mg-salt is helpful for conserving phosphorus in swine compost because the percentage of the easily dissolved phosphorous forms such as H2O-P and NaHCO3-P in the control was increased from 30% of TP to 60% of TP, compared with that maintained at 30% of TP in the pile with Mg-salt addition. Crystal mixture which includes magnesium phosphate were found in the pile of adding magnesium chloride.

  10. The Effect of Silicon and Aluminum Additions on the Oxidation Resistance of Lean Chromium Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, J.S.; Alman, D.E.; Rawers, J.C.

    2001-09-01

    The effect of Si and Al additions on the oxidation of lean chromium austenitic stainless steels has been studied. A baseline composition of Fe-16Cr-16Ni-2Mn-1Mo was selected to allow combined Si and Al additions of up to 5 wt. pct. in a fully austenitic alloy. The baseline composition was selected using a net Cr equivalent equation to predict the onset of G-ferrite formation in austenite. Cyclic oxidation tests in air for 1000 hours were carried out on alloys with Si only or combined Si and Al additions in the temperature range 700 C to 800 C. Oxidation resistance of alloys with Si only additions were outstanding, particularly at 800 C. It was evident that different rate controlling mechanisms for oxidation were operative at 700 C and 800 C in the Si alloys. In addition, Si alloys pre-oxidized at 800 C, showed a zero weight gain in subsequent testing for 1000 hours at 700 C. The rate controlling mechanism in alloys with combined Si and Al addition for oxidation at 800 C was also different than alloys with Si only. SEM and ESCA analysis of the oxide films and base material at the oxide/base metal interface were conducted to study potential rate controlling mechanisms.

  11. Effective Mechanical Properties of Lattice Material Fabricated by Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-kyum; Rosen, David W; Duty, Chad E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step homogenization method is proposed and implemented for evaluating effective mechanical properties of lattice structured material fabricated by the material extrusion additive manufacturing process. In order to consider the characteristics of the additive manufacturing process in estimation procedures, the levels of scale for homogenization are divided into three stages the levels of layer deposition, structural element, and lattice structure. The method consists of two transformations among stages. In the first step, the transformation between layer deposition and structural element levels is proposed to find the geometrical and material effective properties of structural elements in the lattice structure. In the second step, the method to estimate effective mechanical properties of lattice material is presented, which uses a unit cell and is based on the discretized homogenization method for periodic structure. The method is implemented for cubic lattice structure and compared to experimental results for validation purposes.

  12. The effect of diamic acid additives on the dielectric constant of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of six selected diamic acids additives (including 2,2-prime bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride-aniline (An); 4,4-prime-oxydiphthalic anhydride-An, 3,3-prime diaminodiphenyl sulfone-phthalic anhydride (PA); 4,4-prime-oxydianiline-PA; 2,2-bis 4(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl hexafluoropropane-PA; and 2,2-bis 4(3-aminophenoxy)phenyl hexafluoropropane-PA) on the dielectric constants of low-dielectric-constant polyimide resins was evaluated. It was found that the effect of the incorporation of the diamic acids on reducing the dielectric constant of polyimides may be limited as the dielectric constant of the base resin itself becomes very low. The additives were found to lower the resin's values of glass transition temperature, with no effect on thermooxidative stability.

  13. Effects of water and nitrogen addition on species turnover in temperate grasslands in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change.

  14. Effect of oxygenated liquid additives on the urea based SNCR process.

    PubMed

    Tayyeb Javed, M; Nimmo, W; Mahmood, Asif; Irfan, Naseem

    2009-08-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of oxygenated liquid additives, H(2)O(2), C(2)H(5)OH, C(2)H(4)(OH)(2) and C(3)H(5)(OH)(3) on NO(x) removal from flue gases by the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process using urea as a reducing agent. Experiments were performed with a 150kW pilot scale reactor in which a simulated flue gas was generated by the combustion of methane operating with 6% excess oxygen in flue gases. The desired levels of initial NO(x) (500ppm) were achieved by doping the fuel gas with ammonia. Experiments were performed throughout the temperature range of interest, i.e. from 800 to 1200 degrees C for the investigation of the effects of the process additives on the performance of aqueous urea DeNO(x). With H(2)O(2) addition a downward shift of 150 degrees C in the peak reduction temperature from 1130 to 980 degrees C was observed during the experimentation, however, the peak reduction efficiency was reduced from 81 to 63% when no additive was used. The gradual addition of C(2)H(5)OH up to a molar ratio of 2.0 further impairs the peak NO(x) reduction efficiency by reducing it to 50% but this is accompanied by a downward shift of 180 degrees C in the peak reduction temperature. Further exploration using C(2)H(4)(OH)(2) suggested that a 50% reduction could be attained for all the temperatures higher than 940 degrees C. The use of C(3)H(5)(OH)(3) as a secondary additive has a significant effect on the peak reduction efficiency that decreased to 40% the reductions were achievable at a much lower temperature of 800 degrees C showing a downward shift of 330 degrees C.

  15. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Species Turnover in Temperate Grasslands in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change. PMID:22768119

  16. The distribution of salinity and main forcing effects in the Berre lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Bernard; Alekseenko, Elena; Chen, Paul Gang; Kharif, Christian; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The results from previous studies in lagoons and well mixed estuaries indicate that salt transport is primarily in response to advection associated with freshwater outflow, tidal diffusion, and to shear effects arising from spatial correlations of vertical and especially transverse deviations in salinity and current speed (Smith, 1994). Therefore, the inflow of fresh and salt water into coastal lagoons is an important factor influencing the structure and function of lagoonal ecosystems worldwide (Lirman et al., 2007). The predominance of marine or freshwater inflow leads to the different ecosystems. Among several lagoons located along the Mediterranean shore of France, the Berre lagoon has been under intense anthropogenic pressure for several decades (Delpy et al., 2012). Moreover, the salinity level of the Berre lagoon was varying dramatically from the 19th century up to now. In this work, a special attention is focused on the salinity variation in the Berre lagoon due to the three dominant abiotic forcing mechanisms, i.e., incoming sea tide, runoff from a hydropower and a strong wind. Four different model scenarios were considered in order to examine the impact of each forcing mechanism or combined effects, i.e. : (a) tide only, (b) runoff only, (c) combined tide and runoff, and (d) an N-NW wind, tide and runoff together. Numerical modeling and interpretation of numerical results are based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic model MARS3D. It is found that the strongest negative impact is related to the huge hydropower runoffs, inducing the desalinization of the surface and subsurface waters not only in the centre of the lagoon, but also in the entire water column in the coastal seagrass recolonization zones. In the absence of wind, the huge inputs of freshwater from the hydropower lead to a haline stratification and thus, to anoxic conditions, making most of the lagoon unproductive. On the contrary, strong winds play a positive role on the salinity level of the

  17. Investigation of the effects of short chain processing additives on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Stclair, T. L.; Pratt, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of low level concentrations of several short chain processing additives on the properties of the 4,4'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy) diphenylsulfide dianhydride (BDSDA)/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA)/1,3'-diaminobenzene (m-phenylene diamine) (MPA) (422) copolyimide were investigated. It was noted that 5 percent MPD/phthalic anhydride (PA) is more effective than 5 percent ODA/PA and BDSDA/aniline (AN) in strengthening the host material. However, the introduction of 10 percent BDSDA/AN produces disproportionately high effects on free volume and free electron density in the host copolyimide.

  18. Effect of stabilizing additives on the structure and hydration of proteins: a study involving monoclinic lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, N T; Sankaranarayanan, R; Vijayan, M

    2002-07-01

    In pursuance of a long-range programme on the hydration, mobility and action of proteins, the structural basis of the stabilizing effect of sugars and polyols is being investigated. With two crystallographically independent molecules with slightly different packing environments in the crystal, monoclinic lysozyme constitutes an ideal system for exploring the problem. The differences in the structure and hydration of the two molecules provide a framework for examining the changes caused by stabilizing additives. Monoclinic crystals were grown under native conditions and also in the presence of 10% sucrose, 15% trehalose, 10% trehalose, 10% sorbitol and 5% glycerol. The crystal structures were refined at resolutions ranging from 1.8 to 2.1 A. The average B values, and hence the mobility of the structure, are lower in the presence of additives than in the native crystals. However, a comparison of the structures indicates that the effect of the additives on the structure and the hydration shell around the protein molecule is considerably less than that caused by differences in packing. It is also less than that caused by the replacement of NaNO(3) by NaCl as the precipitant in the crystallization experiments. This result is not in conformity with the commonly held belief that additives exert their stabilizing effect through the reorganization of the hydration shell, at least as far as the ordered water molecules are concerned.

  19. Effects of bulking agent addition on odorous compounds emissions during composting of OFMSW.

    PubMed

    Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Wu, Duo; Lü, Fan; Li, Tian-Shui; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-08-01

    The effects of rice straw addition level on odorous compounds emissions in a pilot-scale organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) composting plant were investigated. The cumulative odorous compounds emissions occurred in a descending order of 40.22, 28.71 and 27.83 mg/dry kg of OFMSW for piles with rice straw addition level at ratio of 1:10, 2:10 and 3:10 (mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW on a wet basis), respectively. The mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW had a statistically significant effect on the reduction of malodorous sulfur compounds emissions, which had no statistically significant effect on the reduction of VFAs, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, aromatics and ammonia emissions during composting, respectively. The cumulative emissions of malodorous sulfur compounds from piles with the increasing rice straw addition level were 1.17, 1.08 and 0.88 mg/dry kg of OFMSW, respectively. The optimal mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW was 1:5. Using this addition level, the cumulative malodorous sulfur compounds emissions based on the organic matter degradation were the lowest during composting of OFMSW. PMID:24820662

  20. Addition of Alarm Pheromone Components Improves the Effectiveness of Desiccant Dusts Against Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    BENOIT, JOSHUA B.; PHILLIPS, SETH A.; CROXALL, TRAVIS J.; CHRISTENSEN, BRADY S.; YODER, JAY A.; DENLINGER, DAVID L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss. PMID:19496429

  1. Effects of Ce additions on the age hardening response of Mg–Zn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Langelier, Brian Esmaeili, Shahrzad

    2015-03-15

    The effects of Ce additions on the precipitation hardening behaviour of Mg–Zn are examined for a series of alloys, with Ce additions at both alloying and microalloying levels. The alloys are artificially aged, and studied using hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction, as well as optical and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the age-hardening effect is driven by the formation of fine precipitates, the number density of which is related to the Zn content of the alloy. Conversely, the Ce content is found to slightly reduce hardening. When the alloy content of Ce is high, large secondary phase particles containing both Ce and Zn are present, and remain stable during solutionizing. These particles effectively reduce the amount of Zn available as solute for precipitation, and thereby reduce hardening. Combining hardness results with thermodynamic analysis of alloy solute levels also suggests that Ce can have a negative effect on hardening when present as solutes at the onset of ageing. This effect is confirmed by designing a pre-ageing heat treatment to preferentially remove Ce solutes, which is found to restore the hardening capability of an Mg–Zn–Ce alloy to the level of the Ce-free alloy. - Highlights: • The effects of Ce additions on precipitation in Mg–Zn alloys are examined. • Additions of Ce to Mg–Zn slightly reduce the age-hardening response. • Ce-rich secondary phase particles deplete the matrix of Zn solute. • Hardening is also decreased when Ce is present in solution. • Pre-ageing to preferentially precipitate out Ce restores hardening capabilities.

  2. Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss.

  3. The Effect of Gaseous Additives on Dynamic Pressure Output and Ignition Sensitivity of Nanothermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puszynski, Jan; Doorenbos, Zac; Walters, Ian; Redner, Paul; Kapoor, Deepak; Swiatkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    This contribution addresses important combustion characteristics of nanothermite systems. In this research the following nanothermites were investigated: a) Al-Bi2O3, b)Al-Fe2O3 and c)Al-Bi2O3-Fe2O3. The effect of various gasifying additives (such as nitrocellulose (NC) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)) as well as reactant stoichiometry, reactant particle size and shape on processability, ignition delay time and dynamic pressure outputs at different locations in a combustion chamber will be presented. In addition, this contribution will report electrostatic and friction sensitivities of standard and modified nanothermites.

  4. Effect of Organic Additive on Surface Roughness of Polycrystalline Silicon Film after Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hee-Sub; Park, Jin-Hyung; Yi, Sok-Ho; Paik, Ungyu; Park, Jea-Gun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of an organic additive on the surface roughness of a polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) film was investigated by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). The surface roughness of the polished poly-Si film was markedly reduced by adding 0.001 wt % hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and then decreased slightly with further addition of HEC. We concluded that the reduction of surface roughness was attributed to the formation of a hydroplane layer on the poly-Si surface. Evidence of the hydroplane layer was verified by contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements.

  5. Effect of GdL Addition on Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) addition on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Five batches of sausages were produced under ripening conditions: without GdL and with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% of GdL addition. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25th day of ripening. Chemical analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content of sausages with increasing amounts of GdL added (p<0.05). The moisture contents decreased, whereas the fat, protein and ash contents increased throughout ripening (p<0.05). Increasing levels of GdL caused a decrease in the pH values (p<0.05), which can have an inhibitory effect against microflora. Water holding capacity content of samples decreased with increasing GdL concentration (p<0.05). The shear force values of fermented sausages showed the highest in T4 (p<0.05). During ripening, the shear force values of sausages were increased on the 25th day compared to day 0 (p<0.05). The higher GdL level produced lighter and more yellow sausages. The addition of 0.75% GdL was effective in controlling bacteria counts. Addition of GdL in sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than no addition of GdL without any harmful effect. PMID:26761846

  6. Effects of CH3OH Addition on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongyi; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloys were prepared in alkaline silicate electrolytes (base electrolyte) with the addition of different volume concentrations of CH3OH, which was used to adjust the thickness of the vapor sheath. The compositions, morphologies, and thicknesses of ceramic layers formed with different CH3OH concentrations were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. PEO coatings mainly comprised Mg, MgO, and Mg2SiO4. The addition of CH3OH in base electrolytes affected the thickness, pores diameter, and Mg2SiO4 content in the films. The films formed in the electrolyte containing 12% CH3OH exhibited the highest thickness. The coatings formed in the electrolyte containing different concentrations of CH3OH exhibited similar corrosion resistance. The energy consumption of PEO markedly decreased upon the addition of CH3OH to the electrolytes. The result is helpful for energy saving in the PEO process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21376088), the Project of Production, Education and Research, Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education (Nos. 2012B09100063, 2012A090300015), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects of China (No. 2014Y2-00042)

  7. Explanation of non-additive effects in mixtures of similar mode of action chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Masashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Many models have been developed to predict the combined effect of drugs and chemicals. Most models are classified into two additive models: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). It is generally considered if the modes of action of chemicals are similar then the combined effect obeys CA; however, many empirical studies report nonlinear effects deviating from the predictions by CA. Such deviations are termed synergism and antagonism. Synergism, which leads to a stronger toxicity, requires more careful management, and hence it is important to understand how and which combinations of chemicals lead to synergism. In this paper, three types of chemical reactions are mathematically modeled and the cause of the nonlinear effects among chemicals with similar modes of action was investigated. Our results show that combined effects obey CA only when the modes of action are exactly the same. Contrary to existing knowledge, combined effects are generally nonlinear even if the modes of action of the chemicals are similar. Our results further show that the nonlinear effects vanish out when the chemical concentrations are low, suggesting that the current management procedure of assuming CA is rarely inappropriate because environmental concentrations of chemicals are generally low.

  8. Effects of sterile storage, cation saturation and substrate additions on the degradability and extractability of nonylphenol and phenanthrene in soil.

    PubMed

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Marschner, Bernd

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of long-term abiotic processes during aging of organic pollutants in soil on their microbial degradability and formation of non-extractable residues. The specific aims of our study were to investigate how the fate of p353-nonylphenol (NP) and phenanthrene (Phe) in soils might be affected by: (i) saturation of soil by cations with different valency (Na(+), Ca(2+) or Al(3+)), (ii) addition of organic substrate (wood flour) during incubation period and (iii) different soil moisture levels. This study showed positive effect of long-term aging of sterilized samples on respiration of re-inoculated samples. However, the lack of aging effects on the mineralization of NP and Phe indicates that slow sorption processes by diffusion into less bioaccessible domains were not relevant in studied soils. Similarly, the lower respiration and xenobiotic mineralization rates in the Na(+) and Al(3+) treated soils indicate that this is due to toxic effects on microbial activity and not due to xenobiotic accessibility. Instead, the formation of non-extractable residues was strongly promoted by biological activity, most likely through formation of more reactive metabolites. The addition of wood flour greatly stimulated microbial respiration and enhanced NP mineralization while inhibiting that of Phe. Along with negligible effect of water addition after 4 weeks of incubation on kinetics of soil respiration, the soil moisture effect on xenobiotics mineralization indicates that most probably the bioavailability of NP and Phe increased due to bridging role of water films in soil.

  9. [Effects of biochar addition into soils in semiarid land on water infiltration under the condition of the same bulk density].

    PubMed

    Qi, Rui-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Yong-Hao; Wen, Man; Zheng, Ji-Yong

    2014-08-01

    Making clear the effects of biochar addition on soil water infiltration process can provide the scientific basis for the evaluation of the influence of biochar application on soil hydrology in semi-arid region. In this paper, through the soil column simulation method in laboratory, the effects of biochar of three sizes (1-2 mm, 0.25-1 mm and ≤ 0.25 mm) at 4 doses (10, 50, 100 and 150 g x kg(-1)) on the cumulative infiltration, the permeability and the stable infiltration rate of two different soils (anthrosol and aeolian sandy soil) were studied. The results showed that the infiltration capacity of the anthrosol was obviously increased compared to the control, however, the one in the aeolian sandy soil was decreased due to the biochar addition. At 100 minutes after infiltration starting, the averaged cumulative infiltration was increased by 25.1% in the anthrosol with comparison to the control. Contrarily, the averaged cumulative infiltration was decreased by 11.1% in the aeolian sandy soil at 15 minutes after infiltration starting. When the dose was the same, biochar with different particle sizes improved the infiltration for the anthrosol, but for the different dose treatments, the particle size of biochar which showed the greatest improvement was different. As for the aeolian sandy soil, the infiltration increased at the dose of 10 g x kg(-1) after the addition of biochar with different particle sizes, while decreased at the higher dose of 50, 100 and 150 g x kg(-1). The cumulative infiltration of the aeolian sandy soil was decreased with the increase in addition amount of biochar with the same particle size, while it was not so for the anthrosol. The determination coefficient fitted by the Philip infiltration model ranged from 0.965 to 0.999, suggesting this model was suitable for the simulation of soil water infiltration process after biochar application. Statistical analysis of main effects showed that the biochar particle size, the biochar addition amount

  10. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  11. Effects of lipids on thermophilic anaerobic digestion and reduction of lipid inhibition upon addition of bentonite.

    PubMed

    Angelidaki, I; Petersen, S P; Ahring, B K

    1990-07-01

    The effect of bentonite-bound oil on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure was investigated. In digestor experiments, addition of oil was found to be inhibitory during start-up and the inhibitory effect was less pronounced when the oil was added in the form of bentonite-bound oil compared to when the oil was added alone. After adaptation of the digestors, very rapid degradation of oil was observed and more than 80% of the oil was degraded within a few hours after daily feeding. In batch experiments, glyceride trioleate was found to be inhibitory to thermophilic anaerobic digestion when the concentrations were higher than 2.0 g/l. However, addition of bentonite (a clay mineral) at concentrations of 0.15% and 0.45% was found to partly overcome this inhibition. Addition of calcium chloride in concentration of 3 mM (0.033% w/v) showed a similar positive effect on the utilization of oil, but the effect was lower than with bentonite. PMID:1366749

  12. The effects of beryllium additions on the oxidation of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide based intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Chen, K.C.; Brady, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    The effects of Be additions on the oxidation behavior of {beta}-NiAl in moist air at 1,000 C and borderline alumina-forming {gamma} (TiAl) + Laves Ti-Al-Cr based alloys at 800 C and 1,000 C in dry and moist air were investigated. The addition of Be to {beta}-NiAl suppressed the formation of transient alumina, and resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In dry air, the addition of Be to the Ti-Al-Cr alloys also resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In moist air, only Ti-Al-Cr-Be alloys with a high Cr content (10 to 15 a/o) formed the protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} scale.

  13. The effects of beryllium additions on the oxidation of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide based intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Chen, K.C.; Brady, M.P.

    1998-11-01

    The effects of Be additions on the oxidation behavior of {beta}-NiAl in moist air at 1,000 C as well as on the borderline alumina-forming {gamma} + Laves Ti-Al-Cr based alloys at 800 C and 1,000 C in dry and moist air were investigated. The addition of Be to {beta}-NiAl suppressed the formation of transient alumina and resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In dry air, the addition of Be to the Ti-Al-Cr alloys also resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In moist air, only Ti-Al-Cr-Be alloys with a high Cr content (10 to 15 a/o) formed the protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} scale.

  14. Effect of Ca addition on the corrosion behavior of Mg-Al-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiang; Peng, Jian; Nyberg, Eric A.; Pan, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures and corrosion resistance of magnesium-5 wt% aluminum-0.3 wt% manganese alloys (Mg-Al-Mn) with different Ca additions (0.2-4 wt%) were investigated. Results showed that with increasing Ca addition, the grain of the alloys became more refined, whereas the corrosion resistant ability of the alloys initially increased and then decreased. The alloy with 2 wt% Ca addition exhibited the best corrosion resistance, attributed to the effect of the oxide film and (Mg,Al)2Ca phases which were discontinuously distributed on the grain boundaries. These phases acted as micro-victims, they preferentially corroded to protect the α-Mg matrix. The oxide film formed on the alloy surface can hinder the solution further to protect the α-Mg matrix.

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl Phosphate: Phosphorus – Nitrogen Synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Gaan, Sabyasachi; Sun, Gang; Hutches, Katherine; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen additives like urea, guanidine carbonate and melamine formaldehyde on the flame retardant efficacy of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of activation energy of decomposition of treated cotton indicated that nitrogen additives enhance the thermal stability during the burning process. SEM pictures of chars formed after LOI test showed the formation of protective polymeric coating on the surface. The surface of chars formed were evaluated using FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis which showed that the coating was composed of Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Oxygen containing species. Formation of this coating during the burning process could lead to the synergistic interaction of phosphorus and nitrogen. Based on the experimental data we have further proposed several reaction mechanisms which could contribute to synergistic action and formation of protective coating on the surface of char.

  16. Effect of some promoting additives on the electrosynthesis of potassium peroxydiphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Tyurikova, O.G.; Kasatkin, E.V.; Miller, N.B.; Chemodanov, A.N.

    1986-10-20

    The authors have demonstrated the expediency of using some other additives (potassium chloride, potassium thiocyanate, sodium sulfite, urea, thiourea) instead of KF as promoters in the electrosynthesis of K/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 8/ at a Pt anode in K/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ solution. They act by retarding the side reaction of O/sub 2/ evolution and accelerating the desired reaction. The advantage of these additives over KF is the significantly lower level of effective concentration, which facilitates the subsequent separation of peroxydiphosphate from anolyte. Moreover the replacement of KF by other additives enables corrosion losses of platinum to be substantially reduced under certain conditions.

  17. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  18. Effect of additives in the shelflife extension of chilled and frozen stored Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus).

    PubMed

    Manimaran, Uthaman; Shakila, Robinson Jeya; Shalini, Rajendran; Sivaraman, Balasubramanian; Sumathi, Ganesan; Selvaganapathi, Rajendran; Jeyasekaran, Geevarathnam

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of commercial additives viz. cafodos and altesa employed to treat Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus) was examined during chilled and frozen storage. Shelf lives of treated and untreated octopus in ice were 6 and 8 days, respectively in ice. Treated and untreated frozen octopus had a shelf life of 40 days. Autolytic and microbiological changes were not controlled by the additives, as evidenced through rapid reduction in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and α-amino nitrogen (α-AN) compounds; as well as accumulation of water soluble ammoniacal nitrogen and total volatile base- nitrogen (TVB-N) compounds. Loss of texture and colour were the major quality defects noticed in treated octopus as a result of enhanced protein solubility. Therefore, the additives approved for use in octopus neither enhanced the shelf life nor improved the sensory quality. PMID:27162416

  19. Effect of hot pressing additives on the leachability of hot pressed sodium hydrous titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.M.; Sambell, R.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium hydrous titanium oxide is an ion exchange resin which can be used for immobilizing medium level waste (MLW) liquors. When hot pressed, it undergoes conversion to a ceramic. Three low melting point materials (borax, bismuth trioxide, and a mixture of PbO/CuO) were added to the (Na)HTiO and the effect that each of these had on aiding densification was assessed. Hot pressing temperature, applied pressure, and percentage addition of hot pressing aid were varied. Percentage open porosity, flexural strength, and leachability were measured. There was a linear relationship between the percentage open porosity and the logarithm of the leach rate for a constant percentage addition of each additive.

