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Sample records for additive noise model

  1. A Study of Additive Noise Model for Robust Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awatade, Manisha H.

    2011-12-01

    A model of how speech amplitude spectra are affected by additive noise is studied. Acoustic features are extracted based on the noise robust parts of speech spectra without losing discriminative information. An existing two non-linear processing methods, harmonic demodulation and spectral peak-to-valley ratio locking, are designed to minimize mismatch between clean and noisy speech features. Previously studied methods, including peak isolation [1], do not require noise estimation and are effective in dealing with both stationary and non-stationary noise.

  2. Stochastic resonance in a piecewise nonlinear model driven by multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and additive white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yongfeng; Shen, Yajun; Tan, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a piecewise nonlinear model driven by a periodic signal and correlated noises for the cases of a multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and an additive Gaussian white noise is investigated. Applying the path integral approach, the unified colored noise approximation and the two-state model theory, the analytical expression of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived. It is found that conventional stochastic resonance exists in this system. From numerical computations we obtain that: (i) As a function of the non-Gaussian noise intensity, the SNR is increased when the non-Gaussian noise deviation parameter q is increased. (ii) As a function of the Gaussian noise intensity, the SNR is decreased when q is increased. This demonstrates that the effect of the non-Gaussian noise on SNR is different from that of the Gaussian noise in this system. Moreover, we further discuss the effect of the correlation time of the non-Gaussian noise, cross-correlation strength, the amplitude and frequency of the periodic signal on SR.

  3. Spectral models of additive and modulation noise in speech and phonatory excitation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoentgen, Jean

    2003-01-01

    The article presents spectral models of additive and modulation noise in speech. The purpose is to learn about the causes of noise in the spectra of normal and disordered voices and to gauge whether the spectral properties of the perturbations of the phonatory excitation signal can be inferred from the spectral properties of the speech signal. The approach to modeling consists of deducing the Fourier series of the perturbed speech, assuming that the Fourier series of the noise and of the clean monocycle-periodic excitation are known. The models explain published data, take into account the effects of supraglottal tremor, demonstrate the modulation distortion owing to vocal tract filtering, establish conditions under which noise cues of different speech signals may be compared, and predict the impossibility of inferring the spectral properties of the frequency modulating noise from the spectral properties of the frequency modulation noise (e.g., phonatory jitter and frequency tremor). The general conclusion is that only phonatory frequency modulation noise is spectrally relevant. Other types of noise in speech are either epiphenomenal, or their spectral effects are masked by the spectral effects of frequency modulation noise.

  4. NB-PLC channel modelling with cyclostationary noise addition & OFDM implementation for smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Togis; Gupta, K. K.

    2016-03-01

    Power line communication (PLC) technology can be a viable solution for the future ubiquitous networks because it provides a cheaper alternative to other wired technology currently being used for communication. In smart grid Power Line Communication (PLC) is used to support communication with low rate on low voltage (LV) distribution network. In this paper, we propose the channel modelling of narrowband (NB) PLC in the frequency range 5 KHz to 500 KHz by using ABCD parameter with cyclostationary noise addition. Behaviour of the channel was studied by the addition of 11KV/230V transformer, by varying load location and load. Bit error rate (BER) Vs signal to noise ratio SNR) was plotted for the proposed model by employing OFDM. Our simulation results based on the proposed channel model show an acceptable performance in terms of bit error rate versus signal to noise ratio, which enables communication required for smart grid applications.

  5. How additive noise generates a phantom attractor in a model with cubic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional nonlinear system forced by the additive noise is studied. We show that an increasing noise shifts random states and localizes them in a zone far from deterministic attractors. This phenomenon of the generation of the new "phantom" attractor is investigated on the base of probability density functions, mean values and variances of random states. We show that increasing noise results in the qualitative changes of the form of pdf, sharp shifts of mean values, and spikes of the variance. To clarify this phenomenon mathematically, we use the fast-slow decomposition and averaging over the fast variable. For the dynamics of the mean value of the slow variable, a deterministic equation is derived. It is shown that equilibria and the saddle-node bifurcation point of this deterministic equation well describe the stochastic phenomenon of "phantom" attractor in the initial two-dimensional stochastic system.

  6. Threshold detection in generalized non-additive signals and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, D., LLNL

    1997-12-22

    The classical theory of optimum (binary-on-off) threshold detection for additive signals and generalized (i.e. nongaussian) noise is extended to the canonical nonadditive threshold situation. In the important (and usual) applications where the noise is sampled independently, a canonical threshold optimum theory is outlined here, which is found formally to parallel the earlier additive theory, including the critical properties of locally optimum Bayes detection algorithms, which are asymptotically normal and optimum as well. The important Class A clutter model provides an explicit example of optimal threshold envelope detection, for the non-additive cases of signal and noise. Various extensions are noted in the concluding section, as are selected references.

  7. Modeling phase noise in multifunction subassemblies.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Obtaining requisite phase noise performance in hardware containing multifunction circuitry requires accurate modeling of the phase noise characteristics of each signal path component, including both absolute (oscillator) and residual (non-oscillator) circuit contributors. This includes prediction of both static and vibration-induced phase noise. The model (usually in spreadsheet form) is refined as critical components are received and evaluated. Additive (KTBF) phase noise data can be reasonably estimated, based on device drive level and noise figure. However, accurate determination of component near-carrier (multiplicative) and vibration-induced noise usually must be determined via measurement. The model should also include the effects of noise introduced by IC voltage regulators and properly discriminate between common versus independent signal path residual noise contributors. The modeling can be easily implemented using a spreadsheet.

  8. Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

    2014-03-01

    We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

  9. Multiplicative noise effects on electroconvection in controlling additive noise by a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jong-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    We report multiplicative noise-induced threshold shift of electroconvection (EC) in the presence of a magnetic field H . Controlling the thermal fluctuation (i.e., additive noise) of the rodlike molecules of nematic liquid crystals by H , the EC threshold is examined at various noise levels [characterized by their intensity and cutoff frequency (fc) ]. For a sufficiently strong H (i.e., ignorable additive noise), a modified noise sensitivity characterizing the shift problem is in good agreement with experimental results for colored as well as white noise (fc→∞ ) ; until now, there was a large deviation for (sufficiently) colored noises. The present study shows that H provides us with ideal conditions for studying the corresponding Carr-Helfrich theory considering pure multiplicative noise.

  10. Effect of multiplicative and additive noise on genetic transcriptional regulatory mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Mei; Xie, Hui-Zhang; Liu, Liang-Gang; Li, Zhi-Bing

    2009-02-01

    A multiplicative noise and an additive noise are introduced in the kinetic model of Smolen-Baxter-Byrne [P. Smolen, D.A. Baxter, J.H. Byrne, Amer. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 274 (1998) 531], in which the expression of gene is controlled by protein concentration of transcriptional activator. The Fokker-Planck equation is solved and the steady-state probability distribution is obtained numerically. It is found that the multiplicative noise converts the bistability to monostability that can be regarded as a noise-induced transition. The additive noise reduces the transcription efficiency. The correlation between the multiplicative noise and the additive noise works as a genetic switch and regulates the gene transcription effectively.

  11. Electronic noise modeling in statistical iterative reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingyan; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2009-06-01

    We consider electronic noise modeling in tomographic image reconstruction when the measured signal is the sum of a Gaussian distributed electronic noise component and another random variable whose log-likelihood function satisfies a certain linearity condition. Examples of such likelihood functions include the Poisson distribution and an exponential dispersion (ED) model that can approximate the signal statistics in integration mode X-ray detectors. We formulate the image reconstruction problem as a maximum-likelihood estimation problem. Using an expectation-maximization approach, we demonstrate that a reconstruction algorithm can be obtained following a simple substitution rule from the one previously derived without electronic noise considerations. To illustrate the applicability of the substitution rule, we present examples of a fully iterative reconstruction algorithm and a sinogram smoothing algorithm both in transmission CT reconstruction when the measured signal contains additive electronic noise. Our simulation studies show the potential usefulness of accurate electronic noise modeling in low-dose CT applications.

  12. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  13. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  14. Low Frequency Noise Contamination in Fan Model Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research and development depends on the ability to study and predict the noise created by each engine component in isolation. The presence of a downstream pylon for a model fan test, however, may result in noise contamination through pylon interactions with the free stream and model exhaust airflows. Additionally, there is the problem of separating the fan and jet noise components generated by the model fan. A methodology was therefore developed to improve the data quality for the 9 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center that identifies three noise sources: fan noise, jet noise, and rig noise. The jet noise and rig noise were then measured by mounting a scale model of the 9 15 LSWT model fan installation in a jet rig to simulate everything except the rotating machinery and in duct components of fan noise. The data showed that the spectra measured in the LSWT has a strong rig noise component at frequencies as high as 3 kHz depending on the fan and airflow fan exit velocity. The jet noise was determined to be significantly lower than the rig noise (i.e., noise generated by flow interaction with the downstream support pylon). A mathematical model for the rig noise was then developed using a multi-dimensional least squares fit to the rig noise data. This allows the rig noise to be subtracted or removed, depending on the amplitude of the rig noise relative to the fan noise, at any given frequency, observer angle, or nozzle pressure ratio. The impact of isolating the fan noise with this method on spectra, overall power level (OAPWL), and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is studied.

  15. Resonant-pattern formation induced by additive noise in periodically forced reaction-diffusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongli; Zhang, Ke; Ouyang, Qi

    2006-09-01

    We report frequency-locked resonant patterns induced by additive noise in periodically forced reaction-diffusion Brusselator model. In the regime of 2:1 frequency-locking and homogeneous oscillation, the introduction of additive noise, which is colored in time and white in space, generates and sustains resonant patterns of hexagons, stripes, and labyrinths which oscillate at half of the forcing frequency. Both the noise strength and the correlation time control the pattern formation. The system transits from homogeneous to hexagons, stripes, and to labyrinths successively as the noise strength is adjusted. Good frequency-locked patterns are only sustained by the colored noise and a finite time correlation is necessary. At the limit of white noise with zero temporal correlation, irregular patterns which are only nearly resonant come out as the noise strength is adjusted. The phenomenon induced by colored noise in the forced reaction-diffusion system is demonstrated to correspond to noise-induced Turing instability in the corresponding forced complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  16. Resonant-pattern formation induced by additive noise in periodically forced reaction-diffusion systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongli; Zhang, Ke; Ouyang, Qi

    2006-09-01

    We report frequency-locked resonant patterns induced by additive noise in periodically forced reaction-diffusion Brusselator model. In the regime of 2:1 frequency-locking and homogeneous oscillation, the introduction of additive noise, which is colored in time and white in space, generates and sustains resonant patterns of hexagons, stripes, and labyrinths which oscillate at half of the forcing frequency. Both the noise strength and the correlation time control the pattern formation. The system transits from homogeneous to hexagons, stripes, and to labyrinths successively as the noise strength is adjusted. Good frequency-locked patterns are only sustained by the colored noise and a finite time correlation is necessary. At the limit of white noise with zero temporal correlation, irregular patterns which are only nearly resonant come out as the noise strength is adjusted. The phenomenon induced by colored noise in the forced reaction-diffusion system is demonstrated to correspond to noise-induced Turing instability in the corresponding forced complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. PMID:17025732

  17. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  18. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  19. Stochastic Vortex Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Easy Plane Ferromagnets: Multiplicative Versus Additive Noise

    SciTech Connect

    Kamppeter, T.; Mertens, F.G.; Moro, E.; Sanchez, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1998-09-01

    We study how thermal fluctuations affect the dynamics of vortices in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model depending on their additive or multiplicative character. Using a collective coordinate theory, we analytically show that multiplicative noise, arising from fluctuations in the local field term of the Landau-Lifshitz equations, and Langevin-like additive noise have the same effect on vortex dynamics (within a very plausible assumption consistent with the collective coordinate approach). This is a highly non-trivial result as multiplicative and additive noises usually modify the dynamics in very different ways. We also carry out numerical simulations of both versions of the model finding that they indeed give rise to very similar vortex dynamics.

  20. How to detect the Granger-causal flow direction in the presence of additive noise?

    PubMed

    Vinck, Martin; Huurdeman, Lisanne; Bosman, Conrado A; Fries, Pascal; Battaglia, Francesco P; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Tiesinga, Paul H

    2015-03-01

    Granger-causality metrics have become increasingly popular tools to identify directed interactions between brain areas. However, it is known that additive noise can strongly affect Granger-causality metrics, which can lead to spurious conclusions about neuronal interactions. To solve this problem, previous studies have proposed the detection of Granger-causal directionality, i.e. the dominant Granger-causal flow, using either the slope of the coherency (Phase Slope Index; PSI), or by comparing Granger-causality values between original and time-reversed signals (reversed Granger testing). We show that for ensembles of vector autoregressive (VAR) models encompassing bidirectionally coupled sources, these alternative methods do not correctly measure Granger-causal directionality for a substantial fraction of VAR models, even in the absence of noise. We then demonstrate that uncorrelated noise has fundamentally different effects on directed connectivity metrics than linearly mixed noise, where the latter may result as a consequence of electric volume conduction. Uncorrelated noise only weakly affects the detection of Granger-causal directionality, whereas linearly mixed noise causes a large fraction of false positives for standard Granger-causality metrics and PSI, but not for reversed Granger testing. We further show that we can reliably identify cases where linearly mixed noise causes a large fraction of false positives by examining the magnitude of the instantaneous influence coefficient in a structural VAR model. By rejecting cases with strong instantaneous influence, we obtain an improved detection of Granger-causal flow between neuronal sources in the presence of additive noise. These techniques are applicable to real data, which we demonstrate using actual area V1 and area V4 LFP data, recorded from the awake monkey performing a visual attention task.

  1. Bifurcations of emerging patterns in the presence of additive noise.

    PubMed

    Agez, Gonzague; Clerc, Marcel G; Louvergneaux, Eric; Rojas, René G

    2013-04-01

    A universal description of the effects of additive noise on super- and subcritical spatial bifurcations in one-dimensional systems is theoretically, numerically, and experimentally studied. The probability density of the critical spatial mode amplitude is derived. From this generalized Rayleigh distribution we predict the shape of noisy bifurcations by means of the most probable value of the critical mode amplitude. Comparisons with numerical simulations are in quite good agreement for cubic or quintic amplitude equations accounting for stochastic supercritical bifurcation and for cubic-quintic amplitude equation accounting for stochastic subcritical bifurcation. Experimental results obtained in a one-dimensional Kerr-like slice subjected to optical feedback confirm the analytical expression prediction for the supercritical bifurcation shape.

  2. Additional noise data on the SR-3 propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The noise generated by supersonic-tip-speed propellers is investigated. An eight bladed propeller was tested in the Lewis 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel with conditions providing data in the subsonic operating region of the propeller. These conditions resulted in a slight reshaping of the curve for blade passing tone as a function of helical tip Mach number as compared with previous results. Directivity curves with an additional transducer position gave an indication of a lobe pattern for this propeller that was not previously observed. The present data at the aft-most position indicate that some reflections, possibly from the test rig support strut, may have affected the data taken previously.

  3. Ultimate capacity of linear time-invariant bosonic channels with additive Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Bardhan, Bhaskar; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-optic communications are moving to coherent detection in order to increase their spectral efficiency, i.e., their channel capacity per unit bandwidth. At power levels below the threshold for significant nonlinear effects, the channel model for such operation a linear time-invariant filter followed by additive Gaussian noise is one whose channel capacity is well known from Shannon's noisy channel coding theorem. The fiber channel, however, is really a bosonic channel, meaning that its ultimate classical information capacity must be determined from quantum-mechanical analysis, viz. from the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland (HSW) theorem. Based on recent results establishing the HSW capacity of a linear (lossy or amplifying) channel with additive Gaussian noise, we provide a general continuous-time result, namely the HSW capacity of a linear time-invariant (LTI) bosonic channel with additive Gaussian noise arising from a thermal environment. In particular, we treat quasi-monochromatic communication under an average power constraint through a channel comprised of a stable LTI filter that may be attenuating at all frequencies or amplifying at some frequencies and attenuating at others. Phase-insensitive additive Gaussian noise-associated with the continuous-time Langevin noise operator needed to preserve free-field commutator brackets is included at the filter output. We compare the resulting spectral efficiencies with corresponding results for heterodyne and homodyne detection over the same channel to assess the increased spectral efficiency that might be realized with optimum quantum reception.

  4. Mixed additive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Francisco; Covas, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    We consider mixed models y =∑i =0 w Xiβi with V (y )=∑i =1 w θiMi Where Mi=XiXi⊤ , i = 1, . . ., w, and µ = X0β0. For these we will estimate the variance components θ1, . . ., θw, aswell estimable vectors through the decomposition of the initial model into sub-models y(h), h ∈ Γ, with V (y (h ))=γ (h )Ig (h )h ∈Γ . Moreover we will consider L extensions of these models, i.e., y˚=Ly+ɛ, where L=D (1n1, . . ., 1nw) and ɛ, independent of y, has null mean vector and variance covariance matrix θw+1Iw, where w =∑i =1 n wi .

  5. Internal additive noise effects in stochastic resonance using organic field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Matsubara, Kiyohiko; Asakawa, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon was observed in organic field effect transistor using poly(3-hexylthiophene), which enhances performance of signal transmission with application of noise. The enhancement of correlation coefficient between the input and output signals was low, and the variation of correlation coefficient was not remarkable with respect to the intensity of external noise, which was due to the existence of internal additive noise following the nonlinear threshold response. In other words, internal additive noise plays a positive role on the capability of approximately constant signal transmission regardless of noise intensity, which can be said "homeostatic" behavior or "noise robustness" against external noise. Furthermore, internal additive noise causes emergence of the stochastic resonance effect even on the threshold unit without internal additive noise on which the correlation coefficient usually decreases monotonically.

  6. Fuzzy Filtering Method for Color Videos Corrupted by Additive Noise

    PubMed Central

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Nino-de-Rivera, Luis

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for the denoising of color videos corrupted by additive noise is presented in this paper. The proposed technique consists of three principal filtering steps: spatial, spatiotemporal, and spatial postprocessing. In contrast to other state-of-the-art algorithms, during the first spatial step, the eight gradient values in different directions for pixels located in the vicinity of a central pixel as well as the R, G, and B channel correlation between the analogous pixels in different color bands are taken into account. These gradient values give the information about the level of contamination then the designed fuzzy rules are used to preserve the image features (textures, edges, sharpness, chromatic properties, etc.). In the second step, two neighboring video frames are processed together. Possible local motions between neighboring frames are estimated using block matching procedure in eight directions to perform interframe filtering. In the final step, the edges and smoothed regions in a current frame are distinguished for final postprocessing filtering. Numerous simulation results confirm that this novel 3D fuzzy method performs better than other state-of-the-art techniques in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD, and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via the human vision system in the different color videos. PMID:24688428

  7. Classification Of Multi-Classed Stochastic Images Buried In Additive Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zu-Han; Lee, Sing H.

    1987-01-01

    The Optimal Correlation Filter for the discrimination or classification of multi-class stochastic images buried in additive noise is designed. We consider noise in images as the (K+1)th class of stochastic image so that the K-class with noise problem becomes a problem of (K+1)-classes: K-class without noise plus the (K+1)th class of noise. Experimental verifications with both low frequency background noise and high fre-quency shot noise show that the new filter design is reliable.

  8. Internal noise-sustained circadian rhythms in a Drosophila model.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianshu; Lang, Xiufeng

    2008-03-15

    Circadian rhythmic processes, mainly regulated by gene expression at the molecular level, have inherent stochasticity. Their robustness or resistance to internal noise has been extensively investigated by most of the previous studies. This work focuses on the constructive roles of internal noise in a reduced Drosophila model, which incorporates negative and positive feedback loops, each with a time delay. It is shown that internal noise sustains reliable oscillations with periods close to 24 h in a region of parameter space, where the deterministic kinetics would evolve to a stable steady state. The amplitudes of noise-sustained oscillations are significantly affected by the variation of internal noise level, and the best performance of the oscillations could be found at an optimal noise intensity, indicating the occurrence of intrinsic coherence resonance. In the oscillatory region of the deterministic model, the coherence of noisy circadian oscillations is suppressed by internal noise, while the period remains nearly constant over a large range of noise intensity, demonstrating robustness of the Drosophila model for circadian rhythms to intrinsic noise. In addition, the effects of time delay in the positive feedback on the oscillations are also investigated. It is found that the time delay could efficiently tune the performance of the noise-sustained oscillations. These results might aid understanding of the exploitation of intracellular noise in biochemical and genetic regulatory systems.

  9. Modeling and adaptive control of acoustic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Ravinder

    Active noise control is a problem that receives significant attention in many areas including aerospace and manufacturing. The advent of inexpensive high performance processors has made it possible to implement real-time control algorithms to effect active noise control. Both fixed-gain and adaptive methods may be used to design controllers for this problem. For fixed-gain methods, it is necessary to obtain a mathematical model of the system to design controllers. In addition, models help us gain phenomenological insights into the dynamics of the system. Models are also necessary to perform numerical simulations. However, models are often inadequate for the purpose of controller design because they involve parameters that are difficult to determine and also because there are always unmodeled effects. This fact motivates the use of adaptive algorithms for control since adaptive methods usually require significantly less model information than fixed-gain methods. The first part of this dissertation deals with derivation of a state space model of a one-dimensional acoustic duct. Two types of actuation, namely, a side-mounted speaker (interior control) and an end-mounted speaker (boundary control) are considered. The techniques used to derive the model of the acoustic duct are extended to the problem of fluid surface wave control. A state space model of small amplitude surfaces waves of a fluid in a rectangular container is derived and two types of control methods, namely, surface pressure control and map actuator based control are proposed and analyzed. The second part of this dissertation deals with the development of an adaptive disturbance rejection algorithm that is applied to the problem of active noise control. ARMARKOV models which have the same structure as predictor models are used for system representation. The algorithm requires knowledge of only one path of the system, from control to performance, and does not require a measurement of the disturbance nor

  10. Modeling and Prediction of Krueger Device Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Burley, Casey L.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a noise prediction model for aircraft Krueger flap devices that are considered as alternatives to leading edge slotted slats. The prediction model decomposes the total Krueger noise into four components, generated by the unsteady flows, respectively, in the cove under the pressure side surface of the Krueger, in the gap between the Krueger trailing edge and the main wing, around the brackets supporting the Krueger device, and around the cavity on the lower side of the main wing. For each noise component, the modeling follows a physics-based approach that aims at capturing the dominant noise-generating features in the flow and developing correlations between the noise and the flow parameters that control the noise generation processes. The far field noise is modeled using each of the four noise component's respective spectral functions, far field directivities, Mach number dependencies, component amplitudes, and other parametric trends. Preliminary validations are carried out by using small scale experimental data, and two applications are discussed; one for conventional aircraft and the other for advanced configurations. The former focuses on the parametric trends of Krueger noise on design parameters, while the latter reveals its importance in relation to other airframe noise components.

  11. Realistic camera noise modeling with application to improved HDR synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, Bart; Luong, Hiêp; Aelterman, Jan; Pižurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2012-12-01

    Due to the ongoing miniaturization of digital camera sensors and the steady increase of the "number of megapixels", individual sensor elements of the camera become more sensitive to noise, even deteriorating the final image quality. To go around this problem, sophisticated processing algorithms in the devices, can help to maximally exploit the knowledge on the sensor characteristics (e.g., in terms of noise), and offer a better image reconstruction. Although a lot of research focuses on rather simplistic noise models, such as stationary additive white Gaussian noise, only limited attention has gone to more realistic digital camera noise models. In this article, we first present a digital camera noise model that takes several processing steps in the camera into account, such as sensor signal amplification, clipping, post-processing,.. We then apply this noise model to the reconstruction problem of high dynamic range (HDR) images from a small set of low dynamic range (LDR) exposures of a static scene. In literature, HDR reconstruction is mostly performed by computing a weighted average, in which the weights are directly related to the observer pixel intensities of the LDR image. In this work, we derive a Bayesian probabilistic formulation of a weighting function that is near-optimal in the MSE sense (or SNR sense) of the reconstructed HDR image, by assuming exponentially distributed irradiance values. We define the weighting function as the probability that the observed pixel intensity is approximately unbiased. The weighting function can be directly computed based on the noise model parameters, which gives rise to different symmetric and asymmetric shapes when electronic noise or photon noise is dominant. We also explain how to deal with the case that some of the noise model parameters are unknown and explain how the camera response function can be estimated using the presented noise model. Finally, experimental results are provided to support our findings.

  12. Enhanced Core Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes work performed by MTC Technologies (MTCT) for NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) under Contract NAS3-00178, Task Order No. 15. MTCT previously developed a first-generation empirical model that correlates the core/combustion noise of four GE engines, the CF6, CF34, CFM56, and GE90 for General Electric (GE) under Contract No. 200-1X-14W53048, in support of GRC Contract NAS3-01135. MTCT has demonstrated in earlier noise modeling efforts that the improvement of predictive modeling is greatly enhanced by an iterative approach, so in support of NASA's Quiet Aircraft Technology Project, GRC sponsored this effort to improve the model. Since the noise data available for correlation are total engine noise spectra, it is total engine noise that must be predicted. Since the scope of this effort was not sufficient to explore fan and turbine noise, the most meaningful comparisons must be restricted to frequencies below the blade passage frequency. Below the blade passage frequency and at relatively high power settings jet noise is expected to be the dominant source, and comparisons are shown that demonstrate the accuracy of the jet noise model recently developed by MTCT for NASA under Contract NAS3-00178, Task Order No. 10. At lower power settings the core noise became most apparent, and these data corrected for the contribution of jet noise were then used to establish the characteristics of core noise. There is clearly more than one spectral range where core noise is evident, so the spectral approach developed by von Glahn and Krejsa in 1982 wherein four spectral regions overlap, was used in the GE effort. Further analysis indicates that the two higher frequency components, which are often somewhat masked by turbomachinery noise, can be treated as one component, and it is on that basis that the current model is formulated. The frequency scaling relationships are improved and are now based on combustor and core nozzle geometries. In conjunction with the Task

  13. Addition of noise by scatter correction methods in PVI

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, J.S. . Div. of Nuclear Medicine); Harrop, R.; Atkins, M.S. . School of Computing Science)

    1994-08-01

    Effective scatter correction techniques are required to account for errors due to high scatter fraction seen in positron volume imaging (PVI). To be effective, the correction techniques must be accurate and practical, but they also must not add excessively to the statistical noise in the image. The authors have investigated the noise added by three correction methods: a convolution/subtraction method; a method that interpolates the scatter from the events outside the object; and a dual energy window method with and without smoothing of the scatter estimate. The methods were applied to data generated by Monte Carlo simulation to determine their effect on the variance of the corrected projections. The convolution and interpolation methods did not add significantly to the variance. The dual energy window subtraction method without smoothing increased the variance by a factor of more than twelve, but this factor was improved to 1.2 by smoothing the scatter estimate.