  20. Effect of multiplicative and additive noise on genetic transcriptional regulatory mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Mei; Xie, Hui-Zhang; Liu, Liang-Gang; Li, Zhi-Bing

    2009-02-01

    A multiplicative noise and an additive noise are introduced in the kinetic model of Smolen-Baxter-Byrne [P. Smolen, D.A. Baxter, J.H. Byrne, Amer. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 274 (1998) 531], in which the expression of gene is controlled by protein concentration of transcriptional activator. The Fokker-Planck equation is solved and the steady-state probability distribution is obtained numerically. It is found that the multiplicative noise converts the bistability to monostability that can be regarded as a noise-induced transition. The additive noise reduces the transcription efficiency. The correlation between the multiplicative noise and the additive noise works as a genetic switch and regulates the gene transcription effectively.

  1. Vector Addition: Effect of the Context and Position of the Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2010-10-01

    In this article we investigate the effect of: 1) the context, and 2) the position of the vectors, on 2D vector addition tasks. We administered a test to 512 students completing introductory physics courses at a private Mexican university. In the first part, we analyze students' responses in three isomorphic problems: displacements, forces, and no physical context. Students were asked to draw two vectors and the vector sum. We analyzed students' procedures detecting the difficulties when drawing the vector addition and proved that the context matters, not only compared to the context-free case but also between the contexts. In the second part, we analyze students' responses with three different arrangements of the sum of two vectors: tail-to-tail, head-to-tail and separated vectors. We compared the frequencies of the errors in the three different positions to deduce students' conceptions in the addition of vectors.

  2. Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. ); Mitchell, K. . Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. )

    1995-02-01

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

  3. Effect of rhenium addition on tungsten fuzz formation in helium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Aneeqa; De Temmerman, Gregory; Morgan, Thomas W.; Ward, Michael B.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the addition of rhenium to tungsten on the formation of a nanostructure referred to as 'fuzz' when exposed to helium plasmas at fusion relevant ion fluxes was investigated in the Magnum and Pilot PSI devices at the FOM Institute DIFFER. The effect rhenium had on fuzz growth was seen to be dependent on time, temperature and flux. Initial fuzz growth was seen to be highly dependent on grain orientation, with rhenium having little effect. Once the fuzz was fully developed, the effect of grain orientation disappeared and the rhenium had an inhibiting effect on growth. This could be beneficial for inhibiting fuzz growth in a future fusion reactor, where transmutation of tungsten to rhenium is expected. It also appears that erosion or annealing of the fuzz is limiting growth of fuzz at higher temperatures in the range of ∼1340 °C.

  4. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions on Carbon Cycling of Tropical Mountain Rainforests in Hainan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) deposition is projected to increase significantly in tropical regions in the coming decades, which has changed and will change the structure and function of ecosystems, and affects on ecosystem Carbon (C) cycle. As an important part in global C cycle, how the C cycle of tropical rainforests will be influenced by the N and P deposition should be focused on. This study simulated N and P deposition in a primary and secondary forest of tropical mountain rainforest in Jianfengling, Hainan, China, during five-year field experiment to evaluate the effects of N and P deposition on C cycling processes and relate characteristics. Six levels of N and P treatments were treated: Control, Low-N, Medium-N, High-N, P and N+P. The relative growth rates (RGR) of tree layer in treatment plots were different from that in control plots after years of N and P addition. Simulated N and P deposition also increased ANPP in primary forest. N and P addition changed the growth of trees by altering soil nutrient and microbial activities. N and P addition increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N (TN) content, and significantly increased soil total P (TP) content, not changing soil pH. During the whole process of N and P addition, as net nitrification rate and net N mineralization rate were promoted by N and P addition, and effective N content (nitrate) of soil increased in the plot treated with N treatments compared to the control treatment. The microbial P content was increased by N and P addition, and microbial N was not changed. The increasing N deposition may enhance soil nutrient and stimulate growth of trees, which will lead to an increase of the C sequestration.

  5. The effect of an additional reflection in a precedence effect experiment

    PubMed Central

    Goupell, Matthew J.; Yu, Gongqiang; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the precedence effect typically utilize a two-source paradigm, which is not realistic relative to real world situations where multiple reflections exist. A step closer to multiple-reflection situations was studied using a three-source paradigm. Discrimination of interaural time differences (ITDs) was measured for one-, two-, and three-source stimuli, using clicks presented over headphones. The ITD was varied in either the first, second, or the third source. The inter-source intervals ranged from 0–130 ms. A perceptual weighting model was extendedto incorporate the three-source stimuli and used to interpret the data. The effect of adding a third source could mostly, but not entirely, be understood by the interaction of effects observed in the precedence effect with two sources. Specifically, for delays between 1 and 8 ms, the ITD information of prior sources was typically weighted more heavily than subsequent sources. For delays greater than 8 ms, subsequent sources were typically weighted slightly more heavily than prior sources. However, there were specific conditions that showed a more complex interaction between the sources. These findings suggest that the two-source paradigm provides a strong basis for understanding how the auditory system processes reflections in spatial hearing tasks. PMID:22501073

  6. Coexposure to phytoestrogens and bisphenol a mimics estrogenic effects in an additive manner.

    PubMed

    Katchy, Anne; Pinto, Caroline; Jonsson, Philip; Nguyen-Vu, Trang; Pandelova, Marchela; Riu, Anne; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Samarov, Daniel; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Bondesson, Maria; Williams, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are abundant in our environment. A number of EDCs, including bisphenol A (BPA) can bind to the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases such as breast cancer. Early exposure is of particular concern; many EDCs cross the placenta and infants have measurable levels of, eg, BPA. In addition, infants are frequently fed soy-based formula (SF) that contains phytoestrogens. Effects of combined exposure to xeno- and phytoestrogens are poorly studied. Here, we extensively compared to what extent BPA, genistein, and an extract of infant SF mimic estrogen-induced gene transcription and cell proliferation. We investigated ligand-specific effects on ER activation in HeLa-ERα and ERβ reporter cells; on proliferation, genome-wide gene regulation and non-ER-mediated effects in MCF7 breast cancer cells; and how coexposure influenced these effects. The biological relevance was explored using enrichment analyses of differentially regulated genes and clustering with clinical breast cancer profiles. We demonstrate that coexposure to BPA and genistein, or SF, results in increased functional and transcriptional estrogenic effects. Using statistical modeling, we determine that BPA and phytoestrogens act in an additive manner. The proliferative and transcriptional effects of the tested compounds mimic those of 17β-estradiol, and are abolished by cotreatment with an ER antagonist. Gene expression profiles induced by each compound clustered with poor prognosis breast cancer, indicating that exposure may adversely affect breast cancer prognosis. This study accentuates that coexposure to BPA and soy-based phytoestrogens results in additive estrogenic effects, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases, including breast cancer.

  7. Effects of nitrogen addition and fire on plant nitrogen use in a temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Wei; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Lü, Fu-Mei; Han, Xing-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Plant nitrogen (N) use strategies have great implications for primary production and ecosystem nutrient cycling. Given the increasing atmospheric N deposition received by most of the terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the responses of plant N use would facilitate the projection of plant-mediated N cycling under global change scenarios. The effects of N deposition on plant N use would be affected by both natural and anthropogenic disturbances, such as prescribed fire in the grassland. We examined the effects of N addition (5.25 g N m(-2) yr(-1)) and prescribed fire (annual burning) on plant N concentrations and N use characters at both species and community levels in a temperate steppe of northern China. We found that N addition and fire independently affected soil N availability and plant N use traits. Nitrogen addition increased aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), inorganic N, and N uptake, decreased N response efficiency (NRE), but did not affect biomass-weighed N concentrations at community level. Prescribed fire did not change the community level N concentrations, but largely decreased N uptake efficiency and NRE. At the species level, the effects of N addition and fire on plant N use were species-specific. The divergent responses of plant N use at community and species levels to N addition and fire highlight the importance of the hierarchical responses of plant N use at diverse biological organization levels to the alteration of soil N availability. This study will improve our understanding of the responses of plant-mediated N cycling to global change factors and ecosystem management strategies in the semiarid grasslands. PMID:24594654

  8. Effects of molecular architectures and solvophobic additives on the aggregative properties of polymeric surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Lung; Wu, Ming-Zher; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2012-03-01

    The aggregative behavior of the polymeric surfactants with various molecular architectures in dilute solutions is studied by dissipative particle dynamics. The effects of the solvophobic/solvophilic length, polymeric architecture (linear, star, dendritic, and cyclic type), chain rigidity, and solvophobic additives on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the aggregative patterns are systematically investigated. It is found that molecular architectures have a noteworthy impact on the aggregative properties. For linear diblock copolymers, the CMC declines with increasing solvophobic length but rises with increasing solvophilic length. Nonetheless, the solvophobic group has comparatively greater influence on the CMC. Imposition of the star, dendritic, or cyclic structures onto the solvophobic or solvophilic parts of the polymeric surfactant leads to an increase in the CMC. On the contrary, polymers imposed with the greater degree of the rigidity on the solvophobic or solvophilic block have lower CMC. The addition of solvophobic additives results in a decrease of CMC as well. The effects of the concentration and length of the additives on the aggregative behaviors of polymer surfactants were investigated. Interesting supramolecular structures such as caterpillar and worm-like micelles were observed.

  9. Effect of boron addition on the structure and magnetic properties of CoPt nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khemjeen, Yutthaya; Pinitsoontorn, Supree Chompoosor, Apiwat

    2015-05-07

    The effect of B addition on CoPt nanoparticles was investigated. The CoPt-B nanoparticles were synthesized by means of the polyol process. Transmission electron microscopy has shown that the as-synthesized particles have a spherical morphology with average size about 2–3 nm. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy and the X-ray diffraction technique showed the effect of B concentration on phase transformation. The addition of B at up to 60% promoted the formation of the L1{sub 0} phase when the nanoparticles were subjected to annealing at 600 °C. If the B content is higher than 60%, the phase transition is suppressed. The evidence of B addition on the structure of CoPt nanoparticles was further supported by the magnetic measurements. The results show that the coercivity of the annealed CoPt-B nanoparticles was enhanced by the B additions from 20% to 60%, with the maximum coercivity of 12 000 Oe for the CoPt-40%B sample.

  10. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    PubMed

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield.

  11. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition. PMID:26059183

  12. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-06-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition.

  13. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  14. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-06-10

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition.

  15. The effects of scaffold architecture and fibrin gel addition on tendon cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pawelec, K M; Wardale, R J; Best, S M; Cameron, R E

    2015-01-01

    Development of tissue engineering scaffolds relies on careful selection of pore architecture and chemistry of the cellular environment. Repair of skeletal soft tissue, such as tendon, is particularly challenging, since these tissues have a relatively poor healing response. When removed from their native environment, tendon cells (tenocytes) lose their characteristic morphology and the expression of phenotypic markers. To stimulate tendon cells to recreate a healthy extracellular matrix, both architectural cues and fibrin gels have been used in the past, however, their relative effects have not been studied systematically. Within this study, a combination of collagen scaffold architecture, axial and isotropic, and fibrin gel addition was assessed, using ovine tendon-derived cells to determine the optimal strategy for controlling the proliferation and protein expression. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gel addition influenced tendon cell behavior independently in vitro. Addition of fibrin gel within a scaffold doubled cell number and increased matrix production for all architectures studied. However, scaffold architecture dictated the type of matrix produced by cells, regardless of fibrin addition. Axial scaffolds, mimicking native tendon, promoted a mature matrix, with increased tenomodulin, a marker for mature tendon cells, and decreased scleraxis, an early transcription factor for connective tissue. This study demonstrated that both architectural cues and fibrin gel addition alter cell behavior and that the combination of these signals could improve clinical performance of current tissue engineering constructs.

  16. The effect of additional high dose carbon implantation on the tribological properties of titanium implanted steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Sasaki, Jun; Ichiko, Osami; Hashiguchi, Yoshihiro

    1996-08-01

    The tribological properties and the structural changes of hardened steel implanted with titanium followed by carbon were investigated as a function of additional carbon dose. The dose of Ti was 5×10 17 Ti cm -2 and the additional C doses were 0, 4×10 17, 8×10 17 and 1.2×10 18 C cm -2. After Ti implantation, the steel surface transformed to a FeTiC ternary amorphous phase. Additional implantation of carbon to a dose of 4×10 17 C cm -2 produced fine TiC precipitates dispersed in the ternary amorphous matrix. When the additional C dose exceeded 8×10 17 C cm -2, very fine graphite precipitates appeared in the ternary amorphous phase. The steel surface with very fine graphite precipitates exhibited superior tribological properties. The benefits provided by additional high dose carbon implantation are considered as follows: strengthening of the amorphous phase, thickening of the modified layer, dispersion strengthening of the implanted layer by very fine graphite precipitates and lubrication effect by graphite particles. Comparing the friction properties of Ti+C implanted steel with that of C implanted steel, the role of Ti implantation is to reduce the friction of the surface during sliding and the role of C implantation is to increase the lifetime of the surface against wear.

  17. Effect of Dysprosia Additive on the Consolidation of CeO2 by Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect

    K. Choi; R. E. Reavis; D. D. Osterberg; B. J. Jacques; D. P. Butt; R. D. Mariani; D. E. Burkes; Z. A. Munir

    2012-05-01

    The influence of dysprosia addition on the sintering and resulting microstructure of nano-grained CeO2 ceramics was investigated as functions of the spark plasma sintering (SPS) parameters. The addition of Dy2O3 (forming a solid solution) resulted in an increase in relative density and a decrease in grain size. The relative density of samples with Dy2O3 content of 6 and 10 mol% was over 95% when sintered at 1050 C under 500 MPa for holding times as short as 5 minutes. The application of high pressure facilitated the consolidation to relatively high densities with minimal grain growth. Heating rate and holding time, however, had insignificant effect on density but a measurable effect on grain size.

  18. Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Clarice M A; Honorato, Talita L; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Maia, Geraldo A; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2007-05-01

    Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools. Both phosphate and yeast extract addition were significant factors for biomass growth, but had no significant effect on maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme activities found in cashew apple juice assays were at least 3.5 times higher than the activity found in the synthetic medium. Assays with pH control (pH = 6.5) were also carried out. The pH-controlled fermentation enhanced biomass growth, but decreased the enzyme activity. Crude enzyme free of cells produced using cashew apple juice was stable for 16 h at 30 degrees C at a pH of 5.0.

  19. Is the additional greenhouse effect already evident in the current climate?

    PubMed

    Raschke, E

    2001-11-01

    Several greenhouse gases, which are in part or entirely produced by human activities, have accumulated in the atmosphere since approximately the middle of the 19th century. They are assumed to have an additional greenhouse effect causing a further increase of atmospheric temperatures near the ground and a decrease in the layers above approximately 15 km altitude. The currently observed near-surface warming over nearly the entire globe is already considered by a large fraction of our society to be result of this additional greenhouse effect. Complete justification of this assumption is, however, not yet possible, because there are still too many unknowns in our knowledge of participating processes and in our modeling capabilities.

  20. Ring Substituent Effects on the Thiol Addition and Hydrolysis Reactions of N-Arylmaleimides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingche; Tsao, Kelvin; De Francesco, Élise; Keillor, Jeffrey W

    2015-12-18

    Maleimide groups are used extensively in bioconjugation reactions, but limited kinetic information is available regarding their thiol addition and hydrolysis reactions. We prepared a series of fluorogenic coumarin maleimide derivatives that differ by the substituent on their maleimide C═C bond. Fluorescence-based kinetic studies of the reaction with β-mercaptoethanol (BME) yielded the second-order rate constants (k2), while pH-rate studies from pH 7 to 9 gave base-catalyzed hydrolysis rate constants (kOH). Linear free-energy relationships were studied through the correlation of log k2 and log kOH to both electronic (σ(+)) and steric (Es(norm)) parameters of the C═C substituent. These correlations revealed the thiol addition reaction is primarily sensitive to the electronic effects, while steric effects dominate the hydrolysis reaction. These mechanistic studies provide the basis for the design of novel bioconjugation reactants or fluorogenic labeling agents.

  1. Additive Effects of Repetition and Predictability during Comprehension: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Shannon; Parker, Dan; Morini, Giovanna; Lau, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that neural responses to words during sentence comprehension are sensitive to both lexical repetition and a word’s predictability in context. While previous research has often contrasted the effects of these variables (e.g. by looking at cases in which word repetition violates sentence-level constraints), little is known about how they work in tandem. In the current study we examine how recent exposure to a word and its predictability in context combine to impact lexical semantic processing. We devise a novel paradigm that combines reading comprehension with a recognition memory task, allowing for an orthogonal manipulation of a word’s predictability and its repetition status. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we show that word repetition and predictability have qualitatively similar and additive effects on the N400 amplitude. We propose that prior exposure to a word and predictability impact lexical semantic processing in an additive and independent fashion. PMID:24905459

  2. The additive effects of minoxidil and retinol on human hair growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyeon Gyeong; Chang, In-Young; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Seung Ho; Kwon, Oh Sang; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil enhances hair growth by prolonging the anagen phase and induces new hair growth in androgenetic alopecia (AGA), whereas retinol significantly improves scalp skin condition and promotes hair growth. We investigated the combined effects of minoxidil and retinol on human hair growth in vitro and on cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The combination of minoxidil and retinol additively promoted hair growth in hair follicle organ cultures. In addition, minoxidil plus retinol more effectively elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt levels, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio than minoxidil alone in DPCs and HaCaT. We found that the significant hair shaft elongation demonstrated after minoxidil plus retinol treatment would depend on the dual kinetics associated with the activations of Erk- and Akt-dependent pathways and the prevention of apoptosis by increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. PMID:17202653

  3. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  4. Main Squeeze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A survey of more than 35,000 alumni magazine readers conducted by CASE and more than 135 member institutions in the United States provides powerful evidence that, among the communications options in the advancement toolbox, magazines are one of the most effective ways to connect with, engage, and motivate alumni and other constituents. The CASE…

  5. Oxidative addition of hydrogen halides and dihalogens to Pd. Trends in reactivity and relativistic effects.

    PubMed

    de Jong, G Theodoor; Kovacs, Attila; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2006-06-29

    We have theoretically studied the oxidative addition of HX and X(2) to palladium for X = F, Cl, Br, I and At, using both nonrelativistic and ZORA-relativistic density functional theory at BLYP/QZ4P. The purpose is 3-fold: (i) to obtain a set of consistent potential energy surfaces (PESs) to infer accurate trends in reactivity for simple, archetypal oxidative addition reactions; (ii) to assess how relativistic effects modify these trends along X = F, Cl, Br, I and At; and (iii) to rationalize the trends in reactivity in terms of the reactants' molecular-orbital (MO) electronic structure and the H-X and X-X bond strengths. For the latter, we provide full Dirac-Coulomb CCSD(T) benchmarks. All oxidative additions to Pd are exothermic and have a negative overall barrier, except that of HF which is approximately thermoneutral and has a positive overall barrier. The activation barriers of the HX oxidative additions decrease systematically as X descends in group 17 of the periodic table; those of X(2) first increase, from F to Cl, but then also decrease further down group 17. On the other hand, HX and X(2) show clearly opposite trends regarding the heat of reaction: that of HX becomes more exothermic and that of X(2) less exothermic as X descends in group 17. Relativistic effects can be as large as 15-20 kcal/mol but they do not change the qualitative trends. Interestingly, the influence of relativistic effects on activation barriers and heats of reaction decreases for the heavier halogens due to counteracting relativistic effects in palladium and the halogens. PMID:16789784

  6. Synergistic Effects Between Phosphonium-Alkylphosphate Ionic Liquids and Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as Lubricant Additives

    DOE PAGES

    Qu, Jun; Barnhill, William C.; Luo, Huimin; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Landauer, Alexander K.; Kheireddin, Bassem; Gao, Hong; Papke, Brian L; Dai, Sheng

    2015-07-14

    Unique synergistic effects between phosphonium-alkylphosphate ionic liquids and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) are discovered when used together as lubricant additives, resulting in significant friction and wear reduction along with distinct tribofilm composition and mechanical properties. The synergism is attributed to the 30-70× higher-than-nominal concentrations of hypothetical new compounds (via anion exchange between IL and ZDDP) on the fluid surface/interface.

  7. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT ADDITION ON RHEOLOGY USING LASER SCANNING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    White, T

    2007-05-08

    The effectiveness of three dispersants to modify rheology was examined using rheology measurements and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) in simulated waste solutions. All of the dispersants lowered the yield stress of the slurries below the baseline samples. The rheology curves were fitted reasonably to a Bingham Plastic model. The three-dimensional LSCM images of simulants showed distinct aggregates were greatly reduced after the addition of dispersants leading to a lowering of the yield stress of the simulated waste slurry solutions.

  8. Liraglutide, leptin, and their combined effects on feeding: additive intake reduction through common intracellular signaling mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kanoski, Scott E.; Ong, Zhi Yi; Fortin, Samantha M.; Schlessinger, Elizabeth S.; Grill, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and leptin each exert anorexigenic effects. In combination, the intake inhibitory and weight loss effects are greater than either treatment alone, however the mechanisms unclear. Materials and methods Effects of liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1 analogue) and leptin co-treatment, delivered in low or moderate doses subcutaneously (SC) or to the 3rd ventricle respectively, on cumulative intake, meal patterns, and hypothalamic expression of intracellular signaling proteins [phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B)] were examined in lean rats. Results A low-dose combination of liraglutide (25μg/kg) and leptin (0.75μg) additively reduced cumulative food intake and body weight, a result mediated predominantly through a significant reduction in meal frequency that was not present with either drug alone. Liraglutide treatment alone also reduced meal size; an effect not enhanced with leptin co-administration. Moderate doses of liraglutide (75μg/kg) and leptin (4μg) examined separately each reduced meal frequency, cumulative food intake, and body weight; only liraglutide reduced meal size. In combination these doses did not further enhance the anorexigenic effects of either treatment alone. Ex vivo immunoblot showed elevated pSTAT3 in hypothalamic tissue following liraglutide-leptin co-treatment, an effect greater than leptin treatment alone. In addition, SC liraglutide reduced expression of PTP1B (a negative regulator of leptin receptor signaling), revealing a potential mechanism for the enhanced pSTAT3 response following liraglutide-leptin co-administration. Conclusions Collectively, these results provide novel behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying the additive reduction in food intake and body weight following liraglutide-leptin combination treatment. PMID:25475828

  9. The effects of ternary alloying additions on solute-drag creep in aluminum-magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jun

    Effects of ternary additions of Zn, Fe, and Cu on solute-drag creep and ductility in Al-Mg alloys are studied. The materials studied are, in wt. pct. Al-2Mg-5Zn, Al-3Mg-5Zn, Al-4Mg-5Zn, Al-3Mg-0.11Fe, Al-3Mg-0.27Fe, Al-3Mg-0.40Fe, Al-3Mg-0.50Cu, Al-3Mg-1.02Cu, Al-3Mg-1.52Cu, and Al-3Mg-2.15Cu. Experimental data show that ternary Zn additions do not have an adverse effect on solute-drag creep in Al-Mg alloys, but increase the sensitivity of stress exponent, n, to Mg content. Transitions to power-law breakdown in the Al-xMg-5Zn materials are discussed. Ternary Fe and Cu additions increases n during solute-drag creep. Ductilities of over 100% are consistently achieved in the Al-xMg-5Zn and Al-3Mg-xFe materials. Age hardenability during natural aging and simulated paint-bake cycle are studied for the Al-xMg-5Zn Chid Al-3Mg-xCu materials. Zn creates a significant paint-bake response, while the effect of Cu is small for a simulated paint-bake cycle.

  10. [Effects of nitrogen and carbon addition and arbuscular mycorrhiza on alien invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong; Sang, Wei-guo; Zhu, Li; Song, Ying-ying; Wang, Jin-ping

    2010-12-01

    A greenhouse control experiment was conducted to explore the effects of nitrogen and carbon addition and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) on the growth of alien invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed). Nitrogen addition had no significant effects on the morphological indices, biomass and its allocation, and absolute growth rate of A. artemisiifolia, but increased the nitrogen content in the aboveground and underground parts of the plant significantly. Carbon addition increased the content of soil available nitrogen. In this case, the biomass allocation in root system for nutrient (nitrogen) absorption promoted, resulting in a remarkable decrease of branch number, total leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf mass ratio. As a result, the total biomass decreased significantly. The symbiosis of A. artemisiifolia and AM fungi had great influence on the common ragweed's soil nitrogen acclimation, which enhanced its resource-capture by the increase of SLA, and this effect was more significant when the soil nitrogen content was low. AM fungi played an important role in the growth of A. artemisiifolia in low-nitrogen environment.

  11. Effect of pretreatment and additives on boron release during pyrolysis and gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yuuki Mochizuki; Katsuyasu Sugawara; Yukio Enda

    2009-09-15

    Boron is one of the most toxic and highly volatile elements present in coal. As part of a series of studies carried out on coal cleaning to prevent environmental problems and to promote efficient coal utilization processes, the removal of boron by leaching with water and acetic acid has been investigated. The effects of the addition of ash components, that is, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CaO on the control of boron release during pyrolysis and gasification were investigated. Here, 20-70% of boron in coal was removed by leaching the coal with water and acetic acid. Boron leached by water and acetic acid was related to the volatiles released from coal in pyrolysis below 1173 K. The addition of ash components such as SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was found to be effective in suppressing the release of boron during pyrolysis at temperatures below and above 1173 K, respectively. The addition of CaO to coal was effective in suppressing the release of boron during gasification at 1173 K. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Effect of additives on gas-phase catalysis with immobilised Thermoanaerobacter species alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH T).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, A H; Spiess, A C; Daussmann, T; Büchs, J

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a strategy for preparing an efficient immobilised alcohol dehydrogenase preparation for a gas-phase reaction. The effects of additives such as buffers and sucrose on the immobilisation efficiency (residual activity and protein loading) and on the gas-phase reaction efficiency (initial reaction rate and half-life) of Thermoanaerobacter sp. alcohol dehydrogenase were studied. The reduction of acetophenone to 1-phenylethanol under in situ cofactor regeneration using isopropanol as co-substrate was used as a model reaction at fixed reaction conditions (temperature and thermodynamic activities). A strongly enhanced thermostability of the enzyme in the gas-phase reaction was achieved when the enzyme was immobilised with 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7) containing sucrose five times the protein amount (on weight/weight basis). This resulted in a remarkable productivity of 200 g L(-1) day(-1) even at non-optimised reaction conditions. The interaction of additives with the enzyme and water affects the immobilisation and gas-phase efficiencies of the enzyme. However, it was not possible to predict the effect of additives on the gas-phase reaction efficiency even after knowing their effect on the immobilisation efficiency.

  13. Generalized Concentration Addition Modeling Predicts Mixture Effects of Environmental PPARγ Agonists.

    PubMed

    Watt, James; Webster, Thomas F; Schlezinger, Jennifer J

    2016-09-01

    The vast array of potential environmental toxicant combinations necessitates the development of efficient strategies for predicting toxic effects of mixtures. Current practices emphasize the use of concentration addition to predict joint effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in coexposures. Generalized concentration addition (GCA) is one such method for predicting joint effects of coexposures to chemicals and has the advantage of allowing for mixture components to have differences in efficacy (ie, dose-response curve maxima). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that plays a central role in regulating lipid homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and bone quality and is the target of an increasing number of environmental toxicants. Here, we tested the applicability of GCA in predicting mixture effects of therapeutic (rosiglitazone and nonthiazolidinedione partial agonist) and environmental PPARγ ligands (phthalate compounds identified using EPA's ToxCast database). Transcriptional activation of human PPARγ1 by individual compounds and mixtures was assessed using a peroxisome proliferator response element-driven luciferase reporter. Using individual dose-response parameters and GCA, we generated predictions of PPARγ activation by the mixtures, and we compared these predictions with the empirical data. At high concentrations, GCA provided a better estimation of the experimental response compared with 3 alternative models: toxic equivalency factor, effect summation and independent action. These alternatives provided reasonable fits to the data at low concentrations in this system. These experiments support the implementation of GCA in mixtures analysis with endocrine disrupting compounds and establish PPARγ as an important target for further studies of chemical mixtures.

  14. The Additive Effects of Core Muscle Strengthening and Trunk NMES on Trunk Balance in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun Jae; Kim, Dae Yul; Yi, Jin Hwa; Kim, Won; Hong, Jayoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate an additive effect of core muscle strengthening (CMS) and trunk neuromuscular electrical stimulation (tNEMS) on trunk balance in stroke patients. Methods Thirty patients with acute or subacute stroke who were unable to maintain static sitting balance for >5 minutes were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups, i.e., patients in the CMS (n=10) group received additional CMS program; the tNMES group (n=10) received additional tNMES over the posterior back muscles; and the combination (CMS and tNMES) group (n=10) received both treatments. Each additional treatment was performed 3 times per week for 20 minutes per day over 3 weeks. Korean version of Berg Balance Scale (K-BBS), total score of postural assessment scale for stroke patients (PASS), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of therapeutic intervention. Results All 3 groups showed improvements in K-BBS, PASS, TIS, and K-MBI after therapeutic interventions, with some differences. The combination group showed more improvements in K-BBS and the dynamic sitting balance of TIS, as compared to the CMS group; and more improvement in K-BBS, as compared to the tNMES group. Conclusion The results indicated an additive effect of CMS and tNMES on the recovery of trunk balance in patients with acute or subacute stroke who have poor sitting balance. Simultaneous application of CMS and tNMES should be considered when designing a rehabilitation program to improve trunk balance in stroke patients. PMID:26949681

  15. Effect of silver addition on the properties of nickel-titanium alloys for dental application.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Joo, Uk-Hyon; Park, Gee-Ho; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2006-02-01

    Equiatomic and near-equiatomic nickel-titanium alloys exhibit a shape-memory effect and superelasticity. However, the properties of such alloys are extremely sensitive to the precise nickel-titanium ratio and the addition of alloying elements. High corrosion resistance is necessary for biomedical applications, especially orthodontic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silver addition to nickel-titanium alloys for dental and medical application. Arc melting, homogenization, hot rolling, and solution heat treatment were performed to prepare the nickel-titanium-silver (NiTi-Ag) specimens. The properties of the ternary NiTi-Ag alloys such as phase-transformation temperature, microstructure, microhardness, corrosion resistance, and cytotoxicity were investigated. The NiTi-Ag alloys showed low silver recovery rate for the cast alloy, due to silver's low evaporation temperature, and low silver solubility in nickel-titanium. Silver addition to nickel-titanium increased the transition temperature range to 100 degrees C and stabilized the martensitic phase (monoclinic structure) at room temperature, because the martensitic transformation starting temperature (Ms) was above room temperature. Martensitic and austenitic phases existed in X-ray diffraction patterns of solution-annealed NiTi-Ag alloys. The silver addition was considered to improve the corrosion resistance and form a stable passive film. Significantly, the mechanical properties of the silver-added alloys were dependent upon the amount of alloying addition. There was no toxicity in the NiTi-Ag alloys, as the response index showed none or mild levels.

  16. Effect and interactions of commercial additives and chloride ion in copper electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wenyuan

    This thesis is to understand and compare the effects and interactions of modified polysaccharide (HydroStar), polyacrylamide (Cyquest N-900) and chloride ion on copper electrowinning. A study of the nucleation and growth was conducted in a synthetic electrolyte (40 g/L Cu, 160 g/L H2SO 4, 20 mg/L Cl-) with the addition of HydroStar or Cyquest N-900 using potential step measurements. The current responses generated were compared to theoretical models of nucleation and growth mechanisms. The nucleation and growth mechanism changed as function of potential and the presence of organic additives. The nucleation and growth mechanisms were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At low overpotentials, electrodeposition from the electrolyte without additives proceeded by progressive nucleation with three-dimensional (3-D) growth. The addition of HydroStar produced smaller nuclei and changed the mechanism to progressive nucleation and 2-D growth. Cyquest N-900 used there appeared to be progressive nucleation with 2-D growth and polarize the cathodes. In addition, instantaneous nucleation under diffusion control occurred at high overpotentials. Chloride ion and its interaction with HydroStar and Cyquest N-900 were further characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The trends observed from Nyquist plots and equivalent circuit models were consistent with the CV results. Chloride, on its own, depolarized copper electrodeposition, while chloride ion associated with Cyquest N-900 inhibited the reaction. It is proposed that Cl- acted as a bridging ligand between copper and Cyquest N-900. The addition of HydroStar depolarized copper deposition, but it did not interact with.

  17. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Dirk D.; Gormley, Robert J.; Baltrus, John P.; Anderson, Richard R.; Zandhuis, Paul H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic, fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350º C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol%) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  18. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.D.; Gormley, R.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Anderson, R.R.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350 °C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol %) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  19. The effect of dielectric properties of sintering additives on microwave sintered silicon nitride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Sreekumar; George, Jacob; Earl, David; Amarakoon, Vasantha R W

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nitride requires the use of susceptive additives for microwave liquid phase sintering due to the material's low dielectric loss. In this article, we report the effect of complex dielectric properties of two compositions of sintering aids on 2.45 GHz microwave sintered Si3N4 with respect to power absorption, temperature distribution and densification behavior. The temperature dependent dielectric properties were measured from 25 degrees C to 1400 degrees C using a conventional cavity perturbation technique. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulations coupled with a thermal solver was used to predict the microwave power absorption and the corresponding temperature evolution inside the samples. The additive with higher dielectric loss (4 wt% MgO, 6 wt% Y2O3 and 2.5 wt% ZrO2) produces a greater sintered density than the lower loss additive (4 wt% MgO and 6 wt% Y2O3) or pure Si3N4. Although microwave loss at temperatures below 600 degrees C is insignificant with or without the additives, the loss begins to increase at higher temperatures when the additives are present and has a strong upward trend above 1000 degrees C. Above 1200 degrees C the sample containing ZrO2 exhibited the greatest loss. Numerical simulations at the peak sintering temperature show greater microwave power absorption and higher temperature in the sample with the highest loss additive. The simulation results correlate to the difference in densification behavior observed. The simulation was also useful because the material temperature was not accurately provided by optical pyrometer measurements of the crucible sample holder.

  20. The effect of dielectric properties of sintering additives on microwave sintered silicon nitride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Sreekumar; George, Jacob; Earl, David; Amarakoon, Vasantha R W

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nitride requires the use of susceptive additives for microwave liquid phase sintering due to the material's low dielectric loss. In this article, we report the effect of complex dielectric properties of two compositions of sintering aids on 2.45 GHz microwave sintered Si3N4 with respect to power absorption, temperature distribution and densification behavior. The temperature dependent dielectric properties were measured from 25 degrees C to 1400 degrees C using a conventional cavity perturbation technique. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulations coupled with a thermal solver was used to predict the microwave power absorption and the corresponding temperature evolution inside the samples. The additive with higher dielectric loss (4 wt% MgO, 6 wt% Y2O3 and 2.5 wt% ZrO2) produces a greater sintered density than the lower loss additive (4 wt% MgO and 6 wt% Y2O3) or pure Si3N4. Although microwave loss at temperatures below 600 degrees C is insignificant with or without the additives, the loss begins to increase at higher temperatures when the additives are present and has a strong upward trend above 1000 degrees C. Above 1200 degrees C the sample containing ZrO2 exhibited the greatest loss. Numerical simulations at the peak sintering temperature show greater microwave power absorption and higher temperature in the sample with the highest loss additive. The simulation results correlate to the difference in densification behavior observed. The simulation was also useful because the material temperature was not accurately provided by optical pyrometer measurements of the crucible sample holder. PMID:19227072

  1. Effects of Vanadium Addition on Microstructure and Tribological Performance of Bainite Hardfacing Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jigang; Xing, Xiaolei; Wang, Yajun; Zhou, Yefei; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Yulin; Yang, Qingxiang

    2015-03-01

    New hardfacing coatings with different vanadium (V) additions were prepared by surfacing technology. The microstructures of the hardfacing coatings were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and examined by transmission electron microscope. The hardness and wear resistances of the hardfacing coatings were measured. Worn debris were collected at the end of wear test and analyzed. The precipitation temperature of the phases in the hardfacing coatings and the mass fraction of MC carbide were calculated by Jmatpro software. The experimental results show that, the hardfacing coating mainly consists of granular bainite. No significant change in the size of linear martensite-austenite (M-A) islands is observed with the increase of V addition, while the size of massive M-A islands is decreased. The wear resistance of the hardfacing coating reaches a maximum level with V content of 0.14 wt.%. The calculated results show that, the mass fraction of MC carbide is increased with the increase of V content. Based on calculation following two-dimensional mismatch theory, MC carbide is a heterogeneous nucleus of the ferrite resulting refined ferrite in the hardfacing coating.

  2. Geomagnetic Storm Main Phase effect on the Equatorial Ionosphere as measured from GPS observations at Ile-Ife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabode, Ayomide; Ariyibi, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the main phase of two intense geomagnetic storm events which occurred on August 5-6 and September 26-27, 2011 on the equatorial ionosphere have been investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) data obtained from an Ile-Ife station (geomagnetic lat. 9.84°N, long. 77.25°E). The WinTEC-P and GPS-TEC analysis software programs were used to process the GPS data to obtain Total Electron Content (TEC) and Scintillation Index (S4). TEC profiles during the main phase of the two geomagnetically disturbed days were compared with quiet time average profiles to examine the response of the equatorial ionosphere. International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 TEC model was also obtained from Virtual Ionosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere Observatory (VITMO) and the extents of deviation from measured GPS-derived TEC were examined for the main phase of the storm events. The results showed that the intensity of both storm events during the main phase which occurred at night-time correlated well with a strong southward direction of the z-component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF-Bz) and Solar Wind Speed (Vsw), with the Disturbance storm time (Dst) profile showing multiple step development. TEC depletion was observed during the main phase of the August 5-6, 2011 storm event with TEC recording a maximum value of 9.31 TECU. A maximum TEC value of 55.8 TECU was recorded during the main phase of the September 26-27, 2011 storm event depicting TEC enhancement. Significant scintillation index value of 0.57 was observed when the main phase started on August 5-6, 2011 followed by a prolonged suppression while there was less significant scintillation impact on September 26-27, 2011 with a maximum value of 0.33. The study concluded that the intensification of the ring current during the main phase of geomagnetic storm events was responsible for the intensity of the storm events causing large variations in TEC and significant scintillation phenomenon.

  3. Additive effects of physical exercise and environmental enrichment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fabel, Klaus; Wolf, Susanne A; Ehninger, Dan; Babu, Harish; Leal-Galicia, Perla; Kempermann, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary physical exercise (wheel running, RUN) and environmental enrichment both stimulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis but do so by different mechanisms. RUN induces precursor cell proliferation, whereas ENR exerts a survival-promoting effect on newborn cells. In addition, continued RUN prevented the physiologically occurring age-related decline in precursor cell in the dentate gyrus but did not lead to a corresponding increase in net neurogenesis. We hypothesized that in the absence of appropriate cognitive stimuli the potential for neurogenesis could not be realized but that an increased potential by proliferating precursor cells due to RUN could actually lead to more adult neurogenesis if an appropriate survival-promoting stimulus follows the exercise. We thus asked whether a sequential combination of RUN and ENR (RUNENR) would show additive effects that are distinct from the application of either paradigm alone. We found that the effects of 10 days of RUN followed by 35 days of ENR were additive in that the combined stimulation yielded an approximately 30% greater increase in new neurons than either stimulus alone, which also increased neurogenesis. Surprisingly, this result indicates that although overall the amount of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus is poorly predictive of net adult neurogenesis, an increased neurogenic potential nevertheless provides the basis for a greater efficiency of the same survival-promoting stimulus. We thus propose that physical activity can "prime" the neurogenic region of the dentate gyrus for increased neurogenesis in the case the animal is exposed to an additional cognitive stimulus, here represented by the enrichment paradigm.

  4. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  5. Soluble organic additive effects on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate suspensions.

    PubMed

    Wedin, Pär; Lewis, Jennifer A; Bergström, Lennart

    2005-10-01

    The effect of polymer, plasticizer, and surfactant additives on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate particulate coatings was studied using a controlled-environment apparatus that simultaneously monitors drying stress, weight loss, and relative humidity. We found that the calcium carbonate coatings display a drying stress evolution typical of granular films, which is characterized by a sharp capillary-induced stress rise followed by a rapid stress relaxation. The addition of a soluble polymer to the CaCO3 suspension resulted in a two-stage stress evolution process. The initial stress rise stems from capillary-pressure-induced stresses within the film, while the second, larger stress rise occurs due to solidification and shrinkage of the polymeric species. Measurements on the corresponding pure polymer solutions established a clear correlation between the magnitude of residual stress in both the polymer and CaCO3-polymer films to the physical properties of the polymer phase, i.e. its glass transition temperature, T(g), and Young's modulus. The addition of small organic molecules can reduce the residual stress observed in the CaCO3-polymer films; e.g., glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer, reduces the drying stress by lowering T(g), while surfactant additions reduce the surface tension of the liquid phase, and, hence, the magnitude of the capillary pressure within the film.

  6. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat. PMID:24547939

  7. Effect of additives on the anisotropic etching of silicon by using a TMAH based solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Ki-Hwa; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the anisotropic etching properties of single crystal silicon were examined using a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The variations in the Si etching rate and surface morphology at different etching temperatures and TMAH concentrations were evaluated. The effects of different additives were also examined. As the THAM concentration (10-25 wt. %) decreased, the etching rate increased from 10 μm/h to 70 μm/h at temperatures between 70°C and 90°C. On the other hand, the etched surface roughness became degraded as the hillock density and corner undercut ratio increased. To solve these problems, four additives, pyrazine, ammonium persulfate (AP), ammonium hydrogen sulfate (AHS), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), were added to the TMAH solution. The experimental results showed that these additives play an important role in increasing the etching rate up to 10-20%. The etched surface was also improved significantly by the decreased hillock density on the surface. The addition of IPA to the TMAH solution showed excellent results in improving the etched surface flatness and the undercutting compensation. On the other hand, one of the characteristics of IPA is the decrease in etching rate with increasing amount of IPA. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Effect of Refiner Addition Level on Zirconium-Containing Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaradeh, M. M. R.; Carlberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al6(Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.

  9. Nitrogen-addition effects on leaf traits and photosynthetic carbon gain of boreal forest understory shrubs.

    PubMed

    Palmroth, Sari; Bach, Lisbet Holm; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boreal coniferous forests are characterized by fairly open canopies where understory vegetation is an important component of ecosystem C and N cycling. We used an ecophysiological approach to study the effects of N additions on uptake and partitioning of C and N in two dominant understory shrubs: deciduous Vaccinium myrtillus in a Picea abies stand and evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea in a Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. N was added to these stands for 16 and 8 years, respectively, at rates of 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). N addition at the highest rate increased foliar N and chlorophyll concentrations in both understory species. Canopy cover of P. abies also increased, decreasing light availability and leaf mass per area of V. myrtillus. Among leaves of either shrub, foliar N content did not explain variation in light-saturated CO2 exchange rates. Instead photosynthetic capacity varied with stomatal conductance possibly reflecting plant hydraulic properties and within-site variation in water availability. Moreover, likely due to increased shading under P. abies and due to water limitations in the sandy soil under P. sylvestris, individuals of the two shrubs did not increase their biomass or shift their allocation between above- and belowground parts in response to N additions. Altogether, our results indicate that the understory shrubs in these systems show little response to N additions in terms of photosynthetic physiology or growth and that changes in their performance are mostly associated with responses of the tree canopy.

  10. Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Gamoh, Keiji; Morris, David G; Duncan, Harry

    2002-03-01

    Groundwater contamination by fuel spills from aboveground and underground storage tanks has been of growing concern in recent years. This problem has been magnified by the addition of oxygenates, such as ethanol and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to fuels to reduce vehicular emissions to the atmosphere. These additives, although beneficial in reducing atmospheric pollution, may, however, increase groundwater contamination due to the co-solvency of petroleum hydrocarbons and by the provision of a preferential substrate for microbial utilisation. With the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel imminent and the move away from MTBE use in many states of the USA, the environmental implications associated with ethanol additive fuels must be thoroughly investigated. Diesel fuel movement was followed in a 1-m soil column and the effect of ethanol addition to diesel fuel on this movement determined. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel fuel was found to enhance the downward migration of the diesel fuel components, thus increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A novel method using soil packed HPLC columns allowed the influence of ethanol on individual aromatic hydrocarbon movement to be studied. The levels of ethanol addition investigated were at the current additive level (approx. 25%) for ethanol additive fuels in Brazil and values above (50%) and below (10%) this level. An aqueous ethanol concentration above 10% was required for any movement to occur. At 25% aqueous ethanol, the majority of hydrocarbons were mobilised and the retention behaviour of the soil column lessened. At 50% aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns. The retention behaviour of the soil was found to change significantly when both organic matter content and silt/clay content was reduced. Unexpectedly, sandy soil with low organic matter and low silt/clay was found to have a retentive behaviour similar to sandy subsoil with moderate silt

  11. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA-ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  12. Effect of organic residues addition on the technological properties of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the utilization potential of several organic residues in clay bricks. Sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass are widespread by-products of industrial and agricultural processes in Turkey. These residue materials have long cellulose fibres. Sawdust and tobacco residues generally are used as fuel, and the grass is utilized for agricultural purposes. The insulation capacity of brick increases with the increasing porosity of the clay body. Combustible, organic types of pore-forming additives are most frequently used for this purpose. For this reason, increasing amounts of organic residues (0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% in wt.) were mixed with raw brick-clay. All samples were fired at 900 degrees C. Effects on shaping, plasticity, density, and mechanical properties were investigated. The organic residue additions were found to be effective for pore-forming in the clay body with the clay maintaining acceptable mechanical properties. It was observed that the fibrous nature of the residues did not create extrusion problems. However, higher residue addition required a higher water content to ensure the right plasticity. As a result, sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass can be utilized in an environmentally safe way as organic pore-forming agents in brick-clay.

  13. Sequential bilateral striatal lesions have additive effects on single skilled limb use in rats.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Jamshid; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2007-02-27

    Unilateral dopamine depletion in rats induced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the nigrostriatal system causes permanent impairments in limb use. The disturbances in limb use, including impairments in skilled reaching, are most severe on the side contralateral to the lesion. A number of studies, however, have also described ipsilateral deficits in skilled reaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sequential bilateral striatal 6-OHDA lesions on skilled reaching movements in rats to compare the contribution of contra- versus ipsilateral motor control. Rats were trained in a reaching task to grasp food pellets with their preferred paw prior to receiving an intrastriatal 6-OHDA injection on the side contralateral to the preferred paw. The lesion significantly reduced reaching success along with qualitative impairments in limb use. In addition, animals displayed asymmetry in limb use and contraversive rotation bias after an apomorphine challenge. Three weeks later, animals received a second lesion induced by intrastriatal 6-OHDA injection into the hemisphere ipsilateral to the preferred paw. This lesion exaggerated the previous impairments in limb use and further reduced reaching success of the preferred paw. In the ladder rung walking task, additional impairments were found only in the forelimb ipsilateral to the first lesion. The findings of additive effects of sequential bilateral lesions suggest that both the contra- and ipsilateral striatum control single limb use. This supports the notion of bilateral control of skilled forelimb use by the mesostriatal dopaminergic system. PMID:17182115

  14. Effect of the La alloying addition on the antibacterial capability of 316L stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J P; Li, W; Wang, C

    2013-01-01

    316L stainless steel is widely used for fashion jewelry but it can carry a large number of bacteria and cause the potential risk of infection since it has no antimicrobial ability. In this paper, La is used as an alloying addition. The antibacterial capability, corrosion resistance and processability of the La-modified 316L are investigated by microscopic observation, thin-film adhering quantitative bacteriostasis, electrochemical measurement and mechanical test. The investigations reveal that the La-containing 316L exhibits the Hormesis effect against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli DH5α, 0.05 wt.% La stimulates their growth, as La increases, the modified 316L exhibits the improved antibacterial effect. The more amount of La is added, the better antibacterial ability is achieved, and 0.42 wt.% La shows excellent antibacterial efficacy. No more than 0.11 wt.% La addition improves slightly the corrosion resistance in artificial sweat and has no observable impact on the processability of 316L, while a larger La content degrades them. Therefore, the addition of La alone in 316L is difficult to obtain the optimal combination of corrosion resistance, antibacterial capability and processability. In spite of that, 0.15 wt.% La around is inferred to be the trade-off for the best overall performance.