  14. Observations and Modeling of Seismic Background Noise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon R.

    1993-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The preparation of this report had two purposes. One was to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra obtained from a worldwide network of seismograph stations. The other purpose was to refine and document models of seismic background noise that have been in use for several years. The second objective was, in fact, the principal reason that this study was initiated and influenced the procedures used in collecting and processing the data. With a single exception, all of the data used in this study were extracted from the digital data archive at the U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). This archive dates from 1972 when ASL first began deploying digital seismograph systems and collecting and distributing digital data under the sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). There have been many changes and additions to the global seismograph networks during the past twenty years, but perhaps none as significant as the current deployment of very broadband seismographs by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California San Diego (UCSD) under the scientific direction of the IRIS consortium. The new data acquisition systems have extended the bandwidth and resolution of seismic recording, and they utilize high-density recording media that permit the continuous recording of broadband data. The data improvements and continuous recording greatly benefit and simplify surveys of seismic background noise. Although there are many other sources of digital data, the ASL archive data were used almost exclusively because of accessibility and because the data systems and their calibration are well documented for the most part. Fortunately, the ASL archive contains high-quality data from other stations in addition to those deployed by the USGS. Included are data from UCSD IRIS/IDA stations, the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) deployed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the

  15. Noise in restaurants: levels and mathematical model.

    PubMed

    To, Wai Ming; Chung, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Noise affects the dining atmosphere and is an occupational hazard to restaurant service employees worldwide. This paper examines the levels of noise in dining areas during peak hours in different types of restaurants in Hong Kong SAR, China. A mathematical model that describes the noise level in a restaurant is presented. The 1-h equivalent continuous noise level (L(eq,1-h)) was measured using a Type-1 precision integral sound level meter while the occupancy density, the floor area of the dining area, and the ceiling height of each of the surveyed restaurants were recorded. It was found that the measured noise levels using Leq,1-h ranged from 67.6 to 79.3 dBA in Chinese restaurants, from 69.1 to 79.1 dBA in fast food restaurants, and from 66.7 to 82.6 dBA in Western restaurants. Results of the analysis of variance show that there were no significant differences between means of the measured noise levels among different types of restaurants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to determine the relationships between geometrical and operational parameters and the measured noise levels. Results of the regression analysis show that the measured noise levels depended on the levels of occupancy density only. By reconciling the measured noise levels and the mathematical model, it was found that people in restaurants increased their voice levels when the occupancy density increased. Nevertheless, the maximum measured hourly noise level indicated that the noise exposure experienced by restaurant service employees was below the regulated daily noise exposure value level of 85 dBA.

  16. Noise in restaurants: levels and mathematical model.

    PubMed

    To, Wai Ming; Chung, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Noise affects the dining atmosphere and is an occupational hazard to restaurant service employees worldwide. This paper examines the levels of noise in dining areas during peak hours in different types of restaurants in Hong Kong SAR, China. A mathematical model that describes the noise level in a restaurant is presented. The 1-h equivalent continuous noise level (L(eq,1-h)) was measured using a Type-1 precision integral sound level meter while the occupancy density, the floor area of the dining area, and the ceiling height of each of the surveyed restaurants were recorded. It was found that the measured noise levels using Leq,1-h ranged from 67.6 to 79.3 dBA in Chinese restaurants, from 69.1 to 79.1 dBA in fast food restaurants, and from 66.7 to 82.6 dBA in Western restaurants. Results of the analysis of variance show that there were no significant differences between means of the measured noise levels among different types of restaurants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to determine the relationships between geometrical and operational parameters and the measured noise levels. Results of the regression analysis show that the measured noise levels depended on the levels of occupancy density only. By reconciling the measured noise levels and the mathematical model, it was found that people in restaurants increased their voice levels when the occupancy density increased. Nevertheless, the maximum measured hourly noise level indicated that the noise exposure experienced by restaurant service employees was below the regulated daily noise exposure value level of 85 dBA. PMID:25387532

  17. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  18. The properties of the anti-tumor model with coupling non-Gaussian noise and Gaussian colored noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qin; Sun, Zhongkui; Xu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The anti-tumor model with correlation between multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and additive Gaussian-colored noise has been investigated in this paper. The behaviors of the stationary probability distribution demonstrate that the multiplicative non-Gaussian noise plays a dual role in the development of tumor and an appropriate additive Gaussian colored noise can lead to a minimum of the mean value of tumor cell population. The mean first passage time is calculated to quantify the effects of noises on the transition time of tumors between the stable states. An increase in both the non-Gaussian noise intensity and the departure from the Gaussian noise can accelerate the transition from the disease state to the healthy state. On the contrary, an increase in cross-correlated degree will slow down the transition. Moreover, the correlation time can enhance the stability of the disease state.

  19. Analysis of bilinear noise models in circuits and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.; Marcus, S. I.

    1976-01-01

    There are a number of applications in which linear noise models are inappropriate. In the paper, the use of bilinear noise models in circuits and devices is considered. Several physical problems are studied in this framework. These include circuits involving varying parameters (such as variable resistance circuits constructed using field-effect transistors), the effect of switching jitter on sampled data system performance and communication systems involving voltage-controlled oscillators and phase-lock loops. In addition, several types of analytical techniques for stochastic bilinear systems are considered. Specifically, the moment equations of Brockett for bilinear systems driven by white noise are discussed, and closed-form expressions for certain bilinear systems (those that evolve an Abelian or solvable Lie groups) driven by white or colored noise are derived. In addition, an approximate statistical technique involving the use of harmonic expansions is described.

  20. Impact of correlated noise in an energy depot model

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chunhua; Zeng, Jiakui; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Based on the depot model of the motion of active Brownian particles (ABPs), the impact of cross-correlated multiplicative and additive noises has been investigated. Using a nonlinear Langevin approach, we discuss a new mechanism for the transport of ABPs in which the energy originates from correlated noise. It is shown that the correlation between two types of noise breaks the symmetry of the potential to generate motion of the ABPs with a net velocity. The absolute maximum value of the mean velocity depends on correlated noise or multiplicative noise, whereas a monotonic decrease in the mean velocity occurs with additive noise. In the case of no correlation, the ABPs undergo pure diffusion with zero mean velocity, whereas in the case of perfect correlation, the ABPs undergo pure drift with zero diffusion. This shows that the energy stemming from correlated noise is primarily converted to kinetic energy of the intrawell motion and is eventually dissipated in drift motion. A physical explanation of the mechanisms for noise-driven transport of ABPs is derived from the effective potential of the Fokker-Planck equation. PMID:26786478

  1. Improved noise model for the US Army sensor performance metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Bradley L.; Olson, Jeffrey T.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Fanning, Jonathan D.

    2011-05-01

    Image noise, originating from a sensor system, is often the limiting factor in target acquisition performance. This is especially true of reflective-band sensors operating in low-light conditions. To accurately predict target acquisition range performance, image degradation introduced by the sensor must be properly combined with the limitations of the human visual system. This is modeled by adding system noise and blur to the contrast threshold function (CTF) of the human visual system, creating a combined system CTF. Current U.S. Army sensor performance models (NVThermIP, SSCAMIP, IICAM, and IINVD) do not properly address how external noise is added to the CTF as a function of display luminance. Historically, the noise calibration constant was fit from data using image intensifiers operating at low display luminance, typically much less than one foot-Lambert. However, noise calibration experiments with thermal imagery used a higher display luminance, on the order of ten foot-Lamberts, resulting in a larger noise calibration constant. To address this discrepancy, hundreds of CTF measurements were taken as a function of display luminance, apparent target angle, frame rate, noise intensity and filter shape. The experimental results show that the noise calibration constant varies as a function of display luminance. To account for this luminance dependence, a photon shot noise term representing an additional limitation in the performance of the human visual system is added to the observer model. The new noise model will be incorporated in the new U.S. Army Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM), allowing accurate comparisons over a wide variety of sensor modalities and display luminance levels.

  2. A Comparison of Combustor-Noise Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    The present status of combustor-noise prediction in the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP)1 for current-generation (N) turbofan engines is summarized. Several semi-empirical models for turbofan combustor noise are discussed, including best methods for near-term updates to ANOPP. An alternate turbine-transmission factor2 will appear as a user selectable option in the combustor-noise module GECOR in the next release. The three-spectrum model proposed by Stone et al.3 for GE turbofan-engine combustor noise is discussed and compared with ANOPP predictions for several relevant cases. Based on the results presented herein and in their report,3 it is recommended that the application of this fully empirical combustor-noise prediction method be limited to situations involving only General-Electric turbofan engines. Long-term needs and challenges for the N+1 through N+3 time frame are discussed. Because the impact of other propulsion-noise sources continues to be reduced due to turbofan design trends, advances in noise-mitigation techniques, and expected aircraft configuration changes, the relative importance of core noise is expected to greatly increase in the future. The noise-source structure in the combustor, including the indirect one, and the effects of the propagation path through the engine and exhaust nozzle need to be better understood. In particular, the acoustic consequences of the expected trends toward smaller, highly efficient gas-generator cores and low-emission fuel-flexible combustors need to be fully investigated since future designs are quite likely to fall outside of the parameter space of existing (semi-empirical) prediction tools.

  3. The Flight Track Noise Impact Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burn, Melissa; Carey, Jeffrey; Czech, Joseph; Wingrove, Earl R., III

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The Flight Track Noise Impact Model (FTNIM) has been developed as part of the ASAC. Its primary purpose is to enable users to examine the impact that quieter aircraft technologies and/or operations might have on air carrier operating efficiency at any one of 8 selected U.S. airports. The analyst selects an airport and case year for study, chooses a set of flight tracks for use in the case, and has the option of reducing the noise of the aircraft by 3, 6, or 10 decibels. Two sets of flight tracks are available for each airport: one that represents actual current conditions, including noise abatement tracks, which avoid flying over noise-sensitive areas; and a second set that offers more efficient routing. FTNIM computes the resultant noise impact and the time and distance saved for each operation on the more efficient, alternate tracks. Noise impact is characterized in three ways: the size of the noise contour footprint, the number of people living within the contours, and the number of homes located in the same contours. Distance and time savings are calculated by comparing the noise abatement flight path length to the more efficient alternate routing.

  4. Noise modeling of microwave heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escotte, Laurent; Roux, Jean-Phillippe; Plana, Robert; Graffeuil, Jacques; Gruhle, Andreas

    1995-05-01

    Analytical expressions of microwave heterojunction bipolar transistors minimum noise figure and noise parameter are reported in this paper. These expressions are derived from a noise model including nonideal junctions, emitter and base resistances and have been compared with measured data obtained on a Si/SiGe HBT. An agreement between theoretical and experimental data was observed up to 20 GHz for several bias conditions. The limits of the model or the range of validity of the proposed equations have been also examined with the help of an appropriate CAD software. The analysis of the influence of parasitic elements on noise parameters has shown a strong influence of the extrinsic base collector capacitance at microwave frequencies.

  5. Theoretical models of helicopter rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkings, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    For low speed rotors, it is shown that unsteady load models are only partially successful in predicting experimental levels. A theoretical model is presented which leads to the concept of unsteady thickness noise. This gives better agreement with test results. For high speed rotors, it is argued that present models are incomplete and that other mechanisms are at work. Some possibilities are briefly discussed.

  6. Noise exposure levels from model airplane engines.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, R C; Miller, M

    1985-01-01

    Previous research indicates that noise levels from unmuffled model airplane engines produce sufficient noise to cause TTS. The present study explored SPLs of smaller engines under 3.25 cc (.19 cu. in.) and the effectiveness of engine mufflers. Results showed that model airplanes can exceed a widely used damage risk criterion (DRC) but that engine mufflers can reduce levels below DRC. Handling model gasoline engines should be added to the list of recreational activities such as snow-mobile and motorcycle riding, shooting, etc. in which the participant's hearing may be in jeopardy. Suggestions are presented to the model engine enthusiast for avoiding damage to hearing.

  7. Noise modeling from high-permeability shields using Kirchhoff equations

    SciTech Connect

    Sandin, Henrik J; Volegov, Petr L; Espy, Michelle A; Matlashov, Andrei N; Savukov, Igor M; Schultz, Larry J

    2010-01-01

    Progress in the development of high-sensitivity magnetic-field measurements has stimulated interest in understanding magnetic noise of conductive materials, especially of magnetic shields (DC or rf) based on high-permeability materials and/or high-conductivity materials. For example, SQUIDs and atomic magnetometers have been used in many experiments with mu-metal shields, and additionally SQUID systems frequently have rf shielding based on thin conductive materials. Typical existing approaches to modeling noise only work with simple shield and sensor geometries while common experimental setups today consist of multiple sensor systems arbitrary shapes and complex shield geometries. With complex sensor arrays used in, for example, MEG and Ultra Low Field MRI studies the knowledge of the noise correlation between sensors is as important as the knowledge of the noise itself. This is crucial for incorporating efficient noise cancelation schemes for the system. We developed an approach that allows us to calculate the Johnson noise for any geometrically shaped shield and multiple sensor systems. The approach uses a fraction of the processing power of other approaches and with a multiple sensor system our approach not only calculates the noise for each sensor but it also calculates the noise correlation matrix between sensors. Here we will show the algorithm and examples where it can be implemented.

  8. Noise Modeling From Conductive Shields Using Kirchhoff Equations

    PubMed Central

    Sandin, Henrik J.; Volegov, Petr L.; Espy, Michelle A.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Savukov, Igor M.; Schultz, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the development of high-sensitivity magnetic-field measurements has stimulated interest in understanding the magnetic noise of conductive materials, especially of magnetic shields based on high-permeability materials and/or high-conductivity materials. For example, SQUIDs and atomic magnetometers have been used in many experiments with mu-metal shields, and additionally SQUID systems frequently have radio frequency shielding based on thin conductive materials. Typical existing approaches to modeling noise only work with simple shield and sensor geometries while common experimental setups today consist of multiple sensor systems with complex shield geometries. With complex sensor arrays used in, for example, MEG and Ultra Low Field MRI studies, knowledge of the noise correlation between sensors is as important as knowledge of the noise itself. This is crucial for incorporating efficient noise cancelation schemes for the system. We developed an approach that allows us to calculate the Johnson noise for arbitrary shaped shields and multiple sensor systems. The approach is efficient enough to be able to run on a single PC system and return results on a minute scale. With a multiple sensor system our approach calculates not only the noise for each sensor but also the noise correlation matrix between sensors. Here we will show how the algorithm can be implemented. PMID:21747637

  9. Noise Modeling From Conductive Shields Using Kirchhoff Equations.

    PubMed

    Sandin, Henrik J; Volegov, Petr L; Espy, Michelle A; Matlashov, Andrei N; Savukov, Igor M; Schultz, Larry J

    2010-10-01

    Progress in the development of high-sensitivity magnetic-field measurements has stimulated interest in understanding the magnetic noise of conductive materials, especially of magnetic shields based on high-permeability materials and/or high-conductivity materials. For example, SQUIDs and atomic magnetometers have been used in many experiments with mu-metal shields, and additionally SQUID systems frequently have radio frequency shielding based on thin conductive materials. Typical existing approaches to modeling noise only work with simple shield and sensor geometries while common experimental setups today consist of multiple sensor systems with complex shield geometries. With complex sensor arrays used in, for example, MEG and Ultra Low Field MRI studies, knowledge of the noise correlation between sensors is as important as knowledge of the noise itself. This is crucial for incorporating efficient noise cancelation schemes for the system. We developed an approach that allows us to calculate the Johnson noise for arbitrary shaped shields and multiple sensor systems. The approach is efficient enough to be able to run on a single PC system and return results on a minute scale. With a multiple sensor system our approach calculates not only the noise for each sensor but also the noise correlation matrix between sensors. Here we will show how the algorithm can be implemented.

  10. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  11. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-06-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  12. A Semiconductor Device Noise Model: A Deterministic Approach to Semiconductor Device Current Noise for Semiclassical Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Noaman, B. A.; Korman, C. E.

    2009-04-23

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to calculate terminal current noise characteristics in semiconductor devices in the framework of semiclassical transport based on the spherical harmonics of the Boltzmann Transport Equation. The model relies on the solution of the Boltzmann equation in the frequency domain with special initial and boundary conditions. The terminal current fluctuation is directly related to scattering without the additional Langevin noise term added to the calculation. Simulation results are presented for the terminal current spectral density for a 1-D n{sup +}nn{sup +} structure due to elastic-acoustic and intervally scattering.

  13. Statistics of a neuron model driven by asymmetric colored noise.

    PubMed

    Müller-Hansen, Finn; Droste, Felix; Lindner, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Irregular firing of neurons can be modeled as a stochastic process. Here we study the perfect integrate-and-fire neuron driven by dichotomous noise, a Markovian process that jumps between two states (i.e., possesses a non-Gaussian statistics) and exhibits nonvanishing temporal correlations (i.e., represents a colored noise). Specifically, we consider asymmetric dichotomous noise with two different transition rates. Using a first-passage-time formulation, we derive exact expressions for the probability density and the serial correlation coefficient of the interspike interval (time interval between two subsequent neural action potentials) and the power spectrum of the spike train. Furthermore, we extend the model by including additional Gaussian white noise, and we give approximations for the interspike interval (ISI) statistics in this case. Numerical simulations are used to validate the exact analytical results for pure dichotomous noise, and to test the approximations of the ISI statistics when Gaussian white noise is included. The results may help to understand how correlations and asymmetry of noise and signals in nerve cells shape neuronal firing statistics.

  14. Statistics of a neuron model driven by asymmetric colored noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Hansen, Finn; Droste, Felix; Lindner, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Irregular firing of neurons can be modeled as a stochastic process. Here we study the perfect integrate-and-fire neuron driven by dichotomous noise, a Markovian process that jumps between two states (i.e., possesses a non-Gaussian statistics) and exhibits nonvanishing temporal correlations (i.e., represents a colored noise). Specifically, we consider asymmetric dichotomous noise with two different transition rates. Using a first-passage-time formulation, we derive exact expressions for the probability density and the serial correlation coefficient of the interspike interval (time interval between two subsequent neural action potentials) and the power spectrum of the spike train. Furthermore, we extend the model by including additional Gaussian white noise, and we give approximations for the interspike interval (ISI) statistics in this case. Numerical simulations are used to validate the exact analytical results for pure dichotomous noise, and to test the approximations of the ISI statistics when Gaussian white noise is included. The results may help to understand how correlations and asymmetry of noise and signals in nerve cells shape neuronal firing statistics.

  15. A path model of aircraft noise annoyance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. M.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a path model of aircraft noise annoyance by using noise and social survey data collected in the vicinity of Toronto International Airport. Path analysis is used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of seventeen independent variables on individual annoyance. The results show that the strongest direct effects are for speech interference, attitudes toward aircraft operations, sleep interruption and personal sensitivity to noise. The strongest indirect effects are for aircraft Leq(24) and sensitivity. Overall the model explains 41 percent of the variation in the annoyance reported by the 673 survey respondents. The findings both support and extend existing statements in the literature on the antecedents of annoyance.

  16. Noise, sleep and poor health: Modeling the relationship between road traffic noise and cardiovascular problems.

    PubMed

    Fyhri, Aslak; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2010-10-01

    Several adverse effects have been associated with exposure to traffic noise. Studies supporting a noise-stress-health model have suggested links between noise level and increased noradrenalin concentrations in urine, hypertension and myocardial infarction. Among the more commonly documented effects, sleep disturbances have been regarded as being the most serious. Both noise annoyance and sleep disturbance have been proposed as important mediators of the impact of noise on health. The present paper investigates the relationships among long-term noise exposure, annoyance, sleeping problems and subjective health complaints by the use of a structural equation model. Further, it aims at giving insight into how noise sensitivity is related to sleep disturbances from road traffic noise. Finally, it examines whether any effect of noise exposure or response to noise can be detected on prevalence of cardiovascular problems, when information on sleep disturbances is included in a model. Data from a questionnaire survey conducted among a population sample in Oslo (N=2786) are combined with nighttime noise levels calculated from outside each respondents dwelling, at the bedroom façade. The results of the analysis showed significant relationships between noise annoyance at night and sleeping problems. The model also showed strong links among pseudoneurological complaints, annoyance and sleeping problems, thus pointing to the importance of including information on psychosomatic disorders and mild psychological problems in future studies looking at potential health effects of noise. The analysis showed no relationship between neither noise exposure nor response to noise and cardiovascular problems.

  17. Dichotomous noise models of gene switches

    SciTech Connect

    Potoyan, Davit A. Wolynes, Peter G.

    2015-11-21

    Molecular noise in gene regulatory networks has two intrinsic components, one part being due to fluctuations caused by the birth and death of protein or mRNA molecules which are often present in small numbers and the other part arising from gene state switching, a single molecule event. Stochastic dynamics of gene regulatory circuits appears to be largely responsible for bifurcations into a set of multi-attractor states that encode different cell phenotypes. The interplay of dichotomous single molecule gene noise with the nonlinear architecture of genetic networks generates rich and complex phenomena. In this paper, we elaborate on an approximate framework that leads to simple hybrid multi-scale schemes well suited for the quantitative exploration of the steady state properties of large-scale cellular genetic circuits. Through a path sum based analysis of trajectory statistics, we elucidate the connection of these hybrid schemes to the underlying master equation and provide a rigorous justification for using dichotomous noise based models to study genetic networks. Numerical simulations of circuit models reveal that the contribution of the genetic noise of single molecule origin to the total noise is significant for a wide range of kinetic regimes.

  18. Addition of visual noise boosts evoked potential-based brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Guanghua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Sicong; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Li, Lili

    2014-05-14

    Although noise has a proven beneficial role in brain functions, there have not been any attempts on the dedication of stochastic resonance effect in neural engineering applications, especially in researches of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). In our study, a steady-state motion visual evoked potential (SSMVEP)-based BCI with periodic visual stimulation plus moderate spatiotemporal noise can achieve better offline and online performance due to enhancement of periodic components in brain responses, which was accompanied by suppression of high harmonics. Offline results behaved with a bell-shaped resonance-like functionality and 7-36% online performance improvements can be achieved when identical visual noise was adopted for different stimulation frequencies. Using neural encoding modeling, these phenomena can be explained as noise-induced input-output synchronization in human sensory systems which commonly possess a low-pass property. Our work demonstrated that noise could boost BCIs in addressing human needs.

  19. Identification of the noise using mathematical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobeš, Josef; Kozubková, Milada; Mahdal, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    In engineering applications the noisiness of a component or the whole device is a common problem. Currently, a lot of effort is put to eliminate noise of the already produced devices, to prevent generation of acoustic waves during the design of new components, or to specify the operating problems based on noisiness change. The experimental method and the mathematical modelling method belong to these identification methods. With the power of today's computers the ability to identify the sources of the noise on the mathematical modelling level is a very appreciated tool for engineers. For example, the noise itself may be generated by the vibration of the solid object, combustion, shock, fluid flow around an object or cavitation at the fluid flow in an object. For the given task generating the noise using fluid flow on the selected geometry and propagation of the acoustic waves and their subsequent identification are solved and evaluated. In this paper the principle of measurement of variables describing the fluid flow field and acoustic field are described. For the solution of fluid flow a mathematical model implemented into the CFD code is used. The mathematical modelling evaluation of the flow field is compared to the experimental data.

  20. Flap Side-Edge Noise: Acoustic Analysis of Sen's Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.; Martin, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The two-dimensional flap side-edge flow model developed by Sen is analyzed to reveal the noise production potential of the proposed mechanism. The model assumes that a vortex will form at the equilibrium position off the side edge of the flap. The vortex is then perturbed away from the equilibrium position by incoming turbulence causing it to oscillate and thus radiate sound. The noise field is calculated three-dimensionally by taking the flap to have a finite chord. Spectra and directivity of the farfield sound are presented. In addition, the effect of retarded time differences is evaluated. The parameters in the model are related to typical aircraft parameters and noise reduction possibilities are proposed.

  1. Nonlinear GARCH model and 1 / f noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononovicius, A.; Ruseckas, J.

    2015-06-01

    Auto-regressive conditionally heteroskedastic (ARCH) family models are still used, by practitioners in business and economic policy making, as a conditional volatility forecasting models. Furthermore ARCH models still are attracting an interest of the researchers. In this contribution we consider the well known GARCH(1,1) process and its nonlinear modifications, reminiscent of NGARCH model. We investigate the possibility to reproduce power law statistics, probability density function and power spectral density, using ARCH family models. For this purpose we derive stochastic differential equations from the GARCH processes in consideration. We find the obtained equations to be similar to a general class of stochastic differential equations known to reproduce power law statistics. We show that linear GARCH(1,1) process has power law distribution, but its power spectral density is Brownian noise-like. However, the nonlinear modifications exhibit both power law distribution and power spectral density of the 1 /fβ form, including 1 / f noise.