  15. Cytotoxic and phytotoxic effects of the main chemical components of spent pot-liner: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Marcel José; Luber, Jaquelini; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2014-03-15

    Spent pot-liner (SPL) is a hazardous solid waste produced by the aluminum industry. Although its composition may vary, fluoride and cyanide salts as well as aluminum are predominant components. A seed-germination and root-elongation test was performed with Lactuca sativa seeds as a test system. SPL induced decrease of seed germination rate and root elongation. The concentration of 26.5g/L SPL was established from a regression curve as the IC50 (inhibition concentration 50%). Through chemical analyses, the concentrations of fluoride, cyanide and aluminum in SPL solutions of 26.5g/L (IC50), 39.75g/L (1.5IC50) and 13.25g/L (0.5IC50) were determined. Further, a cell-cycle test was conducted with root tips of L. sativa exposed to these same SPL solutions. All test chemicals presented toxic effects on meristematic cells of L. sativa. Aluminum was identified as the SPL component mainly responsible for reduction of the mitotic index. Chromosomal alterations resulted from the interactions among the three main chemical components of SPL, without a clear predominantly responsible agent. Induction of condensed nuclei was mainly due to effects of aluminum and fluoride, and may serve as an indicator of induced cell death.

  16. Cytotoxic and phytotoxic effects of the main chemical components of spent pot-liner: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Marcel José; Luber, Jaquelini; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2014-03-15

    Spent pot-liner (SPL) is a hazardous solid waste produced by the aluminum industry. Although its composition may vary, fluoride and cyanide salts as well as aluminum are predominant components. A seed-germination and root-elongation test was performed with Lactuca sativa seeds as a test system. SPL induced decrease of seed germination rate and root elongation. The concentration of 26.5g/L SPL was established from a regression curve as the IC50 (inhibition concentration 50%). Through chemical analyses, the concentrations of fluoride, cyanide and aluminum in SPL solutions of 26.5g/L (IC50), 39.75g/L (1.5IC50) and 13.25g/L (0.5IC50) were determined. Further, a cell-cycle test was conducted with root tips of L. sativa exposed to these same SPL solutions. All test chemicals presented toxic effects on meristematic cells of L. sativa. Aluminum was identified as the SPL component mainly responsible for reduction of the mitotic index. Chromosomal alterations resulted from the interactions among the three main chemical components of SPL, without a clear predominantly responsible agent. Induction of condensed nuclei was mainly due to effects of aluminum and fluoride, and may serve as an indicator of induced cell death. PMID:24561381

  17. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Pop, Anca; Drugan, Tudor; Gutleb, Arno C; Lupu, Diana; Cherfan, Julien; Loghin, Felicia; Kiss, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line. Exposing these cells to AR agonists results in the expression of the reporter gene (encoding for luciferase) and luminescence can be measured in order to monitor the activity of the reporter protein. In case of the evaluation of the anti-androgenic effect, the individual test compounds or binary mixtures were tested in the presence of a fixed concentration of a strong AR agonist (1000 pM 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; DHT). Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin based assay. For PG, this is the first report in the literature concerning its (anti)androgenic activity. In case of both individual and mixture testing none of the compounds or binary combinations showed androgenic activity. When tested in the presence of DHT, BuPB, BHA and BHT proved to be weak anti-androgens and this was confirmed during the evaluation of binary mixtures (BuPB+BHA, BuPB+BHT and BHA+BHT). Besides performing the in vitro testing of the binary combinations, two mathematical models (dose addition and response addition) were evaluated in terms of accuracy of prediction of the anti-androgenic effect of the selected binary mixtures. The dose addition model guaranteed a good correlation between the experimental and predicted data. However, no estimation was possible in case of mixtures containing PG, due to the lack of effect of the compound in case of the individual testing.

  18. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Pop, Anca; Drugan, Tudor; Gutleb, Arno C; Lupu, Diana; Cherfan, Julien; Loghin, Felicia; Kiss, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line. Exposing these cells to AR agonists results in the expression of the reporter gene (encoding for luciferase) and luminescence can be measured in order to monitor the activity of the reporter protein. In case of the evaluation of the anti-androgenic effect, the individual test compounds or binary mixtures were tested in the presence of a fixed concentration of a strong AR agonist (1000 pM 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; DHT). Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin based assay. For PG, this is the first report in the literature concerning its (anti)androgenic activity. In case of both individual and mixture testing none of the compounds or binary combinations showed androgenic activity. When tested in the presence of DHT, BuPB, BHA and BHT proved to be weak anti-androgens and this was confirmed during the evaluation of binary mixtures (BuPB+BHA, BuPB+BHT and BHA+BHT). Besides performing the in vitro testing of the binary combinations, two mathematical models (dose addition and response addition) were evaluated in terms of accuracy of prediction of the anti-androgenic effect of the selected binary mixtures. The dose addition model guaranteed a good correlation between the experimental and predicted data. However, no estimation was possible in case of mixtures containing PG, due to the lack of effect of the compound in case of the individual testing. PMID:26812027

  19. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (p<0.05) by 12% during the whole experimental period and 15% during the first 7days. The treatments had no significant effect on the pH and chemical oxygen demand value of the digesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  20. Effects of maternally exposed food coloring additives on laryngeal histology in rats.

    PubMed

    Başak, Kayhan; Doguç, Duygu Kumbul; Aylak, Firdevs; Karadayi, Nimet; Gültekin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Experimental reports showed carcinogenic effects of artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) on many organs, including the head and neck region. We aimed to investigate the effect of AFCAs on laryngeal histomorphology and immunohistochemical expression in maternally exposed rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were evaluated in their offspring. Significant decreasing in goblet cell count and cilia loss were observed with AFCAs in maternally exposed rats (p<0.05). Immunohistochemically, the Ki67 index was significantly increased and villin expression was significantly reduced in laryngeal epithelium in the study group (p<0.05), whereas expression of cyclooxygenase type 2, Muc-2, Muc-5AC, p53, and epidermal growth factor receptors did not differ between the groups. This study demonstrated that maternal exposure of AFCAs plays a role in the mucosal defense system and possibly in carcinogenesis. PMID:24941295

  1. Effect of salt addition on the thermal behavior of proteins of bovine meat from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pighin, D G; Sancho, A M; Gonzalez, C B

    2008-07-01

    Research was undertaken to investigate how the addition of sodium chloride (NaCl) and/or sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to sous vide cooked meat pieces produces an increase in water holding capacity (WHC). Semitendinosus muscles were injected to obtain tissue final concentrations of 0.70% NaCl, 0.25% TPP, 0.70% NaCl+0.25% TPP, and 1.20% NaCl+0.25% TPP. SDS-PAGE analysis showed increased protein solubilization in those treatments which included NaCl. Thermal analysis of whole muscles and isolated myofibrils showed the destabilizing effect of NaCl and a global stabilizing effect of TPP. Both salts together induced a destabilizing global effect, where TPP assisted NaCl in breaking the meat structure. It is suggested that the WHC increments are related to conformational changes in myofibrillar proteins and to the weakening of myofibrillar structure by the removal of myofibrillar proteins. PMID:22062916

  2. [Effects of different perlite additions on physical and chemical properties of sewage sludge compost and growth of Tagetes patula].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Tong; Shi, Lian-Hui; Liu, Deng-Min; Tong, Shao-Wei; Wei, Mei-Yan; Sun, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In order to resolve the problem of poor permeability of sewage sludge compost (SSC) which was used as the substitution of peat, perlite was used to regulate the permeability of the sewage. The pure SSC was used as control. The proportions of perlite in the mixtures with SSC were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% (V/V), respectively. The effects of different perlite ratios on the physical and chemical properties and the growth of Tagetes patula were studied. The bulk density, water holding porosity and water holding porosity to aeration porosity decreased, but the total porosity and aeration porosity increased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. For the chemical properties, the pH increased, and the EC and nutrient contents decreased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. The aboveground biomass and flowers of T. patula were the highest in the 60% perlite treatment, and the lowest in the pure SSC treatment. The root morphology and activity were the best in the 40%, 60% and 80% perlite treatments. Aeration was the strongest factor to impact the maximum root length and average root diameter. Perlite promoted the growth of T. patula mainly through impacting the physical properties of the SSC. The addition of 60% perlite to the SSC could significantly improve the poor aeration and decrease the high salinity greatly in the SSC and regulate the growth of the root and aboveground of T. patula. PMID:25345044

  3. The Brave New World of Personality Disorder-Trait Specified: Effects of Additional Definitions on Coverage, Prevalence, and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Lee Anna; Vanderbleek, Emily N.; Shapiro, Jaime L.; Nuzum, Hallie; Allen, Xia; Daly, Elizabeth; Kingsbury, Thomas J.; Oiler, Morgan; Ro, Eunyoe

    2015-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model for personality disorder (PD) in DSM-5, Section III (DSM-5-III) includes two main criteria: (A) personality-functioning impairment, and (B) personality-trait pathology; provides specific functioning-and-trait criteria for six PD-type diagnoses; and introduces PD-trait specified (PD-TS), which requires meeting the general PD criteria and not meeting criteria for any specific PD type. We termed this Simple PD-TS and developed two additional definitions: Mixed PD-TS, meeting criteria for one or two PD types and having five or more additional pathological traits; and Complex PD-TS, meeting criteria for three or more PD types. In a mixed sample of 165 outpatients and 215 community adults screened to be at high-risk for PD, we investigated the effect of these additional definitions on prevalence, coverage, comorbidity, and within-diagnosis heterogeneity, and conclude that eliminating the PD-type diagnoses and thus having PD-TS as the only PD diagnosis would be both more parsimonious and more useful clinically. PMID:26097740

  4. [Effects of different perlite additions on physical and chemical properties of sewage sludge compost and growth of Tagetes patula].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Tong; Shi, Lian-Hui; Liu, Deng-Min; Tong, Shao-Wei; Wei, Mei-Yan; Sun, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In order to resolve the problem of poor permeability of sewage sludge compost (SSC) which was used as the substitution of peat, perlite was used to regulate the permeability of the sewage. The pure SSC was used as control. The proportions of perlite in the mixtures with SSC were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% (V/V), respectively. The effects of different perlite ratios on the physical and chemical properties and the growth of Tagetes patula were studied. The bulk density, water holding porosity and water holding porosity to aeration porosity decreased, but the total porosity and aeration porosity increased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. For the chemical properties, the pH increased, and the EC and nutrient contents decreased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. The aboveground biomass and flowers of T. patula were the highest in the 60% perlite treatment, and the lowest in the pure SSC treatment. The root morphology and activity were the best in the 40%, 60% and 80% perlite treatments. Aeration was the strongest factor to impact the maximum root length and average root diameter. Perlite promoted the growth of T. patula mainly through impacting the physical properties of the SSC. The addition of 60% perlite to the SSC could significantly improve the poor aeration and decrease the high salinity greatly in the SSC and regulate the growth of the root and aboveground of T. patula.

  5. The effect of gyrolite additive on the hydration properties of Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Eisinas, A. Baltakys, K.; Siauciunas, R.

    2012-01-15

    The influence of gyrolite additive on the hydration properties of ordinary Portland cement was examined. It was found that the additive of synthetic gyrolite accelerates the early stage of hydration of OPC. This compound binds alkaline ions and serves as a nucleation site for the formation of hydration products (stage I). Later on, the crystal lattice of gyrolite becomes unstable and turns into C-S-H, with higher basicity (C/S {approx} 0.8). This recrystallization process is associated with the consumption of energy (the heat of reaction) and with a decrease in the rate of heat evolution of the second exothermic reaction (stage II). The experimental data and theoretical hypothesis were also confirmed by thermodynamic and the apparent kinetic parameters of the reaction rate of C{sub 3}S hydration calculations. The changes occur in the early stage of hydration of OPC samples and do not have a significant effect on the properties of cement stone.

  6. Effect of manganese additions on the performance of aluminum air-battery anode alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.H.

    1982-05-05

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratories' (LLL) electrochemical evaluation of the experimental alloys previously cast indicated that the coulombic efficiency of an aluminum anode alloy with a nominal chemistry of 0.04% Fe, 0.04% Ga, and 0.8% Mg could be substantially improved by a 0.04% Mn addition. More recent elecrochemical testing of ingot sections performed by both Reynolds and LLL showed that the performance of an aluminum anode alloy, based on a nominal 0.04% Fe, could be improved by a high temperature homogenization. Based on these results, it was decided that the addition of manganese offered a very fruitful approach for providing improved anode performance. Thus the intent of the current work was to further investigate the effects of varying manganese/iron ratios and fabrication practices on the electro-chemical performance of an aluminum anode alloy containing a nominal 0.04% Fe. Results are presented and discussed.

  7. The effects of addition of citric acid on the morphologies of ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zao . E-mail: yangzao888@tom.com; Liu Quanhui; Yang Lei

    2007-02-15

    ZnO nanorods of 25-100 nm in diameter and 0.2-1 {mu}m in length were fabricated through citric acid assisted annealing process. The microstructure of ZnO nanorods was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. As a result, it was found that ZnO nanorods were single crystalline and pure. The effects of the growth conditions such as addition of citric acid, annealing temperature on the morphologies of ZnO nanostructures have also been investigated. At the given temperature the length decreased but the diameter increased with addition of the mass of citric acid. With the rising of the calcining heat, the shape of ZnO changed from rod to granule for a given amount of citric acid. Finally, the mechanism for citric acid assisted annealing synthesis of the ZnO nanostructure is discussed.

  8. SideRack: A Cost-Effective Addition to Commercial Zebrafish Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Gill, Ryan; Balciuniene, Jorune

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Commercially available aquatic housing systems provide excellent and relatively trouble-free hardware for rearing and housing juvenile as well as adult zebrafish. However, the cost of such systems is quite high and potentially prohibitive for smaller educational and research institutions. The need for tank space prompted us to experiment with various additions to our existing Aquaneering system. We also noted that high water exchange rates typical in commercial systems are suboptimal for quick growth of juvenile fish. We devised a housing system we call “SideRack,” which contains 20 large tanks with air supply and slow water circulation. It enables cost-effective expansion of existing fish facility, with a key additional benefit of increased growth and maturation rates of juvenile fish. PMID:24611601

  9. Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianlu; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Vijayakumar, M.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-01

    The stability of the electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow battery was investigated with ex-situ heating/cooling treatment and in-situ flow-battery testing methods. The effects of inorganic and organic additives have been studied. The additives containing the ions of potassium, phosphate, and polyphosphate are not suitable stabilizing agents because of their reactions with V(V) ions, forming precipitates of KVSO6 or VOPO4. Of the chemicals studied, polyacrylic acid and its mixture with CH3SO3H are the most promising stabilizing candidates which can stabilize all the four vanadium ions (V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+) in electrolyte solutions up to 1.8 M. However, further effort is needed to obtain a stable electrolyte solution with >1.8 M V5+ at temperatures higher than 40 °C.

  10. Additive effects of physical stress and herbivores on intertidal seaweed biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Bracken, Matthew E S; Jones, Emily

    2013-05-01

    Patterns in rocky intertidal seaweed biodiversity influence the resilience and functioning of these important primary producer communities. In turn, seaweed biodiversity patterns are the result of many ecological factors. We determined the influences of thermal and desiccation stress, herbivory, and nutrients on seaweed biodiversity on a northern California rocky shoreline. In a fully crossed design at two tidal heights at wave-protected and exposed sites, we deployed screens to reduce stress, removed herbivores, and added nutrients for 18 months. The treatments reduced temperature, increased relative humidity, decreased herbivore abundances, and increased nitrogen in both seawater and seaweeds. Seaweed abundance and biodiversity (cover, biomass, species richness, diversity, evenness, and community composition) were influenced by tidal height, physical stress, and herbivores. Wave exposure affected all response variables except biomass and evenness. Stress and herbivores had independent additive effects on seaweed abundance and diversity. Physical stress did not make the community as a whole more susceptible to herbivores, and screens had overarching positive effects on seaweed biodiversity even though they also had positive effects on herbivore abundance. Nutrients had virtually no effect on seaweed biodiversity, and we observed no bottom-up effects of nutrient addition on herbivore density or biomass. Small green algae and diatoms were important contributors to overall algal cover and to changes in composition across treatments, but larger macroalgae dominated the species richness response. The striking absence of interactions between stress and herbivory highlights how seaweed communities can respond independently to important drivers of biodiversity. Thus, nonadditive, potentially synergistic effects do not necessarily complicate the understanding of how seaweed biodiversity responds to environmental change.

  11. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  12. Inhaled diesel emissions generated with cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additive induce adverse pulmonary and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Samantha J; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C; Thomas, Ronald F; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E; Elmore, Susan A; Morrison, James P; Johnson, Crystal L; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-12-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe.

  13. Effect of Exogenous Phytase Addition on Soil Phosphatase Activities: a Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-zhu; Chen, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Yu-lan; Chen, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    The utilization of organic phosphorus (P) has directly or indirectly improved after exogenous phytase was added to soil. However, the mechanism by which exogenous phytase affected the soil phosphatases (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase) activities was not clear. The present work was aimed to study red soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil phosphomonoesterase (acid and alkaline) (AcP and AlP) and phosphodiesterase (PD) activities responding to the addition of exogenous phytase (1 g phytase/50 g air dry soil sample) based on the measurements performed via a fluorescence detection method combined with 96 microplates using a TECAN Infinite 200 Multi-Mode Microplate Reader. The results indicated that the acid phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in red soil (p≤0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in cinnamon soil; alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in cinnamon soil (p≤ 0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in red soil; phosphodiesterase activity was increased in three soils but it was significantly increased in brown soil (p≤0. 01) after the addition of exogenous phytase. The activities still remained strong after eight days in different soils, which indicated that exogenous phytase addition could be enhance soil phosphatases activities effectively. This effect was not only related to soil properties, such as pH and phosphorus forms, but might also be related to the excreted enzyme amount of the stimulating microorganism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to study exogenous phytase addition influence on soil phosphatase activities was the first time at home and abroad. Compared with the conventional spectrophotometric method, the fluorescence microplate method is an accurate, fast and simple to use method to determine the relationships among the soil phosphatases activities.

  14. Effects of temperature and chemical addition on the formation of bromoorganic DBPs during ozonation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangru; Echigo, Shinya; Lei, Hongxia; Smith, Michael E; Minear, Roger A; Talley, Jeffrey W

    2005-01-01

    The effects of temperature and addition of OH radical scavengers/enhancers or HOBr scavenger on the formation of bromoorganic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from ozonation of six raw waters were studied in true batch reactors. The formation of bromoorganic DBPs during ozonation generally increased with the increase of temperature, but might also decrease for the waters with somewhat higher values of specific UV absorbance (SUVA). The addition of hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or ammonium dramatically decreased the formation of bromoorganic DBPs; t-butanol addition significantly increased the formation of bromoorganic DBPs; bicarbonate addition might increase or decrease bromoorganic DBP formation depending on the water source. For all the waters treated with the chemical addition, the level of total organic bromine (TOBr) varied with the same pace as that of ozone exposure (CT), which suggests that TOBr formed during ozonation may be used to estimate the CT, a measure for the achieved degree of disinfection. The results demonstrate that for each water, the correlation between TOBr and CT was less affected by the change of chemical composition of the water than that between BrO(3)(-) and CT; for a given chemical composition and temperature of a water, there generally were well-defined relationships between TOBr and CT, and bromoform and CT just as that between BrO(3)(-) and CT. The possible mechanisms behind the linear functions of TOBr or BrO(3)(-) versus CT were given. Further study is needed to examine whether the trends found in this research can be applicable for the high SUVA waters.

  15. Thermodynamic Effect of Platinum Addition to beta-NiAl: An Initial Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    An initial investigation was conducted to determine the effect of platinum addition on the activities of aluminum and nickel in beta-NiAl(Pt) over the temperature range 1354 to 1692 K. These measurements were made with a multiple effusion-cell configured mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). The results of this study show that Pt additions act to decreased alpha(Al) and increased the alpha(Ni) in beta-NiAl(Pt) for constant X(sub Ni)/X(sub Al) approx. = 1.13, while at constant X(sub Al) the affect of Pt on Al is greatly reduced. The measured partial enthalpies of mixing indicate Al-atoms have a strong self interaction while Ni- and Pt-atoms in have similar interactions with Al-atoms. Conversely the binding of Ni-atoms in beta-NiAl decreases with Pt addition independent of Al concentration. These initial results prove the technique can be applied to the Ni-Al-Pt system but more activity measurements are required to fully understand the thermodynamics of this system and how Pt additions improved the scaling behavior of nickel-based superalloys. In addition, with the choice of a suitable oxide material for the effusion-cell, the "closed" isothermal nature of the effusion-cell allows the direct investigation of an alloy-oxide equilibrium which resembles the "local-equilibrium" description of the metal-scale interface observed during high temperature oxidation. It is proposed that with an Al(l) + Al2O3(s) experimental reference state together with the route measurement of the relative partial-pressures of Al(g) and Al2O(g) allows the activities of O and Al2O3 to be determined along with the activities of Ni and Al. These measurements provide a direct method of investigating the thermodynamics of the metal-scale interface of a TGO-scale.

  16. Toward a mechanistic understanding of the effect of biochar addition on soil water retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Chang, N.; Guo, M.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich product produced by thermal degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment, whose application to sediment is said to improve water retention. However, BC produced from different feedstocks and pyrolyzed at different temperatures have distinct properties, which may alter water retention in ways difficult to predict a priori. Our goal is to develop a mechanistic understanding of BC addition on water retention by examining the impact of BC from two feedstocks, poultry litter (PL) and hardwood (HW), on the soil-water retention curves (SWRC) of a uniform sand and a sandy loam (SL). For experiments with sand, BC and sand were sieved to the same particle size (~ 0.547 mm) to minimize effects of BC addition on particle size distribution. Experiments with SL contained the same sieved BC. PL and HW bicohars were added at 2 and 7% (w/w), and water retention was measured from 0 to -4.38 × 106 cm-H2O. Both BCs increased porosities for sand and SL, up to 39 and 13% for sand and SL, respectively, with 7% HW BC addition. The primary cause for these increases was the internal porosity of BC particles. While the matric potential for air-entry was unchanged with BC addition, BC amendment increased water retention for sand and SL in the capillary region (0 to -15,000 cm-H2O) by an average of 26 and 33 % for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but only 7 and 14 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL. The most dramatic influence of BC amendment on water retention occurred in the adsorption region (< -15,000 cm-H2O), where water retention increased by a factor of 11 and 22 for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but by 140 and 190 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL, respectively. The impact of BC on water retention in these sediments is explained primarily by the additional surface area and internal porosity of PL and HW BC particles. van Genuchten (VG) models were fitted to the water retention data. For SL where the impact of BC addition on water retention was

  17. Additive effects of vertebrate predators on insects in a Puerto Rican coffee plantation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A variety of studies have established the value of shaded coffee plantations as habitat for birds. While the value of birds as biological controls in coffee has received some attention, the interactions between birds and other predators of insects have not been tested. We used exclosures to examine the effects of vertebrate predators on the arthropods associated with coffee, in particular the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera coffeella) and the flatid planthopper Petrusa epilepsis, in a shaded coffee plantation in Puerto Rico. We used a 2 x 2 factorial design with four treatments: exclusion of birds, lizards, birds and lizards, and control (no exclusion). Abundance of insects >5 mm increased when birds or both birds and lizards were removed. Birds and lizards had an additive effect for insects <5 mm and for all insects combined. Coffee leafminers showed a weak response to removal of predators while planthopper abundance increased significantly in the absence of avian predators. Arthropod predators and parasitoids did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings suggest that vertebrate insectivores have an additive effect on insects in coffee and may help control abundances of some coffee pests. Equally important, we present evidence suggesting that they do not interfere with other known natural enemies of coffee pests. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. The effect of the molecular weight of additive on the properties of antimisting fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hadermann, A.F.; Trippe, J.C.; Waters, P.F.

    1983-09-01

    Antimisting aircraft fuels, when ignited, do not produce the roaring fireball which often accompanies aircraft crashes. This result is attributable to the suppression of the aerosolization of the fuel by added macromolecules which alter the structure of the droplets of fuel emanating from rent fuel tanks after the crash. The first studies of the antimisting effect of macromolecules on aviation fuel were carried out in Great Britain in 1968. In that early work it was established that there was a qualitative relationship between the suppression of the atomization of the fuel and the molecular weight of the additive above a certain critical concentration; the latter being inverse to the molecular weight of the additive. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated a dependence of the antimisting effectiveness of polyisobutylene in diesel fuel on the viscosity average molecular weight to a power exceeding 2, and in jet-A fuel to the 2..cap alpha.. + 1 power, where ..cap alpha.. is the exponent in the Mark-Houwink equation. In their study Chao et al, were able to demonstrate a strong correlation between the extent of antimisting effectiveness and flammability reduction with the maximum ductless siphon height supported by the solution. They introduced the ductless siphon to the study of antimisting fuels as a measure of the elongational viscosity impaired by the macromolecules to the fuel.

  19. Effect of Crumb Rubber and Warm Mix Additives on Asphalt Aging, Rheological, and Failure Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prashant

    Asphalt-rubber mixtures have been shown to have useful properties with respect to distresses observed in asphalt concrete pavements. The most notable change in properties is a large increase in viscosity and improved low-temperature cracking resistance. Warm mix additives can lower production and compaction temperatures. Lower temperatures reduce harmful emissions and lower energy consumption, and thus provide environmental benefits and cut costs. In this study, the effects of crumb rubber modification on various asphalts such as California Valley, Boscan, Alaska North Slope, Laguna and Cold Lake were also studied. The materials used for warm mix modification were obtained from various commercial sources. The RAF binder was produced by Imperial Oil in their Nanticoke, Ontario, refinery on Lake Erie. A second commercial PG 52-34 (hereafter denoted as NER) was obtained/sampled during the construction of a northern Ontario MTO contract. Some regular tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) and some modified new protocols such as the extended BBR test (LS-308) and the Double-Edge Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) are used to study, the effect of warm mix and a host of other additives on rheological, aging and failure properties. A comparison in the properties of RAF and NER asphalts has also been made as RAF is good quality asphalt and NER is bad quality asphalt. From the studies the effect of additives on chemical and physical hardening tendencies was found to be significant. The asphalt samples tested in this study showed a range of tendencies for chemical and physical hardening.

  20. Cytotoxic Effects of Temozolomide and Radiation are Additive- and Schedule-Dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, Anthony J.; Ruff, Elliot M.; Martindale, Christine; Lovegrove, Nadia; Short, Susan C.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Despite aggressive therapy comprising radical radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains poor, particularly if tumors express O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT). The interactions between radiation and TMZ remain unclear and have important implications for scheduling and for developing strategies to improve outcomes. Methods and Materials: Factors determining the effects of combination therapy on clonogenic survival, cell-cycle checkpoint signaling and DNA repair were investigated in four human glioma cell lines (T98G, U373-MG, UVW, U87-MG). Results: Combining TMZ and radiation yielded additive cytotoxicity, but only when TMZ was delivered 72 h before radiation. Radiosensitization was not observed. TMZ induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest at 48-72 h, coincident with phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Additive G2/M arrest and Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation was only observed when TMZ preceded radiation by 72 h. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitor KU-55933 increased radiation sensitivity and delayed repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks, but did not influence TMZ effects. The multiple kinase inhibitor caffeine enhanced the cytotoxicity of chemoradiation and exacerbated DNA damage. Conclusions: TMZ is not a radiosensitizing agent but yields additive cytotoxicity in combination with radiation. Our data indicate that TMZ treatment should commence at least 3 days before radiation to achieve maximum benefit. Activation of G2/M checkpoint signaling by TMZ and radiation has a cytoprotective effect that can be overcome by dual inhibition of ATM and ATR. More specific inhibition of checkpoint signaling will be required to increase treatment efficacy without exacerbating toxicity.

  1. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages. PMID:26760939

  2. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles.

    PubMed

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives, the effect of various additives and steaming treatment on cooking quality, sensory attributes, textural properties and microstructure of noodles were studied. Dough prepared by addition of 40 ml water to 100 g flour resulted into formation of a soft dough, leading to production of noodles of improved surface smoothness and maximum yield. The use of additives (5 g oil, 0.2 g guar gum, 2 g gluten and 1 ml of 1 % kansui solution for 100 g of flour) and steaming treatment showed significant effect on noodles quality, with respect to cooking characteristics, sensory attributes and textural properties. The microstructure images justified the positive correlation between the effects of ingredients with steaming and quality parameters of noodles. Air dried noodles with reduced cooking loss (~50 % reduction) with marginal reduction in cooking time was developed, which were having similar characteristics to that of instant fried noodles. Compared to the instant fried noodle, the prepared air dried noodle was having substantially reduced fat content (~70 % reduction). Thus the present study will be useful for guiding extrusion processes for production of air dried noodles having less cooking time and low fat content. PMID:26604421

  3. Dynamic mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer incorporating a ZnO additive: the effect of artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Mouzakis, Dionysios E; Papadopoulos, Triantafillos D; Polyzois, Gregory L; Griniari, Panagiota G

    2010-11-01

    The main objective of the current study was to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of a room-temperature vulcanizing silicone incorporating different fractions of zinc oxide (ZnO) after indoor and outdoor photoaging. Forty-eight samples were produced by adding different amounts of ZnO into a commercial maxillofacial silicone (EPISIL-E). The samples were divided into 4 groups containing 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 wt% ZnO additive, respectively. Samples were exposed to sunlight (subgroup 2), ultraviolet (subgroup 3), and fluorescence (subgroup 4) aging, whereas nonaged samples comprised the control subgroup (subgroup 1). Dynamic mechanical analysis was used to determine the storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E″), and damping capacity (tanδ). General linear statistic model was conducted to evaluate the effects of aging, testing frequency, and composition on the dynamic mechanical properties of the silicone with the ZnO additive. Post hoc analysis was performed using Tukey test. Statistical analysis revealed a significant impact of composition on tanδ (P < 0.05). Aging influenced E' and E″ (P < 0.01). The combination of aging and composition had a significant effect on all dynamic properties (P < 0.01).

  4. Dynamic mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer incorporating a ZnO additive: the effect of artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Mouzakis, Dionysios E; Papadopoulos, Triantafillos D; Polyzois, Gregory L; Griniari, Panagiota G

    2010-11-01

    The main objective of the current study was to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of a room-temperature vulcanizing silicone incorporating different fractions of zinc oxide (ZnO) after indoor and outdoor photoaging. Forty-eight samples were produced by adding different amounts of ZnO into a commercial maxillofacial silicone (EPISIL-E). The samples were divided into 4 groups containing 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 wt% ZnO additive, respectively. Samples were exposed to sunlight (subgroup 2), ultraviolet (subgroup 3), and fluorescence (subgroup 4) aging, whereas nonaged samples comprised the control subgroup (subgroup 1). Dynamic mechanical analysis was used to determine the storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E″), and damping capacity (tanδ). General linear statistic model was conducted to evaluate the effects of aging, testing frequency, and composition on the dynamic mechanical properties of the silicone with the ZnO additive. Post hoc analysis was performed using Tukey test. Statistical analysis revealed a significant impact of composition on tanδ (P < 0.05). Aging influenced E' and E″ (P < 0.01). The combination of aging and composition had a significant effect on all dynamic properties (P < 0.01). PMID:21119441

  5. Generalized Concentration Addition Modeling Predicts Mixture Effects of Environmental PPARγ Agonists.

    PubMed

    Watt, James; Webster, Thomas F; Schlezinger, Jennifer J

    2016-09-01

    The vast array of potential environmental toxicant combinations necessitates the development of efficient strategies for predicting toxic effects of mixtures. Current practices emphasize the use of concentration addition to predict joint effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in coexposures. Generalized concentration addition (GCA) is one such method for predicting joint effects of coexposures to chemicals and has the advantage of allowing for mixture components to have differences in efficacy (ie, dose-response curve maxima). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that plays a central role in regulating lipid homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and bone quality and is the target of an increasing number of environmental toxicants. Here, we tested the applicability of GCA in predicting mixture effects of therapeutic (rosiglitazone and nonthiazolidinedione partial agonist) and environmental PPARγ ligands (phthalate compounds identified using EPA's ToxCast database). Transcriptional activation of human PPARγ1 by individual compounds and mixtures was assessed using a peroxisome proliferator response element-driven luciferase reporter. Using individual dose-response parameters and GCA, we generated predictions of PPARγ activation by the mixtures, and we compared these predictions with the empirical data. At high concentrations, GCA provided a better estimation of the experimental response compared with 3 alternative models: toxic equivalency factor, effect summation and independent action. These alternatives provided reasonable fits to the data at low concentrations in this system. These experiments support the implementation of GCA in mixtures analysis with endocrine disrupting compounds and establish PPARγ as an important target for further studies of chemical mixtures. PMID:27255385

  6. Effect of Zn additions on precipitation during aging of alloy 8090

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilmer, R. J.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Precipitation events have been observed by TEM under two different aging conditions in three 'stretched' alloys, whose compositions are encompassed by the 8090 composition window but contain Zn additions of up to 1.07 wt pct. DSC was also used to obtain deeper insight of the precipitation-event effects obtainable through Zn content variation; it was thereby revealed that Zn is incorporated into the delta-prime phase, perhaps stabilizing it. Coarse, Zn-containing precipitates can form on the boundaries and within the interiors of the grains, when the Zn content reaches the presently investigated maximum of 1.07 wt pct.

  7. Self-administration of cocaine-antihistamine combinations: super-additive reinforcing effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixia; Woolverton, William L

    2007-02-28

    Histamine H1 receptor antagonists have some behavioral effects that predict abuse liability. In the present study, diphenhydramine and cocaine each maintained i.v. self-administration under a progressive-ratio schedule in rhesus monkeys. When cocaine and DPH were combined in a 1:1 ratio of the ED50s, the combination was super-additive in all monkeys. The data predict that the combination of cocaine and histamine H1 receptor antagonists would have enhanced potential for abuse relative to either drug alone. PMID:17196194

  8. Thermodynamic network model for predicting effects of substrate addition and other perturbations on subsurface microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Istok; Melora Park; James McKinley; Chongxuan Liu; Lee Krumholz; Anne Spain; Aaron Peacock; Brett Baldwin

    2007-04-19

    The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on microbial growth, community composition and system geochemistry. The hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding growth reactions performed by defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF ROTATION ON THE MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE MASSIVE STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wuming; Bi, Shaolan; Liu, Zhie; Meng, Xiangcun E-mail: yangwuming@ynao.ac.cn

    2013-10-20

    The double or extended main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of intermediate-age massive star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud are generally interpreted as age spreads of a few hundred Myr. However, such age spreads do not exist in younger clusters (i.e., 40-300 Myr), which challenges this interpretation. The effects of rotation on the MSTOs of star clusters have been studied in previous works, but the results obtained are conflicting. Compared with previous works, we consider the effects of rotation on the main-sequence lifetime of stars. Our calculations show that rotating models have a fainter and redder MSTO with respect to non-rotating counterparts with ages between about 0.8 and 2.2 Gyr, but have a brighter and bluer MSTO when age is larger than 2.4 Gyr. The spread of the MSTO caused by a typical rotation rate is equivalent to the effect of an age spread of about 200 Myr. Rotation could lead to the double or extended MSTOs in the CMD of the star clusters with ages between about 0.8 and 2.2 Gyr. However, the extension is not significant, and it does not even exist in younger clusters. If the efficiency of the mixing were high enough, the effects of the mixing would counteract the effect of the centrifugal support in the late stage of evolution, and the rotationally induced extension would disappear in the old intermediate-age star clusters, but younger clusters would have an extended MSTO. Moreover, the effects of rotation might aid in understanding the formation of some 'multiple populations' in globular clusters.

  10. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations. PMID:27381410

  11. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations.

  12. Effect of rock fragment addition on hydro-dispersive properties of compacted soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Mele, Giacomo; Coppola, Antonio; De Mascellis, Roberto; Di Matteo, Bruno; Terribile, Fabio; Basile, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    Compaction of agricultural soils is an increasingly challenging problem for crop production and environment. Mechanization of agricultural practices is one of the main factors inducing degradation of soil structure, especially in fragile soils with little organic matter and low shrinking-swelling capacity. Moreover, rock picking from stony soils is a routine practice to avoid tillage problems in some agricultural productions, but stone removal can significantly increase soil compaction, which lowers water infiltration rates and increases surface runoff and soil erosion. The practice of crushing and returning smaller rock fragments to the field could reduce the above problems. The aim of this work was to test the addition of rock fragments as practice to restore soil physical quality of not-stony soils susceptible to compaction. We carried out a lab experiment mixing five different volume concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 35%) of 4-8mm rock fragments with an Alfisol and an Entisol, showing compact structure and water stagnation problems in field. The repacked samples have undergone nine wet/dry cycles in order to induce soil structure formation and its stabilization. Bulk density, porosity and soil hydraulic properties and hydro-dispersive characteristics were measured. Soil hydraulic properties, namely water retention and hydraulic conductivity, were inferred from an infiltration experiment performed by a tension infiltrometer disc coupled with an inverse parameter estimation method; hydro-dispersive characteristics were performed from a tracer inflow-outflow experiment conducted in unsaturated condition, followed by the analysis of the breakthrough curve. Soil image analysis was used to enhance parameterization of the hydrological models near saturation. Preliminary results showed that bulk density significantly changed only after addition of 35% of rock fragments and a good physical restoration was reached at 15% volume concentration in Entisol and at 25% in

  13. Effect of additives on the properties of polyaniline nanofibers prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yibo; Arowo, Moses; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianfeng

    2015-05-12

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers with improved properties were prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization in a rotating packed bed with the assistance of p-aminodiphenylamine (AD) and p-phenylenediamine (AP). The effects of reactor type, additive dosage, reaction temperature, and high-gravity level on the properties of products were investigated in detail. Three conclusions were made: (1) a small amount of additive can significantly improve some properties of the nanofibers such as uniformity, specific surface area, and specific capacitance; (2) in order to obtain high-quality nanofibers, the high-gravity level should coordinate with the reaction rate; (3) the molecular weight and conductivity of PANI decrease with the increase of additive dosage. The products have larger specific surface areas of up to 73.9 and 68.4 m(2)/g and consequently improved specific capacitance of up to 527.5 and 552 F/g for the PANI nanofibers prepared with AD and AP, respectively. However, the specific surface area and specific capacitance of pure PANI are only 49.1 m(2)/g and 333.3 F/g, respectively. This research provides a simple, reliable, and scalable method to produce PANI nanofibers of high performances.

  14. Effect of additives on the tensile performance and protein solubility of industrial oilseed residual based plastics.

    PubMed

    Newson, William R; Kuktaite, Ramune; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva

    2014-07-16

    Ten chemical additives were selected from the literature for their proposed modifying activity in protein-protein interactions. These consisted of acids, bases, reducing agents, and denaturants and were added to residual deoiled meals of Crambe abyssinica (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) to modify the properties of plastics produced through hot compression molding at 130 °C. The films produced were examined for tensile properties, protein solubility, molecular weight distribution, and water absorption. Of the additives tested, NaOH had the greatest positive effect on tensile properties, with increases of 105% in maximum stress and 200% in strain at maximum stress for crambe and a 70% increase in strain at maximum stress for carinata. Stiffness was not increased by any of the applied additives. Changes in tensile strength and elongation for crambe and elongation for carinata were related to changes in protein solubility. Increased pH was the most successful in improving the protein aggregation and mechanical properties within the complex chemistry of residual oilseed meals.

  15. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; Sellmyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  16. Effect of additives on the tensile performance and protein solubility of industrial oilseed residual based plastics.

    PubMed

    Newson, William R; Kuktaite, Ramune; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva

    2014-07-16

    Ten chemical additives were selected from the literature for their proposed modifying activity in protein-protein interactions. These consisted of acids, bases, reducing agents, and denaturants and were added to residual deoiled meals of Crambe abyssinica (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) to modify the properties of plastics produced through hot compression molding at 130 °C. The films produced were examined for tensile properties, protein solubility, molecular weight distribution, and water absorption. Of the additives tested, NaOH had the greatest positive effect on tensile properties, with increases of 105% in maximum stress and 200% in strain at maximum stress for crambe and a 70% increase in strain at maximum stress for carinata. Stiffness was not increased by any of the applied additives. Changes in tensile strength and elongation for crambe and elongation for carinata were related to changes in protein solubility. Increased pH was the most successful in improving the protein aggregation and mechanical properties within the complex chemistry of residual oilseed meals. PMID:24971658

  17. Effect of carbon nanotube addition on the wear behavior of basalt/epoxy woven composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, M T; Rhee, K Y; Lee, B H; Kim, C J

    2013-08-01

    The effect of acid-treated carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on the wear and dynamic mechanical thermal properties of basalt/epoxy woven composites was investigated in this study. Basalt/CNT/epoxy composites were fabricated by impregnating woven basalt fibers into epoxy resin mixed with 1 wt% CNTs which were acid-treated. Wear and DMA (dynamic mechanical analyzer) tests were performed on basalt/epoxy composites and basalt/CNT/epoxy composites. The results showed that the addition of the acid-treated CNTs improved the wear properties of basalt/epoxy woven composites. Specifically, the friction coefficient of the basalt/epoxy composite was stabilized in the range of 0.5-0.6 while it fell in the range of 0.3-0.4 for basalt/CNT/epoxy composites. The wear volume loss of the basalt/CNT/epoxy composites was approximately 68% lower than that of the basalt/epoxy composites. The results also showed that the glass transition temperature of basalt/CNT/epoxy composites was higher than that of basalt/epoxy composites. The improvement of wear properties of basalt/epoxy composites by the addition of acid-treated CNTs was caused by the homogeneous load transfer between basalt fibers and epoxy matrix due to the reinforcement of CNTs.

  18. Use of pyrocatechol violet as an effective redox additive for highly promoting the supercapacitor performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Nie, Yong Fu; Chen, Xiang Ying; Xiao, Zheng Hui; Zhang, Zhong Jie

    2016-08-01

    In present work, we demonstrate a simple but effective redox additive of pyrocatechol violet (abbr. PCV) to largely promote the capacitive performances especially when carried out in three different kinds of electrolytes (H2SO4, Na2SO4 and KOH), mostly due to its fast electron and proton transfer occurring in the electrode/electrolyte interface. It reveals that the PCV dosage incorporated into electrolyte plays a crucial role in the determination of capacitive performance. When conducted in a two-electrode system, incorporating 0.06 mol L-1 PCV into 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 can achieve large capacitance up to 200 F g-1, which is almost 2.06 times than the one without the addition of PCV; besides, the corresponding energy density is of 28 Wh kg-1 (also increasing 2 times). What's more, PCV has been extended as the redox additive in other electrolytes such as Na2SO4 and KOH, and remarkable promotion in capacitance and energy density also occur, well evincing the high efficiency and universal applicability of PCV for the large promotion of supercapacitors' performances due to its prominent electrochemical reversibility and high solubility.

  19. Effect of Fruit Pomace Addition on Shortbread Cookies to Improve Their Physical and Nutritional Values.

    PubMed

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Borowska, Eulalia Julitta; Bojarska, Justyna; Dąbrowska, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Fruit pomace remaining after juice extraction is still a source of bioactive compounds. Especially rich in these compounds is the pomace from blackcurrant fruit and from fruits of little-known horticultural plants, like: rowan, rosehip and elderberry. The addition of fruit pomace to bakery and confectionery products, especially to those made of white flour, may significantly enrich their composition with dietary fiber, vitamins and phenolic compounds. This study was aimed at determining the effect of 20 % addition of fruit pomace from rosehip, rowan, blackcurrant and elderberry on the properties of shortbread cookies. The pomace-containing cookies, compared to those without additives, were characterized by a darker color with a higher contribution of yellowness, and by higher hardness. The overall organoleptic assessment was comparable for all types of cookies, however the cookies with pomace were characterized by more perceptible taste and aroma, and were sourer. The extracts from pomace-supplemented cookies had a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than that from the cookies without pomace, but they were ineffective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. The study showed that fruit pomace could improve the nutritional value of shortbread cookies. Furthermore, non-typical color of such a new product may be attractive to consumers.

  20. Effects of He-3 addition on implosion of deuterium-tritium capsules on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    E. K. Miller, et al.

    2008-03-01

    Glass (SiGDP) capsules were imploded on the OMEGA laser to look for anomalous degradation in yield (i.e., beyond what is predicted) with 3He addition similar to the “factor of two” degradation previously reported by MIT (Rygg et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 2006) at a 50% 3He atom fraction. We did not see a significant anomalous degradation. The cause of the “Rygg” anomaly is as of yet unexplained, but differences in gas mixture (D-T vs. D2) or shell parameters (glass vs. plastic, diameter and wall thickness) may be responsible for the absence of this anomaly in the recent data. In addition, a short laser pulse (600 ps) was used to temporally separate shock and compression yield components in order to investigate mix. Previously, anomalously low compression yield had been observed when imploding glass targets containing 10 atm D-T with 10 kJ of laser. This effect was not seen in the recent data with 5 atm D-T and 15 kJ and the resulting γ and n burn histories were in good qualitative agreement with predictions for 3He addition.

  1. Renormalization and additional degrees of freedom within the chiral effective theory for spin-1 resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2010-06-01

    We study in detail various aspects of the renormalization of the spin-1 resonance propagator in the effective field theory framework. First, we briefly review the formalisms for the description of spin-1 resonances in the path integral formulation with the stress on the issue of propagating degrees of freedom. Then we calculate the one-loop 1{sup --} meson self-energy within the resonance chiral theory in the chiral limit using different methods for the description of spin-1 particles, namely, the Proca field, antisymmetric tensor field, and the first-order formalisms. We discuss in detail technical aspects of the renormalization procedure which are inherent to the power-counting nonrenormalizable theory and give a formal prescription for the organization of both the counterterms and one-particle irreducible graphs. We also construct the corresponding propagators and investigate their properties. We show that the additional poles corresponding to the additional one-particle states are generated by loop corrections, some of which are negative norm ghosts or tachyons. We count the number of such additional poles and briefly discuss their physical meaning.

  2. Effect of lysine addition on growth of black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata).

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Juan José Ortiz; Luis, Arcos-García José; Martínez, Germán D Mendoza; Pérez, Fernando Xicoténcatl Plata; Mascorro, Gisela Fuentes; Inzunza, Gabriela Ruelas

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the addition of lysine to commercial feed given to captive black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) were evaluated in terms of growth and feed digestibility. Twenty-eight-day-old black iguana with an initial weight of 5.5 ± 0.3 g were housed individually in cages measuring 45 × 45 × 45 cm. The experiment lasted 150 days. The ambient temperature ranged from 28 to 35°C with a relative humidity of 60 to 95%. Treatments consisted of the addition of different percentages of lysine to the feed (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%, dry matter [DM] base). There was a linear response (P < 0.01) in daily gain (68, 112, 118, and 151 mg/d) and daily intake (251, 289, 297, and 337 mg/d) for levels from 0 to 0.3%, respectively, as well in the growth in head size, snout-vent length, and total length. The digestibility of DM, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were reduced linearly (P < 0.01) as lysine levels increased. Intake and digestibility were negatively correlated (r = -0.74; P < 0.001). It is concluded that the addition of lysine to the black iguana diet in the first months of life is important to stimulate growth and intake.

  3. The Effect of Manganese Additions on the Reactive Evaporation of Chromium in Ni-Cr Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Alman, David E.