  2. Difference-Based Image Noise Modeling Using Skellam Distribution.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Youngbae; Kim, Jun-Sik; Kweon, In So

    2012-07-01

    By the laws of quantum physics, pixel intensity does not have a true value, but should be a random variable. Contrary to the conventional assumptions, the distribution of intensity may not be an additive Gaussian. We propose to directly model the intensity difference and show its validity by an experimental comparison to the conventional additive model. As a model of the intensity difference, we present a Skellam distribution derived from the Poisson photon noise model. This modeling induces a linear relationship between intensity and Skellam parameters, while conventional variance computation methods do not yield any significant relationship between these parameters under natural illumination. The intensity-Skellam line is invariant to scene, illumination, and even most of camera parameters. We also propose practical methods to obtain the line using a color pattern and an arbitrary image under natural illumination. Because the Skellam parameters that can be obtained from this linearity determine a noise distribution for each intensity value, we can statistically determine whether any intensity difference is caused by an underlying signal difference or by noise. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new noise model by applying it to practical applications of background subtraction and edge detection.

  3. Noise modeling for MOAs and ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Michael J.; Lee, Robert A.

    Whenever there is a reallocation of DOD fixed- or rotary-wing aircraft or a change in the use of the airspace requirements, either an Environmental Assessment or an Environmental Impact Statement must be prepared. These environmental studies require an analysis of the noise impacts resulting from aircraft operations surrounding the airports and under Military Training Routes (MTR's), Military Operating Areas (MOA's), and Ranges. NOISEMAP and ROUTEMAP were developed for the purpose of estimating the noise levels around military airports and under MTR's. Neither of these programs is suitable for estimating noise levels under MOA's or Ranges. MR NMAP is a PC-based computer model that has been developed to calculate the noise levels under MOA's and ranges. The program calculates L(sub dn), CNEL, L(sub eq), SEL, L(sub max), and where appropriate L(sub dnmr). The program output is a tabular form or in graphics suitable for inclusion in reports. The computer program is designed for use by environmental planning personnel who are familiar with MOA and range operations and with noise, but are not necessarily expert. The program will be widely distributed to DOD planners and contractors that have a requirement to make noise estimates. A companion graphical user interface (GUI) computer program called MR OPS has been developed that allows the user to draw the airspace, specify areas of high/medium/low activity, and draw the specific flight tracks for bombing runs and military training routes. MR OPS writes an ASCII file that is read by MR NMAP. Contained in this ASCII file is the operation data and keywords that control the computational features in MR NMAP. MR NMAP is written in FORTRAN; executable versions are available under DOS, Windows, and Windows NT. MR OPS is written in the C programming language and will run under Windows and Windows NT.

  4. A stochastic multi-symplectic scheme for stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jialin; Zhang, Liying

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we investigate a stochastic multi-symplectic method for stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise. Based on the stochastic version of variational principle, we find a way to obtain the stochastic multi-symplectic structure of three-dimensional (3-D) stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise. We propose a stochastic multi-symplectic scheme and show that it preserves the stochastic multi-symplectic conservation law and the local and global stochastic energy dissipative properties, which the equations themselves possess. Numerical experiments are performed to verify the numerical behaviors of the stochastic multi-symplectic scheme.

  5. Application of land use regression modelling to assess the spatial distribution of road traffic noise in three European cities.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Foraster, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Corradi, Elisabetta; Deltell, Alexandre; Morelli, Xavier; Phuleria, Harish C; Ragettli, Martina S; Rivera, Marcela; Thomasson, Alexandre; Slama, Rémy; Künzli, Nino

    2015-01-01

    Noise prediction models and noise maps are used to estimate the exposure to road traffic noise, but their availability and the quality of the noise estimates is sometimes limited. This paper explores the application of land use regression (LUR) modelling to assess the long-term intraurban spatial variability of road traffic noise in three European cities. Short-term measurements of road traffic noise taken in Basel, Switzerland (n=60), Girona, Spain (n=40), and Grenoble, France (n=41), were used to develop two LUR models: (a) a "GIS-only" model, which considered only predictor variables derived with Geographic Information Systems; and (b) a "Best" model, which in addition considered the variables collected while visiting the measurement sites. Both noise measurements and noise estimates from LUR models were compared with noise estimates from standard noise models developed for each city by the local authorities. Model performance (adjusted R(2)) was 0.66-0.87 for "GIS-only" models, and 0.70-0.89 for "Best" models. Short-term noise measurements showed a high correlation (r=0.62-0.78) with noise estimates from the standard noise models. LUR noise estimates did not show any systematic differences in the spatial patterns when compared with those from standard noise models. LUR modelling with accurate GIS source data can be a promising tool for noise exposure assessment with applications in epidemiological studies.

  6. A comprehensive model for quantum noise characterization in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, P.; Bosmans, H.; Verdun, F. R.; Marshall, N. W.

    2016-03-01

    A version of cascaded systems analysis was developed specifically with the aim of studying quantum noise propagation in x-ray detectors. Signal and quantum noise propagation was then modelled in four types of x-ray detectors used for digital mammography: four flat panel systems, one computed radiography and one slot-scan silicon wafer based photon counting device. As required inputs to the model, the two dimensional (2D) modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for six mammography systems that utilized these different detectors. A new method to reconstruct anisotropic 2D presampling MTF matrices from 1D radial MTFs measured along different angular directions across the detector is described; an image of a sharp, circular disc was used for this purpose. The effective pixel fill factor for the FP systems was determined from the axial 1D presampling MTFs measured with a square sharp edge along the two orthogonal directions of the pixel lattice. Expectation MTFs were then calculated by averaging the radial MTFs over all possible phases and the 2D EMTF formed with the same reconstruction technique used for the 2D presampling MTF. The quantum NPS was then established by noise decomposition from homogenous images acquired as a function of detector air kerma. This was further decomposed into the correlated and uncorrelated quantum components by fitting the radially averaged quantum NPS with the radially averaged EMTF2. This whole procedure allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of aliasing, signal and noise decorrelation, x-ray capture efficiency and global secondary gain on NPS and detector DQE. The influence of noise statistics, pixel fill factor and additional electronic and fixed pattern noises on the DQE was also studied. The 2D cascaded model and decompositions performed on the acquired images also enlightened the observed quantum NPS and DQE anisotropy.

  7. A comprehensive model for quantum noise characterization in digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Monnin, P; Bosmans, H; Verdun, F R; Marshall, N W

    2016-03-01

    A version of cascaded systems analysis was developed specifically with the aim of studying quantum noise propagation in x-ray detectors. Signal and quantum noise propagation was then modelled in four types of x-ray detectors used for digital mammography: four flat panel systems, one computed radiography and one slot-scan silicon wafer based photon counting device. As required inputs to the model, the two dimensional (2D) modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for six mammography systems that utilized these different detectors. A new method to reconstruct anisotropic 2D presampling MTF matrices from 1D radial MTFs measured along different angular directions across the detector is described; an image of a sharp, circular disc was used for this purpose. The effective pixel fill factor for the FP systems was determined from the axial 1D presampling MTFs measured with a square sharp edge along the two orthogonal directions of the pixel lattice. Expectation MTFs were then calculated by averaging the radial MTFs over all possible phases and the 2D EMTF formed with the same reconstruction technique used for the 2D presampling MTF. The quantum NPS was then established by noise decomposition from homogenous images acquired as a function of detector air kerma. This was further decomposed into the correlated and uncorrelated quantum components by fitting the radially averaged quantum NPS with the radially averaged EMTF(2). This whole procedure allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of aliasing, signal and noise decorrelation, x-ray capture efficiency and global secondary gain on NPS and detector DQE. The influence of noise statistics, pixel fill factor and additional electronic and fixed pattern noises on the DQE was also studied. The 2D cascaded model and decompositions performed on the acquired images also enlightened the observed quantum NPS and DQE anisotropy. PMID:26895467

  8. Estimating classification images with generalized linear and additive models.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Kenneth; Maloney, Laurence T

    2008-12-22

    Conventional approaches to modeling classification image data can be described in terms of a standard linear model (LM). We show how the problem can be characterized as a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with a Bernoulli distribution. We demonstrate via simulation that this approach is more accurate in estimating the underlying template in the absence of internal noise. With increasing internal noise, however, the advantage of the GLM over the LM decreases and GLM is no more accurate than LM. We then introduce the Generalized Additive Model (GAM), an extension of GLM that can be used to estimate smooth classification images adaptively. We show that this approach is more robust to the presence of internal noise, and finally, we demonstrate that GAM is readily adapted to estimation of higher order (nonlinear) classification images and to testing their significance.

  9. Random attractors for the stochastic coupled fractional Ginzburg-Landau equation with additive noise

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Ji E-mail: 530282863@qq.com; Li, Ping E-mail: 530282863@qq.com; Zhang, Jia; Liao, Ou

    2015-10-15

    This paper is concerned with the stochastic coupled fractional Ginzburg-Landau equation with additive noise. We first transform the stochastic coupled fractional Ginzburg-Landau equation into random equations whose solutions generate a random dynamical system. Then we prove the existence of random attractor for random dynamical system.

  10. On estimating the phase of periodic waveform in additive Gaussian noise, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, L. L.

    1984-11-01

    Motivated by advances in signal processing technology that support more complex algorithms, a new look is taken at the problem of estimating the phase and other parameters of a periodic waveform in additive Gaussian noise. The general problem was introduced and the maximum a posteriori probability criterion with signal space interpretation was used to obtain the structures of optimum and some suboptimum phase estimators for known constant frequency and unknown constant phase with an a priori distribution. Optimal algorithms are obtained for some cases where the frequency is a parameterized function of time with the unknown parameters and phase having a joint a priori distribution. In the last section, the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of hypersurfaces is introduced to provide insight to the estimation problem for the small noise and large noise cases.

  11. An aircraft noise pollution model for trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkana, A.; Cook, G.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the generation of aircraft noise is developed with the ultimate purpose of reducing noise (noise-optimizing landing trajectories) in terminal areas. While the model is for a specific aircraft (Boeing 737), the methodology would be applicable to a wide variety of aircraft. The model is used to obtain a footprint on the ground inside of which the noise level is at or above 70 dB.

  12. Urban daytime traffic noise prediction models.

    PubMed

    da Paz, Elaine Carvalho; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2010-04-01

    An evaluation was made of the acoustic environment generated by an urban highway using in situ measurements. Based on the data collected, a mathematical model was designed for the main sound levels (L (eq), L (10), L (50), and L (90)) as a function of the correlation between sound levels and between the equivalent sound pressure level and traffic variables. Four valid groups of mathematical models were generated to calculate daytime sound levels, which were statistically validated. It was found that the new models can be considered as accurate as other models presented in the literature to assess and predict daytime traffic noise, and that they stand out and differ from the existing models described in the literature thanks to two characteristics, namely, their linearity and the application of class intervals.

  13. A High Frequency Model of Cascade Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1998-01-01

    Closed form asymptotic expressions for computing high frequency noise generated by an annular cascade in an infinite duct containing a uniform flow are presented. There are two new elements in this work. First, the annular duct mode representation does not rely on the often-used Bessel function expansion resulting in simpler expressions for both the radial eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the duct. In particular, the new representation provides an explicit approximate formula for the radial eigenvalues obviating the need for solutions of the transcendental annular duct eigenvalue equation. Also, the radial eigenfunctions are represented in terms of exponentials eliminating the numerical problems associated with generating the Bessel functions on a computer. The second new element is the construction of an unsteady response model for an annular cascade. The new construction satisfies the boundary conditions on both the cascade and duct walls simultaneously adding a new level of realism to the noise calculations. Preliminary results which demonstrate the effectiveness of the new elements are presented. A discussion of the utility of the asymptotic formulas for calculating cascade discrete tone as well as broadband noise is also included.

  14. Comparison of the polynomial model against explicit measurements of noise components for different mammography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, P.; Bosmans, H.; Verdun, F. R.; Marshall, N. W.

    2014-10-01

    Given the adverse impact of image noise on the perception of important clinical details in digital mammography, routine quality control measurements should include an evaluation of noise. The European Guidelines, for example, employ a second-order polynomial fit of pixel variance as a function of detector air kerma (DAK) to decompose noise into quantum, electronic and fixed pattern (FP) components and assess the DAK range where quantum noise dominates. This work examines the robustness of the polynomial method against an explicit noise decomposition method. The two methods were applied to variance and noise power spectrum (NPS) data from six digital mammography units. Twenty homogeneously exposed images were acquired with PMMA blocks for target DAKs ranging from 6.25 to 1600 µGy. Both methods were explored for the effects of data weighting and squared fit coefficients during the curve fitting, the influence of the additional filter material (2 mm Al versus 40 mm PMMA) and noise de-trending. Finally, spatial stationarity of noise was assessed. Data weighting improved noise model fitting over large DAK ranges, especially at low detector exposures. The polynomial and explicit decompositions generally agreed for quantum and electronic noise but FP noise fraction was consistently underestimated by the polynomial method. Noise decomposition as a function of position in the image showed limited noise stationarity, especially for FP noise; thus the position of the region of interest (ROI) used for noise decomposition may influence fractional noise composition. The ROI area and position used in the Guidelines offer an acceptable estimation of noise components. While there are limitations to the polynomial model, when used with care and with appropriate data weighting, the method offers a simple and robust means of examining the detector noise components as a function of detector exposure.

  15. Comparison of the polynomial model against explicit measurements of noise components for different mammography systems.

    PubMed

    Monnin, P; Bosmans, H; Verdun, F R; Marshall, N W

    2014-10-01

    Given the adverse impact of image noise on the perception of important clinical details in digital mammography, routine quality control measurements should include an evaluation of noise. The European Guidelines, for example, employ a second-order polynomial fit of pixel variance as a function of detector air kerma (DAK) to decompose noise into quantum, electronic and fixed pattern (FP) components and assess the DAK range where quantum noise dominates. This work examines the robustness of the polynomial method against an explicit noise decomposition method. The two methods were applied to variance and noise power spectrum (NPS) data from six digital mammography units. Twenty homogeneously exposed images were acquired with PMMA blocks for target DAKs ranging from 6.25 to 1600 µGy. Both methods were explored for the effects of data weighting and squared fit coefficients during the curve fitting, the influence of the additional filter material (2 mm Al versus 40 mm PMMA) and noise de-trending. Finally, spatial stationarity of noise was assessed.Data weighting improved noise model fitting over large DAK ranges, especially at low detector exposures. The polynomial and explicit decompositions generally agreed for quantum and electronic noise but FP noise fraction was consistently underestimated by the polynomial method. Noise decomposition as a function of position in the image showed limited noise stationarity, especially for FP noise; thus the position of the region of interest (ROI) used for noise decomposition may influence fractional noise composition. The ROI area and position used in the Guidelines offer an acceptable estimation of noise components. While there are limitations to the polynomial model, when used with care and with appropriate data weighting, the method offers a simple and robust means of examining the detector noise components as a function of detector exposure.

  16. Correlated noise in bipolar transistors: Model implementation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszka, Zoltan; Chakravorty, Anjan

    2015-12-01

    A new orthogonalization scheme is suggested for implementing correlated noise of bipolar transistors. The scheme provides a necessary condition on the non-quasi-static (NQS) models that can be used to obtain an implementation-suitable correlated noise model. One of the solutions presented here corresponds to a single node realization not reported so far. The gm -factor is introduced in the noise analysis explaining the deviations of a former noise model from device simulations. The model is extended to include the collector space-charge-region induced noise by retaining the simplicity of the realization and preserving the model parameter count.

  17. New Seismic Noise Models Obtained Using Very Broadband Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Soliman, Mahmoud Sami

    2013-11-01

    It has been two decades since the last comprehensive standard model of ambient earth noise was published Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993). The PETERSON model was updated by analyzing the absolute quietest conditions for stations within the GSN ( Berger et al. in J Geophys Res 109, 2005; Mcnamara and Buland in Bull Seism Soc Am 94:1517-1527, 2004; Ringler et al. in Seismol Res Lett 81(4) doi:10.1785/gssrl.81.4.605, 2010). Unfortunately, both the original model and the updated models did not include any deployed station in North Africa and Middle East, which reflects the noise levels within the desert environment of those regions. In this study, a survey was conducted to create a new seismic noise model from very broadband stations which recently deployed in North Africa. For this purpose, 1 year of continuous recording of seismic noise data of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) was analyzed in order to create a new noise model. Seasonal and diurnal variations in noise spectra were recorded at each station. Moreover, we constructed a new noise model for each individual station. Finally, we obtained a new cumulative noise model for all the stations. We compared the new high-noise model (EHNM) and new low-noise model (ELNM) with both the high-noise model (NHNM) and low-noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993). The obtained noise levels are considerably lower than low-noise model of Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993) at ultra long period band (ULP band), but they are still below the high-noise model of Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993). The results of this study could be considered as a first step to create

  18. Stochastic model for detection of signals in noise

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Stanley A.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago Birdsall, Tanner, and colleagues made rapid progress in developing signal detection theory into a powerful psychophysical tool. One of their major insights was the utility of adding external noise to the signals of interest. These methods have been enhanced in recent years by the addition of multipass and classification-image methods for opening up the black box. There remain a number of as yet unresolved issues. In particular, Birdsall developed a theorem that large amounts of external input noise can linearize nonlinear systems, and Tanner conjectured, with mathematical backup, that what had been previously thought of as a nonlinear system could actually be a linear system with uncertainty. Recent findings, both experimental and theoretical, have validated Birdsall’s theorem and Tanner’s conjecture. However, there have also been experimental and theoretical findings with the opposite outcome. In this paper we present new data and simulations in an attempt to sort out these issues. Our simulations and experiments plus data from others show that Birdsall’s theorem is quite robust. We argue that uncertainty can serve as an explanation for violations of Birdsall’s linearization by noise and also for reports of stochastic resonance. In addition, we modify present models to better handle detection of signals with both noise and pedestal backgrounds. PMID:19884912

  19. Simplified phase noise model for negative-resistance oscillators and a comparison with feedback oscillator models.

    PubMed

    Everard, Jeremy; Xu, Min; Bale, Simon

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a greatly simplified model for the prediction of phase noise in oscillators which use a negative resistance as the active element. It is based on a simple circuit consisting of the parallel addition of a noise current, a negative admittance/resistance, and a parallel (Qlimited) resonant circuit. The transfer function is calculated as a forward trans-resistance (VOUT/IIN) and then converted to power. The effect of limiting is incorporated by assuming that the phase noise element of the noise floor is kT/2, i.e., -177 dBm/Hz at room temperature. The result is the same as more complex analyses, but enables a simple, clear insight into the operation of oscillators. The phase noise for a given power in the resonator appears to be lower than in feedback oscillators. The reasons for this are explained. Simulation and experimental results are included.

  20. The method of narrow-band audio classification based on universal noise background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Rui; Bao, Chang-chun

    2013-03-01

    Audio classification is the basis of content-based audio analysis and retrieval. The conventional classification methods mainly depend on feature extraction of audio clip, which certainly increase the time requirement for classification. An approach for classifying the narrow-band audio stream based on feature extraction of audio frame-level is presented in this paper. The audio signals are divided into speech, instrumental music, song with accompaniment and noise using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In order to satisfy the demand of actual environment changing, a universal noise background model (UNBM) for white noise, street noise, factory noise and car interior noise is built. In addition, three feature schemes are considered to optimize feature selection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a high accuracy for audio classification, especially under each noise background we used and keep the classification time less than one second.

  1. Noise Level Estimation for Model Selection in Kernel PCA Denoising.

    PubMed

    Varon, Carolina; Alzate, Carlos; Suykens, Johan A K

    2015-11-01

    One of the main challenges in unsupervised learning is to find suitable values for the model parameters. In kernel principal component analysis (kPCA), for example, these are the number of components, the kernel, and its parameters. This paper presents a model selection criterion based on distance distributions (MDDs). This criterion can be used to find the number of components and the σ(2) parameter of radial basis function kernels by means of spectral comparison between information and noise. The noise content is estimated from the statistical moments of the distribution of distances in the original dataset. This allows for a type of randomization of the dataset, without actually having to permute the data points or generate artificial datasets. After comparing the eigenvalues computed from the estimated noise with the ones from the input dataset, information is retained and maximized by a set of model parameters. In addition to the model selection criterion, this paper proposes a modification to the fixed-size method and uses the incomplete Cholesky factorization, both of which are used to solve kPCA in large-scale applications. These two approaches, together with the model selection MDD, were tested in toy examples and real life applications, and it is shown that they outperform other known algorithms. PMID:25608316

  2. An airport community noise-impact assessment model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1980-01-01

    A computer model was developed to assess the noise impact of an airport on the community which it serves. Assessments are made using the Fractional Impact Method by which a single number describes the community aircraft noise environment in terms of exposed population and multiple event noise level. The model is comprised of three elements: a conventional noise footprint model, a site specific population distribution model, and a dose response transfer function. The footprint model provides the noise distribution for a given aircraft operating scenario. This is combined with the site specific population distribution obtained from a national census data base to yield the number of residents exposed to a given level of noise. The dose response relationship relates noise exposure levels to the percentage of individuals highly annoyed by those levels.

  3. A high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Toni

    2014-05-01

    measurement precision (i.e. earthquake location), while considering this extremely complex boundary condition. To solve this problem I have developed a high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe. The model is based on land-use data derived from satellite imagery by the EU-project CORINE in a resolution of 100x100m. The the CORINE data consists of several land-use classes, which, besides others, contain: industrial areas, mines, urban fabric, agricultural areas, permanent corps, forests and open spaces. Additionally, open GIS data for highways, and major and minor roads and railway lines were included from the OpenStreetMap project (www.openstreetmap.org). This data was divided into three classes that represent good, intermediate and bad ambient conditions of the corresponding land-use class based on expert judgment. To account for noise propagation away from its source a smoothing operator was applied to individual land-use noise-fields. Finally, the noise-fields were stacked to obtain an European map of ambient noise conditions. A calibration of this map with data of existing seismic stations Europe allowed me to estimate the expected noise level in actual ground motion units for the three ambient noise condition classes of the map. The result is a high-resolution ambient seismic noise map, that allows the network designer to make educated predictions on the expected noise level for arbitrary location in Europe. The ambient noise model was successfully tested in several network optimization projects in Switzerland and surrounding countries and will hopefully be a valuable contribution to improving the data quality of microseismic monitoring networks in Europe.

  4. A measurement model for general noise reaction in response to aircraft noise.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Maarten; Schreckenberg, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a measurement model for general noise reaction (GNR) in response to aircraft noise is developed to assess the performance of aircraft noise annoyance and a direct measure of general reaction as indicators of this concept. For this purpose GNR is conceptualized as a superordinate latent construct underlying particular manifestations. This conceptualization is empirically tested through estimation of a second-order factor model. Data from a community survey at Frankfurt Airport are used for this purpose (N=2206). The data fit the hypothesized factor structure well and support the conceptualization of GNR as a superordinate construct. It is concluded that noise annoyance and a direct measure of general reaction to noise capture a large part of the negative feelings and emotions in response to aircraft noise but are unable to capture all relevant variance. The paper concludes with recommendations for the valid measurement of community reaction and several directions for further research.

  5. Numerical noise in ocean and estuarine models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, R.; Carey, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    Approximate methods for solving the shallow water equations may lead to solutions exhibiting large fictitious, numerically-induced oscillations. The analysis of the discrete dispersion relation and modal solutions of small wavelengths provides a powerful technique for assessing the sensitivity of alternative numerical schemes to irregular data which may lead to such oscillatory numerical noise. For those schemes where phase speed vanishes at a finite wavenumber or there are multiple roots for wavenumber, oscillation modes can exist which are uncoupled from the dynamics of the problem. The discrete modal analysis approach is used here to identify two classes of spurious oscillation modes associated respectively with the two different asymptotic limits corresponding to estuarine and large scale ocean models. The analysis provides further insight into recent numerical results for models which include large spatial scales and Coriolis acceleration. ?? 1984.

  6. Evolution of Background Noise and Development of Station Noise Models for GSN Stations ANMO and TUC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, C. R.; McNamara, D. E.; Gee, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Quality control (QC) of seismic data is an essential component of the operation of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN). In particular, the evaluation of the ambient background noise levels at each station plays a critical role in identifying potential problems, generally by comparison with historical levels. Current practice is to rely on the QC analyst's experience with each station's "fingerprint." The analyst compares current noise with noise levels seen in the past, in his or her experience. In order to formalize this activity and introduce a degree of automation, we explore the development of a "station noise model" for each station. Using the probability density function analysis of McNamara and Buland (2004), we selected GSN stations ANMO and TUC as examples for this initial study of methods for developing individualized noise models. The cities of Albuquerque and Tucson have both grown rapidly in the past 20 years or more, resulting in gradually increasing seismic noise, especially in the short period band. We present the evolution of seismic noise in various frequency bands at these two GSN stations, in particular, looking at those bands strongly affected by cultural encroachment. We also develop a method for establishing a station-specific noise model for each station that will be usable by automated QC algorithms for flagging out-of-character noise levels for that station.

  7. A Goldilocks principle for modelling radial velocity noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, F.; Tuomi, M.; Jones, H. R. A.; Butler, R. P.; Vogt, S.

    2016-09-01

    The Doppler measurements of stars are diluted and distorted by stellar activity noise. Different choices of noise models and statistical methods have led to much controversy in the confirmation of exoplanet candidates obtained through analysing radial velocity data. To quantify the limitation of various models and methods, we compare different noise models and signal detection criteria for various simulated and real data sets in the Bayesian framework. According to our analyses, the white noise model tend to interpret noise as signal, leading to false positives. On the other hand, the red noise models are likely to interpret signal as noise, resulting in false negatives. We find that the Bayesian information criterion combined with a Bayes factor threshold of 150 can efficiently rule out false positives and confirm true detections. We further propose a Goldilocks principle aimed at modelling radial velocity noise to avoid too many false positives and too many false negatives. We propose that the noise model with RHK-dependent jitter is used in combination with the moving average model to detect planetary signals for M dwarfs. Our work may also shed light on the noise modelling for hotter stars, and provide a valid approach for finding similar principles in other disciplines.

  8. Additive non-Gaussian noise attacks on the scalar Costa scheme (SCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzschoppe, Roman; Bauml, Robert; Fischer, Robert; Huber, Johannes; Kaup, Andre

    2005-03-01

    The additive attack public mutual information game is explicitly solved for one of the simplest quantization based watermarking schemes, the scalar Costa scheme (SCS). It is a zero-sum game played between the embedder and the attacker, and the payoff function is the mutual information. The solution of the game, a subgame perfect nash equilibrium, is found by backward induction. Therefore, the Blahut-Arimoto algorithm is employed for numerically optimizing the mutual information over noise distributions. Although the worst case distribution is in general strongly non-Gaussian, the capacity degradation compared to a suboptimal Gaussian noise attack is quite small. The loss, if the embedder optimizes SCS for a Gaussian attack but the worst case attack is employed, is negligible.

  9. A Tool for Low Noise Procedures Design and Community Noise Impact Assessment: The Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Page, Juliet A.

    2002-01-01

    To improve aircraft noise impact modeling capabilities and to provide a tool to aid in the development of low noise terminal area operations for rotorcraft and tiltrotors, the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM) was developed by the NASA Langley Research Center and Wyle Laboratories. RNM is a simulation program that predicts how sound will propagate through the atmosphere and accumulate at receiver locations located on flat ground or varying terrain, for single and multiple vehicle flight operations. At the core of RNM are the vehicle noise sources, input as sound hemispheres. As the vehicle "flies" along its prescribed flight trajectory, the source sound propagation is simulated and accumulated at the receiver locations (single points of interest or multiple grid points) in a systematic time-based manner. These sound signals at the receiver locations may then be analyzed to obtain single event footprints, integrated noise contours, time histories, or numerous other features. RNM may also be used to generate spectral time history data over a ground mesh for the creation of single event sound animation videos. Acoustic properties of the noise source(s) are defined in terms of sound hemispheres that may be obtained from theoretical predictions, wind tunnel experimental results, flight test measurements, or a combination of the three. The sound hemispheres may contain broadband data (source levels as a function of one-third octave band) and pure-tone data (in the form of specific frequency sound pressure levels and phase). A PC executable version of RNM is publicly available and has been adopted by a number of organizations for Environmental Impact Assessment studies of rotorcraft noise. This paper provides a review of the required input data, the theoretical framework of RNM's propagation model and the output results. Code validation results are provided from a NATO helicopter noise flight test as well as a tiltrotor flight test program that used the RNM as a tool to aid in

  10. Analysis and modeling on noise factor of microchannel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2013-12-01

    The Microchannel plate (MCP) is the main noise source of low-level light (LLL) image intensifier. Material and the whole manufacturing process of MCP have great impact on the noises of MCP. In this paper, based on the physical mechanisms of MCP, noises of MCP are classified scientifically. By using the data obtained from the actual production and the process test, the regression equation of the noise figure of MCP is derived, and the theoretical model of MCP noise figure is established, including the background noise figure model caused by the dark current of the MCP primarily about the time of the alkali corrosion technic, the ion feedback induced noise figure model caused by the patterns of the MCP channel wall primarily about the time and temperature of the hydrogen reduction technic, and the electronic scattering noise figure model caused by the open area ratio of the MCP primarily about the time of the alkali corrosion technic. Guided by the theoretical model of noise figure, the methods of suppressing noises of MCP are obtained and the technics are optimized. Taking advantage of the new techniques, the noise figure of the third generation MCP has been reduced to below 1.8.

  11. Modelling nonstationary Doppler noise in exoplanetary radial velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2015-08-01

    We construct a new class of analytic nonstationary noise models for exoplanetary Doppler data. The observable correlated noise is represented as a convolution of a parent activity process with a given memory function. The model honours the casuality principle, meaning that only past values of the activity may affect the observable value. This model does not approximate detailedly any real stellar activity phenomena, but it becomes mathematically simple, simultaneously satisfying the basic natural principles of physical sensibility and self-consistency.Additionally, we develop a new type of periodograms that can be used to detect periodic modulations in the Doppler noise characteristics, rather than in the observed radial velocity curve itself. We present first results of applying this technique to public Doppler time series available for a set of planet-hosting stars.This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 14-02-92615 KO_a), the UK Royal Society International Exchange grant IE140055, by the President of Russia grant for young scientists (No. MK-733.2014.2), by the programme of the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences P21, and by the Saint Petersburg State University research grant 6.37.341.2015.

  12. Non-stationary noise estimation using dictionary learning and Gaussian mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, James M.; Rockmore, Daniel N.; Wang, Yang

    2014-02-01

    Stationarity of the noise distribution is a common assumption in image processing. This assumption greatly simplifies denoising estimators and other model parameters and consequently assuming stationarity is often a matter of convenience rather than an accurate model of noise characteristics. The problematic nature of this assumption is exacerbated in real-world contexts, where noise is often highly non-stationary and can possess time- and space-varying characteristics. Regardless of model complexity, estimating the parameters of noise dis- tributions in digital images is a difficult task, and estimates are often based on heuristic assumptions. Recently, sparse Bayesian dictionary learning methods were shown to produce accurate estimates of the level of additive white Gaussian noise in images with minimal assumptions. We show that a similar model is capable of accu- rately modeling certain kinds of non-stationary noise processes, allowing for space-varying noise in images to be estimated, detected, and removed. We apply this modeling concept to several types of non-stationary noise and demonstrate the model's effectiveness on real-world problems, including denoising and segmentation of images according to noise characteristics, which has applications in image forensics.

  13. Rotor Broadband Noise Prediction with Comparison to Model Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis and prediction development of rotor broadband noise. The two primary components of this noise are Blade-Wake Interaction (BWI) noise, due to the blades' interaction with the turbulent wakes of the preceding blades, and "Self" noise, due to the development and shedding of turbulence within the blades' boundary layers. Emphasized in this report is the new code development for Self noise. The analysis and validation employs data from the HART program, a model BO-105 rotor wind tunnel test conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). The BWI noise predictions are based on measured pressure response coherence functions using cross-spectral methods. The Self noise predictions are based on previously reported semiempirical modeling of Self noise obtained from isolated airfoil sections and the use of CAMRAD.Modl to define rotor performance and local blade segment flow conditions. Both BWI and Self noise from individual blade segments are Doppler shifted and summed at the observer positions. Prediction comparisons with measurements show good agreement for a range of rotor operating conditions from climb to steep descent. The broadband noise predictions, along with those of harmonic and impulsive Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise predictions, demonstrate a significant advance in predictive capability for main rotor noise.

  14. Evaluation of internal noise methods for Hotelling observer models

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yani; Pham, Binh T.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2007-08-15

    The inclusion of internal noise in model observers is a common method to allow for quantitative comparisons between human and model observer performance in visual detection tasks. In this article, we studied two different strategies for inserting internal noise into Hotelling model observers. In the first strategy, internal noise was added to the output of individual channels: (a) Independent nonuniform channel noise, (b) independent uniform channel noise. In the second strategy, internal noise was added to the decision variable arising from the combination of channel responses. The standard deviation of the zero mean internal noise was either constant or proportional to: (a) the decision variable's standard deviation due to the external noise, (b) the decision variable's variance caused by the external noise, (c) the decision variable magnitude on a trial to trial basis. We tested three model observers: square window Hotelling observer (HO), channelized Hotelling observer (CHO), and Laguerre-Gauss Hotelling observer (LGHO) using a four alternative forced choice (4AFC) signal known exactly but variable task with a simulated signal embedded in real x-ray coronary angiogram backgrounds. The results showed that the internal noise method that led to the best prediction of human performance differed across the studied model observers. The CHO model best predicted human observer performance with the channel internal noise. The HO and LGHO best predicted human observer performance with the decision variable internal noise. The present results might guide researchers with the choice of methods to include internal noise into Hotelling model observers when evaluating and optimizing medical image quality.

  15. Recursive ideal observer detection of known M-ary signals in multiplicative and additive Gaussian noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, J. H.; Gupta, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the derivation of the recursive algorithms necessary for real-time digital detection of M-ary known signals that are subject to independent multiplicative and additive Gaussian noises. The motivating application is minimum probability of error detection of digital data-link messages aboard civil aircraft in the earth reflection multipath environment. For each known signal, the detector contains one Kalman filter and one probability computer. The filters estimate the multipath disturbance. The estimates and the received signal drive the probability computers. Outputs of all the computers are compared in amplitude to give the signal decision. The practicality and usefulness of the detector are extensively discussed.

  16. Model for noise-induced hearing loss using support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wei; Ye, Jun; Liu-White, Xiaohong; Hamernik, Roger P.

    2005-09-01

    Contemporary noise standards are based on the assumption that an energy metric such as the equivalent noise level is sufficient for estimating the potential of a noise stimulus to cause noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Available data, from laboratory-based experiments (Lei et al., 1994; Hamernik and Qiu, 2001) indicate that while an energy metric may be necessary, it is not sufficient for the prediction of NIHL. A support vector machine (SVM) NIHL prediction model was constructed, based on a 550-subject (noise-exposed chinchillas) database. Training of the model used data from 367 noise-exposed subjects. The model was tested using the remaining 183 subjects. Input variables for the model included acoustic, audiometric, and biological variables, while output variables were PTS and cell loss. The results show that an energy parameter is not sufficient to predict NIHL, especially in complex noise environments. With the kurtosis and other noise and biological parameters included as additional inputs, the performance of SVM prediction model was significantly improved. The SVM prediction model has the potential to reliably predict noise-induced hearing loss. [Work supported by NIOSH.

  17. Acoustic FMRI noise: linear time-invariant system model.

    PubMed

    Rizzo Sierra, Carlos V; Versluis, Maarten J; Hoogduin, Johannes M; Duifhuis, Hendrikus Diek

    2008-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For auditory system studies, however, the acoustic noise generated by the scanner tends to interfere with the assessments of this activation. Understanding and modeling fMRI acoustic noise is a useful step to its reduction. To study acoustic noise, the MR scanner is modeled as a linear electroacoustical system generating sound pressure signals proportional to the time derivative of the input gradient currents. The transfer function of one MR scanner is determined for two different input specifications: 1) by using the gradient waveform calculated by the scanner software and 2) by using a recording of the gradient current. Up to 4 kHz, the first method is shown as reliable as the second one, and its use is encouraged when direct measurements of gradient currents are not possible. Additionally, the linear order and average damping properties of the gradient coil system are determined by impulse response analysis. Since fMRI is often based on echo planar imaging (EPI) sequences, a useful validation of the transfer function prediction ability can be obtained by calculating the acoustic output for the EPI sequence. We found a predicted sound pressure level (SPL) for the EPI sequence of 104 dB SPL compared to a measured value of 102 dB SPL. As yet, the predicted EPI pressure waveform shows similarity as well as some differences with the directly measured EPI pressure waveform.

  18. The IDC Seismic, Hydroacoustic and Infrasound Global Low and High Noise Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David; Ceranna, Lars; Prior, Mark; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan J.

    2014-03-01

    The International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria, is determining, as part of automatic processing, sensor noise levels for all seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound (SHI) stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) operated by the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). Sensor noise is being determined several times per day as a power spectral density (PSD) using the Welch overlapping method. Based on accumulated PSD statistics a probability density function (PDF) is also determined, from which low and high noise curves for each sensor are extracted. Global low and high noise curves as a function of frequency for each of the SHI technologies are determined as the minimum and maximum of the individual station low and high noise curves, respectively, taken over the entire network of contributing stations. An attempt is made to ensure that only correctly calibrated station data contributes to the global noise models by additionally considering various automatic detection statistics. In this paper global low and high noise curves for 2010 are presented for each of the SHI monitoring technologies. Except for a very slight deviation at the microseism peak, the seismic global low noise model returns identically the Peterson (1993) NLNM low noise curve. The global infrasonic low noise model is found to agree with that of Bowman et al. (2005, 2007) but disagrees with the revised results presented in Bowman et al. (2009) by a factor of 2 in the calculation of the PSD. The global hydroacoustic low and high noise curves are found to be in quantitative agreement with Urick's oceanic ambient noise curves for light to heavy shipping. Whale noise is found to be a feature of the hydroacoustic high noise curves at around 15 and 25 Hz.

  19. Transition under noise in the Sznajd model on square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    2016-08-01

    In order to describe the formation of a consensus in human opinion dynamics, in this paper, we study the Sznajd model with probabilistic noise in two dimensions. The time evolution of this system is performed via Monte Carlo simulations. This social behavior model with noise presents a well defined second-order phase transition. For small enough noise q < 0.33 most agents end up sharing the same opinion.

  20. Study on noise prediction model and control schemes for substation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanmin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    With the government's emphasis on environmental issues of power transmission and transformation project, noise pollution has become a prominent problem now. The noise from the working transformer, reactor, and other electrical equipment in the substation will bring negative effect to the ambient environment. This paper focuses on using acoustic software for the simulation and calculation method to control substation noise. According to the characteristics of the substation noise and the techniques of noise reduction, a substation's acoustic field model was established with the SoundPLAN software to predict the scope of substation noise. On this basis, 4 reasonable noise control schemes were advanced to provide some helpful references for noise control during the new substation's design and construction process. And the feasibility and application effect of these control schemes can be verified by using the method of simulation modeling. The simulation results show that the substation always has the problem of excessive noise at boundary under the conventional measures. The excess noise can be efficiently reduced by taking the corresponding noise reduction methods. PMID:24672356

  1. Study on noise prediction model and control schemes for substation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanmin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    With the government's emphasis on environmental issues of power transmission and transformation project, noise pollution has become a prominent problem now. The noise from the working transformer, reactor, and other electrical equipment in the substation will bring negative effect to the ambient environment. This paper focuses on using acoustic software for the simulation and calculation method to control substation noise. According to the characteristics of the substation noise and the techniques of noise reduction, a substation's acoustic field model was established with the SoundPLAN software to predict the scope of substation noise. On this basis, 4 reasonable noise control schemes were advanced to provide some helpful references for noise control during the new substation's design and construction process. And the feasibility and application effect of these control schemes can be verified by using the method of simulation modeling. The simulation results show that the substation always has the problem of excessive noise at boundary under the conventional measures. The excess noise can be efficiently reduced by taking the corresponding noise reduction methods.

  2. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.

  3. Repeated Moderate Noise Exposure in the Rat--an Early Adulthood Noise Exposure Model.

    PubMed

    Mannström, Paula; Kirkegaard, Mette; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of varying intensity levels of repeated moderate noise exposures on hearing. The aim was to define an appropriate intensity level that could be repeated several times without giving rise to a permanent hearing loss, and thus establish a model for early adulthood moderate noise exposure in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to broadband noise for 90 min, with a 50 % duty cycle at levels of 101, 104, 107, or 110 dB sound pressure level (SPL), and compared to a control group of non-exposed animals. Exposure was repeated every 6 weeks for a maximum of six repetitions or until a permanent hearing loss was observed. Hearing was assessed by the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Rats exposed to the higher intensities of 107 and 110 dB SPL showed permanent threshold shifts following the first exposure, while rats exposed to 101 and 104 dB SPL could be exposed at least six times without a sustained change in hearing thresholds. ABR amplitudes decreased over time for all groups, including the non-exposed control group, while the latencies were unaffected. A possible change in noise susceptibility following the repeated moderate noise exposures was tested by subjecting the animals to high-intensity noise exposure of 110 dB for 4 h. Rats previously exposed repeatedly to 104 dB SPL were slightly more resistant to high-intensity noise exposure than non-exposed rats or rats exposed to 101 dB SPL. Repeated moderate exposure to 104 dB SPL broadband noise is a viable model for early adulthood noise exposure in rats and may be useful for the study of noise exposure on age-related hearing loss.

  4. Optical linear algebra processors: noise and error-source modeling.

    PubMed

    Casasent, D; Ghosh, A

    1985-06-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAP's) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  5. Optical linear algebra processors - Noise and error-source modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

    1985-01-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  6. A study of noise source location on a model scale augmentor wing using correlation techniques. [noise measurement of far field noise by wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Scharton, T. D.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation, conducted on a model-scale augmentor wing to identify the sources of far-field noise, is examined. The measurement procedure followed in the investigation involved the cross-correlation of far field sound pressures with fluctuating pressures on the surface of the augmentor flap and shroud. In addition pressures on the surfaces of the augmentor were cross-correlated. The results are interpreted as showing that the surface pressure fluctuations are mainly aerodynamic in character and are convected in the downstream direction with a velocity which is dependent on the jet exhaust velocity. However the far field sound levels in the mid and high frequency ranges are dominated by jet noise. There is an indication that in the low frequency range trailing edge noise, associated with interaction of the jet flow and the flap trailing edge, plays a significant role in the radiated sound field.

  7. Noise levels from a model turbofan engine with simulated noise control measures applied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David G.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A study of estimated full-scale noise levels based on measured levels from the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) sub-scale model is presented. Testing of this model was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) estimates for the baseline configuration are documented, and also used as the control case in a study of the potential benefits of two categories of noise control. The effect of active noise control is evaluated by artificially removing various rotor-stator interaction tones. Passive noise control is simulated by applying a notch filter to the wind tunnel data. Cases with both techniques are included to evaluate hybrid active-passive noise control. The results for EPNL values are approximate because the original source data was limited in bandwidth and in sideline angular coverage. The main emphasis is on comparisons between the baseline and configurations with simulated noise control measures.

  8. Modeling of the roundabout noise impact.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Rufin; Golebiewski, Roman

    2007-08-01

    A roundabout is a very popular tool used by town planners for carrying smooth and stationary road traffic flow. In this study it is shown that the replacement of a classical road intersection by a roundabout, under certain conditions, may produce a traffic noise decrease. These conditions are expressed in terms of the roundabout speed and the receiver location. The A-weighted sound exposure level is used to describe noise reduction.

  9. A Comparison of Combustor-Noise Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart, S.

    2012-01-01

    The current status of combustor-noise prediction in the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) for current-generation (N) turbofan engines is summarized. Best methods for near-term updates are reviewed. Long-term needs and challenges for the N+1 through N+3 timeframe are discussed. This work was carried out under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, Quiet Aircraft Subproject.

  10. A method for predicting DCT-based denoising efficiency for grayscale images corrupted by AWGN and additive spatially correlated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Aleksey S.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Egiazarian, Karen O.

    2015-03-01

    Results of denoising based on discrete cosine transform for a wide class of images corrupted by additive noise are obtained. Three types of noise are analyzed: additive white Gaussian noise and additive spatially correlated Gaussian noise with middle and high correlation levels. TID2013 image database and some additional images are taken as test images. Conventional DCT filter and BM3D are used as denoising techniques. Denoising efficiency is described by PSNR and PSNR-HVS-M metrics. Within hard-thresholding denoising mechanism, DCT-spectrum coefficient statistics are used to characterize images and, subsequently, denoising efficiency for them. Results of denoising efficiency are fitted for such statistics and efficient approximations are obtained. It is shown that the obtained approximations provide high accuracy of prediction of denoising efficiency.

  11. A high and low noise model for strong motion accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Cauzzi, C.; Olivieri, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present reference noise models for high-quality strong motion accelerometer installations. We use continuous accelerometer data acquired by the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) since 2006 and other international high-quality accelerometer network data to derive very broadband (50Hz-100s) high and low noise models. The proposed noise models are compared to the Peterson (1993) low and high noise models designed for broadband seismometers; the datalogger self-noise; background noise levels at existing Swiss strong motion stations; and typical earthquake signals recorded in Switzerland and worldwide. The standard strong motion station operated by the SED consists of a Kinemetrics Episensor (2g clip level; flat acceleration response from 200 Hz to DC; <155dB dynamic range) coupled with a 24-bit Nanometrics Taurus datalogger. The proposed noise models are based on power spectral density (PSD) noise levels for each strong motion station computed via PQLX (McNamara and Buland, 2004) from several years of continuous recording. The 'Accelerometer Low Noise Model', ALNM, is dominated by instrument noise from the sensor and datalogger. The 'Accelerometer High Noise Model', AHNM, reflects 1) at high frequencies the acceptable site noise in urban areas, 2) at mid-periods the peak microseismal energy, as determined by the Peterson High Noise Model and 3) at long periods the maximum noise observed from well insulated sensor / datalogger systems placed in vault quality sites. At all frequencies, there is at least one order of magnitude between the ALNM and the AHNM; at high frequencies (> 1Hz) this extends to 2 orders of magnitude. This study provides remarkable confirmation of the capability of modern strong motion accelerometers to record low-amplitude ground motions with seismic observation quality. In particular, an accelerometric station operating at the ALNM is capable of recording the full spectrum of near source earthquakes, out to 100 km, down to M2. Of particular

  12. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Roadway Construction Noise Model (RCNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochat, Judith L.; Reherman, Clay N.

    2005-09-01

    Roadway construction is often conducted in close proximity to residences and businesses and should be controlled and monitored in order to avoid excessive noise impacts. To aid in this process, the Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), has developed a construction noise screening tool. The FHWA Roadway Construction Noise Model (RCNM) is a newly developed national model for the prediction of construction noise. The model is based on the construction noise prediction spreadsheet developed for the Central Artery/Tunnel Project in Boston, MA (CA/T Project or ``Big Dig'') by Erich Thalheimer of Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. The CA/T Project is the largest urban construction project ever conducted in the United States and has the most comprehensive noise control specification ever developed in the United States. RCNM incorporates the CA/T Project's noise limit criteria and extensive construction equipment noise database, where these parameters can be modified according to each user's needs. Users can also activate and analyze multiple pieces of equipment simultaneously and define multiple receptor locations, including land-use type and baseline noise levels, where RCNM will calculate sound level results for multiple metrics.

  13. Performance of peaky template matching under additive white Gaussian noise and uniform quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2015-05-01

    Peaky template matching (PTM) is a special case of a general algorithm known as multinomial pattern matching originally developed for automatic target recognition of synthetic aperture radar data. The algorithm is a model- based approach that first quantizes pixel values into Nq = 2 discrete values yielding generative Beta-Bernoulli models as class-conditional templates. Here, we consider the case of classification of target chips in AWGN and develop approximations to image-to-template classification performance as a function of the noise power. We focus specifically on the case of a uniform quantization" scheme, where a fixed number of the largest pixels are quantized high as opposed to using a fixed threshold. This quantization method reduces sensitivity to the scaling of pixel intensities and quantization in general reduces sensitivity to various nuisance parameters difficult to account for a priori. Our performance expressions are verified using forward-looking infrared imagery from the Army Research Laboratory Comanche dataset.

  14. Signal-to-noise ratio in direct-detection mid-infrared Random-Modulation Continuous-Wave lidar in the presence of colored additive noise.

    PubMed

    Rybaltowski, A; Taflove, A

    2001-10-01

    We have derived the signal-to-noise ratio in direct-detection Random-Modulation Continuous-Wave (RM-CW) lidar in the presence of colored additive noise. In contrast to a known formula derived for the photon shot-noise regime, which may adequately describe experimental conditions in the near-infrared, our result is applicable mainly at longer, mid-infrared wavelengths. Unlike the former formula, our result is explicitly dependent on the pseudorandom code (PRC) used for modulation. Three known modulation codes, the M-, A1-, and A2-sequence are compared and shown to have practically equivalent signal and noise properties (provided that clutter inherent in the A1- and A2-sequence is neglected), except that the M-sequence has a near-zero-frequency noise pickup that degrades its performance in real measurement systems. This difference provides an alternative explanation of a better performance of the A1-/A2-sequence in a previous experiment [3], carried out in the near-infrared. It suggests the presence of an additive noise component and thus some applicability of our result also in near-infrared lidar. A need for balanced sequences - particularly in the mid-infrared - is explained, although in a different way than previously suggested in near-infrared, photon shot noise-limited lidar. Additional, sinusoidal carrier modulation is considered and shown to have significant drawbacks. Our results allow comparison of given modulation sequences, and construction of improved ones. Interestingly, the improved sequences will possess less "random" characteristics, seemingly against the underlying concept of random modulation.

  15. Public policy and environmental noise: modeling exposure or understanding effects.

    PubMed Central

    Staples, S L

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that if the federal government is to successfully protect the public from the adverse effects of environmental noise, its policies will need to be informed by a scientific understanding of the psychological and social factors that determine when noise results in annoyance and when noise may affect health as an environmental stressor. The overreliance of federal agencies on mathematical modeling of average group responses to physical noise levels is discussed as oversimplifying and limiting the understanding of noise effects in crucial ways. The development of a more sophisticated information base is related to policy needs, such as the need to make accurate predictions about the annoyance of particular communities, the need to understand relationships between public participation in noise abatement efforts and annoyance, and the need to identify populations that may be susceptible to stress-related health effects. PMID:9431308

  16. Modeling the interactions between noise exposure and other variables.

    PubMed

    Humes, L E; Jesteadt, W

    1991-07-01

    The interaction of noise exposure with other variables is reviewed. For the case of the interaction of noise with other variables that produce behavioral threshold shifts, the application of a newly developed model is described and demonstrated. This model, referred to as the modified power-law model, provides an accurate prediction of the combined effects of two threshold-elevating factors. The model accounts for the interaction of post-exposure a pre-existing pre-existing permanent loss or a pre-existing temporary loss. The model's application is demonstrated for multiple exposures to steady-state noise in which each exposure lasts as short as 12 min or as long as 6 h. Finally, implications of the model's application to the interaction long as 6 h. Finally, implications of the model's application to the interaction of noise with other ototraumatic agents are reviewed.

  17. Measuring the levels of noise at the İstanbul Atatürk Airport and comparisons with model simulations.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; Ozkurt, Nesimi; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye

    2014-06-01

    Airport noise and its impact on the surrounding areas are major issues in the aviation industry. The İstanbul Atatürk Airport is a major global airport with passenger numbers increasing rapidly per annum. The noise levels for day, evening and night times were modeled around the İstanbul Atatürk Airport according to the European Noise Directive using the actual data records for the year 2011. The "ECAC Doc. 29-Interim" method was used for the computation of the aircraft traffic noise. In the setting the noise model for the local airport topography was taken into consideration together with the noise source data, the airport loadings, features of aircraft and actual air traffic data. Model results were compared with long-term noise measurement values for calibration. According to calibration results, classifications of the aircraft type and flight tracks were revised. For noise model validation, the daily noise measurements at four additional locations were used during the verification period. The input data was re-edited only for these periods and the model was validated. A successful model performance was obtained in several zones around the airport. The validated noise model of the İstanbul Atatürk Airport can be now utilized both for determining the noise levels in the future and for producing new strategies which are about the land use planning, operational considerations for the air traffic management and the noise abatement procedures.