    2004-10-20

    Chromium is used as an alloy addition in stainless steels and nickel-chromium alloys to form protective chromium oxide scales. Chromium oxide undergoes reactive evaporation in high temperature exposures in the presence of oxygen and/or water vapor. The deposition of gaseous chromium species onto solid oxide fuel cell electrodes can reduce the efficiency of the fuel cell. Manganese additions to the alloy can reduce the activity of chromium in the oxide, either from solid solution replacement of chromium with manganese (at low levels of manganese) or from the formation of manganese-chromium spinels (at high levels of manganese). This reduction in chromium activity leads to a predicted reduction in chromium evaporation by as much as a factor of 35 at 800 C and 55 at 700 C. The results of evaporation loss measurements on nickel-chromium-manganese alloys are compared with the predicted reduction. Quantifying the effects of manganese additions on chromium evaporation should aid alloy development of metallic interconnects and balance-of-plant alloys.

  4. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  5. Effect of Fruit Pomace Addition on Shortbread Cookies to Improve Their Physical and Nutritional Values.

    PubMed

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Borowska, Eulalia Julitta; Bojarska, Justyna; Dąbrowska, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Fruit pomace remaining after juice extraction is still a source of bioactive compounds. Especially rich in these compounds is the pomace from blackcurrant fruit and from fruits of little-known horticultural plants, like: rowan, rosehip and elderberry. The addition of fruit pomace to bakery and confectionery products, especially to those made of white flour, may significantly enrich their composition with dietary fiber, vitamins and phenolic compounds. This study was aimed at determining the effect of 20 % addition of fruit pomace from rosehip, rowan, blackcurrant and elderberry on the properties of shortbread cookies. The pomace-containing cookies, compared to those without additives, were characterized by a darker color with a higher contribution of yellowness, and by higher hardness. The overall organoleptic assessment was comparable for all types of cookies, however the cookies with pomace were characterized by more perceptible taste and aroma, and were sourer. The extracts from pomace-supplemented cookies had a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than that from the cookies without pomace, but they were ineffective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. The study showed that fruit pomace could improve the nutritional value of shortbread cookies. Furthermore, non-typical color of such a new product may be attractive to consumers. PMID:27319014

  6. [Additive effect of marihuana and retrovirus in the anergy of natural killer cells in mice].

    PubMed

    Ongrádi, J; Specter, S; Horváth, A; Friedman, H

    1999-01-10

    Among the immunosuppressive effects of marijuana, impairment of natural killer cell activity is significant. HIV also inhibits these cells. Friend leukemia virus complex and its helper component Rowson-Parr virus induce early immunosuppression in mice resembling human AIDS, and late leukemia, providing a small animal AIDS model. Leukemia susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice were infected with these viruses. At different time points, their natural killer cells separated from spleens were treated with 0 to 10 micrograms/ml tetrahydrocannabinol, subsequently mixed with Yac-1 target cells for 4 and 18 h. The natural killer cell activity in both mouse strains infected by either virus complex or helper virus weakened on days 2 to 4 postinfection, normalized by day 8 and enhanced on days 11 to 14. Natural killer cell activity upon the effect of low concentration (1.0 to 2.5 micrograms/ml) of tetrahydrocannabinol slightly increased in BALB/c, was unaffected in C57BL/6, especially in 18 h assays. In the combined effects of marijuana and retrovirus, damages by marijuana dominated over those of retroviruses. Inhibition or reactive enhancement of natural killer cell activity on the effect of viruses are similar to those of infected but marijuana-free counterparts, but on the level of uninfected cells treated with marijuana. The effects of marijuana and retrovirus are additive resulting in anergy of natural killer cells.

  7. Additive effect of alcohol and nicotine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence mechanism in rats.

    PubMed

    Ashakumary, L; Vijayammal, P L

    1996-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been established as a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and also for lung cancer. Nicotine is one of the major toxic components of cigarette smoke that is believed to be partly responsible for the deleterious effect of cigarette smoke. Alcohol intake is another major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Lipid peroxidation is a process associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The concentration of lipid peroxides is found to be increased in alcohol-treated rats. On nicotine administration along with alcohol, an additive effect was observed in lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defence mechanism. The activity of scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase was found to be decreased, while the activity of glutathione peroxidase and the concentration of glutathione were increased. PMID:8854216

  8. Additive Effects of Combination Treatment with Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Agents in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Sienmi; Sandoval, Francisco; Trinh, Pauline; Voskuhl, Rhonda R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of combination treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent, interferon(IFN)-β, and a putative neuroprotective agent, an estrogen receptor(ER)-β ligand, during EAE. Combination treatment significantly attenuated EAE disease severity, preserved axonal densities in spinal cord, and reduced CNS inflammation. Combining ERβ treatment with IFNβ reduced IL-17, while it abrogated IFNβ-mediated increases in Th1 and Th2 cytokines from splenocytes. Additionally, combination treatment reduced VLA-4 expression on CD4+ T cells, while it abrogated IFNβ-mediated decreases in MMP-9. Our data demonstrate that combination treatments can result in complex effects that could not have been predicted based on monotherapy data alone. PMID:20006910

  9. REBOUNDx: A library for adding additional effects to N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Rein, Hanno; Shi, Pengshuai

    2016-05-01

    Many astrophysical applications involve additional perturbations beyond point-source gravity. We have recently developed REBOUNDx, a library for adding such effects in numerical simulations with the open-source N-body package REBOUND. Various implementations have different numerical properties that in general depend on the underlying integrator employed. In particular, I will discuss adding velocity-dependent/dissipative effects to widely used symplectic integrators, and how one can estimate the introduced numerical errors using the operator-splitting formalism traditionally applied to symplectic integrators. Finally, I will demonstrate how to use the code, and how the Python wrapper we have developed for REBOUND/REBOUNDx makes it easy to interactively leverage powerful analysis, visualization and parallelization libraries.

  10. Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Dune Grassland: Neutral Effect of Water Supply and Inhibitory Effect of Nitrogen Addition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yulin; Ning, Zhiying; Cui, Duo; Mao, Wei; Bi, Jingdong; Zhao, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The decomposition of plant material in arid ecosystems is considered to be substantially controlled by water and N availability. The responses of litter decomposition to external N and water, however, remain controversial, and the interactive effects of supplementary N and water also have been largely unexamined. Methodology/Principal Findings A 3.5-year field experiment with supplementary nitrogen and water was conducted to assess the effects of N and water addition on mass loss and nitrogen release in leaves and fine roots of three dominant plant species (i.e., Artemisia halondendron, Setaria viridis, and Phragmites australis) with contrasting substrate chemistry (e.g. N concentration, lignin content in this study) in a desertified dune grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments included N addition, water addition, combination of N and water, and an untreated control. The decomposition rate in both leaves and roots was related to the initial litter N and lignin concentrations of the three species. However, litter quality did not explain the slower mass loss in roots than in leaves in the present study, and thus warrant further research. Nitrogen addition, either alone or in combination with water, significantly inhibited dry mass loss and N release in the leaves and roots of the three species, whereas water input had little effect on the decomposition of leaf litter and fine roots, suggesting that there was no interactive effect of supplementary N and water on litter decomposition in this system. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that the inhibitory effects of external N on dry mass loss and nitrogen release are relatively strong in high-lignin litter compared with low-lignin litter. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that increasing precipitation hardly facilitates ecosystem carbon turnover but atmospheric N deposition can enhance carbon sequestration and nitrogen retention in desertified dune grasslands of northern China

  11. Impact of Zn, Mg, Ni and Co elements on glass alteration: Additive effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aréna, H.; Godon, N.; Rébiscoul, D.; Podor, R.; Garcès, E.; Cabie, M.; Mestre, J.-P.

    2016-03-01

    The minor elements present in the nuclear glass composition or coming from the groundwater of the future repository may impact glass alteration. In this study, the effects of Zn, Mg, Ni and Co on the International Simple Glass (ISG) alteration were studied throughout 511 days of aqueous leaching experiments. The aim was to determine their additive or competitive effect on glass alteration and the nature of the alteration products. The four elements were introduced separately or altogether in solution as XCl2 chloride salts (X = Zn, Mg, Ni or Co) with monthly additions to compensate for their consumption. The alteration kinetics were determined by leachate analyses (ICP-AES) and alteration products were characterized in terms of composition, morphology and microstructure (SEM, TEM-EDX, ToF-SIMS and XRD). Results indicate that when they are introduced separately, Zn, Mg, Ni and Co have the same qualitative and quantitative effect on glass alteration kinetics and on pH: they form secondary phases leading to a pH decrease and a significant increase in glass alteration. The secondary phases were identified as silicates of the added X element: trioctahedral smectites with a stoichiometry of[(Si(4-a) Ala) (X(3-b) Alb) O10 (OH)2](a+b)- [Xc Nad Cae] (2c+d+2e)+ with a = 0.11 to 0.45, b = 0.00 to 0.29, c = 0, d = 0.19 to 0.74 and e = 0.10 to 0.14. . It was shown that as pH stabilizes at a minimum value, X-silicates no longer precipitate, thus leading to a significant drop in the glass alteration rate. This pH value depends on X and it has been identified as being 8 for Mg-silicates, probably around 7.3 for Ni and Co-silicates and less than 6.2 for Zn-silicates. When tested together, the effects of these four elements on glass alteration are additive and lead to the formation of a mix of X-silicates that precipitate as long as their constitutive elements are available and the pH is above their respective minimum value. This study brings new quantitative information about the

  12. Effect of jenny milk addition on the inhibition of late blowing in semihard cheese.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Paolino, R; Valentini, V; Musto, M; Ricciardi, A; Adduci, F; D'Adamo, C; Pecora, G; Freschi, P

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of late blowing defects in cheese produces negative effects on the quality and commercial value of the product. In this work, we verified whether the addition of raw jenny milk to bulk cow milk reduced the late blowing defects in semihard cheeses. During cheesemaking, different aliquots of jenny milk were poured into 2 groups of 4 vats, each containing a fixed amount of cow milk. A group of cheeses was created by deliberately contaminating the 4 vats with approximately 3 log10 cfu/mL milk of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CLST01. The other 4 vats, which were not contaminated, were used for a second group of cheeses. After 120 d of ripening, some physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters were evaluated on the obtained semihard cheeses. Differences in sensory properties among cheeses belonging to the uncontaminated group were evaluated by 80 regular consumers of cheese. Our results showed that the increasing addition of jenny milk to cow milk led to a reduction of pH and total bacterial count in both cheese groups, as well as C. tyrobutyricum spores that either grew naturally or artificially inoculated. We observed a progressive reduction of the occurrence of late blowing defects in cheese as consequence of the increasing addition of jenny milk during cheese making. Moreover, the addition of jenny milk did not affect the acceptability of the product, as consumers found no difference among cheeses concerning sensorial aspects. In conclusion, the important antimicrobial activity of lysozyme contained in jenny milk has been confirmed in the current research. It is recommend for use as a possible and viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects in cheese.

  13. Effects of feed additives on ileal mucosa-associated microbiota composition of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, R; Peinado, M J; Aranda-Olmedo, I; Abecia, L; Suárez-Pereira, E; Ortiz Mellet, C; García Fernández, J M; Rubio, L A

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with 2 recently developed feed additives on the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota of the ileum were studied in growing broiler chickens. A total of 48 male 1-d-old broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in 4 treatments with 2 replicates of 6 birds each. The 2 additives tested were a di-d-fructose dianhydride–enriched caramel (FC) and the garlic derivative propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTS-O). Dietary treatments were a control (commercial diet with no additive), INU (20 g inulin/kg diet), CAR (20 g FC/kg diet), and GAR (90 mgPTS-O/kg diet). As a result of this study, inulin supplementation resulted in lower (P < 0.05) and FC feeding resulted in higher (P < 0.05) Blautia coccoides/Eubacterium rectale log10 number of copies respect to controls. Higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria log10 number of copies with respect to the controls was determined in the ileal mucosa of birds fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PCR analysis on Bifidobacterium spp. revealed the presence of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum in samples from chickens fed the control and the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Bifidobacterium longum was exclusively found in poultry fed the control diet, whereas B. pseudocatenulatum was found only in poultry fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. This study showed that both PTS-O and FC were able to modulate the composition of the ileal mucosa-associated microbiota of growing broiler chickens. Finally, in addition to B. pseudolongum, the presence of B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum, species not previously described in intestinal samples of broilers, was also demonstrated. PMID:26440010

  14. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    PubMed

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  15. Mometasone and desloratadine additive effect on eosinophil survival and cytokine secretion from epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although antihistamines and topical corticosteroids are used in combination to treat allergic rhinitis, their additive effect has not been yet demonstrated. The aim was investigate the antiinflammatory additive effect of mometasone and desloratadine on cytokine and sICAM-1 secretion by epithelial cells, and on eosinophil survival stimulated by human epithelial cells secretions from nasal mucosa and polyps. Methods Epithelial cells obtained from nasal mucosa or polyps were stimulated with 10% fetal bovine serum in presence of mometasone (10-11M-10-5M) with/without desloratadine (10-5M). Cytokine and sICAM-1 concentrations in supernatants were measured by ELISA. Peripheral blood eosinophils were incubated during 4 days with epithelial cell secretions with (10-11M-10-5M) and/or desloratadine (10-5M) and survival assessed by Trypan blue. Results are expressed as percentage (mean ± SEM) compared to control. Results Fetal bovine serum stimulated IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and sICAM-1 secretion. In mucosa and polyp epithelial cells, mometasone inhibited this induced secretion while desloratadine inhibited IL-6 and IL-8. The combination of 10-5M desloratadine and 10-9M mometasone reduced IL-6 secretion (48 ± 11%, p < 0.05) greater extent than mometasone alone (68 ± 10%) compared to control (100%). Epithelial cell secretions induced eosinophil survival from day 1 to 4, this effect being inhibited by mometasone. At day 4, the combination of mometasone (10-11M) and desloratadine (10-5M) provoked an increased inhibition of eosinophil survival induced by cell secretions (27 ± 5%, p < 0.01) than mometasone (44 ± 7%) or desloratadine (46 ± 7%) alone. Conclusions These results suggest that the combination of desloratadine and mometasone furoate have a greater antinflammatory effect in an in vitro model of eosinophil inflammation than those drugs administered alone. PMID:21352574

  16. Drag reducing effects of polymer additives in a plate heat exchanger for the OTEC system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.; Yoon, S.; Kim, C.; Seo, T.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken for a 15kW Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger utilizing polyethylene oxide as a polymer additive. Concentrations of polymer additives were 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 200 and 400 wppm at 25 C and mass flow rates were 0.6kg/s, 0.7kg/s, 0.8kg/s and 0.9kg/s in normal operating ranges of the plate heat exchanger. The maximum effects of drag reductions were found at 20 wppm polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and mass flow rate for the plate heat exchanger for maximum drag reduction effects. In most cases, drag reduction of approximately 20% has been obtained. It means considerable savings in pumping power for a large size OTEC plant.

  17. Effect of PAC addition on immersed ultrafiltration for the treatment of algal-rich water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Tian, Jiayu; Nan, Jun; Gao, ShanShan; Liang, Heng; Wang, Meilian; Li, Guibai

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the treatment of algal-rich water by immersed ultrafiltration (UF), in terms of permeate quality and membrane fouling. Experiments were performed with a hollow-fiber polyvinyl chloride ultrafiltration membrane at a laboratory scale, 20-25°C and 10 L/(m(2) h) constant permeate flux. UF could achieve an absolute removal of Microcystis aeruginosa cells, but a poor removal of algogenic organic matter (AOM) released into water, contaminants responsible for severe membrane fouling. The addition of 4 g/L PAC to the immersed UF reactor significantly alleviated the development of trans-membrane pressure and enhanced the removal of dissovled organic carbon (by 10.9±1.7%), UV(254) (by 27.1±1.7%), and microcystins (expressed as MC-LR(eq), by 40.8±4.2%). However, PAC had little effect on the rejection of hydrophilic high molecular weight AOM such as carbohydrates and proteins. It was also identified that PAC reduced the concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins in the reactor due to decreased light intensity, as well as the MC-LR(eq) concentration by PAC adsorption. PMID:21216530

  18. The effect of Tricresyl-Phosphate (TCP) as an additive on wear of Iron (Fe)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, Hiren M.; Ferrante, John; Honecy, Frank C.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) as an antiwear additive in lubricant trimethyol propane triheptanoate (TMPTH) was investigated. The objective was to examine step loading wear by use of surface analysis, wetting, and chemical bonding changes in the lubricant. The investigation consisted of steploading wear studies by a pin or disk tribometer, the effects on wear related to wetting by contact angle and surface tension measurements of various liquid systems, the chemical bonding changes between lubricant and TCP chromatographic analysis, and by determining the reaction between the TCP and metal surfaces through wear scar analysis by Auger emission spectroscopy (AES). The steploading curve for the base fluid alone shows rapid increase of wear rate with load. The steploading curve for the base fluid in presence of 4.25 percent by volume TCP under dry air purge has shown a great reduction of wear rate with all loads studied. It has also been found that the addition of 4.25 percent by volume TCP plus 0.33 percent by volume water to the base lubricant under N2 purge also greatly reduces the wear rate with all loads studied. AES surface analysis reveals a phosphate type wear resistant film, which greatly increases load-bearing capacity, formed on the iron disk. Preliminary chromatographic studies suggest that this film forms either because of ester oxidation or TCP degradation. Wetting studies show direct correlation between the spreading coefficient and the wear rate.

  19. The effect of accelerated ageing on performance properties of addition type silicone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stathi, K; Tarantili, P A; Polyzois, G

    2010-05-01

    The UV-protection provided to addition type silicone elastomers by various colorants, such as conventional dry earth pigments, as well as the so called "functional or reactive" pigments, was investigated. Moreover, the effect of a UV light absorber and a silica filler was also explored. Under the experimental parameters of this work, the exposure of silicone to UV radiation resulted in some changes of the IR absorbance, thermal decomposition after 400 degrees C, T(g) and tensile properties, whereas the storage modulus of samples was not affected. The obtained spectroscopic data, as well as the results of TGA and storage modulus, were interpreted by assuming that chain scission takes place during aging, whereas the improvement of tensile strength allows the hypothesis of a post-curing process, initiated by UV radiation. Therefore, the increase of T(g) could partly be due to the above reason and, furthermore, to the contribution of a rearrangement of chain fragments within the free volume of the elastomeric material. Regarding the evaluation of various coloring agents used in this work, the obtained results show that dry pigments are more sensitive to accelerated ageing conditions in comparison with functional liquid pigments. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of silicone matrix is enhanced, with the addition of this type pigments because of the vinyl functional silanes groups present in their chemical structure. Finally, it should be noted that the incorporation of silica nanofiller did not seem to prevent the silicone elastomer from degradation upon UV irradiation, but showed a significant reinforcing effect.

  20. Effects of Aluminum Addition on Tensile and Cup Forming Properties of Three Twinning Induced Plasticity Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seokmin; Shin, Sang Yong; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Chin, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Nack J.

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, a high Mn twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel and two Al-added TWIP steels were fabricated, and their microstructures, tensile properties, and cup formability were analyzed to investigate the effects of Al addition on deformation mechanisms in tensile and cup forming tests. In the high Mn steel, the twin formation was activated to increase the strain hardening rate and ultimate tensile strength, which needed the high punch load during the cup forming test. In the Al-added TWIP steels, the twin formation was reduced, while the slip activation increased, thereby leading to the decrease in strain hardening rate and ultimate tensile strength. As twins and slips were homogeneously formed during the tensile or cup forming test, the punch load required for the cup forming and residual stresses were relatively low, and the tensile ductility was sufficiently high even after the cup forming test. This indicated that making use of twins and slips simultaneously in TWIP steels by the Al addition was an effective way to improve overall properties including cup formability.

  1. Dynamic effect of sodium-water reaction in fast flux test facility power addition sodium pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.N.; Anderson, M.J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) is a demonstration and test facility of the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. A power addition'' to the facility is being considered to convert some of the dumped, unused heat into electricity generation. Components and piping systems to be added are sodium-water steam generators, sodium loop extensions from existing dump heat exchangers to sodium-water steam generators, and conventional water/steam loops. The sodium loops can be subjected to the dynamic loadings of pressure pulses that are caused by postulated sodium leaks and subsequent sodium-water reaction in the steam generator. The existing FFTF secondary pipes and the new power addition sodium loops were evaluated for exposure to the dynamic effect of the sodium-water reaction. Elastic and simplified inelastic dynamic analyses were used in this feasibility study. The results indicate that both the maximum strain and strain range are within the allowable limits. Several cycles of the sodium-water reaction can be sustained by the sodium pipes that are supported by ordinary pipe supports and seismic restraints. Expensive axial pipe restraints to withstand the sodium-water reaction loads are not needed, because the pressure-pulse-induced alternating bending stresses act as secondary stresses and the pressure pulse dynamic effect is a deformation-controlled quantity and is self-limiting. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The additive effects of quinine on antidepressant drugs in the forced swimming test in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, W Y; Todd, K G; Bourin, M; Hascoet, M

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if quinine plus antidepressant drugs (ADS) leads to an additive effect in the forced swimming test. Quinine (0.125, 0.5 mg/kg) and ADS (subactive doses) were given IP 45 and 30 min, respectively, before the test. When combined with QUIN, all drugs that act via inhibition of 5-HT uptake (imipramine, amitriptyline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) significantly increased the swimming time of mice. Among trazodone, mianserin and iprindole (atypical ADS), only iprindole combined with quinine decreased the immobility (increased swimming) of the animals. The specific noradrenaline (NA) uptake inhibitors, desipramine and viloxazine, but not maprotiline, were also found to reduce the immobility time when pretreated with quinine. The mixed monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor (pargyline) and MAO-A inhibitor (moclobemide) also shortened the period of immobility whereas the MAO-B inhibitor (nialamide) and the dopamine (DA) uptake inhibitor (bupropion) did not. Quinine's additive effects on several types of ADS is likely a result of blockade of potassium channels.

  3. Effects of atmospheric precipitation additions on phytoplankton photosynthesis in Lake Michigan water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.I.; Tisue, G.T.; Kennedy, C.W.; Seils, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of incremental additions (0.1 to 50% v/v) of atmospheric precipitation on phytoplankton photosynthesis (/sup 14/C uptake) were tested in Lake Michigan water samples. Wet deposition was used in experiments I, III, and IV, and a melted snow core was used in experiment II. Additions of precipitation significantly reduced photosynthesis in the first three experiments, starting at about the 5 to 15% treatment level. No significant difference occurred in experiment IV, but photosynthesis was greater than in the control samples and this precipitation sample appeared to stimulate primary productivity. Soluble reactive phosphate, nitrate, and ammonia levels in the precipitation samples exceeded the lake water averages by factors of 10, 2, and 50, respectively. Silicon levels in precipitation reduced pH very little and no consistent relationship was observed with reduced photosynthesis. Alkalinity was greatly reduced in the treated samples and special precautions were required in ce, Ti, Be, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, P,f the Pd crystals of about 30 A. Possible mechanisms are discussed for isotope exchange in CO molecules in these catalysts and for the promoting effect of Pd on the activity of CuO.

  4. NMR characterization of cellulose acetate: chemical shift assignments, substituent effects, and chemical shift additivity.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Hisaho; Shimizu, Yuuichi

    2015-03-15

    A series of cellulose acetates (CA) with degrees of substitution (DS) ranging from 2.92-0.92 dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-d6 and cellulose dissolved in tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF)/DMSO-d6 were investigated by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The NMR spectroscopic analysis allowed the determination of the (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the eight anhydroglucose units (AGUs) that contain CA: 2,3,6-tri-, 2,3-di-, 2,6-di-, 3,6-di-, 2-mono-, 3-mono-, 6-mono-, and unacetylated AGUs. A comparative analysis of the chemical shift data revealed the substituent effect of acetyl groups at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions on the (1)H and (13)C nuclei in the same AGU. In addition, chemical shift additivity could be applied to the (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts of CA because the chemical shifts of the diacetylated and triacetylated AGUs could be almost completely explained by the acetyl substituent effects at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions.