  18. Background noise model development for seismic stations of KMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Youngsoo

    2010-05-01

    The background noise recorded at seismometer is exist at any seismic signal due to the natural phenomena of the medium which the signal passed through. Reducing the seismic noise is very important to improve the data quality in seismic studies. But, the most important aspect of reducing seismic noise is to find the appropriate place before installing the seismometer. For this reason, NIMR(National Institution of Meteorological Researches) starts to develop a model of standard background noise for the broadband seismic stations of the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) using a continuous data set obtained from 13 broadband stations during the period of 2007 and 2008. We also developed the model using short period seismic data from 10 stations at the year of 2009. The method of Mcmara and Buland(2004) is applied to analyse background noise of Korean Peninsula. The fact that borehole seismometer records show low noise level at frequency range greater than 1 Hz compared with that of records at the surface indicate that the cultural noise of inland Korean Peninsula should be considered to process the seismic data set. Reducing Double Frequency peak also should be regarded because the Korean Peninsula surrounded by the seas from eastern, western and southern part. The development of KMA background model shows that the Peterson model(1993) is not applicable to fit the background noise signal generated from Korean Peninsula.

  19. Railway noise annoyance: exposure-response relationships and testing a theoretical model by structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Pennig, Sibylle; Schady, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In some regions the exposure to railway noise is extremely concentrated, which may lead to high residential annoyance. Nonacoustical factors contribute to these reactions, but there is limited evidence on the interrelations between the nonacoustical factors that influence railway noise annoyance. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine exposure-response relationships between long-term railway noise exposure and annoyance in a region severely affected by railway noise and (2) to determine a priori proposed interrelations between nonacoustical factors by structural equation analysis. Residents (n = 320) living close to railway tracks in the Middle Rhine Valley completed a socio-acoustic survey. Individual noise exposure levels were calculated by an acoustical simulation model for this area. The derived exposure-response relationships indicated considerably higher annoyance at the same noise exposure level than would have been predicted by the European Union standard curve, particularly for the night-time period. In the structural equation analysis, 72% of the variance in noise annoyance was explained by the noise exposure (L(den)) and nonacoustical variables. The model provides insights into several causal mechanisms underlying the formation of railway noise annoyance considering indirect and reciprocal effects. The concern about harmful effects of railway noise and railway traffic, the perceived control and coping capacity, and the individual noise sensitivity were the most important factors that influence noise annoyance. All effects of the nonacoustical factors on annoyance were mediated by the perceived control and coping capacity and additionally proposed indirect effects of the theoretical model were supported by the data.

  20. Testing Models for Perceptual Discrimination Using Repeatable Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Adding noise to stimuli to be discriminated allows estimation of observer classification functions based on the correlation between observer responses and relevant features of the noisy stimuli. Examples will be presented of stimulus features that are found in auditory tone detection and visual Vernier acuity. Using the standard signal detection model (Thurstone scaling), we derive formulas to estimate the proportion of the observer's decision variable variance that is controlled by the added noise. One is based on the probability of agreement of the observer with him/herself on trials with the same noise sample. Another is based on the relative performance of the observer and the model. When these do not agree, the model can be rejected. A second derivation gives the probability of agreement of observer and model when the observer follows the model except for internal noise. Agreement significantly less than this amount allows rejection of the model.

  1. Theoretical Modeling of Intensity Noise in InGaN Semiconductor Lasers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces modeling and simulation of the noise properties of the blue-violet InGaN laser diodes. The noise is described in terms of the spectral properties of the relative intensity noise (RIN). We examine the validity of the present noise modeling by comparing the simulated results with the experimental measurements available in literature. We also compare the obtained noise results with those of AlGaAs lasers. Also, we examine the influence of gain suppression on the quantum RIN. In addition, we examine the changes in the RIN level when describing the gain suppression by the case of inhomogeneous spectral broadening. The results show that RIN of the InGaN laser is nearly 9 dB higher than that of the AlGaAs laser. PMID:25147848

  2. Noise-intensity fluctuation in Langevin model and its higher-order Fokker-Planck equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masanori

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a Langevin model subjected to stochastic intensity noise (SIN), which incorporates temporal fluctuations in noise-intensity. We derive a higher-order Fokker-Planck equation (HFPE) of the system, taking into account the effect of SIN by the adiabatic elimination technique. Stationary distributions of the HFPE are calculated by using the perturbation expansion. We investigate the effect of SIN in three cases: (a) parabolic and quartic bistable potentials with additive noise, (b) a quartic potential with multiplicative noise, and (c) a stochastic gene expression model. We find that the existence of noise-intensity fluctuations induces an intriguing phenomenon of a bimodal-to-trimodal transition in probability distributions. These results are validated with Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Theoretical modeling of intensity noise in InGaN semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Moustafa

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces modeling and simulation of the noise properties of the blue-violet InGaN laser diodes. The noise is described in terms of the spectral properties of the relative intensity noise (RIN). We examine the validity of the present noise modeling by comparing the simulated results with the experimental measurements available in literature. We also compare the obtained noise results with those of AlGaAs lasers. Also, we examine the influence of gain suppression on the quantum RIN. In addition, we examine the changes in the RIN level when describing the gain suppression by the case of inhomogeneous spectral broadening. The results show that RIN of the InGaN laser is nearly 9 dB higher than that of the AlGaAs laser.

  4. Image noise variance estimation using the mixed Lagrange time-delay autoregressive model.

    PubMed

    Sim, K-S; Tso, C-P; Law, K-K

    2008-04-01

    The mixed Lagrange time-delay estimation autoregressive (MLTDEAR) model is proposed as a solution to estimate image noise variance. The only information available to the proposed estimator is a corrupted image and the nature of additive white noise. The image autocorrelation function is calculated and used to obtain the MLTDEAR model coefficients; the relationship between the MLTDEAR and linear prediction models is utilized to estimate the model coefficients. The forward-backward prediction is then used to obtain the predictor coefficients; the MLTDEAR model coefficients and prior samples of zero-offset autocorrelation values are next used to predict the power of the noise-free image. Furthermore, the fundamental performance limit of the signal and noise estimation, as derived from the Cramer-Rao inequality, is presented.

  5. Modeling environmental noise exceedances using non-homogeneous Poisson processes.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Claudio; Quartieri, Joseph; Barrios, Juan M; Rodrigues, Eliane R

    2014-10-01

    In this work a non-homogeneous Poisson model is considered to study noise exposure. The Poisson process, counting the number of times that a sound level surpasses a threshold, is used to estimate the probability that a population is exposed to high levels of noise a certain number of times in a given time interval. The rate function of the Poisson process is assumed to be of a Weibull type. The presented model is applied to community noise data from Messina, Sicily (Italy). Four sets of data are used to estimate the parameters involved in the model. After the estimation and tuning are made, a way of estimating the probability that an environmental noise threshold is exceeded a certain number of times in a given time interval is presented. This estimation can be very useful in the study of noise exposure of a population and also to predict, given the current behavior of the data, the probability of occurrence of high levels of noise in the near future. One of the most important features of the model is that it implicitly takes into account different noise sources, which need to be treated separately when using usual models.

  6. Adaptive cyclic physiologic noise modeling and correction in functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Beall, Erik B

    2010-03-30

    Physiologic noise in BOLD-weighted MRI data is known to be a significant source of the variance, reducing the statistical power and specificity in fMRI and functional connectivity analyses. We show a dramatic improvement on current noise correction methods in both fMRI and fcMRI data that avoids overfitting. The traditional noise model is a Fourier series expansion superimposed on the periodicity of parallel measured breathing and cardiac cycles. Correction using this model results in removal of variance matching the periodicity of the physiologic cycles. Using this framework allows easy modeling of noise. However, using a large number of regressors comes at the cost of removing variance unrelated to physiologic noise, such as variance due to the signal of functional interest (overfitting the data). It is our hypothesis that there are a small variety of fits that describe all of the significantly coupled physiologic noise. If this is true, we can replace a large number of regressors used in the model with a smaller number of the fitted regressors and thereby account for the noise sources with a smaller reduction in variance of interest. We describe these extensions and demonstrate that we can preserve variance in the data unrelated to physiologic noise while removing physiologic noise equivalently, resulting in data with a higher effective SNR than with current corrections techniques. Our results demonstrate a significant improvement in the sensitivity of fMRI (up to a 17% increase in activation volume for fMRI compared with higher order traditional noise correction) and functional connectivity analyses.

  7. A transformed analytical model for thermal noise of FinFET based on fringing field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhulika Sharma, Savitesh; Dasgupta, S.; Kartikeyant, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper delineates the effect of nonplanar structure of FinFETs on noise performance. We demonstrate the thermal noise analytical model that has been inferred by taking into account the presence of an additional inverted region in the extended (underlap) S/D region due to finite gate electrode thickness. Noise investigation includes the effects of source drain resistances which become significant as channel length becomes shorter. In this paper, we evaluate the additional noise caused by three dimensional (3-D) structure of the single fin device and then extended analysis of the multi-fin and multi-fingers structure. The addition of fringe field increases its minimum noise figure and noise resistance of approximately 1 dB and 100 Ω respectively and optimum admittance increases to 5.45 mƱ at 20 GHz for a device operating under saturation region. Hence, our transformed model plays a significant function in evaluation of accurate noise performance at circuit level. Project supported in part by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).

  8. Development of a highway noise prediction model using an Leq20 s measure of basic vehicular noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamanikabud, P.; Tansatcha, M.; Brown, A. L.

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to build a highway traffic noise simulation model for free-flow traffic conditions in Thailand employing a technique utilizing individual vehicular noise modelling based on the equivalent sound level over 20 s ( Leq20 s). This Leq20 s technique provides a more accurate measurement of noise energy from each type of vehicle under real running conditions. The coefficient of propagation and ground effect for this model was then estimated using a trial-and-error method, and applied to the highway traffic noise simulation model. This newly developed highway traffic noise model was tested for its goodness-of-fit to field observations. The test shows that this new model provides good predictions for highway noise conditions in Thailand. The concepts and techniques that are modeled and tested in this study can also be applied for prediction of traffic noise for local conditions in other countries.

  9. Modelling of noise-like pulses generated in fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The present paper for the first time proposes and studies a relatively simple model of noise-like pulses that matches the experimental data well and suggests that there is a correlation between phases of adjacent spectral components of noiselike pulses. Comparison of a relatively basic model of `random' pulses with the results of noise-like pulse modelling in mode-locked fibre lasers based on coupled non-linear Schrödinger equations demonstrates that it adequately reproduces temporal and spectral properties of noise-like pulses as well as correlation between adjacent modes so that it's possible to use the proposed model for highly efficient simulations of promising applications of noise-like pulses, such as material processing, non-linear frequency conversion, microscopy, and others.

  10. Sound Modeling Simplifies Vehicle Noise Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Under two SBIR contracts with Langley Research Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan-based Comet Technology Corporation developed Comet EnFlow, a software program capable of predicting both high- and low-frequency noise and vibration behavior in plane fuselages and other structures. The company now markets the software to airplane, automobile, and ship manufacturers, and Langley has found an unexpected use for it in leak detection on the International Space Station.

  11. Symbolic regression modeling of noise generation at porous airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarradj, Ennes; Geyer, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Based on data sets from previous experimental studies, the tool of symbolic regression is applied to find empirical models that describe the noise generation at porous airfoils. Both the self noise from the interaction of a turbulent boundary layer with the trailing edge of an porous airfoil and the noise generated at the leading edge due to turbulent inflow are considered. Following a dimensional analysis, models are built for trailing edge noise and leading edge noise in terms of four and six dimensionless quantities, respectively. Models of different accuracy and complexity are proposed and discussed. For the trailing edge noise case, a general dependency of the sound power on the fifth power of the flow velocity was found and the frequency spectrum is controlled by the flow resistivity of the porous material. Leading edge noise power is proportional to the square of the turbulence intensity and shows a dependency on the fifth to sixth power of the flow velocity, while the spectrum is governed by the flow resistivity and the integral length scale of the incoming turbulence.

  12. Modelling secondary microseismic noise by normal mode summation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, L.; Stutzmann, E.; Capdeville, Y.; Ardhuin, F.; Schimmel, M.; Mangeney, A.; Morelli, A.

    2013-06-01

    Secondary microseisms recorded by seismic stations are generated in the ocean by the interaction of ocean gravity waves. We present here the theory for modelling secondary microseismic noise by normal mode summation. We show that the noise sources can be modelled by vertical forces and how to derive them from a realistic ocean wave model. We then show how to compute bathymetry excitation effect in a realistic earth model by using normal modes and a comparison with Longuet-Higgins approach. The strongest excitation areas in the oceans depends on the bathymetry and period and are different for each seismic mode. Seismic noise is then modelled by normal mode summation considering varying bathymetry. We derive an attenuation model that enables to fit well the vertical component spectra whatever the station location. We show that the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves is the dominant signal in seismic noise. There is a discrepancy between real and synthetic spectra on the horizontal components that enables to estimate the amount of Love waves for which a different source mechanism is needed. Finally, we investigate noise generated in all the oceans around Africa and show that most of noise recorded in Algeria (TAM station) is generated in the Northern Atlantic and that there is a seasonal variability of the contribution of each ocean and sea.

  13. A fuzzy rule based framework for noise annoyance modeling.

    PubMed

    Botteldooren, Dick; Verkeyn, Andy; Lercher, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Predicting the effect of noise on individual people and small groups is an extremely difficult task due to the influence of a multitude of factors that vary from person to person and from context to context. Moreover, noise annoyance is inherently a vague concept. That is why, in this paper, it is argued that noise annoyance models should identify a fuzzy set of possible effects rather than seek a very accurate crisp prediction. Fuzzy rule based models seem ideal candidates for this task. This paper provides the theoretical background for building these models. Existing empirical knowledge is used to extract a few typical rules that allow making the model more specific for small groups of individuals. The resulting model is tested on two large-scale social surveys augmented with exposure simulations. The testing demonstrates how this new way of thinking about noise effect modeling can be used in practice both in management support as a "noise annoyance adviser" and in social science for testing hypotheses such as the effect of noise sensitivity or the degree of urbanization.

  14. Modeling and estimation of signal-dependent noise in hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Meola, Joseph; Eismann, Michael T; Moses, Randolph L; Ash, Joshua N

    2011-07-20

    The majority of hyperspectral data exploitation algorithms are developed using statistical models for the data that include sensor noise. Hyperspectral data collected using charge-coupled devices or other photon detectors have sensor noise that is directly dependent on the amplitude of the signal collected. However, this signal dependence is often ignored. Additionally, the statistics of the noise can vary spatially and spectrally as a result of camera characteristics and the calibration process applied to the data. Here, we examine the expected noise characteristics of both raw and calibrated visible/near-infrared hyperspectral data and provide a method for estimating the noise statistics using calibration data or directly from the imagery if calibration data is unavailable.

  15. Fokker-Planck description for a linear delayed Langevin equation with additive Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuggioli, Luca; McKetterick, Thomas John; Kenkre, V. M.; Chase, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    We construct an equivalent probability description of linear multi-delay Langevin equations subject to additive Gaussian white noise. By exploiting the time-convolutionless transform and a time variable transformation we are able to write a Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) for the 1-time and for the 2-time probability distributions valid irrespective of the regime of stability of the Langevin equations. We solve exactly the derived FPEs and analyze the aging dynamics by studying analytically the conditional probability distribution. We discuss explicitly why the initially conditioned distribution is not sufficient to describe fully out a non-Markov process as both preparation and observation times have bearing on its dynamics. As our analytic procedure can also be applied to linear Langevin equations with memory kernels, we compare the non-Markov dynamics of a one-delay system with that of a generalized Langevin equation with an exponential as well as a power law memory. Application to a generalization of the Green-Kubo formula is also presented.

  16. Fokker–Planck description for a linear delayed Langevin equation with additive Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuggioli, Luca; McKetterick, Thomas John; Kenkre, V. M.; Chase, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    We construct an equivalent probability description of linear multi-delay Langevin equations subject to additive Gaussian white noise. By exploiting the time-convolutionless transform and a time variable transformation we are able to write a Fokker–Planck equation (FPE) for the 1-time and for the 2-time probability distributions valid irrespective of the regime of stability of the Langevin equations. We solve exactly the derived FPEs and analyze the aging dynamics by studying analytically the conditional probability distribution. We discuss explicitly why the initially conditioned distribution is not sufficient to describe fully out a non-Markov process as both preparation and observation times have bearing on its dynamics. As our analytic procedure can also be applied to linear Langevin equations with memory kernels, we compare the non-Markov dynamics of a one-delay system with that of a generalized Langevin equation with an exponential as well as a power law memory. Application to a generalization of the Green–Kubo formula is also presented.

  17. 3D filtering technique in presence of additive noise in color videos implemented on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Palacios, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    A filtering method for color videos contaminated by additive noise is presented. The proposed framework employs three filtering stages: spatial similarity filtering, neighboring frame denoising, and spatial post-processing smoothing. The difference with other state-of- the-art filtering methods, is that this approach, based on fuzzy logic, analyses basic and related gradient values between neighboring pixels into a 7 fi 7 sliding window in the vicinity of a central pixel in each of the RGB channels. Following, the similarity measures between the analogous pixels in the color bands are taken into account during the denoising. Next, two neighboring video frames are analyzed together estimating local motions between the frames using block matching procedure. In the final stage, the edges and smoothed areas are processed differently in a current frame during the post-processing filtering. Numerous simulations results confirm that this 3D fuzzy filter perform better than other state-of-the- art methods, such as: 3D-LLMMSE, WMVCE, RFMDAF, FDARTF G, VBM3D and NLM, in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via human vision system in the different color videos. An efficiency analysis of the designed and other mentioned filters have been performed on the DSPs TMS320 DM642 and TMS320DM648 by Texas Instruments through MATLAB and Simulink module showing that the novel 3D fuzzy filter can be used in real-time processing applications.

  18. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  19. Modeling secondary microseismic noise by normal mode summation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, Lucia; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Capdeville, Yann; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Schimmel, Martin; Mangenay, Anne; Morelli, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Seismic noise is the continuous oscillation of the ground recorded by seismic stations in the period band 5-20s. In particular, secondary microseisms occur in the period band 5-12s and are generated in the ocean by the interaction of ocean gravity waves. We present the theory for modeling secondary microseismic noise by normal mode summation. We show that the noise sources can be modeled by vertical forces and how to derive them from a realistic ocean wave model. During the computation we take into account the bathymetry. We show how to compute bathymetry excitation effect in a realistic Earth model using normal modes and a comparison with Longuet-Higgins (1950) approach. The strongest excitation areas in the oceans depends on the bathymetry and period and are different for each seismic mode. We derive an attenuation model than enables to fit well the vertical component spectra whatever the station location. We show that the fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave is the dominant signal in seismic noise and it is sufficient to reproduce the main features of noise spectra amplitude. We also model horizontal components. There is a discrepancy between real and synthetic spectra on the horizontal components that enables to estimate the amount of Love waves for which a different source mechanism is needed. Finally, we investigate noise generated in all the oceans around Africa and show that most of noise recorded in Algeria (TAM station) is generated in the Northern Atlantic and that there is a seasonal variability of the contribution of each ocean and sea. Moreover, we also show that the Mediterranean Sea contributes significantly to the short period noise in winter.

  20. Using transportation demand models to assess regional noise exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliski, Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    In the United States, most metropolitan areas run some type of transportation demand model to estimate regional travel patterns, and, to some extent, air pollution. The more advanced of these models accurately represent the geographic contours of the roadways (in contrast to the older straight-line node and link models). This allows an almost seamless integration of these new transportation demand models into noise prediction models. Combined with the locations of individual homes from a separate E911 database, we can readily make estimates of the noise exposure of populations over large areas. In this paper, the regional traffic noise exposure of residences of Chittenden County, VT is estimated and mapped. It was found that 30% of the residences are exposed to noise levels exceeding the WHO sleep disturbance level of 45 dB LAeq(8) and 20% of residences are exposed to levels exceeding the WHO ``serious annoyance'' level of 55 dB LAeq(16). Maps show noise contours as well as individual homes color coded based on relative day and night noise exposure levels. Measured sound level data are given for particular locations to validate the predictions.

  1. Characterizing Observers Using External Noise and Observer Models: Assessing Internal Representations with External Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dosher, Barbara Anne

    2008-01-01

    External noise methods and observer models have been widely used to characterize the intrinsic perceptual limitations of human observers and changes of the perceptual limitations associated with cognitive, developmental, and disease processes by highlighting the variance of internal representations. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of…

  2. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: New Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Kevin W; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review This article presents research findings from two invertebrate model systems with potential to advance both the understanding of noise-induced hearing loss mechanisms and the development of putative therapies to reduce human noise damage. Recent findings Work on sea anemone hair bundles, which resemble auditory hair cells, has revealed secretions that exhibit astonishing healing properties not only for damaged hair bundles, but also for vertebrate lateral line neuromasts. We present progress on identifying functional components of the secretions, and their mechanisms of repair. The second model, the Johnston's organ in Drosophila, is also genetically homologous to hair cells and shows noise-induced hearing loss similar to vertebrates. Drosophila offers genetic and molecular insight into noise sensitivity and pathways that can be manipulated to reduce stress and damage from noise. Summary Using the comparative approach is a productive avenue to understanding basic mechanisms, in this case cellular responses to noise trauma. Expanding study of these systems may accelerate identification of strategies to reduce or prevent noise damage in the human ear. PMID:25111054

  3. Spin noise in the anisotropic central spin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackmann, Johannes; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2014-01-01

    Spin-noise measurements can serve as a direct probe for the microscopic decoherence mechanism of an electronic spin in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). We have calculated the spin-noise spectrum in the anisotropic central spin model using a Chebyshev expansion technique which exactly accounts for the dynamics up to an arbitrary long but fixed time in a finite-size system. In the isotropic case, describing QD charge with a single electron, the short-time dynamics is in good agreement with quasistatic approximations for the thermodynamic limit. The spin-noise spectrum, however, shows strong deviations at low frequencies with a power-law behavior of ω-3/4 corresponding to a t-1/4 decay at intermediate and long times. In the Ising limit, applicable to QDs with heavy-hole spins, the spin-noise spectrum exhibits a threshold behavior of (ω-ωL)-1/2 above the Larmor frequency ωL=gμBB. In the generic anisotropic central spin model we have found a crossover from a Gaussian type of spin-noise spectrum to a more Ising-type spectrum with increasing anisotropy in a finite magnetic field. In order to make contact with experiments, we present ensemble averaged spin-noise spectra for QD ensembles charged with single electrons or holes. The Gaussian-type noise spectrum evolves to a more Lorentzian shape spectrum with increasing spread of characteristic time scales and g factors of the individual QDs.

  4. Modeling deep ocean shipping noise in varying acidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Udovydchenkov, Ilya A; Duda, Timothy F; Doney, Scott C; Lima, Ivan D

    2010-09-01

    Possible future changes of ambient shipping noise at 0.1-1 kHz in the North Pacific caused by changing seawater chemistry conditions are analyzed with a simplified propagation model. Probable decreases of pH would cause meaningful reduction of the sound absorption coefficient in near-surface ocean water for these frequencies. The results show that a few decibels of increase may occur in 100 years in some very quiet areas very far from noise sources, with small effects closer to noise sources. The use of ray physics allows sound energy attenuated via volume absorption and by the seafloor to be compared.

  5. Modeling flux noise in SQUIDs due to hyperfine interactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiansheng; Yu, Clare C

    2012-06-15

    Recent experiments implicate spins on the surface of metals as the source of flux noise in superconducting quantum interference devices and indicate that these spins are able to relax without conserving total magnetization. We present a model of 1/f flux noise in which electron spins on the surface of metals can relax via hyperfine interactions. Our results indicate that flux noise would be significantly reduced in superconducting materials where the most abundant isotopes do not have nuclear moments, such as zinc and lead.

  6. Efficient Modelling and Prediction of Meshing Noise from Chain Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZHENG, H.; WANG, Y. Y.; LIU, G. R.; LAM, K. Y.; QUEK, K. P.; ITO, T.; NOGUCHI, Y.

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a practical approach for predicting the meshing noise due to the impact of chain rollers against the sprocket of chain drives. An acoustical model relating dynamic response of rollers and its induced sound pressure is developed based on the fact that the acoustic field is mainly created by oscillating rigid cylindrical rollers. Finite element techniques and numerical software codes are employed to model and simulate the acceleration response of each chain roller which is necessary for noise level prediction of a chain drive under varying operation conditions and different sprocket configurations. The predicted acoustic pressure levels of meshing noise are compared with the available experimental measurements. It is shown that the predictions are in reasonable agreement with the experiments and the approach enables designers to obtain required information on the noise level of a selected chain drive in a time- and cost-efficient manner.

  7. Stochastic bifurcation in a model of love with colored noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xiaokui; Dai, Honghua; Yuan, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we wish to examine the stochastic bifurcation induced by multiplicative Gaussian colored noise in a dynamical model of love where the random factor is used to describe the complexity and unpredictability of psychological systems. First, the dynamics in deterministic love-triangle model are considered briefly including equilibrium points and their stability, chaotic behaviors and chaotic attractors. Then, the influences of Gaussian colored noise with different parameters are explored such as the phase plots, top Lyapunov exponents, stationary probability density function (PDF) and stochastic bifurcation. The stochastic P-bifurcation through a qualitative change of the stationary PDF will be observed and bifurcation diagram on parameter plane of correlation time and noise intensity is presented to find the bifurcation behaviors in detail. Finally, the top Lyapunov exponent is computed to determine the D-bifurcation when the noise intensity achieves to a critical value. By comparison, we find there is no connection between two kinds of stochastic bifurcation.