  5. Effect of Sn addition on the microstructure and superelasticity in Ti-Nb-Mo-Sn alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D C; Yang, S; Wei, M; Mao, Y F; Tan, C G; Lin, J G

    2012-09-01

    Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-xSn (x=0-4at%) alloys were developed as the biomedical materials. The effect of the Sn content on the microstructure and superelasticity of the alloys was investigated. It is found that Sn is a strong stabilizer of the β phase, which is effective in suppressing the formation of α″ and ω phases in the alloys. Moreover, the Sn addition has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the alloys. With the increase of Sn addition, the yield stress of the alloys increase, but their elastic modulus, the fracture strength and the ductility decrease, and the deformation mode of the alloys changes from (322) twining to α″ transformation and then to slip. The Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn and Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-3Sn alloys exhibit a good superelasticity with a high σ(SIM) due to the relatively high athermal ω phases containing or the solution hardening at room temperature. Under the maximum strain of 5%, Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-3Sn (at%) alloy exhibits higher super elastic stability than that of Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn alloy.

  6. Essential Structural Requirements and Additive Effects for Flavonoids to Scavenge Methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xi; Chen, Huadong; Zhu, Yingdong; Sedighi, Rashin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Sang, Shengmin

    2014-04-01

    Reactive dicarbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal (MGO), are considered as the major precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are believed to be one of the physiological causes of diabetes and its complications. Scavenging of reactive dicarbonyl species using naturally occurring flavonoids has been proposed as an effective way to prevent diabetic complications. To elucidate the structural requirements of flavonoids in scavenging MGO, seven flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, epicatechin, genistein, daidzein, apigenin, and phloretin) and five sub-components of the flavonoids (gallic acid, phloroglucinol, pyrogallol, pyrocatechol, and resorcinol) were examined in this study. Our results showed the following: (1) 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) has higher MGO scavenging activity than 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene and 1,2- and 1,3-dihydroxybenzene, and substitution at position 5 of pyrogallol diminished the scavenging activity, indicating that position 5 is the active site of pyrogallol; (2) the A ring is the active site of flavonoids in contributing the MGO-trapping efficacy, and the hydroxyl group at C-5 on the A ring enhances the trapping efficacy; (3) the double bond between C-2 and C-3 on the C ring could facilitate the trapping efficacy; and (4) the number of hydroxyl groups on the B ring does not significantly influence the trapping efficacy. In addition, we found there is an additive effect in MGO trapping by two common flavonoids, quercetin and phloretin, indicating that flavonoid-enriched foods and beverages hold great promise to prevent the development of diabetic complications.

  7. Effect of salts and organic additives on the solubility of proteins in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Ruckenstein, Eli; Shulgin, Ivan L

    2006-11-16

    The goal of this review is to examine the effect of salts and organic additives on the solubility of proteins in aqueous mixed solvents. The focus is on the correlation between the aqueous protein solubility and the osmotic second virial coefficient or the preferential binding parameter. First, several approaches which connect the solubility and the osmotic second virial coefficient are presented. Most of the experimental and theoretical results correlate the solubility and the osmotic second virial coefficient in the presence of salts. The correlation of the aqueous protein solubility with the osmotic second virial coefficient when the cosolvent is an organic component requires additional research. Second, the aqueous protein solubility is correlated with the preferential binding parameter on the basis of a theory developed by the authors of the present review. This theory can predict (i) the salting-in or -out effect of a cosolvent and (ii) the initial slope of the solubility curve. Good agreement was obtained between theoretical predictions and experimental results.

  8. Addition of sodium hyaluronate and the effect on performance of the injectable calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Kai, Dan; Li, Dongxiao; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2009-08-01

    An injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) with porous structure and excellent anti-washout ability was developed in the study. Citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were added into the CPC powder consisting of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) to form macro-pores, then different concentrations of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solution, as liquid phase, was added into the cement to investigate its effect on CPC's performance. The prepared CPCs were tested on workability (injectable time and setting time), mechanical strength, as well as anti-washout ability. The experimental results showed that addition of NaHA not only enhanced the anti-washout ability of the CPC dramatically but also improve its other properties. When NaHA concentration was 0.6 wt%, the injectable time elongated to 15.7 +/- 0.6 min, the initial and final setting times were respectively shorten to 18.3 +/- 1.2 and 58.7 +/- 2.1 min, and the compressive strength were increased to 18.78 +/- 1.83 MPa. On the other hand, Addition of NaHA showed little effect on porous structure of the CPC and enhanced its bioactivity obviously, which was confirmed by the apatite formation on its surface after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In conclusion, as an in situ shaped injectable biomaterials, the CPC with appropriate addition of NaHA would notably improve its performance and might be used in minimal invasive surgery for bone repair or reconstruction. PMID:19291369

  9. Possible effects of protracted exposure on the additivity of risks from space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional radiation risk assessments are presently based on the additivity assumption. This assumption states that risks from individual components of a complex radiation field involving many different types of radiation can be added to yield the total risk of the complex radiation field. If the assumption is not correct, the summations and integrations performed to obtain the presently quoted risk estimates are not appropriate. This problem is particularly important in the area of space radiation risk evaluation because of the many different types of high- and low-LET radiation present in the galactic cosmic ray environment. For both low- and high-LET radiations at low enough dose rates, the present convention is that the addivity assumption holds. Mathematically, the total risk, Rtot is assumed to be Rtot = summation (i) Ri where the summation runs over the different types of radiation present. If the total dose (or fluence) from each component is such that the interaction between biological lesions caused by separate single track traversals is negligible within a given cell, it is presently considered to be reasonable to accept the additivity assumption. However, when the exposure is protracted over many cell doubling times (as will be the case for extended missions to the moon or Mars), the possibility exists that radiation effects that depend on multiple cellular events over a long time period, such as is probably the case in radiation-induced carcinogenesis, may not be additive in the above sense and the exposure interval may have to be included in the evaluation procedure. It is shown, however, that "inverse" dose-rate effects are not expected from intermediate LET radiations arising from the galactic cosmic ray environment due to the "sensitive-window-in-the-cell-cycle" hypothesis.

  10. Additive and non-additive effects of simulated leaf and inflorescence damage on survival, growth and reproduction of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Adriana; Ågren, Jon

    2012-08-01

    Herbivores may damage both leaves and reproductive structures, and although such combined damage may affect plant fitness non-additively, this has received little attention. We conducted a 2-year field experiment with a factorial design to examine the effects of simulated leaf (0, 12.5, 25, or 50% of leaf area removed) and inflorescence damage (0 vs. 50% of inflorescences removed) on survival, growth and reproduction in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata. Leaf and inflorescence damage negatively and independently reduced flower, fruit and seed production in the year of damage; leaf damage also reduced rosette size by the end of the first season and flower production in the second year. Leaf damage alone reduced the proportion of flowers forming a fruit and fruit production per plant the second year, but when combined with inflorescence damage no such effect was observed (significant leaf × inflorescence damage interaction). Damage to leaves (sources) caused a greater reduction in future reproduction than did simultaneous damage to leaves and inflorescences (sinks). This demonstrates that a full understanding of the effects of herbivore damage on plant fitness requires that consequences of damage to vegetative and reproductive structures are evaluated over more than 1 year and that non-additive effects are considered.

  11. Additive and non-additive effects of simulated leaf and inflorescence damage on survival, growth and reproduction of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Adriana; Ågren, Jon

    2012-08-01

    Herbivores may damage both leaves and reproductive structures, and although such combined damage may affect plant fitness non-additively, this has received little attention. We conducted a 2-year field experiment with a factorial design to examine the effects of simulated leaf (0, 12.5, 25, or 50% of leaf area removed) and inflorescence damage (0 vs. 50% of inflorescences removed) on survival, growth and reproduction in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata. Leaf and inflorescence damage negatively and independently reduced flower, fruit and seed production in the year of damage; leaf damage also reduced rosette size by the end of the first season and flower production in the second year. Leaf damage alone reduced the proportion of flowers forming a fruit and fruit production per plant the second year, but when combined with inflorescence damage no such effect was observed (significant leaf × inflorescence damage interaction). Damage to leaves (sources) caused a greater reduction in future reproduction than did simultaneous damage to leaves and inflorescences (sinks). This demonstrates that a full understanding of the effects of herbivore damage on plant fitness requires that consequences of damage to vegetative and reproductive structures are evaluated over more than 1 year and that non-additive effects are considered. PMID:22349755

  12. The Effects of N Addition on the Belowground C Cycle in two Temperate Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowinski, N. S.; Trumbore, S.; Fernandez, I.; Magill, A.; Rustad, L.; Szillery, J.

    2004-12-01

    Human activities such as fossil fuel combustion, fertilizer-use, industrial ammonia and biomass burning have roughly doubled the amount of biologically active nitrogen entering ecosystems each year. N is essential for growth and is the limiting nutrient in many ecosystems. Additionally, N availability has been shown to affect plant, root and soil respiration. For several temperate forests, experimental addition of N is associated with a decline in soil CO2 efflux. This decline could be due to either (1) decreased allocation of C to root metabolism and growth because N demand of plants can be met with less energy expended belowground, or (2) decreased rates of organic matter supply or decomposition due to changes in leaf or root tissue chemistry, or to changes in the decomposer community. We use radiocarbon measurements in soil organic matter, heterotrophically respired CO2, and soil respiration to distinguish between these two hypotheses. Atmospheric 14C peaked in the 1960s due to atomic weapons testing and has subsequently been declining. Differences in 14C of soil organic matter and fine roots sampled in control versus N addition plots can be used to determine if turnover differs between these pools by treatment. In temperate forests heterotrophic respiration is distinguishable from autotrophic respiration by its 14C content, so radiocarbon measurements in respired CO2 can be used to estimate the contribution of root respiration to overall CO2 efflux We will report measurements made at two sites: (1) the Bear Brook watershed in eastern Maine, which consists of 2 10ha plots, a reference and another that receives 34 kg N ha-1 yr-1 with sections of hardwood and conifer stands in each plot, and (2) N amendment plots at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, which consist of 6 0.09ha plots, a control, a plot receiving 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and one receiving 150 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in both conifer and hardwood stands. Data on root and litter/soil C dynamics on a series

  13. Effect of Additives and pH on the Formation of Carbonate Mineral by CO2 Sequestration of Cement Paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hwang, J.; Lee, H.; Son, B. S.; Oh, J.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 in the atmosphere causes a global warming that is a big issue nowadays. Many studies of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technologies have been studied all over the world. Waste cement is a good source for aqueous carbonation because it is rich in calcium. Therefore, this study was performed to develop the aqueous carbonation method for waste cement powder. Cement paste was made with water/cement ratio of 6:4 and cured for 28 days in water bath. The cement paste was pulverized into a fine powder sizing less than 0.15 mm. To study effect of additives and pH on the formation of carbonate minerals, aqueous carbonation experiments were conducted. The mineral compositions and morphology of carbonate mineral were identified by XRD and SEM/EDS analysis. 1.0 M NaCl and 0.25 M MgCl2 were applied as additives. Aqueous carbonation experiment was conducted with injecting pure CO2 gas (99.9%) to a reactor containing 200 ㎖ of reacting solution. The pH of reacting solution was controled to determine formational condition of carbonate minerals. In 0.25 M MgCl2 solution, calcite was dominant mineral at high pH. More aragonite, however, formed as decreasing pH of solution with injection of CO2. The presence of Mg2+ in solution makes aragonite more dominant than calcite. Aragonite was mainly formed at the high pH of solution with 1.0 M NaCl additive, whereas calcite was more preponderant mineral than aragonite as falling pH. It show that unstable aragonite transformed to calcite as decreasing pH. In no additive solution, vaterite was dominantly formed at the initial stage of experiement, but unstable vaterite transformed to well crystallized calcite with further carbonation.

  14. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate. PMID:20852000

  15. Additive genetic and heterosis effects in crosses among cattle breeds of British, European and Zebu origin.

    PubMed

    Peacock, F M; Koger, M; Olson, T A; Crockett, J R

    1981-05-01

    Breed and heterosis effects for maternal and calf components for weaning traits were measured in the progeny of Angus (A), Brahman (B) and Charolais (C) sires mated to A, B, C and reciprocal AB, AC and BC dams. Additive breed effects for the calf component for weaning weight were -3.0 +/- 3.2, -26.6 +/- 3.1 and 29.6 +/- 3.3 kg for A, B and C, respectively. Corresponding maternal breed effects were -1.7 +/- 2.4, 7.8 +/- 2.3 and -6.1 +/- 2.6 kilograms. Heterosis effects on weaning weight for the calf component were 21.2 +/- 3.6 for AB, 1.4 +/- 3.7 for AC and 16.5 +/- 3.4 for BC crosses, while heterosis levels for the maternal component were 28.9 +/- 2.7 for AB, 16.5 +/- 3.2 for AC and 18.7 +/- 2.9 kg for BC dams. The corresponding estimates for condition scores tended to parallel those for weaning weight. Approximate relative production efficiency rates were computed for the different mating groups as (calf weight divided by cow weight) x weaning rate. These values were .34 for purebred matings, .36 for purebred dams raising F1 calves, .40 for F1 cows raising backcross calves and .43 for F1 dams raising three breed crossbred calves.

  16. A study of the effects of disk flexibility on the rotordynamics of the space shuttle main engine turbo-pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, George T.

    1989-01-01

    Rotor dynamical analyses are typically performed using rigid disk models. Studies of rotor models in which the effects of disk flexibility were included indicate that is may be an important effect for many systems. This issue is addressed with respect to the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure turbo-pumps. Finite element analyses have been performed for a simplified free-free flexible disk rotor model and the modes and frequencies compared to those of a rigid disk model. The simple model was then extended to a more sophisticated HPTOP rotor model and similar results were observed. Equations were developed that are suitable for modifying the current rotordynamical analysis program to account for disk flexibility. Some conclusions are drawn from the results of this work as to the importance of disk flexibility on the HPTOP rotordynamics and some recommendations are given for follow-up research in this area.

  17. Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

    2013-08-01

    We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day⁻¹) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg⁻¹ BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the athletes completed four 30-s upper-body Wingate tests, separated by 3 min. Blood lactate was determined at rest, immediately after and 5 min after the 4th exercise bout, with perceived exertion reported immediately after the 4th bout. BA and SB alone increased the total work done in +7 and 8 %, respectively. The co-ingestion resulted in an additive effect (+14 %, p < 0.05 vs. BA and SB alone). BA alone significantly improved mean power in the 2nd and 3rd bouts and tended to improve the 4th bout. SB alone significantly improved mean power in the 4th bout and tended to improve in the 2nd and 3rd bouts. BA+SB enhanced mean power in all four bouts. PL+PL did not elicit any alteration on mean and peak power. Post-exercise blood lactate increased with all treatments except with PL+PL. Only BA+SB resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.05). Chronic BA and SB supplementation alone equally enhanced high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in well-trained athletes. Combined BA and SB promoted a clear additive ergogenic effect.

  18. Effects of Coating Materials and Mineral Additives on Nitrate Reduction by Zerovalent Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Choi, H. J.; Park, M.

    2015-12-01

    In efforts to facilitate nitrate removal, a variety of coating materials and mineral additives were assessed for their effects on the nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron (ZVI). Coated ZVIs were prepared by reacting Fe particles with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and S(-II) solutions under anoxic conditions, with the resultant materials named Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe, and FeS/Fe, respectively. The mineral additives used, synthesized or purchased, included goethite, magnetite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Kinetic experiments were performed using air-tight serum vials containing 1.0 g Fe (uncoated or coated forms) in 15 mL of 100 mg NO3×N/L solutions with pH buffered at 7.0. To monitor the reaction progress, the solution phase was analyzed for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ on an ion chromatography, while the headspace was analyzed for H2, N2, and O2 on a gas chromatography. By uncoated Fe, ca. 60% of nitrate was reductively transformed for 3.6 h, with NH4+ being the predominant product. Compared with uncoated one, Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, and Cu/Fe showed faster removal rates of nitrate. The observed reactivity enhancement was thought to result from additional reduction of nitrate by H atoms adsorbed on the surface of Cr, Co, or Cu metal. In contrast, both Ni/Fe and FeS/Fe showed slower removal of nitrate than uncoated Fe. In both cases, the coating, which highly disfavors the adsorption of nitrate, would form on the Fe surface. When goethite, HFO, and magnetite were amended, the nitrate reduction by Fe was significantly increased, with the effect being most evident with HFO. Although not capable of reducing nitrate, the mineral additives would serve as crystal nuclei for the corrosion products of Fe, thus making the development of passivation layers on the Fe surface less. In the future, we will perform a kinetic modeling of the experimental data to assess the relative contribution of multiple reaction paths in the nitrate reduction by Fe.

  19. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  20. Effect of tungsten, molybdenum and silicon additions on the creep resistance of a gamma titanium aluminide alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, D.Y.; Bieler, T.R.; An, S.U.; Larsen, D.E.; Bhowal, P.; Merrick, H.

    1995-12-31

    Alloy development programs involving gamma titanium aluminide alloys have mainly focused on increasing room temperature ductility, but this has been achieved at the expense of creep properties. Since recent engine tests have been successful with materials having a ductility of about 1.5%, this study focuses on the effects of W, Mo and Si additions. The creep rate is reduced by a factor of 30 at 760 C (1,400 F). Microstructure studies described below show that 0.2--2 {micro}m precipitates form during primary creep deformation and these precipitates interfere with dislocation mobility. These precipitates contain higher concentrations of W and Mo than found in the matrix, but they have a crystal structure that correlates with the Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} crystal structure. In addition, a substantial fraction of initial creep strain is accommodated by formation of mechanical twins parallel to lamellar planes that refine the lamellar spacing, and these also initiate mechanical twinning in the equiaxed grains.

  1. Effects of h-BN addition on microstructures and mechanical properties of β-CaSiO3 bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Yao, Dongxu; Zuo, Kaihui; Xia, Yongfeng; Yin, Jinwei; Liang, Hanqin; Zeng, Yuping

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study consists in investigating the effects of h-BN addition on the sinterability of β-CaSiO3 (β-CS) bioceramics. β-CS bioceramics with different contents of h-BN were prepared at the sintering temperature ranging from 800°C to 1100°C. The results showed that h-BN can be successfully used as sintering additive by being oxidized to form low melting point B2O3 related glassy phase and enhanced the flexural strength by the formation of rod-like β-CS grains. β-CS bioceramics with 1wt% h-BN sintered at 1000°C revealed flexural strength and fracture toughness of 182.2MPa and 2.4MPam(1/2) respectively, which were much higher than that of pure β-CS bioceramics (30.2MPa, 0.53MPam(1/2)) fabricated in the same processing condition. PMID:27227289

  2. Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Selmanović, Aleksandar; Milanović, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools.

  3. Effect of an additional atropine injection during dobutamine infusion for myocardial SPET.

    PubMed

    Caner, B; Karanfil, A; Uysal, U; Tokgozoglu, L; Aksoyek, S; Ugur, O; Ciftci, I; Atalar, E; Kes, S; Bekdik, C

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the value of an additional atropine injection in patients who do not achieve an adequate heart rate during dobutamine infusion for myocardial perfusion SPET (single photon emission tomography). Patients undergoing dobutamine myocardial SPET who failed to achieve > or = 85% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate at the end of dobutamine infusion (D protocol) had a second dobutamine myocardial SPET study on a separate day with the addition of an atropine injection during the dobutamine infusion (D + A protocol). Twenty-nine patients were studied. 201Tl was used in 27 patients and 99Tc(m)-MIBI in two patients. All patients underwent coronary angiography and significant coronary artery disease was found in 19 of 29 patients. The mean heart rate obtained at the peak of dobutamine infusion in the D + A protocol was significantly higher than that in the D protocol (153.8 +/- 13.8 vs 117.5 +/- 15.3 beats min[-1]). The D + A protocol resulted in a higher diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of stenosed coronaries compared with the D protocol (87 vs 80%, P > 0.05) without changing the specificity (89% for both protocols). On the other hand, the frequency of side-effects and ECG changes during the D + A protocol was higher than that with the D protocol (32 vs 47). In conclusion, the addition of an atropine injection during dobutamine infusion resulted in a higher diagnostic sensitivity for identifying stenosed coronaries compared to dobutamine alone.

  4. The Effect of Cerium Oxide Addition on the Properties and Behavior of Y-TZP

    PubMed Central

    Ragurajan, D.; Satgunam, M.; Golieskardi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of CeO2 addition on the sintering behavior and mechanical properties of Y-TZP have been investigated over a wide sintering regime by pressureless sintering. It has been revealed that small additions of CeO2 (0.3–1.0 wt%) to Y-TZP were beneficial in enhancing the mechanical properties and hydrothermal ageing resistance of Y-TZP. Sintered samples were used to evaluate the bulk density, Vickers's hardness, Young's modulus, and fracture toughness of the material. CeO2 doped Y-TZPs were sintered at relatively low temperatures (1250°C and 1350°C) retaining high bulk density (>97% of theoretical density) and high Young's modulus (>200 GPa) without sacrificing tetragonal phase stability. The optimum level of dopant was found to be at 0.5 wt% for sintering between 1250°C and 1450°C using the standard 2 h holding time cycle, with sintered body exhibiting excellent combination of properties when compared to the undoped ceramics. In this experiment, the addition of 0.5 wt% recorded a bulk density reading of 5.9 g/cm3, Vickers hardness value of 13.2 GPa, Young's modulus value of 211 GPa, and fracture toughness of 6.4 MPam1/2, respectively, in a temperature range of 1400–1450°C. PMID:27437471

  5. Effect of ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel colorant additives and acrylamide formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxing; Gu, Zhengbiao

    2014-09-01

    Ammonia caramels are among the most widely used colorant additives in the food industry. They are commonly prepared through the Maillard reaction and caramelization of mixtures of reducing sugars with ammonia or ammonium salts. Antioxidants are known to inhibit acrylamide formation during the Maillard reaction, and they may affect the properties of the ammonia caramel products. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel. A mixture of glucose and ammonia was allowed to react at 120 °C for 60 min in the presence of ascorbic acid at final concentrations of 0 to 0.08 M. The ammonia caramels obtained from these reactions were all positively charged. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased, the color intensity of the ammonia caramel showed a decreasing trend, while the intensity of the fluorescence and total amount of pyrazines in the volatiles showed a tendency to increase. The addition of ascorbic acid did not result in obvious changes in the UV-visible spectra of the ammonia caramels and the types of pyrazines in the volatiles were also unchanged. It is noteworthy that the addition of 0.02 to 0.08 M ascorbic acid did reduce the formation of the by-product acrylamide, a harmful substance in food. When the concentration of ascorbic acid added reached 0.04 M, the content of acrylamide in the ammonia caramel was 20.53 μg/L, which was approximately 44% lower than that without ascorbic acid. As a result, ascorbic acid can be considered to improve the quality and safety of ammonia caramels.

  6. Additive effect of combined application of magnesium and MK-801 on analgesic action of morphine.

    PubMed

    Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Duda, Kamila

    2014-01-01

    As previously reported, magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) administered in relatively low doses markedly potentiated opioid analgesia in neuropathic pain, in which the effectiveness of opioids is limited. Considering that Mg(2+) behaves like an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, the effect of this ion on the analgesic action of morphine was compared with that of MK-801. Acute pain was evoked by mechanical or thermal stimuli, whereas neuropathic hyperalgesia was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) administration. Magnesium sulphate (40 mg/kg i.p.) or MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg s.c.) administered alone did not modify the nociceptive threshold to acute stimuli or the streptozotocin hyperalgesia but significantly augmented the analgesic action of morphine (5 mg/kg i.p.). Furthermore, if these drugs (i.e. magnesium sulphate and MK-801) were applied concomitantly, a clear additive effect on the analgesic action of morphine occurred in both models of pain. Possible explanations of these observations are discussed. PMID:24577345

  7. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  8. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, A.S.K.

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  9. Effect of crystals and fibrous network polymer additives on cellular morphology of microcellular foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ryoma; Utano, Tatsumi; Yasuhara, Shunya; Ishihara, Shota; Ohshima, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the core-back foam injection molding was used for preparing microcelluar polypropylene (PP) foam with either a 1,3:2,4 bis-O-(4-methylbenzylidene)-D-sorbitol gelling agent (Gel-all MD) or a fibros network polymer additive (Metablen 3000). Both agent and addiive could effectively control the celluar morphology in foams but somehow different ways. In course of cooling the polymer with Gel-all MD in the mold caity, the agent enhanced the crystal nucleation and resulted in the large number of small crystals. The crystals acted as effective bubble nucleation agent in foaming process. Thus, the agent reduced the cell size and increased the cell density, drastically. Furthermore, the small crystals provided an inhomogenuity to the expanding cell wall and produced the high open cell content with nano-scale fibril structure. Gell-all as well as Metablene 3000 formed a gel-like fibrous network in melt. The network increased the elongational viscosity and tended to prevent the cell wall from breaking up. The foaming temperature window was widened by the presence of the network. Especially, the temperature window where the macro-fibrous structure was formed was expanded to the higher temperature. The effects of crystal nucleating agent and PTFE on crystals' size and number, viscoelsticity, rheological propreties of PP and cellular morphology were compared and thorougly investigated.

  10. Effects of Surface Modification Conditions on Hydrophobicity of Silica-based Coating Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Beth L; Pawel, Steven J; Hunter, Scott Robert; Haynes, James A; Hillesheim, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Superhydrophobic silica (SHS) powders are being evaluated as a potential additive to the polyurethane topcoats used in Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) systems, with the goal of improving water repellency and corrosion protection characteristics. The current generation of CARC topcoats is already highly loaded with solids, and thus there is a premium on minimization of the total SHS powder required to achieve the desired properties. Therefore, efficient surface modification of the silica and proper dispersion in the coating will be required. The effect of a dispersant on the surface modification of silica particles by chlorosilanes was addressed in this study. The properties of various SHS powders were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and mass spectroscopy. Correlations between powder modification conditions and the ultimate effects of the modified particles on hydrophobicity of CARC topcoats were assessed. The use of contact and rolling angle measurements along with scanning electron microscopy are discussed as they pertain to the ability to quantify the effects of modified silicas on corrosion prevention coatings. Furthermore, a systematic approach to modifying and testing both powders and top coats of corrosion prevention systems is presented.

  11. Effect of SPL (Spent Pot Liner) and its main components on root growth, mitotic activity and phosphorylation of Histone H3 in Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Aline Silva; Fontes Cunha, Isabela Martinez; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2016-02-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste from the aluminum industry frequently disposed of in industrial landfills; it can be leached and contaminate the soil, sources of drinking water and plantations, and thus may pose a risk to human health and to ecosystems. Its composition is high variable, including cyanide, fluoride and aluminum salts, which are highly toxic and environmental pollutants. This study evaluated the effect of SPL and its main components on root growth and the mitosis of Lactuca sativa, by investigating the mechanisms of cellular and chromosomal alterations with the aid of immunolocalization. To this end, newly emerged roots of L. sativa were exposed to SPL and its main components (solutions of cyanide, fluoride and aluminum) and to calcium chloride (control) for 48h. After this, root length was measured and cell cycle was examined by means of conventional cytogenetics and immunolocalization. Root growth was inhibited in the treatments with SPL and aluminum; chromosomal and nuclear alterations were observed in all treatments. The immunolocalization evidenced normal dividing cells with regular temporal and spatial distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10ph). However, SPL and its main components inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, inactivated pericentromeric regions and affected the cohesion of sister chromatids, thus affecting the arrangement of chromosomes in the metaphase plate and separation of chromatids in anaphase. In addition, these substances induced breaks in pericentromeric regions, characterized as fragile sites. PMID:26615478

  12. Effect of SPL (Spent Pot Liner) and its main components on root growth, mitotic activity and phosphorylation of Histone H3 in Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Aline Silva; Fontes Cunha, Isabela Martinez; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2016-02-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste from the aluminum industry frequently disposed of in industrial landfills; it can be leached and contaminate the soil, sources of drinking water and plantations, and thus may pose a risk to human health and to ecosystems. Its composition is high variable, including cyanide, fluoride and aluminum salts, which are highly toxic and environmental pollutants. This study evaluated the effect of SPL and its main components on root growth and the mitosis of Lactuca sativa, by investigating the mechanisms of cellular and chromosomal alterations with the aid of immunolocalization. To this end, newly emerged roots of L. sativa were exposed to SPL and its main components (solutions of cyanide, fluoride and aluminum) and to calcium chloride (control) for 48h. After this, root length was measured and cell cycle was examined by means of conventional cytogenetics and immunolocalization. Root growth was inhibited in the treatments with SPL and aluminum; chromosomal and nuclear alterations were observed in all treatments. The immunolocalization evidenced normal dividing cells with regular temporal and spatial distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10ph). However, SPL and its main components inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, inactivated pericentromeric regions and affected the cohesion of sister chromatids, thus affecting the arrangement of chromosomes in the metaphase plate and separation of chromatids in anaphase. In addition, these substances induced breaks in pericentromeric regions, characterized as fragile sites.

  13. Effect of reduction of strategic Columbium addition in 718 Alloy on the structure and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, K. R.; Wallace, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A series of alloys was developed having a base composition similar to Inconel 718, with reduced Cb levels of 3.00 and 1.10 wt% Cb. Substitutions of 3.0% W, 3.0W + 0.9V or Mo increased from 3.0% to 5.8% were made for the Cb in these alloys. Two additional alloys, one containing 3.49% Cb and 1.10% Ti and another containing 3.89% Cb and 1.29% Ti were also studied. Tensile properties at rooom and elevated temperatures, stress-rupture tests, and an analysis of extracted phases were carried out for each of the alloys. Additions of solid solution elements to a reduced Cb alloy had no significant effect on the properties of the alloys under either process condition. The solution and age alloys with substitutions of 1.27% i at 3.89% Cb had tensile properties similar top hose of the original alloy and stress-rupture properties superior to the original alloy. The improved stress-rupture properties were the result of significant precipitation of Ni3Ti-gamma prime in the alloy, which is more stable than gamma' at the elevated temperatures. At lower temperatures, the new alloy benefits from gamma' strengthening. With more precise control and proper processing, the reduced Cb direct-age alloy could substitute for Alloy 718 in high strength applications.

  14. Effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Qiu, S; Huang, T; Huang, Z; Xu, L; Wu, C; Gelbic, I; Guan, X

    2013-06-01

    To examine the effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) against Plutella xylostella (L.), inorganic salts, nitrogenous compounds, protein solubilizing agents, and organic acids were selected and tested. The chosen materials are low in cost and environmentally safe. Results show that many inorganic salts can increase the activity of B. thuringiensis in a range of 1.31- to 3.08-fold. These include calcium acetate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium acetate, potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium acetate, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, and zinc sulfate. Nitrogenous compounds, including peptone, sodium nitrate, and ammonium nitrate, can enhance the activity of B. thuringiensis 1.62-, 1.32-, and 1.37-fold, respectively. Among the protein solubilizing agents, EDTA, urea, mercaptoethanol and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate increased the activity of B. thuringiensis 1.62- to 2.34-fold. Among the organic acids, maleic and citric acids boosted the activity 1.45- and 1.55-fold, respectively. Meanwhile, sodium benzoate and resorcinol led to 1.74- and 1.44-fold activity gains, respectively. Use of appropriate additives could provide great benefit not only in reducing the costs for field applications of biological insecticides but also by boosting the efficacy of B. thuringiensis. PMID:23865169

  15. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  16. Effect of Graphene Addition on Shape Memory Behavior of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Tiffany; Meador, Michael; Miller, Sandi; Scheiman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) and composites are a special class of smart materials known for their ability to change size and shape upon exposure to an external stimulus (e.g. light, heat, pH, or magnetic field). These materials are commonly used for biomedical applications; however, recent attempts have been made towards developing SMPs and composites for use in aircraft and space applications. Implementing SMPs and composites to create a shape change effect in some aircraft structures could potentially reduce drag, decrease fuel consumption, and improve engine performance. This paper discusses the development of suitable materials to use in morphing aircraft structures. Thermally responsive epoxy SMPs and nanocomposites were developed and the shape memory behavior and thermo-mechanical properties were studied. Overall, preliminary results from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that thermally actuated shape memory epoxies and nanocomposites possessed Tgs near approximately 168 C. When graphene nanofiller was added, the storage modulus and crosslinking density decreased. On the other hand, the addition of graphene enhanced the recovery behavior of the shape memory nanocomposites. It was assumed that the addition of graphene improved shape memory recovery by reducing the crosslinking density and increasing the elasticity of the nanocomposites.

  17. LOX/GOX sensitivity of fluoroelastomers. [effect of formulation components and addition of fire retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirshen, N.; Mill, T.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of formulation components and the addition of fire retardants on the impact sensitivity of Viton B fluoroelastomer in liquid oxygen was studied with the objective of developing a procedure for reliably reducing this sensitivity. Component evaluation, carried out on more than 40 combinations of components and cure cycles, showed that almost all the standard formulation agents, including carbon, MgO, Diak-3, and PbO2, will sensitize the Viton stock either singly or in combinations, some combinations being much more sensitive than others. Cure and postcure treatments usually reduced the sensitivity of a given formulation, often dramatically, but no formulated Viton was as insensitive as the pure Viton B stock. Coating formulated Viton with a thin layer of pure Viton gave some indication of reduced sensitivity, but additional tests are needed. It is concluded that sensitivity in formulated Viton arises from a variety of sources, some physical and some chemical in origin. Elemental analyses for all the formulated Vitons are reported as are the results of a literature search on the subject of LOX impact sensitivity.

  18. Effects of gallia addition on sintering behavior and electrical conductivity of yttria-doped ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seung-Woo; Park, Ji-Hoon; Park, Min-Woo; Koo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Tae; Lee, Joo-Sin

    2014-07-01

    The densification behavior and electrical conductivity of Ce0.8Y0.2O1.9 ceramics with gallia concentrations ranging from 0 to 5 mol. % were investigated. The sintered density was found to increase with increasing Ga2O3 content up to 1 mol. % and then to decrease upon further Ga2O3 addition. Dense Ce0.8Y0.2O1.9 ceramics with 94% of the theoretical density could be obtained by sintering the milled mixture with 1 mol. % Ga2O3 addition at 1400°C for 5 h. The conductivity of the 1 mol. % Ga2O3-added specimen showed a maximum value of 1.37 × 10-2 Ω-1· cm-1 at 700°C. Pure Ce0.8Y0.2O1.9 ceramics needed to be sintered at 1550°C in order to obtain an equivalent theoretical density and conductivity. The introduction of Ga2O3 doping had a good effect on the sintering properties and electrical conductivities of Y2O3-doped CeO2.

  19. Non-Additive Effects of Genotypic Diversity Increase Floral Abundance and Abundance of Floral Visitors

    PubMed Central

    Genung, Mark A.; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Claire B.; Bunn, Windy A.; Cregger, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Wm. Nicholas; Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Stevenson, Mary L.; Hartley, Amanda S.; Crutsinger, Gregory M.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot) of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1) plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2) plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. Conclusions/Significance These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:20090850

  20. Effect of the addition of rice straw on microbial community in a sewage sludge digester.

    PubMed

    Nakakihara, E; Ikemoto-Yamamoto, R; Honda, R; Ohtsuki, S; Takano, M; Suetsugu, Y; Watanabe, H

    2014-01-01

    Rice straw was added to a sewage sludge digester and its effects on methane production, dewatering characteristics, and microbial communities in the digested sludge were examined by a continuous digestion experiment under mesophilic conditions (35 °C). Stable gas generation was monitored in all digestion experiments. Methane yield from raw sludge, chopped rice straw and softened rice straw were estimated to be 0.27, 0.18 and 0.26 NL/g total solids load, respectively. The capillary suction time of digested sludge was decreased by the addition of rice straw. Archaeal and bacterial communities in the sludge were elucidated by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) targeting 16S rRNA genes. The Shannon index of DGGE profiles indicated that bacterial diversity increased with the addition of softened rice straw. DNA sequences of significant bands of the digested sludge were most closely related to Methanosaeta concilii (97.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (100% identity). Meanwhile, those in the co-digested sludge with rice straw were most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri (98.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (99.3% identity). Although both Methanosaeta spp. and Methanosarcina spp. metabolize acetate to methane, Methanosarcina spp. have a competitive advantage at acetate concentrations of >70 mg/L. Results suggested that the quantity of acetate produced during rice straw degradation may change the archaeal community. PMID:25225928

  1. Effects of Increased Summer Precipitation and Nitrogen Addition on Root Decomposition in a Temperate Desert

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongmei; Huang, Gang; Li, Yan; Ma, Jian; Sheng, Jiandong; Jia, Hongtao; Li, Congjuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Climate change scenarios that include precipitation shifts and nitrogen (N) deposition are impacting carbon (C) budgets in arid ecosystems. Roots constitute an important part of the C cycle, but it is still unclear which factors control root mass loss and nutrient release in arid lands. Methodology/Principal Findings Litterbags were used to investigate the decomposition rate and nutrient dynamics in root litter with water and N-addition treatments in the Gurbantunggut Desert in China. Water and N addition had no significant effect on root mass loss and the N and phosphorus content of litter residue. The loss of root litter and nutrient releases were strongly controlled by the initial lignin content and the lignin:N ratio, as evidenced by the negative correlations between decomposition rate and litter lignin content and the lignin:N ratio. Fine roots of Seriphidium santolinum (with higher initial lignin content) had a slower decomposition rate in comparison to coarse roots. Conclusion/Significance Results from this study indicate that small and temporary changes in rainfall and N deposition do not affect root decomposition patterns in the Gurbantunggut Desert. Root decomposition rates were significantly different between species, and also between fine and coarse roots, and were determined by carbon components, especially lignin content, suggesting that root litter quality may be the primary driver of belowground carbon turnover. PMID:26544050

  2. Effects of ZnO nanoparticulate addition on the properties of PMNT ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to study the effect of ZnO nanoparticulate addition on the properties of 0.9 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.1PbTiO3 [PMNT] ceramics. The PMNT ceramics were prepared by a solid-state reaction. The ZnO nanoparticles were added into PMNT ceramics to form PMNT/xZnO (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.%). The PMNT/xZnO ceramics were investigated in terms of phase, microstructure, and mechanical and electrical properties. It was found that the density and grain size of PMNT ceramics tended to increase with an increasing amount of ZnO content. Moreover, a transgranular fracture was observed for the samples containing ZnO, while pure PMNT ceramics showed only a intergranular fracture. An addition of only 0.05 wt.% of ZnO was also found to enhance the hardness and dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the PMNT ceramics. PMID:22222049

  3. In vitro additive effect of imipenem combined with vancomycin against multiple-drug resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Traub, W H; Spohr, M; Bauer, D

    1986-09-01

    Imipenem combined with vancomycin resulted in a marked additive effect in vitro against 9 clinical isolates of multiple-drug resistant (MDR), coagulase-negative staphylococci, including strains resistant against imipenem. The additive effect was documented with the aid of checkerboard MIC determinations and with time kill curve experiments. In contrast, imipenem combined with vancomycin merely yielded weak additive or indifferent effects against 10 MDR isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, all of which were susceptible to imipenem.

  4. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects.

  5. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy losses in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-28

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. We found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  6. Effect of yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS RAF steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M. A.; de Castro, V.; Leguey, T.; Tarcísio-Costa, J.; Monge, M. A.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2014-12-01

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with nominal composition Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti-0.24Y (wt.%) was produced by mechanical alloying using elemental powders, and subsequent hot isostatic pressing. The microstructure of the material and characteristics of the oxide particle dispersion were investigated by electron microscopy. The effect of heat treatments on the microhardness and tensile properties at room temperature was also studied. The results show that a fine dispersion of Y-O-rich nanoparticles is achieved, together with larger (Cr, Ti)-rich precipitates. The absence of Ti is apparent in the majority of these nanoparticles, in contrast with reported results for ODS Ti-modified steels processed with Y2O3 addition.

  7. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception.

  8. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a frictionmore » term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.« less

  9. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  10. Effect of the addition of CMC on the aggregation behaviour of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Sabato, S. F.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2004-09-01

    The effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the aggregation of formulation based on calcium caseinate, commercial whey protein (WPC), and a 1:1 mixture of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. Protein aggregation could be observed upon addition of CMC, as demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. This aggregation behaviour was enhanced by means of physical treatments, such as heating at 90°C for 30 min or gamma-irradiation at 32 kGy. A synergy resulted from the combination of CMC to gamma-irradiation in Caseinate/CMC and SPI/WPI/CMC formulations. Furthermore, CMC prevented precipitation in irradiated protein solutions for a period of more than 3 months at 4°C.

  11. The R-curve response of ceramics with microscopic reinforcements: Reinforcement and additive effects

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, P.F.; Sun, E.Y.; Plucknett, K,P.; Hsueh, C.H.

    1996-05-01

    Using direct observations with the scanning electron and optical microscopes, simultaneous measurements of fracture resistance versus crack length (R-curve behavior) and crack interactions with microstructural features at the crack tip and in its wake were made. Selecting whisker-reinforced aluminas and self-reinforced silicon nitrides, one can examine the effects of systematic modifications of microstructure and composition on the R-curve response and the mechanisms giving rise to it. Specifically, increases in whisker content and size can increase the R-Curve response, even for short crack lengths. In the self-reinforced silicon nitrides, changes in alumina: yttria additive ratios also modify the R-curve. Modeling of the R-curve response allows one to verify toughening mechanisms and, with experimental studies, to optimize the R-curve behavior in ceramics containing microscopic reinforcements, e.g., whiskers and elongated grain structures.

  12. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception. PMID:25912870

  13. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  14. Effect of sulfur additions on soil and the nutrition of wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, R.J.; Maples, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to determine the effects of four sulfur (S) sources applied at various rates on the elemental composition of Coker 747/sup 3/ wheat and on the soil S concentration. The concentration of S in plants increased by all sources of applied S. Increased S in the soil from S application decreased P concentrations in plants regardless of the S source used. Sulfur additions did not significantly affect the concentrations of Cu, Ca, Mg, or N in plants. The concentrations of Mn, Zn, and Fe in plants either increased or decreased depending on S source used. Analysis of the silt loam soil to a depth of 90 cm revealed that applied S moved readily from the surface to the lower depths and that the elemental form of S moved less rapidly than the more soluble forms of applied S.

  15. Additive Effect of Neutralizing Antibody and Antiviral Drug Treatment in Preventing Virus Escape and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Peter; Senn, Beatrice M.; Klenerman, Paul; Kalinke, Ulrich; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2000-01-01

    Poorly cytopathic or noncytopathic viruses can escape immune surveillance and establish a chronic infection. Here we exploited the strategy of combining antiviral drug treatment with the induction of a neutralizing antibody response to avoid the appearance of neutralization-resistant virus variants. Despite the fact that H25 immunoglobulin transgenic mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus mounted an early neutralizing antibody response, the virus escaped from neutralization and persisted. After ribavirin treatment of H25 transgenic mice, the appearance of neutralization-resistant virus was prevented and virus was cleared. Thus, the combination of virus-neutralizing antibodies and chemotherapy efficiently controlled the infection, whereas each defense line alone did not. Similar additive effects may be unexpectedly efficient and beneficial in humans after infections with persistent viruses such as hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and possibly human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:10846070

  16. Effects of silicon, carbon and molybdenum additions on IASCC of neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, J.; Miwa, Y.; Kohya, T.; Tsukada, T.

    2004-08-01

    To study the effects of minor elements on irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), high purity type 304 and 316 stainless steels (SSs) were fabricated and minor elements, Si or C were added. After neutron irradiation to 3.5 × 10 25 n/m 2 ( E>1 MeV), slow strain rate tests (SSRTs) of irradiated specimens were conducted in oxygenated high purity water at 561 K. Specimen fractured surfaces were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the SSRTs. The fraction of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) on the fractured surface after the SSRTs increased with neutron fluence. In high purity SS with added C, the fraction of IGSCC was the smallest in the all SSs, although irradiation hardening level was the largest of all the SSs. Addition of C suppressed the susceptibility to IGSCC.

  17. Effect of alcohol addition on shock-initiated formation of soot from benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, Michael; Yuan, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Soot formation in benzene-methanol and benzene-ethanol argon-diluted mixtures was studied behind reflected shock waves by monitoring the attenuation of an He-Ne laser beam. The experiments were performed at temperatures 1580-2250 K, pressures 2.0-3.0 bar, and total carbon atom concentrations (2.0-2.7) x 10 to the 17th atoms/cu cm. The results obtained indicate that the addition of alcohol suppresses the formation of soot from benzene at all temperatures, and that the reduction in soot yields is increased with the amount of alcohol added. The analysis of the results indicates that the suppression effect is probably due to the oxidation of soot and soot precursors by OH and the removal of hydrogen atoms by alcohol and water molecules.

  18. Sulphur diffusion in β-NiAl and effect of Pt additive: an ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuiying

    2016-02-01

    Diffusivities of detrimental impurity sulfur (S) in stoichiometric and Pt doped β-NiAl were evaluated using density functional theory calculations. The apparent activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of diffusivity via the next nearest neighbour (NNN) and interstitial jumps were evaluated to identify possible preferred diffusion mechanism(s). By calculating the electron localization function (ELF), the bonding characteristics of S with its surrounding atoms were assessed for the diffusion process. By comparison with the experimental results, the S diffusion through the NNN vacancy-mediated mechanism is found to be favoured. Addition of Pt in β-NiAl was found to significantly reduce the S diffusivity, and an associated electronic effect was explored. The elucidation of the above mechanisms may shed light on the development of new Pt-modified doped β-NiAl bond coats that can extend the life of oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings.

  19. Effect of Addition of Mill Scale on Sintering of Iron Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Pinson, David; Chew, Sheng; Monaghan, Brian J.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Webster, Nathan A. S.; Rogers, Harold; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    Iron-rich (65 to 70 pct total Fe) mill scale generated during processing by steel mills can be recycled by using it as a ferrous raw material in the sintering process. The effect of mill scale addition on the phase formation of sintered specimens from an industrial sinter blend containing 0 to 15 wt pct mill scale was examined, and the mineral phases formed during sintering under various conditions ( T = 1523 K to 1598 K [1250 °C to 1325 °C] and gas compositions of pO2 = 0.5, 5 and 21 kPa) were quantitatively measured. For samples sintered in air (pO2 = 21 kPa), there was negligible effect of mill scale addition on the phases formed. The oxidation of the mill scale was complete, and phases such as Silico-Ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA), SFCA-I, and hematite dominated. Under lower oxygen partial pressures (pO2 = 0.5 or 5 kPa), and throughout the temperature range examined, the mill scale was converted to magnetite, with the extent of reaction controlled by the hematite-magnetite conversion kinetics. When sintered in the gas mixture with pO2 = 5 kPa, an increase in the mill scale content from 0 to 15 wt pct resulted in a decrease of hematite and total SFCA phases and a corresponding increase in the amount of magnetite which formed. The oxidation of wustite in mill scale to magnetite decreased the local partial pressure of O2 and increased sintering temperature, which promoted the decomposition of hematite.

  20. Effect of Addition of Mill Scale on Sintering of Iron Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Pinson, David; Chew, Sheng; Monaghan, Brian J.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Webster, Nathan A. S.; Rogers, Harold; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-06-01

    Iron-rich (65 to 70 pct total Fe) mill scale generated during processing by steel mills can be recycled by using it as a ferrous raw material in the sintering process. The effect of mill scale addition on the phase formation of sintered specimens from an industrial sinter blend containing 0 to 15 wt pct mill scale was examined, and the mineral phases formed during sintering under various conditions (T = 1523 K to 1598 K [1250 °C to 1325 °C] and gas compositions of pO2 = 0.5, 5 and 21 kPa) were quantitatively measured. For samples sintered in air (pO2 = 21 kPa), there was negligible effect of mill scale addition on the phases formed. The oxidation of the mill scale was complete, and phases such as Silico-Ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA), SFCA-I, and hematite dominated. Under lower oxygen partial pressures (pO2 = 0.5 or 5 kPa), and throughout the temperature range examined, the mill scale was converted to magnetite, with the extent of reaction controlled by the hematite-magnetite conversion kinetics. When sintered in the gas mixture with pO2 = 5 kPa, an increase in the mill scale content from 0 to 15 wt pct resulted in a decrease of hematite and total SFCA phases and a corresponding increase in the amount of magnetite which formed. The oxidation of wustite in mill scale to magnetite decreased the local partial pressure of O2 and increased sintering temperature, which promoted the decomposition of hematite.