  8. Jet Noise Physics and Modeling Using First-principles Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Jonathan B.

    2003-01-01

    An extensive analysis of our jet DNS database has provided for the first time the complex correlations that are the core of many statistical jet noise models, including MGBK. We have also for the first time explicitly computed the noise from different components of a commonly used noise source as proposed in many modeling approaches. Key findings are: (1) While two-point (space and time) velocity statistics are well-fitted by decaying exponentials, even for our low-Reynolds-number jet, spatially integrated fourth-order space/retarded-time correlations, which constitute the noise "source" in MGBK, are instead well-fitted by Gaussians. The width of these Gaussians depends (by a factor of 2) on which components are considered. This is counter to current modeling practice, (2) A standard decomposition of the Lighthill source is shown by direct evaluation to be somewhat artificial since the noise from these nominally separate components is in fact highly correlated. We anticipate that the same will be the case for the Lilley source, and (3) The far-field sound is computed in a way that explicitly includes all quadrupole cancellations, yet evaluating the Lighthill integral for only a small part of the jet yields a far-field noise far louder than that from the whole jet due to missing nonquadrupole cancellations. Details of this study are discussed in a draft of a paper included as appendix A.

  9. Quantifying the Effects of Noise on Diffuse Interface Models: Cahn-Hilliard-Cook equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Spencer; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2015-03-01

    We present an investigation into the dynamics of phase separation through numerical simulations of the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook (CHC) equation. This model is an extension of the well-known Cahn- Hilliard equation, perturbed by an additive white noise. Studies have shown that random fluctuations are critical for proper resolution of physical phenomena. This is especially true for phase critical systems. We explore the transient behavior of the solution space for varying levels of noise. This is enabled by our massively scalable finite element-based numerical framework. We briefly examine the interplay between noise level and discretization (spatial and temporal) in obtaining statistically consistent solutions. We show that the added noise accelerates progress towards phase separation, but retards dynamics throughout subsequent coarsening. We identify a scaling exponent relating morphology metrics with the level of noise. We observe a very clear scaling effect of finite domain size, which is observed to be offset by increasing levels of noise. Domain scaling reveals a clear microstructural asymmetry at various stages of the evolution for lower noise levels. In contrast, higher noise levels tend to produce more uniform morphologies.

  10. Cascaded analysis of signal and noise propagation through a heterogeneous breast model

    SciTech Connect

    Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The detectability of lesions in radiographic images can be impaired by patterns caused by the surrounding anatomic structures. The presence of such patterns is often referred to as anatomic noise. Others have previously extended signal and noise propagation theory to include variable background structure as an additional noise term and used in simulations for analysis by human and ideal observers. Here, the analytic forms of the signal and noise transfer are derived to obtain an exact expression for any input random distribution and the ''power law'' filter used to generate the texture of the tissue distribution. Methods: A cascaded analysis of propagation through a heterogeneous model is derived for x-ray projection through simulated heterogeneous backgrounds. This is achieved by considering transmission through the breast as a correlated amplification point process. The analytic forms of the cascaded analysis were compared to monoenergetic Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray propagation through power law structured backgrounds. Results: As expected, it was found that although the quantum noise power component scales linearly with the x-ray signal, the anatomic noise will scale with the square of the x-ray signal. There was a good agreement between results obtained using analytic expressions for the noise power and those from Monte Carlo simulations for different background textures, random input functions, and x-ray fluence. Conclusions: Analytic equations for the signal and noise properties of heterogeneous backgrounds were derived. These may be used in direct analysis or as a tool to validate simulations in evaluating detectability.

  11. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Noise Impact Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ege, Russell A.; Brown, Jerome; Bradley, Kevin; Grandi, Fabio

    1999-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the US aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The Noise Impact Model (NIM) has been developed as part of the ASAC. Its primary purpose is to enable users to examine the impact that quieter aircraft technologies and/or operation might have on community noise impact and air carrier operating efficiency at any of 16 large and medium size US airports. The analyst chooses an airport and case year for study, selects a runway use configuration and set of flight tracks for the scenario, and has the option of reducing the noise of the aircraft that operate at the airport by 3, 6, and 10 decibels, NIM computes the resultant noise impact and estimates any airline operational improvements. Community noise impact is characterized in three ways: the size of the noise contour footprint, the number of people living within the contours, and the number of homes located in the same contours. Distance and time savings are calculated by comparing the noise abatement flight path length to a less circuitous alternated routing. For a more efficient runway use configuration, the increase in capacity and reduction in delay are shown.

  12. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Noise Impact Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Ege, Russell; Burn, Melissa; Carey, Jeffrey; Bradley, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The Noise Impact Model (NIM) has been developed as part of the ASAC. Its primary purpose is to enable users to examine the impact that quieter aircraft technologies and/or operations might have on community noise impact and air carrier operating efficiency at any of 16 large- and medium-sized U.S. airports. The analyst chooses an airport and case year for study, selects a runway use configuration and set of flight tracks for the scenario, and has the option of reducing the noise of the aircraft that operate at the airport by 3, 6, or 10 decibels. NIM computes the resultant noise impact and estimates any airline operations improvements. Community noise impact is characterized in three ways: the size of the noise contour footprint, the number of people living within the.contours, and the number of homes located in the same contours. Distance and time savings are calculated by comparing the noise abatement flight path length to a less circuitous alternate routing. For a more efficient runway use configuration, the increase in capacity and reduction in delay are shown.

  13. Developing an Empirical Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2014-01-01

    The process of developing an empirical model for jet-surface interaction noise is described and the resulting model evaluated. Jet-surface interaction noise is generated when the high-speed engine exhaust from modern tightly integrated or conventional high-bypass ratio engine aircraft strikes or flows over the airframe surfaces. An empirical model based on an existing experimental database is developed for use in preliminary design system level studies where computation speed and range of configurations is valued over absolute accuracy to select the most promising (or eliminate the worst) possible designs. The model developed assumes that the jet-surface interaction noise spectra can be separated from the jet mixing noise and described as a parabolic function with three coefficients: peak amplitude, spectral width, and peak frequency. These coefficients are fit to functions of surface length and distance from the jet lipline to form a characteristic spectra which is then adjusted for changes in jet velocity and/or observer angle using scaling laws from published theoretical and experimental work. The resulting model is then evaluated for its ability to reproduce the characteristic spectra and then for reproducing spectra measured at other jet velocities and observer angles; successes and limitations are discussed considering the complexity of the jet-surface interaction noise versus the desire for a model that is simple to implement and quick to execute.

  14. Developing an Empirical Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clif

    2014-01-01

    The process of developing an empirical model for jet-surface interaction noise is described and the resulting model evaluated. Jet-surface interaction noise is generated when the high-speed engine exhaust from modern tightly integrated or conventional high-bypass ratio engine aircraft strikes or flows over the airframe surfaces. An empirical model based on an existing experimental database is developed for use in preliminary design system level studies where computation speed and range of configurations is valued over absolute accuracy to select the most promising (or eliminate the worst) possible designs. The model developed assumes that the jet-surface interaction noise spectra can be separated from the jet mixing noise and described as a parabolic function with three coefficients: peak amplitude, spectral width, and peak frequency. These coefficients are t to functions of surface length and distance from the jet lipline to form a characteristic spectra which is then adjusted for changes in jet velocity and/or observer angle using scaling laws from published theoretical and experimental work. The resulting model is then evaluated for its ability to reproduce the characteristic spectra and then for reproducing spectra measured at other jet velocities and observer angles; successes and limitations are discussed considering the complexity of the jet-surface interaction noise versus the desire for a model that is simple to implement and quick to execute.

  15. Colored noise and memory effects on formal spiking neuron models.

    PubMed

    da Silva, L A; Vilela, R D

    2015-06-01

    Simplified neuronal models capture the essence of the electrical activity of a generic neuron, besides being more interesting from the computational point of view when compared to higher-dimensional models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley one. In this work, we propose a generalized resonate-and-fire model described by a generalized Langevin equation that takes into account memory effects and colored noise. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis to study the dynamics and the point process statistics of the proposed model, highlighting interesting new features such as (i) nonmonotonic behavior (emergence of peak structures, enhanced by the choice of colored noise characteristic time scale) of the coefficient of variation (CV) as a function of memory characteristic time scale, (ii) colored noise-induced shift in the CV, and (iii) emergence and suppression of multimodality in the interspike interval (ISI) distribution due to memory-induced subthreshold oscillations. Moreover, in the noise-induced spike regime, we study how memory and colored noise affect the coherence resonance (CR) phenomenon. We found that for sufficiently long memory, not only is CR suppressed but also the minimum of the CV-versus-noise intensity curve that characterizes the presence of CR may be replaced by a maximum. The aforementioned features allow to interpret the interplay between memory and colored noise as an effective control mechanism to neuronal variability. Since both variability and nontrivial temporal patterns in the ISI distribution are ubiquitous in biological cells, we hope the present model can be useful in modeling real aspects of neurons.

  16. Colored noise and memory effects on formal spiking neuron models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. A.; Vilela, R. D.

    2015-06-01

    Simplified neuronal models capture the essence of the electrical activity of a generic neuron, besides being more interesting from the computational point of view when compared to higher-dimensional models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley one. In this work, we propose a generalized resonate-and-fire model described by a generalized Langevin equation that takes into account memory effects and colored noise. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis to study the dynamics and the point process statistics of the proposed model, highlighting interesting new features such as (i) nonmonotonic behavior (emergence of peak structures, enhanced by the choice of colored noise characteristic time scale) of the coefficient of variation (CV) as a function of memory characteristic time scale, (ii) colored noise-induced shift in the CV, and (iii) emergence and suppression of multimodality in the interspike interval (ISI) distribution due to memory-induced subthreshold oscillations. Moreover, in the noise-induced spike regime, we study how memory and colored noise affect the coherence resonance (CR) phenomenon. We found that for sufficiently long memory, not only is CR suppressed but also the minimum of the CV-versus-noise intensity curve that characterizes the presence of CR may be replaced by a maximum. The aforementioned features allow to interpret the interplay between memory and colored noise as an effective control mechanism to neuronal variability. Since both variability and nontrivial temporal patterns in the ISI distribution are ubiquitous in biological cells, we hope the present model can be useful in modeling real aspects of neurons.

  17. Noise of a model helicopter rotor due to ingestion of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterson, R. W.; Amiet, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise of a model helicoper rotor due to ingestion of turbulence was conducted. Experiments were performed with a 0.76 m dia, articulated model rotor for a range of inflow turbulence and rotor operating conditions. Inflow turbulence levels varied from approximately 2 to 19 percent and tip Mach number was varied from 0.3 to 0.52. Test conditions included ingestion of a atmospheric turbulence in outdoor hover as well as ingestion of grid generated isotropic turbulence in the wind tunnel airstream. In wind tunnel testing, both forward flight and vertical ascent (climb) were simulated. Far field noise spectra and directivity were measured in addition to incident turbulence intensities, length scales, and spectra. Results indicate that ingestion of atmospheric turbulence is the dominant helicopter rotor hover noise mechanism at the moderate to high frequencies which determine perceived noise level.

  18. Modeling of relative intensity noise and terminal electrical noise of semiconductor lasers using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, A.; Noori, L.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, artificial neural network (ANN) is used to predict the source laser's relative intensity noise (RIN) and the terminal electrical noise (TEN) of semiconductor lasers. For this purpose, the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network trained with the back propagation algorithm is used. To develop this model, the normalized bias current and frequency are selected as the input parameters and the RIN and TEN of semiconductor lasers are selected as the output parameters. The obtained results show that the proposed ANN model is in a good agreement with the numerical method, and a small error between the predicted values and the numerical solution is obtained. Therefore, the proposed ANN model is a useful, reliable, fast and cheap tool to predict the RIN and TEN of semiconductor lasers.

  19. Residual phase noise modeling of amplifiers using silicon bipolar transistors.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulos, Konstantinos; Everard, Jeremy

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the modeling of residual 1/f phase noise for Si bipolar amplifiers operating in the linear region. We propose that for Si bipolar amplifiers, the 1/f phase noise is largely caused by the base emitter recombination flicker noise. The up-conversion mechanism is described through linear approximation of the phase variation of the amplifier phase response by the variation of the device parameters (C(b)c, C(be), g(m), r(e)) caused by the recombination 1/f noise. The amplifier phase response describes the device over the whole frequency range of operation for which the influence of the poles and zeros is investigated. It is found that for a common emitter amplifier it is sufficient to only incorporate the effect of the device poles to describe the phase noise behavior over most of its operational frequency range. Simulations predict the measurements of others, including the flattening of the PM noise at frequencies beyond f(3dB), not predicted by previous models.

  20. Noise analysis and signal-to-noise ratio model of gain modulation laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Zhipeng; Li, Sining; Zhang, Dayong; Lu, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Gain modulation imaging technique is one of the prominent schemes for scannerless lidar. By controlling the gate width, it's easy to suppress backscatter noise and make the image more accurately. Imaging range and accuracy of gain modulation laser imaging become a research focus at present. According to the principle of imaging, the signal energy and the noise energy reaching the imager can be found. Further signal-to-noise ratio can be obtained. Previous theoretical models consider only linear gain condition. However the influence of laser pulse width and other factors are less taken into consideration. These models will have a certain deviation with the actual one. By simulating the nonlinear gain with consideration of the laser pulse width and lambert spherical radiation, more accurate SNR model of gain modulation laser imaging is obtained. On this basis, the established SNR model can be used to estimate the experimental distance with good imaging effect. It provides the theoretical basis for subsequent experiment system parameter selection and image processing.

  1. Engineering modeling of traffic noise in shielded areas in cities.

    PubMed

    Salomons, Erik M; Polinder, Henk; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han; Borst, Hieronymous C; Miedema, Henk M E

    2009-11-01

    A computational study of road traffic noise in cities is presented. Based on numerical boundary-element calculations of canyon-to-canyon propagation, an efficient engineering algorithm is developed to calculate the effect of multiple reflections in street canyons. The algorithm is supported by a room-acoustical analysis of the reverberant sound fields in the source and receiver canyons. Using the algorithm, a simple model for traffic noise in cities is developed. Noise maps and exposure distributions of the city of Amsterdam are calculated with the model, and for comparison also with an engineering model that is currently used for traffic noise impact assessments in cities. Considerable differences between the two model predictions are found for shielded buildings with day-evening-night levels of 40-60 dB at the facades. Further, an analysis is presented of level differences between the most and the least exposed facades of buildings. Large level differences are found for buildings directly exposed to traffic noise from nearby roads. It is shown that by a redistribution of traffic flow around these buildings, one can achieve low sound levels at quiet sides and a corresponding reduction in the percentage of highly annoyed inhabitants from typically 23% to 18%.

  2. Tracking performance of a combined Costas/AFC-loop under noisy Rayleigh/Rician channel conditions with additive Gaussian noise jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine, Achim

    Models were developed to investigate the tracking behavior of combined Costas/AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) feedback loops under Rayleigh/Rician fading conditions with additive Gaussian noise jamming. A general linearized tracking model was developed for land-mobile channels. The model can be used for the nonlinearized case with sinusoidal phase detection characteristic using a standard solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. A tracking analysis for Costas/AFC loops with coherent automatic gain control, and an accuracy analysis for interferometers equipped with Costas/AFC loops are treated as examples. The tracking model is the most inaccurate in the case of quasistationary channels.

  3. Noise characteristics of model counter-rotating Prop-Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magliozzi, B.

    1987-01-01

    Results of acoustics tests of 24.5 in. diameter model counter-rotating propfans are presented. In these tests several configurations were investigated, including tractors and pushers downstream of a pylon, both at zero degrees and at four degrees angle-of-attack. The effects on noise of spacing between rotors and between the pylon and the rotors were also measured. Effects of rotor spacing were found to cause small changes in noise. Increasing blade count from 5-front and 5-rear to 6-front and 6-rear results in about a 1 EPNdB reduction in noise. Increasing only the front rotor blade count to six blades resulted in a noise reduction of about 2 EPNdB. The presence of the pylon resulted in a 1 EPNdB increase in noise. Angle of attack effects showed an increase of 3.5 EPNdB for the tractor configuration and only 1.5 EPNdB for the pusher configuration. Tip speed was found to be the strongest parameter in reducing noise. However, for a given thrust loading, an optimum tip speed is seen. Correlations between measurements and predictions are shown to be in good agreement.

  4. Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed us- ing a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify de ciencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the mea- sured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the de nition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares t of the predicted to the mea- sured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new de nition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.

  5. Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify deficiencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the measured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the definition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares fit of the predicted to the measured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new definition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.

  6. Stochastic resonance and noise delayed extinction in a model of two competing species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, D.; Fiasconaro, A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2004-01-01

    We study the role of the noise in the dynamics of two competing species. We consider generalized Lotka-Volterra equations in the presence of a multiplicative noise, which models the interaction between the species and the environment. The interaction parameter between the species is a random process which obeys a stochastic differential equation with a generalized bistable potential in the presence of a periodic driving term, which accounts for the environment temperature variation. We find noise-induced periodic oscillations of the species concentrations and stochastic resonance phenomenon. We find also a nonmonotonic behavior of the mean extinction time of one of the two competing species as a function of the additive noise intensity.

  7. A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.

  8. Energy-independent factors influencing noise-induced hearing loss in the chinchilla model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamernik, Roger P.; Qiu, Wei

    2001-12-01

    The effects on hearing and the sensory cell population of four continuous, non-Gaussian noise exposures each having an A-weighted Leq=100 dB SPL were compared to the effects of an energy-equivalent Gaussian noise. The non-Gaussian noise conditions were characterized by the statistical metric, kurtosis (β), computed on the unfiltered, β(t), and the filtered, β(f ), time-domain signals. The chinchilla (n=58) was used as the animal model. Hearing thresholds were estimated using auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) recorded from the inferior colliculus and sensory cell populations were obtained from surface preparation histology. Despite equivalent exposure energies, the four non-Gaussian conditions produced considerably greater hearing and sensory cell loss than did the Gaussian condition. The magnitude of this excess trauma produced by the non-Gaussian noise was dependent on the frequency content, but not on the average energy content of the impacts which gave the noise its non-Gaussian character. These results indicate that β(t) is an appropriate index of the increased hazard of exposure to non-Gaussian noises and that β(f ) may be useful in the prediction of the place-specific additional outer hair cell loss produced by non-Gaussian exposures. The results also suggest that energy-based metrics, while necessary for the prediction of noise-induced hearing loss, are not sufficient.

  9. Optical coherence tomography noise modeling and fundamental bounds on human retinal layer segmentation accuracy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuBose, Theodore B.; Milanfar, Peyman; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2016-03-01

    The human retina is composed of several layers, visible by in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. To enhance diagnostics of retinal diseases, several algorithms have been developed to automatically segment one or more of the boundaries of these layers. OCT images are corrupted by noise, which is frequently the result of the detector noise and speckle, a type of coherent noise resulting from the presence of several scatterers in each voxel. However, it is unknown what the empirical distribution of noise in each layer of the retina is, and how the magnitude and distribution of the noise affects the lower bounds of segmentation accuracy. Five healthy volunteers were imaged using a spectral domain OCT probe from Bioptigen, Inc, centered at 850nm with 4.6µm full width at half maximum axial resolution. Each volume was segmented by expert manual graders into nine layers. The histograms of intensities in each layer were then fit to seven possible noise distributions from the literature on speckle and image processing. Using these empirical noise distributions and empirical estimates of the intensity of each layer, the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB), a measure of the variance of an estimator, was calculated for each boundary layer. Additionally, the optimum bias of a segmentation algorithm was calculated, and a corresponding biased CRLB was calculated, which represents the improved performance an algorithm can achieve by using prior knowledge, such as the smoothness and continuity of layer boundaries. Our general mathematical model can be easily adapted for virtually any OCT modality.

  10. Energy-independent factors influencing noise-induced hearing loss in the chinchilla model.

    PubMed

    Hamernik, R P; Qiu, W

    2001-12-01

    The effects on hearing and the sensory cell population of four continuous, non-Gaussian noise exposures each having an A-weighted L(eq)=100 dB SPL were compared to the effects of an energy-equivalent Gaussian noise. The non-Gaussian noise conditions were characterized by the statistical metric, kurtosis (beta), computed on the unfiltered, beta(t), and the filtered, beta(f), time-domain signals. The chinchilla (n=58) was used as the animal model. Hearing thresholds were estimated using auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) recorded from the inferior colliculus and sensory cell populations were obtained from surface preparation histology. Despite equivalent exposure energies, the four non-Gaussian conditions produced considerably greater hearing and sensory cell loss than did the Gaussian condition. The magnitude of this excess trauma produced by the non-Gaussian noise was dependent on the frequency content, but not on the average energy content of the impacts which gave the noise its non-Gaussian character. These results indicate that beta(t) is an appropriate index of the increased hazard of exposure to non-Gaussian noises and that beta(f) may be useful in the prediction of the place-specific additional outer hair cell loss produced by non-Gaussian exposures. The results also suggest that energy-based metrics, while necessary for the prediction of noise-induced hearing loss, are not sufficient. PMID:11785817

  11. Phase-field model of dendritic sidebranching with thermal noise.

    PubMed

    Karma, A; Rappel, W J

    1999-10-01

    We investigate dendritic sidebranching during crystal growth in an undercooled melt by simulation of a phase-field model which incorporates thermal noise of microscopic origin. As a nontrivial quantitative test of this model, we first show that the simulated fluctuation spectrum of a one-dimensional interface in thermal equilibrium agrees with the exact sharp-interface spectrum up to an irrelevant short-wavelength cutoff comparable to the interface thickness. Simulations of dendritic growth are then carried out in two dimensions to compute sidebranching characteristics (root-mean-square amplitude and sidebranch spacing) as a function of distance behind the tip. These quantities are compared quantitatively to the predictions of the existing linear WKB theory of noise amplification. The extension of this study to three dimensions remains needed to determine the origin of noise in experiments.

  12. Network reconstruction using nonparametric additive ODE models.

    PubMed

    Henderson, James; Michailidis, George

    2014-01-01

    Network representations of biological systems are widespread and reconstructing unknown networks from data is a focal problem for computational biologists. For example, the series of biochemical reactions in a metabolic pathway can be represented as a network, with nodes corresponding to metabolites and edges linking reactants to products. In a different context, regulatory relationships among genes are commonly represented as directed networks with edges pointing from influential genes to their targets. Reconstructing such networks from data is a challenging problem receiving much attention in the literature. There is a particular need for approaches tailored to time-series data and not reliant on direct intervention experiments, as the former are often more readily available. In this paper, we introduce an approach to reconstructing directed networks based on dynamic systems models. Our approach generalizes commonly used ODE models based on linear or nonlinear dynamics by extending the functional class for the functions involved from parametric to nonparametric models. Concomitantly we limit the complexity by imposing an additive structure on the estimated slope functions. Thus the submodel associated with each node is a sum of univariate functions. These univariate component functions form the basis for a novel coupling metric that we define in order to quantify the strength of proposed relationships and hence rank potential edges. We show the utility of the method by reconstructing networks using simulated data from computational models for the glycolytic pathway of Lactocaccus Lactis and a gene network regulating the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells. For purposes of comparison, we also assess reconstruction performance using gene networks from the DREAM challenges. We compare our method to those that similarly rely on dynamic systems models and use the results to attempt to disentangle the distinct roles of linearity, sparsity, and derivative

  13. Network Reconstruction Using Nonparametric Additive ODE Models

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, James; Michailidis, George

    2014-01-01

    Network representations of biological systems are widespread and reconstructing unknown networks from data is a focal problem for computational biologists. For example, the series of biochemical reactions in a metabolic pathway can be represented as a network, with nodes corresponding to metabolites and edges linking reactants to products. In a different context, regulatory relationships among genes are commonly represented as directed networks with edges pointing from influential genes to their targets. Reconstructing such networks from data is a challenging problem receiving much attention in the literature. There is a particular need for approaches tailored to time-series data and not reliant on direct intervention experiments, as the former are often more readily available. In this paper, we introduce an approach to reconstructing directed networks based on dynamic systems models. Our approach generalizes commonly used ODE models based on linear or nonlinear dynamics by extending the functional class for the functions involved from parametric to nonparametric models. Concomitantly we limit the complexity by imposing an additive structure on the estimated slope functions. Thus the submodel associated with each node is a sum of univariate functions. These univariate component functions form the basis for a novel coupling metric that we define in order to quantify the strength of proposed relationships and hence rank potential edges. We show the utility of the method by reconstructing networks using simulated data from computational models for the glycolytic pathway of Lactocaccus Lactis and a gene network regulating the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells. For purposes of comparison, we also assess reconstruction performance using gene networks from the DREAM challenges. We compare our method to those that similarly rely on dynamic systems models and use the results to attempt to disentangle the distinct roles of linearity, sparsity, and derivative

  14. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  15. Propeller sheet cavitation noise source modeling and inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keunhwa; Lee, Jaehyuk; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Kyungseop; Seong, Woojae

    2014-02-01

    Propeller sheet cavitation is the main contributor to high level of noise and vibration in the after body of a ship. Full measurement of the cavitation-induced hull pressure over the entire surface of the affected area is desired but not practical. Therefore, using a few measurements on the outer hull above the propeller in a cavitation tunnel, empirical or semi-empirical techniques based on physical model have been used to predict the hull-induced pressure (or hull-induced force). In this paper, with the analytic source model for sheet cavitation, a multi-parameter inversion scheme to find the positions of noise sources and their strengths is suggested. The inversion is posed as a nonlinear optimization problem, which is solved by the optimization algorithm based on the adaptive simplex simulated annealing algorithm. Then, the resulting hull pressure can be modeled with boundary element method from the inverted cavitation noise sources. The suggested approach is applied to the hull pressure data measured in a cavitation tunnel of the Samsung Heavy Industry. Two monopole sources are adequate to model the propeller sheet cavitation noise. The inverted source information is reasonable with the cavitation dynamics of the propeller and the modeled hull pressure shows good agreement with cavitation tunnel experimental data.

  16. Jet Noise Modeling for Supersonic Business Jet Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the development of an improved predictive model for coannular jet noise, including noise suppression modifications applicable to small supersonic-cruise aircraft such as the Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ), for NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). For such aircraft a wide range of propulsion and integration options are under consideration. Thus there is a need for very versatile design tools, including a noise prediction model. The approach used is similar to that used with great success by the Modern Technologies Corporation (MTC) in developing a noise prediction model for two-dimensional mixer ejector (2DME) nozzles under the High Speed Research Program and in developing a more recent model for coannular nozzles over a wide range of conditions. If highly suppressed configurations are ultimately required, the 2DME model is expected to provide reasonable prediction for these smaller scales, although this has not been demonstrated. It is considered likely that more modest suppression approaches, such as dual stream nozzles featuring chevron or chute suppressors, perhaps in conjunction with inverted velocity profiles (IVP), will be sufficient for the SBJ.

  17. [Denoising and assessing method of additive noise in the ultraviolet spectrum of SO2 in flue gas].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Sun, Chang-Ku; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Yu-Mei

    2009-11-01

    The problem of denoising and assessing method of the spectrum of SO2 in flue gas was studied based on DOAS. The denoising procedure of the additive noise in the spectrum was divided into two parts: reducing the additive noise and enhancing the useful signal. When obtaining the absorption feature of measured gas, a multi-resolution preprocessing method of original spectrum was adopted for denoising by DWT (discrete wavelet transform). The signal energy operators in different scales were used to choose the denoising threshold and separate the useful signal from the noise. On the other hand, because there was no sudden change in the spectra of flue gas in time series, the useful signal component was enhanced according to the signal time dependence. And the standard absorption cross section was used to build the ideal absorption spectrum with the measured gas temperature and pressure. This ideal spectrum was used as the desired signal instead of the original spectrum in the assessing method to modify the SNR (signal-noise ratio). There were two different environments to do the proof test-in the lab and at the scene. In the lab, SO2 was measured several times with the system using this method mentioned above. The average deviation was less than 1.5%, while the repeatability was less than 1%. And the short range experiment data were better than the large range. In the scene of a power plant whose concentration of flue gas had a large variation range, the maximum deviation of this method was 2.31% in the 18 groups of contrast data. The experimental results show that the denoising effect of the scene spectrum was better than that of the lab spectrum. This means that this method can improve the SNR of the spectrum effectively, which is seriously polluted by additive noise. PMID:20101989

  18. CREATION OF THE MODEL ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Wulf, N.

    2010-05-25

    In 1991, the international nuclear nonproliferation community was dismayed to discover that the implementation of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its NPT INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement with Iraq had failed to detect Iraq's nuclear weapon program. It was now clear that ensuring that states were fulfilling their obligations under the NPT would require not just detecting diversion but also the ability to detect undeclared materials and activities. To achieve this, the IAEA initiated what would turn out to be a five-year effort to reappraise the NPT safeguards system. The effort engaged the IAEA and its Member States and led to agreement in 1997 on a new safeguards agreement, the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards. The Model Protocol makes explicit that one IAEA goal is to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The Model Protocol requires an expanded declaration that identifies a State's nuclear potential, empowers the IAEA to raise questions about the correctness and completeness of the State's declaration, and, if needed, allows IAEA access to locations. The information required and the locations available for access are much broader than those provided for under INFCIRC/153. The negotiation was completed in quite a short time because it started with a relatively complete draft of an agreement prepared by the IAEA Secretariat. This paper describes how the Model Protocol was constructed and reviews key decisions that were made both during the five-year period and in the actual negotiation.

  19. Reverberation noise modeling using extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cour, Brian; Luter, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Normalized matched filter output forms the basis of target detection in active sonar. In a target-free environment, the central theorem, if valid, predicts that the statistics of the envelope follow a Rayleigh distribution, and, to first approximation, this is indeed observed. However, well-known departures from the Rayleigh model are found in the tail end of observed distributions. Traditional approaches to this problem have focused on constructing a simple, parameterized, non-Rayleigh distribution which more closely models observations. This paper suggests a novel alternative which focuses on a robust method of modeling only the tails of the distribution in favor of the less important body. Results from extreme-value theory are used to fit a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) to the empirical cumulative distribution function, conditioned on a large threshold value. [A random variable X has a GPD if P(X<=x)=1-(1+γx/σ)-1/γ for x>=0, σ>0, and γ real; γ=0 is the exponential distribution.] Estimates of γ and σ are discussed for a broad range of active sonar data, and the results are compared with fits to other popular non-Rayleigh models. The origins of non-Rayleighness are also considered, including finite-size effects, spatial and temporal correlations, and nonuniformity.

  20. Assessment of noise impact on the urban environment: a study on noise-prediction models. Environmental health series

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, J.

    1986-01-01

    The report identifies, compares, and evaluates the major methods developed in Europe and North America to predict noise levels resulting from urban-development projects. Hopefully, it will guide countries that have not yet developed their own noise-prediction models to choose the model most appropriate for their particular situation. It covers prediction methods for road traffic noise and railroad traffic noise in Austria, Czecheslovakia, France, both Germany's Hungary, Netherlands, Scandinavia, Switzerland, U.K. and USA, as well as the Commission of the European Communities, and a comparison of methods. It also covers prediction methods for industrial noise from Austria, both Germany's Netherlands, Scandinavia, and U.K., and discusses calculation methods for aircraft noise around airports.

  1. Computer Modelling of Functional Aspects of Noise in Endogenously Oscillating Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M. T.; Dewald, M.; Voigt, K.; Braun, H. A.; Moss, F.

    1998-03-01

    Membrane potential oscillations are a widespread feature of neuronal activity. When such oscillations operate close to the spike-triggering threshold, noise can become an essential property of spike-generation. According to that, we developed a minimal Hodgkin-Huxley-type computer model which includes a noise term. This model accounts for experimental data from quite different cells ranging from mammalian cortical neurons to fish electroreceptors. With slight modifications of the parameters, the model's behavior can be tuned to bursting activity, which additionally allows it to mimick temperature encoding in peripheral cold receptors including transitions to apparently chaotic dynamics as indicated by methods for the detection of unstable periodic orbits. Under all conditions, cooperative effects between noise and nonlinear dynamics can be shown which, beyond stochastic resonance, might be of functional significance for stimulus encoding and neuromodulation.

  2. Low Noise Results From IMS Site Surveys: A Preliminary New High-Frequency Low Noise Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, C.; Astiz, L.; Starovoit, Y.; Tavener, N.; Perez, G.; Given, H. K.; Barrientos, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Hfaiedh, M.; Stewart, R.; Estabrook, C.

    2002-12-01

    Since the establishment of the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Organization, a vigorous seismic site survey program has been carried out to identify locations as necessary for International Monitoring System (IMS) primary and auxiliary seismic stations listed in Annex 1 to the Protocol to the CTBT. The IMS Seismic Section maintains for this purpose a small pool of seismic equipment comprised of Guralp CMG-3T and CMG-3ESP and Streckeisen STS-2 broadband seismometers, and Reftek and Guralp acquisition systems. Seismic site surveys are carried out by conducting continuous measurements of ground motion at temporary installations for approximately five to seven days. Seismometer installation methods, which depend on instrument type and on local conditions, range from placement within small cement-floored subsurface vaults to near-surface burial. Data are sampled at 40 Hz. Seismic noise levels are evaluated through the analysis of power spectral density distributions. Eleven 10.5-minute-long representative de-trended and mean-removed segments each of daytime and night-time data are chosen randomly, but reviewed to avoid event contamination. Fast Fourier Transforms are calculated for the five windows in each of these segments generated using a 50% overlap for Hanning-tapered sections ~200 s long. Instrument responses are removed. To date, 20 site surveys for primary and auxiliary stations have been carried out by the IMS. The sites surveyed represent a variety of physical and geological environments on most continents. The lowest high frequency (>1.4 Hz) noise levels at five sites with igneous or metamorphic geologies were as much as 6 dB below the USGS New Low Noise Model (NLNM) developed by Peterson (1993). These sites were in Oman (local geology consisting of Ordovician metasediments), Egypt (Precambrian granite), Niger (early Proterozoic tonalite and granodiorite), Saudi Arabia (Precambian metasediments), and

  3. Detecting contaminated birthdates using generalized additive models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Erroneous patient birthdates are common in health databases. Detection of these errors usually involves manual verification, which can be resource intensive and impractical. By identifying a frequent manifestation of birthdate errors, this paper presents a principled and statistically driven procedure to identify erroneous patient birthdates. Results Generalized additive models (GAM) enabled explicit incorporation of known demographic trends and birth patterns. With false positive rates controlled, the method identified birthdate contamination with high accuracy. In the health data set used, of the 58 actual incorrect birthdates manually identified by the domain expert, the GAM-based method identified 51, with 8 false positives (resulting in a positive predictive value of 86.0% (51/59) and a false negative rate of 12.0% (7/58)). These results outperformed linear time-series models. Conclusions The GAM-based method is an effective approach to identify systemic birthdate errors, a common data quality issue in both clinical and administrative databases, with high accuracy. PMID:24923281

  4. A Maneuvering Flight Noise Model for Helicopter Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Rau, Robert; May, Benjamin; Hobbs, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A new model for estimating the noise radiation during maneuvering flight is developed in this paper. The model applies the Quasi-Static Acoustic Mapping (Q-SAM) method to a database of acoustic spheres generated using the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique. A method is developed to generate a realistic flight trajectory from a limited set of waypoints and is used to calculate the quasi-static operating condition and corresponding acoustic sphere for the vehicle throughout the maneuver. By using a previously computed database of acoustic spheres, the acoustic impact of proposed helicopter operations can be rapidly predicted for use in mission-planning. The resulting FRAME-QS model is applied to near-horizon noise measurements collected for the Bell 430 helicopter undergoing transient pitch up and roll maneuvers, with good agreement between the measured data and the FRAME-QS model.

  5. Optimal receiver design for diffusive molecular communication with flow and additive noise.

    PubMed

    Noel, Adam; Cheung, Karen C; Schober, Robert

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we perform receiver design for a diffusive molecular communication environment. Our model includes flow in any direction, sources of information molecules in addition to the transmitter, and enzymes in the propagation environment to mitigate intersymbol interference. We characterize the mutual information between receiver observations to show how often independent observations can be made. We derive the maximum likelihood sequence detector to provide a lower bound on the bit error probability. We propose the family of weighted sum detectors for more practical implementation and derive their expected bit error probability. Under certain conditions, the performance of the optimal weighted sum detector is shown to be equivalent to a matched filter. Receiver simulation results show the tradeoff in detector complexity versus achievable bit error probability, and that a slow flow in any direction can improve the performance of a weighted sum detector.

  6. Modelling Aerodynamically Generated Sound: Recent Advances in Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound for rotors over the past decade. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H ) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparison of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems.

  7. Current noise of the interacting resonant level model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T. J.; Kennes, D. M.; Meden, V.

    2016-02-01

    We study the zero-frequency current noise of the interacting resonant level model for arbitrary bias voltages using a functional renormalization group approach. For this we extend the existing nonequilibrium scheme by deriving and solving flow equations for the current-vertex functions. On-resonance artificial divergences of the latter found in lowest-order perturbation theory in the two-particle interaction are consistently removed. Away from resonance they are shifted to higher orders. This allows us to gain a comprehensive picture of the current noise in the scaling limit. At high bias voltages, the current noise exhibits a universal power-law decay, whose exponent is, to leading order in the interaction, identical to that of the current. The effective charge on resonance is analyzed in detail, employing properties of the vertex correction. We find that it is only modified to second or higher order in the two-particle interaction.

  8. Analysis of noise-induced eruptions in a geyser model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Dmitri V.; Bashkirtseva, Irina A.; Ryashko, Lev B.

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by important geophysical applications we study a non-linear model of geyser dynamics under the influence of external stochastic forcing. It is shown that the deterministic dynamics is substantially dependent on system parameters leading to the following evolutionary scenaria: (i) oscillations near a stable equilibrium and a transient tendency of the phase trajectories to a spiral sink or a stable node (pre-eruption regime), and (ii) fast escape from equilibrium (eruption regime). Even a small noise changes the system dynamics drastically. Namely, a low-intensity noise generates the small amplitude stochastic oscillations in the regions adjoining to the stable equilibrium point. A small buildup of noise intensity throws the system over its separatrix and leads to eruption. The role of the friction coefficient and relative pressure in the deterministic and stochastic dynamics is studied by direct numerical simulations and stochastic sensitivity functions technique.

  9. Review of Integrated Noise Model (INM) Equations and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor); Forsyth, David W.; Gulding, John; DiPardo, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) relies on the methods of the SAE AIR-1845 'Procedure for the Calculation of Airplane Noise in the Vicinity of Airports' issued in 1986. Simplifying assumptions for aerodynamics and noise calculation were made in the SAE standard and the INM based on the limited computing power commonly available then. The key objectives of this study are 1) to test some of those assumptions against Boeing source data, and 2) to automate the manufacturer's methods of data development to enable the maintenance of a consistent INM database over time. These new automated tools were used to generate INM database submissions for six airplane types :737-700 (CFM56-7 24K), 767-400ER (CF6-80C2BF), 777-300 (Trent 892), 717-200 (BR7 15), 757-300 (RR535E4B), and the 737-800 (CFM56-7 26K).

  10. Suction-generated noise in an anatomic silicon ear model.

    PubMed

    Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Lahousen, T; Walch, C

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate noise levels generated during micro-suction aural toilet using an anatomic silicon ear model. It is an experimental study. In an anatomic ear model made of silicone, the eardrum was replaced by a 1-cm diameter microphone of a calibrated sound-level measuring device. Ear wax was removed using the sucker of a standard ENT treatment unit (Atmos Servant 5(®)). Mean and peak sound levels during the suction procedure were recorded with suckers of various diameters (Fergusson-Frazier 2.7-4 mm as well as Rosen 1.4-2.5 mm). Average noise levels during normal suction in a distance of 1 cm in front of the eardrum ranged between 97 and 103.5 dB(A) (broadband noise). Peak noise levels reached 118 dB(A). During partial obstruction of the sucker by cerumen or dermal flakes, peak noise levels reached 146 dB(A). Peak noise levels observed during the so-called clarinet phenomena were independent of the diameter or type of suckers used. Although micro-suction aural toilet is regarded as an established, widespread and usually safe method to clean the external auditory canal, some caution seems advisable. The performance of long-lasting suction periods straight in front of the eardrum without sound-protecting earwax between sucker and eardrum should be avoided. In particular, when clarinet phenomena are occurring (as described above), the suction procedure should be aborted immediately. In the presence of dermal flakes blocking the auditory canal, cleaning with micro-forceps or other non-suctioning instruments might represent a reasonable alternative.

  11. Modeling the characteristics of wheel/rail rolling noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Wai Keung; Li, Kai Ming; Frommer, Glenn H.

    2005-04-01

    To study the sound radiation characteristics of a passing train, four sets of noise measurements for different train operational conditions have been conducted at three different sites, including ballast tracks at grade and railway on a concrete viaduct. The time histories computed by the horizontal radiation models were compared with the measured noise profiles. The measured sound exposure levels are used to deduce the vertical directivity pattern for different railway systems. It is found that the vertical directivity of different railway systems shows a rather similar pattern. The vertical directivity of train noise is shown to increase up to about 30× before reducing to a minimum at 90×. A multipole expansion model is proposed to account for the vertical radiation directivity of the train noise. An empirical formula, which has been derived, compares well with the experimental data. The empirical model is found to be applicable to different train/rail systems at train speeds ranging up to 120 km/h in this study. [Work supported by MTR Corporation Ltd., Innovation Technology Commission of the HKSAR Government and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

  12. Validation of Aircraft Noise Models at Lower Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Bradley, Kevin A.

    1996-01-01

    Noise levels around airports and airbases in the United States arc computed via the FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) or the Air Force's NOISEMAP (NMAP) program. These models were originally developed for use in the vicinity of airports, at distances which encompass a day night average sound level in decibels (Ldn) of 65 dB or higher. There is increasing interest in aircraft noise at larger distances from the airport. including en-route noise. To evaluate the applicability of INM and NMAP at larger distances, a measurement program was conducted at a major air carrier airport with monitoring sites located in areas exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB and higher. Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) radar tracking data were obtained to provide actual flight parameters and positive identification of aircraft. Flight operations were grouped according to aircraft type. stage length, straight versus curved flight tracks, and arrival versus departure. Sound exposure levels (SEL) were computed at monitoring locations, using the INM, and compared with measured values. While individual overflight SEL data was characterized by a high variance, analysis performed on an energy-averaging basis indicates that INM and similar models can be applied to regions exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB with no loss of reliability.

  13. Modeling for Airframe Noise Prediction Using Vortex Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Charlie

    2002-12-01

    Various components of the airframe are known to be a significant source of noise. With the advent of technology in quieting modern engines, airframe generated noise competes and, in certain instances, surpasses the engine noise. Airframe noise is most pronounced during aircraft approach when the engines are operating at reduced thrust, and airframe components such as high-lift devices and landing gears are in deployed conditions. Recent experimental studies have reaffirmed that the most significant sources of high-lift noise are from the leading-edge slat and the side edges of flaps. Studies of flow field around these structures have consistently shown that there are complicated unsteady vortical flows such as vortex shedding, secondary vortices and vortex breakdown, which are susceptible to far-field radiated sound. The near-field CFD computational data have been used to calculate the far-field acoustics by employing Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings equation using Lighthill's analogy. However, because of the limit of current computing capacity, it is very time consuming to generate unsteady Navier-Stokes (N-S) computational data for aeroacoustics. Although the N-S simulations are probably necessary to reveal many complex flow phenomena that are unsteady and fully nonlinear, these simulations are not feasible to be used for parametric design. purposes. The objective of this study is thus to develop theoretical models for airframe noise predictions which have quick turn-around computing time. Since it is known that vorticity is a major mechanism responsible for noise generation on high-lift devices, vortex methods have been chosen as modeling tools. Vortex methods are much faster in comparison with other numerical methods, yet they are able to incorporate nonlinear interactions between vortices. Obviously, as with any theoretical model, assumptions have to be made and justified when such models are used in complex flow. The merit and applicability of the models for

  14. Squeal noise in simple numerical brake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-09-01

    Since the early 1920s, automotive disc brake squeal has caused warranty issues and customer dissatisfaction. Despite a good deal of progress achieved, predicting brake squeal propensity is as difficult as ever as not all mechanisms and interactions are known owing to their highly fugitive complex nature. In recent years, research has been focused on the prediction of unstable vibration modes by the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) for the mode-coupling type of instability. There has been very limited consideration given to the calculation of the acoustic radiation properties due to friction contact between a pad and a rotor. Recent analyses using a forced response analysis with harmonic contact pressure excitation indicates negative dissipated energy at some pad eigenfrequencies predicted to be stable by the CEA. A transient nonlinear time domain analysis with no external excitation indicates that squeal could develop at these eigenfrequencies. Here, the acoustic radiation characteristics of those pad modes are determined by analysing the acoustic power levels and radiation efficiencies of simplified brake models in the form of a pad rubbing on a plate or on a disc using the acoustic boundary element method based on velocities extracted from the forced response analysis. Results show that unstable pad modes trigger unstable disc vibrations resulting in instantaneous mode squeal similar to those observed experimentally. Changes in the radiation efficiency with pressure variations are smaller than those with friction coefficient variations and are caused by the phase difference of the velocities out-of-plane vibration between the pad and the disc.

  15. Evaluation of Laser Based Alignment Algorithms Under Additive Random and Diffraction Noise

    SciTech Connect

    McClay, W A; Awwal, A; Wilhelmsen, K; Ferguson, W; McGee, M; Miller, M

    2004-09-30

    The purpose of the automatic alignment algorithm at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to determine the position of a laser beam based on the position of beam features from video images. The position information obtained is used to command motors and attenuators to adjust the beam lines to the desired position, which facilitates the alignment of all 192 beams. One of the goals of the algorithm development effort is to ascertain the performance, reliability, and uncertainty of the position measurement. This paper describes a method of evaluating the performance of algorithms using Monte Carlo simulation. In particular we show the application of this technique to the LM1{_}LM3 algorithm, which determines the position of a series of two beam light sources. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated for an ensemble of over 900 simulated images with varying image intensities and noise counts, as well as varying diffraction noise amplitude and frequency. The performance of the algorithm on the image data set had a tolerance well beneath the 0.5-pixel system requirement.

  16. Propeller aircraft interior noise model: User's manual for computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, E. G.; Pope, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program entitled PAIN (Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise) has been developed to permit calculation of the sound levels in the cabin of a propeller-driven airplane. The fuselage is modeled as a cylinder with a structurally integral floor, the cabin sidewall and floor being stiffened by ring frames, stringers and floor beams of arbitrary configurations. The cabin interior is covered with acoustic treatment and trim. The propeller noise consists of a series of tones at harmonics of the blade passage frequency. Input data required by the program include the mechanical and acoustical properties of the fuselage structure and sidewall trim. Also, the precise propeller noise signature must be defined on a grid that lies in the fuselage skin. The propeller data are generated with a propeller noise prediction program such as the NASA Langley ANOPP program. The program PAIN permits the calculation of the space-average interior sound levels for the first ten harmonics of a propeller rotating alongside the fuselage. User instructions for PAIN are given in the report. Development of the analytical model is presented in NASA CR 3813.

  17. A Stochastic Approach to Noise Modeling for Barometric Altimeters

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Genovese, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The question whether barometric altimeters can be applied to accurately track human motions is still debated, since their measurement performance are rather poor due to either coarse resolution or drifting behavior problems. As a step toward accurate short-time tracking of changes in height (up to few minutes), we develop a stochastic model that attempts to capture some statistical properties of the barometric altimeter noise. The barometric altimeter noise is decomposed in three components with different physical origin and properties: a deterministic time-varying mean, mainly correlated with global environment changes, and a first-order Gauss-Markov (GM) random process, mainly accounting for short-term, local environment changes, the effects of which are prominent, respectively, for long-time and short-time motion tracking; an uncorrelated random process, mainly due to wideband electronic noise, including quantization noise. Autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) system identification techniques are used to capture the correlation structure of the piecewise stationary GM component, and to estimate its standard deviation, together with the standard deviation of the uncorrelated component. M-point moving average filters used alone or in combination with whitening filters learnt from ARMA model parameters are further tested in few dynamic motion experiments and discussed for their capability of short-time tracking small-amplitude, low-frequency motions. PMID:24253189

  18. A stochastic approach to noise modeling for barometric altimeters.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Genovese, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The question whether barometric altimeters can be applied to accurately track human motions is still debated, since their measurement performance are rather poor due to either coarse resolution or drifting behavior problems. As a step toward accurate short-time tracking of changes in height (up to few minutes), we develop a stochastic model that attempts to capture some statistical properties of the barometric altimeter noise. The barometric altimeter noise is decomposed in three components with different physical origin and properties: a deterministic time-varying mean, mainly correlated with global environment changes, and a first-order Gauss-Markov (GM) random process, mainly accounting for short-term, local environment changes, the effects of which are prominent, respectively, for long-time and short-time motion tracking; an uncorrelated random process, mainly due to wideband electronic noise, including quantization noise. Autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) system identification techniques are used to capture the correlation structure of the piecewise stationary GM component, and to estimate its standard deviation, together with the standard deviation of the uncorrelated component. M-point moving average filters used alone or in combination with whitening filters learnt from ARMA model parameters are further tested in few dynamic motion experiments and discussed for their capability of short-time tracking small-amplitude, low-frequency motions. PMID:24253189

  19. A stochastic approach to noise modeling for barometric altimeters.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Genovese, Vincenzo

    2013-11-18

    The question whether barometric altimeters can be applied to accurately track human motions is still debated, since their measurement performance are rather poor due to either coarse resolution or drifting behavior problems. As a step toward accurate short-time tracking of changes in height (up to few minutes), we develop a stochastic model that attempts to capture some statistical properties of the barometric altimeter noise. The barometric altimeter noise is decomposed in three components with different physical origin and properties: a deterministic time-varying mean, mainly correlated with global environment changes, and a first-order Gauss-Markov (GM) random process, mainly accounting for short-term, local environment changes, the effects of which are prominent, respectively, for long-time and short-time motion tracking; an uncorrelated random process, mainly due to wideband electronic noise, including quantization noise. Autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) system identification techniques are used to capture the correlation structure of the piecewise stationary GM component, and to estimate its standard deviation, together with the standard deviation of the uncorrelated component. M-point moving average filters used alone or in combination with whitening filters learnt from ARMA model parameters are further tested in few dynamic motion experiments and discussed for their capability of short-time tracking small-amplitude, low-frequency motions.

  20. Noise, vibration, harshness model of a rotating tyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäcker, Manfred; Gallrein, Axel; Roller, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The tyre plays a fundamental role in the generation of acoustically perceptible driving noise and vibrations inside the vehicle. An essential part of these vibrations is induced by the road excitation and transferred via the tyre into the vehicle. There are two basic ways to study noise, vibration, harshness (NVH) behaviour: Simulations in time and frequency domains. Modelling the tyre transfer behaviour in frequency domain requires special attention to the rotation of the tyre. This paper shows the approach taken by the authors to include the transfer behaviour in the frequency range up to 250 Hz from geometric road excitations to resulting spindle forces in frequency domain. This paper validates the derived NVH tyre model by comparison with appropriate transient simulations of the base transient model.

  1. Airport-Noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    A guide for the use of the Airport-Noise Level and Annoyance MOdel (ALAMO) at the Langley Research Center computer complex is provided. This document is divided into 5 primary sections, the introduction, the purpose of the model, and an in-depth description of the following subsystems: baseline, noise reduction simulation and track analysis. For each subsystem, the user is provided with a description of architecture, an explanation of subsystem use, sample results, and a case runner's check list. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the operations at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) computer complex, the Network Operating System (NOS 1.4) and CYBER Control Language. Incorporated within the ALAMO model is a census database system called SITE II.

  2. Efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood quantum state from measurements with additive Gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Smolin, John A; Gambetta, Jay M; Smith, Graeme

    2012-02-17

    We provide an efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood mixed quantum state (with density matrix ρ) given a set of measurement outcomes in a complete orthonormal operator basis subject to Gaussian noise. Our method works by first changing basis yielding a candidate density matrix μ which may have nonphysical (negative) eigenvalues, and then finding the nearest physical state under the 2-norm. Our algorithm takes at worst O(d(4)) for the basis change plus O(d(3)) for finding ρ where d is the dimension of the quantum state. In the special case where the measurement basis is strings of Pauli operators, the basis change takes only O(d(3)) as well. The workhorse of the algorithm is a new linear-time method for finding the closest probability distribution (in Euclidean distance) to a set of real numbers summing to one.

  3. The Near Noise Field of Static Jets and Some Model Studies of Devices for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, Leslie W; Hubbard, Harvey H

    1956-01-01

    An experimental study is presented of the pressure fluctuations near jet exhaust streams made during unchoked operation of a turbojet engine and a 1-inch-diameter high-temperature model jet and during choked operation of various sizes of model jets with unheated air. The tests for unchoked operation indicate a random spectrum of rather narrow band width which varies in frequency content with axial position along the jet. Pressure surveys from the model tests along lines parallel to the 15 degree jet boundary indicate that the station of greatest pressure fluctuations is determined by the jet velocity and the radial distance, with a tendency of the maximum to shift downstream as either parameter is increased. From model tests the magnitude of the fluctuations appears to increase as about the second power of jet velocity at points just outside the jet boundary and as increasingly higher powers of jet velocity as distance from the boundary is increased. A laboratory method of noise reduction with model jets was found to produce large decreases in the magnitude of the lower-frequency components of the spectra and thereby also to reduce the total radiated energy. Choked operation of model jets with unheated air indicates the appearance of a discrete-frequency component of very large magnitude. Shadowgraph records of the flow show that this condition is associated with the appearance of flow formations suggestive of partly formed toroidal vortices in the vicinity of the shocks. Elimination of these formations is found to eliminate the discrete component and thereby to reduce the overall noise level.

  4. Modeling of avalanche multiplication and noise in heterojunction avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, C.; David, J. P. R.; Rees, G. J.; Ong, D. S.

    2004-06-01

    A simple Monte Carlo model is used to simulate the avalanche process in a multiplication region which incorporates a heterojunction, intended to introduce localization into the ionization process and reduce excess avalanche noise. The results are compared with those of models where the ionization path length distribution is represented by an exponential decay, displaced from the origin by a ballistic dead space. While the latter results depend sensitively on the arbitrary choice of scheme used to evaluate the model parameters, they agree remarkably well with Monte Carlo, considering the simplicity of the model.

  5. Noise analysis of genome-scale protein synthesis using a discrete computational model of translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racle, Julien; Stefaniuk, Adam Jan; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2015-07-01

    Noise in genetic networks has been the subject of extensive experimental and computational studies. However, very few of these studies have considered noise properties using mechanistic models that account for the discrete movement of ribosomes and RNA polymerases along their corresponding templates (messenger RNA (mRNA) and DNA). The large size of these systems, which scales with the number of genes, mRNA copies, codons per mRNA, and ribosomes, is responsible for some of the challenges. Additionally, one should be able to describe the dynamics of ribosome exchange between the free ribosome pool and those bound to mRNAs, as well as how mRNA species compete for ribosomes. We developed an efficient algorithm for stochastic simulations that addresses these issues and used it to study the contribution and trade-offs of noise to translation properties (rates, time delays, and rate-limiting steps). The algorithm scales linearly with the number of mRNA copies, which allowed us to study the importance of genome-scale competition between mRNAs for the same ribosomes. We determined that noise is minimized under conditions maximizing the specific synthesis rate. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the stochastic system revealed the importance of the elongation rate in the resultant noise, whereas the translation initiation rate constant was more closely related to the average protein synthesis rate. We observed significant differences between our results and the noise properties of the most commonly used translation models. Overall, our studies demonstrate that the use of full mechanistic models is essential for the study of noise in translation and transcription.

  6. Noise analysis of genome-scale protein synthesis using a discrete computational model of translation

    SciTech Connect

    Racle, Julien; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Stefaniuk, Adam Jan

    2015-07-28

    Noise in genetic networks has been the subject of extensive experimental and computational studies. However, very few of these studies have considered noise properties using mechanistic models that account for the discrete movement of ribosomes and RNA polymerases along their corresponding templates (messenger RNA (mRNA) and DNA). The large size of these systems, which scales with the number of genes, mRNA copies, codons per mRNA, and ribosomes, is responsible for some of the challenges. Additionally, one should be able to describe the dynamics of ribosome exchange between the free ribosome pool and those bound to mRNAs, as well as how mRNA species compete for ribosomes. We developed an efficient algorithm for stochastic simulations that addresses these issues and used it to study the contribution and trade-offs of noise to translation properties (rates, time delays, and rate-limiting steps). The algorithm scales linearly with the number of mRNA copies, which allowed us to study the importance of genome-scale competition between mRNAs for the same ribosomes. We determined that noise is minimized under conditions maximizing the specific synthesis rate. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the stochastic system revealed the importance of the elongation rate in the resultant noise, whereas the translation initiation rate constant was more closely related to the average protein synthesis rate. We observed significant differences between our results and the noise properties of the most commonly used translation models. Overall, our studies demonstrate that the use of full mechanistic models is essential for the study of noise in translation and transcription.

  7. Experimentally validated theoretical model of avalanche multiplication x-ray noise in amorphous selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Dylan C.; Lui, Brian; Rowlands, John A.

    2000-04-01

    We are investigating active matrix flat panel x-ray detectors for real-time operation in the fluoroscopic exposure range. The typical exposure range for fluoroscopy is low, (0.1 - 10 (mu) R/frame). Hence the flat panel must be very sensitive to produce quantum noise limited images. The application of avalanche multiplication in amorphus selenium, ((alpha) -Se) is examined. Avalanche multiplication, M, can be used to increase signal size, potentially eliminating the quantum sink at low exposure levels. However, M greater than 1 also causes an overall degradation of DQE due to the addition of a new source of gain fluctuation noise. Using a linear cascaded systems model, this noise can be expressed as an additional avalanche Swank factor A(alpha ) in the expression for DQE(0) equals (eta) AsA(alpha ) where (eta) is the quantum efficiency, AS is the conventional conversion gain Swank factor. Depending upon the parameters, the value of A(alpha ) can vary from unity to less than 0.2. Our model was in agreement with experimentally observed values of A(alpha ) obtained using an imaging system (HARP) with (alpha) -Se layers capable of avalanche multiplication. The results indicate that a balance must be maintained between the improvement from avalanche multiplication to the amplifier noise limited part of the image, and the degradation effect it has on the quantum noise limited parts of the image. It also suggests that proper engineering of the avalanche layer can minimize, and perhaps eliminate, the additional noise fluctuations arising from avalanche multiplication of x-ray signals.

  8. Modeling hemodynamic responses in auditory cortex at 1.5 T using variable duration imaging acoustic noise.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuowen; Olulade, Olumide; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez; Santos, Joseph; Kim, Sungeun; Tamer, Gregory G; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M

    2010-02-15

    A confound for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), especially for auditory studies, is the presence of imaging acoustic noise generated mainly as a byproduct of rapid gradient switching during volume acquisition and, to a lesser extent, the radiofrequency transmit. This work utilized a novel pulse sequence to present actual imaging acoustic noise for characterization of the induced hemodynamic responses and assessment of linearity in the primary auditory cortex with respect to noise duration. Results show that responses to brief duration (46 ms) imaging acoustic noise is highly nonlinear while responses to longer duration (>1 s) imaging acoustic noise becomes approximately linear, with the right primary auditory cortex exhibiting a higher degree of nonlinearity than the left for the investigated noise durations. This study also assessed the spatial extent of activation induced by imaging acoustic noise, showing that the use of modeled responses (specific to imaging acoustic noise) as the reference waveform revealed additional activations in the auditory cortex not observed with a canonical gamma variate reference waveform, suggesting an improvement in detection sensitivity for imaging acoustic noise-induced activity. Longer duration (1.5 s) imaging acoustic noise was observed to induce activity that expanded outwards from Heschl's gyrus to cover the superior temporal gyrus as well as parts of the middle temporal gyrus and insula, potentially affecting higher level acoustic processing.

  9. Flight Acoustic Testing and For the Rotorcraft Noise Data Acquisition Model (RNM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Smith, Charles D.; Conner, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Two acoustic flight tests have been conducted on a remote test range at Eglin Air Force Base in the panhandle of Florida. The first was the "Acoustics Week" flight test conducted in September 2003. The second was the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Acoustics Flight Test conducted in October-November 2005. Benchmark acoustic databases were obtained for a number of rotorcraft and limited fixed wing vehicles for a variety of flight conditions. The databases are important for validation of acoustic prediction programs such as the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM), as well as for the development of low noise flight procedures and for environmental impact assessments. An overview of RNM capabilities and a detailed description of the RNM/ART (Acoustic Repropagation Technique) process are presented. The RNM/ART process is demonstrated using measured acoustic data for the MD600N. The RNM predictions for a level flyover speed sweep show the highest SEL noise levels on the flight track centerline occurred at the slowest vehicle speeds. At these slower speeds, broadband noise content is elevated compared to noise levels obtained at the higher speeds. A descent angle sweep shows that, in general, ground noise levels increased with increasing descent rates. Vehicle orientation in addition to vehicle position was found to significantly affect the RNM/ART creation of source noise semi-spheres for vehicles with highly directional noise characteristics and only mildly affect those with weak acoustic directionality. Based on these findings, modifications are proposed for RNM/ART to more accurately define vehicle and rotor orientation.

  10. Flight Acoustic Testing and Data Acquisition For the Rotor Noise Model (RNM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Burley, Casey L.; Smith, Charles D.

    2006-01-01

    Two acoustic flight tests have been conducted on a remote test range at Eglin Air Force Base in the panhandle of Florida. The first was the Acoustics Week flight test conducted in September 2003. The second was the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Acoustics Flight Test conducted in October-November 2005. Benchmark acoustic databases were obtained for a number of rotorcraft and limited fixed wing vehicles for a variety of flight conditions. The databases are important for validation of acoustic prediction programs such as the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM), as well as for the development of low noise flight procedures and for environmental impact assessments. An overview of RNM capabilities and a detailed description of the RNM/ART (Acoustic Repropagation Technique) process are presented. The RNM/ART process is demonstrated using measured acoustic data for the MD600N. The RNM predictions for a level flyover speed sweep show the highest SEL noise levels on the flight track centerline occurred at the slowest vehicle speeds. At these slower speeds, broadband noise content is elevated compared to noise levels obtained at the higher speeds. A descent angle sweep shows that, in general, ground noise levels increased with increasing descent rates. Vehicle orientation in addition to vehicle position was found to significantly affect the RNM/ART creation of source noise semi-spheres for vehicles with highly directional noise characteristics and only mildly affect those with weak acoustic directionality. Based on these findings, modifications are proposed for RNM/ART to more accurately define vehicle and rotor orientation.

  11. Noise-induced extinction in Bazykin-Berezovskaya population model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev

    2016-07-01

    A nonlinear Bazykin-Berezovskaya prey-predator model under the influence of parametric stochastic forcing is considered. Due to Allee effect, this conceptual population model even in the deterministic case demonstrates both local and global bifurcations with the change of predator mortality. It is shown that random noise can transform system dynamics from the regime of coexistence, in equilibrium or periodic modes, to the extinction of both species. Geometry of attractors and separatrices, dividing basins of attraction, plays an important role in understanding the probabilistic mechanisms of these stochastic phenomena. Parametric analysis of noise-induced extinction is carried out on the base of the direct numerical simulation and new analytical stochastic sensitivity functions technique taking into account the arrangement of attractors and separatrices.

  12. DSL and MUSIC under model misspecification and noise-conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Jewett, D L

    1994-01-01

    The concepts of both the traditional DSL (Dipole Source Localization) and MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification) are explained using simple vectors. DSL and MUSIC differ in the way the weighting functions are found. In both DSL and MUSIC, the fitted generator magnitudes are found by projecting the recorded potential map onto the fitted weighting functions, and the model transfers the weighting functions into generator locations/orientations. Both DSL and MUSIC will cause errors in the fitted dipole parameters when there is model misspecification, noise, or both. Therefore, an accurate head model is essential for either method to give reliable results.

  13. Volume dependence in Handel's model of quartz crystal resonator noise.

    PubMed

    Sthal, Fabrice; Devel, Michel; Ghosh, Santunu; Imbaud, Joël; Cibiel, Gilles; Bourquin, Roger

    2013-09-01

    Although criticized by many, Handel's quantum model for 1/f noise remains the only model giving a quantitative estimation of the level of intrinsic 1/f noise in quartz crystal resonators that is compatible with the best experimental results. In this paper, we reconsider the volume dependence in this model. We first argue that an acoustic volume, representing the volume in which the vibration energy is trapped, should be used instead of the geometrical volume between the electrodes. Then, we show that because there is an implicit dependence of the quality factor of the resonator with its thickness, the net effect of Handel's formula is not an increase of noise proportionally to the thickness of the resonator, as could be naïvely expected, but a net decrease when thickness increases. Finally, we show that a plot of Q(4)Sy versus the acoustic volume, instead of the usual Sy plot, could be useful to compare the quality of acoustic resonators having very different resonance frequencies.

  14. Volume dependence in Handel's model of quartz crystal resonator noise.

    PubMed

    Sthal, Fabrice; Devel, Michel; Ghosh, Santunu; Imbaud, Joël; Cibiel, Gilles; Bourquin, Roger

    2013-09-01

    Although criticized by many, Handel's quantum model for 1/f noise remains the only model giving a quantitative estimation of the level of intrinsic 1/f noise in quartz crystal resonators that is compatible with the best experimental results. In this paper, we reconsider the volume dependence in this model. We first argue that an acoustic volume, representing the volume in which the vibration energy is trapped, should be used instead of the geometrical volume between the electrodes. Then, we show that because there is an implicit dependence of the quality factor of the resonator with its thickness, the net effect of Handel's formula is not an increase of noise proportionally to the thickness of the resonator, as could be naïvely expected, but a net decrease when thickness increases. Finally, we show that a plot of Q(4)Sy versus the acoustic volume, instead of the usual Sy plot, could be useful to compare the quality of acoustic resonators having very different resonance frequencies. PMID:24658728

  15. A Model for Shear Layer Effects on Engine Noise Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, F.; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, V.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of aircraft engine noise is an important aspect of addressing the issues of community noise and cabin noise control. The development of physics based methodologies for performing such predictions has been a focus of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA). A recent example of code development in this area is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. Included within the code is a duct radiation model that is based on the solution of FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation with a penetrable data surface. Testing of this equation for many acoustic problems has shown it to provide generally better results than the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces. Currently, the data surface is taken to be the inlet or exhaust plane for inlet or aft-fan cases, respectively. While this provides reasonable results in many situations, these choices of data surface location lead to a few limitations. For example, the shear layer between the bypass ow and external stream can refract the sound waves radiated to the far field. Radiation results can be improved by including this effect, as well as the rejection of the sound in the bypass region from the solid surface external to the bypass duct surrounding the core ow. This work describes the implementation, and possible approximation, of a shear layer boundary condition within CDUCT-LaRC. An example application also illustrates the improvements that this extension offers for predicting noise radiation from complex inlet and bypass duct geometries, thereby providing a means to evaluate external treatments in the vicinity of the bypass duct exhaust plane.

  16. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems: Experimental assessment of noise performance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Tang, Jie; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce radiation dose in CT imaging, the statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) method has been introduced for clinical use. Based on the principle of MBIR and its nonlinear nature, the noise performance of MBIR is expected to be different from that of the well-understood filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction method. The purpose of this work is to experimentally assess the unique noise characteristics of MBIR using a state-of-the-art clinical CT system. Methods: Three physical phantoms, including a water cylinder and two pediatric head phantoms, were scanned in axial scanning mode using a 64-slice CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) at seven different mAs levels (5, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300). At each mAs level, each phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 times to generate an image ensemble for noise analysis. Both the FBP method with a standard kernel and the MBIR method (Veo®, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for CT image reconstruction. Three-dimensional (3D) noise power spectrum (NPS), two-dimensional (2D) NPS, and zero-dimensional NPS (noise variance) were assessed both globally and locally. Noise magnitude, noise spatial correlation, noise spatial uniformity and their dose dependence were examined for the two reconstruction methods. Results: (1) At each dose level and at each frequency, the magnitude of the NPS of MBIR was smaller than that of FBP. (2) While the shape of the NPS of FBP was dose-independent, the shape of the NPS of MBIR was strongly dose-dependent; lower dose lead to a “redder” NPS with a lower mean frequency value. (3) The noise standard deviation (σ) of MBIR and dose were found to be related through a power law of σ ∝ (dose)−β with the component β ≈ 0.25, which violated the classical σ ∝ (dose)−0.5 power law in FBP. (4) With MBIR, noise reduction was most prominent for thin image slices. (5) MBIR lead to better noise spatial uniformity when compared

  17. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems: Experimental assessment of noise performance

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ke; Tang, Jie; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To reduce radiation dose in CT imaging, the statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) method has been introduced for clinical use. Based on the principle of MBIR and its nonlinear nature, the noise performance of MBIR is expected to be different from that of the well-understood filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction method. The purpose of this work is to experimentally assess the unique noise characteristics of MBIR using a state-of-the-art clinical CT system. Methods: Three physical phantoms, including a water cylinder and two pediatric head phantoms, were scanned in axial scanning mode using a 64-slice CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) at seven different mAs levels (5, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300). At each mAs level, each phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 times to generate an image ensemble for noise analysis. Both the FBP method with a standard kernel and the MBIR method (Veo{sup ®}, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for CT image reconstruction. Three-dimensional (3D) noise power spectrum (NPS), two-dimensional (2D) NPS, and zero-dimensional NPS (noise variance) were assessed both globally and locally. Noise magnitude, noise spatial correlation, noise spatial uniformity and their dose dependence were examined for the two reconstruction methods. Results: (1) At each dose level and at each frequency, the magnitude of the NPS of MBIR was smaller than that of FBP. (2) While the shape of the NPS of FBP was dose-independent, the shape of the NPS of MBIR was strongly dose-dependent; lower dose lead to a “redder” NPS with a lower mean frequency value. (3) The noise standard deviation (σ) of MBIR and dose were found to be related through a power law of σ ∝ (dose){sup −β} with the component β ≈ 0.25, which violated the classical σ ∝ (dose){sup −0.5} power law in FBP. (4) With MBIR, noise reduction was most prominent for thin image slices. (5) MBIR lead to better noise spatial

  18. Redefining the maximum sustainable yield for the Schaefer population model including multiplicative environmental noise.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Nicolas; Duchesne, Thierry; Rivest, Louis-Paul

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is to investigate the biological reference points, such as the maximum sustainable yield (MSY), in a common Schaefer (logistic) surplus production model in the presence of a multiplicative environmental noise. This type of model is used in fisheries stock assessment as a first-hand tool for biomass modelling. Under the assumption that catches are proportional to the biomass, we derive new conditions on the environmental noise distribution such that stationarity exists and extinction is avoided. We then get new explicit results about the stationary behavior of the biomass distribution for a particular specification of the noise, namely the biomass distribution itself and a redefinition of the MSY and related quantities that now depend on the value of the variance of the noise. Consequently, we obtain a more precise vision of how less optimistic the stochastic version of the MSY can be than the traditionally used (deterministic) MSY. In addition, we give empirical conditions on the error variance to approximate our specific noise by a lognormal noise, the latter being more natural and leading to easier inference in this context. These conditions are mild enough to make the explicit results of this paper valid in a number of practical applications. The outcomes of two case-studies about northwest Atlantic haddock [Spencer, P.D., Collie, J.S., 1997. Effect of nonlinear predation rates on rebuilding the Georges Bank haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) stock. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54, 2920-2929] and South Atlantic albacore tuna [Millar, R.B., Meyer, R., 2000. Non-linear state space modelling of fisheries biomass dynamics by using Metropolis-Hastings within-Gibbs sampling. Appl. Stat. 49, 327-342] are used to illustrate the impact of our results in bioeconomic terms.

  19. Speech synthesis with pitch modification using harmonic plus noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehana, Parveen K.; Pandey, Prem C.

    2003-10-01

    In harmonic plus noise model (HNM) based speech synthesis, the input signal is modeled as two parts: the harmonic part using amplitudes and phases of the harmonics of the fundamental and the noise part using an all-pole filter excited by random white Gaussian noise. This method requires relatively less number of parameters and computations, provides good quality output, and permits pitch and time scaling without explicit estimation of vocal tract parameters. Pitch scaling to synthesize the speech with interpolated original amplitudes and phases at the multiples of the scaled pitch frequency results in an unnatural quality. Our investigation for obtaining natural quality output showed that the frequency scale of the amplitudes and phases of the harmonics of the original signal needed to be modified by a speaker dependent warping function. The function was obtained by studying the relationship between pitch frequency and formant frequencies for the three cardinal vowels naturally occurring with different pitches in a passage with intonation. Listening tests showed that good quality speech was obtained by linear frequency scaling of the amplitude and phase spectra, by the same factor as the pitch-scaling.

  20. Noise, Bifurcations, and Modeling of Interacting Particle Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mier-y-Teran-Romero, Luis; Forgoston, Eric; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the stochastic patterns of a system of communicating, or coupled, self-propelled particles in the presence of noise and communication time delay. For sufficiently large environmental noise, there exists a transition between a translating state and a rotating state with stationary center of mass. Time delayed communication creates a bifurcation pattern dependent on the coupling amplitude between particles. Using a mean field model in the large number limit, we show how the complete bifurcation unfolds in the presence of communication delay and coupling amplitude. Relative to the center of mass, the patterns can then be described as transitions between translation, rotation about a stationary point, or a rotating swarm, where the center of mass undergoes a Hopf bifurcation from steady state to a limit cycle. Examples of some of the stochastic patterns will be given for large numbers of particles. PMID:22124204

  1. Propeller aircraft interior noise model utilization study and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, L. D.

    1984-09-01

    Utilization and validation of a computer program designed for aircraft interior noise prediction is considered. The program, entitled PAIN (an acronym for Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise), permits (in theory) predictions of sound levels inside propeller driven aircraft arising from sidewall transmission. The objective of the work reported was to determine the practicality of making predictions for various airplanes and the extent of the program's capabilities. The ultimate purpose was to discern the quality of predictions for tonal levels inside an aircraft occurring at the propeller blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The effort involved three tasks: (1) program validation through comparisons of predictions with scale-model test results; (2) development of utilization schemes for large (full scale) fuselages; and (3) validation through comparisons of predictions with measurements taken in flight tests on a turboprop aircraft. Findings should enable future users of the program to efficiently undertake and correctly interpret predictions.

  2. Propeller aircraft interior noise model utilization study and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Utilization and validation of a computer program designed for aircraft interior noise prediction is considered. The program, entitled PAIN (an acronym for Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise), permits (in theory) predictions of sound levels inside propeller driven aircraft arising from sidewall transmission. The objective of the work reported was to determine the practicality of making predictions for various airplanes and the extent of the program's capabilities. The ultimate purpose was to discern the quality of predictions for tonal levels inside an aircraft occurring at the propeller blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The effort involved three tasks: (1) program validation through comparisons of predictions with scale-model test results; (2) development of utilization schemes for large (full scale) fuselages; and (3) validation through comparisons of predictions with measurements taken in flight tests on a turboprop aircraft. Findings should enable future users of the program to efficiently undertake and correctly interpret predictions.

  3. Phase transitions in the majority-vote model with two types of noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Allan R.; Crokidakis, Nuno

    2016-05-01

    In this work we study the majority-vote model with the presence of two distinct noises. The first one is the usual noise q, that represents the probability that a given agent follows the minority opinion of his/her social contacts. On the other hand, we consider the independent behavior, such that an agent can choose his/her own opinion + 1 or - 1 with equal probability, independent of the group's norm. We study the impact of the presence of such two kinds of stochastic driving in the phase transitions of the model, considering the mean field and the square lattice cases. Our results suggest that the model undergoes a nonequilibrium order-disorder phase transition even in the absence of the noise q, due to the independent behavior, but this transition may be suppressed. In addition, for both topologies analyzed, we verified that the transition is in the same universality class of the equilibrium Ising model, i.e., the critical exponents are not affected by the presence of the second noise, associated with independence.

  4. High accuracy localization of long term evolution based on a new multiple carrier noise model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wah Ching; Hung, Faan Hei; Tsang, Kim Fung; Wu, Chung Kit; Chi, Hao Ran; Chui, Kwok Tai; Lau, Wing Hong

    2014-11-27

    A high accuracy localization technique using Long Term Evolution (LTE) based on a new and accurate multiple carrier noise model has been developed. In the noise consideration, the LTE multiple carriers phase noise has been incorporated so that a new and accurate noise model is achieved. An experiment was performed to characterize the phase noise of carriers at 2 GHz. The developed noise model was incorporated into LTE localization analysis in a high traffic area in Hong Kong to evaluate the accuracy of localization. The evaluation and analysis reveals that the new localization method achieves an improvement of about 10% accuracy comparing to existing widely adopted schemes.

  5. Fault diagnosis using noise modeling and a new artificial immune system based algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Farshid; Mojtahedi, Alireza; Ettefagh, Mir Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    A new fault classification/diagnosis method based on artificial immune system (AIS) algorithms for the structural systems is proposed. In order to improve the accuracy of the proposed method, i.e., higher success rate, Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise generating models are applied to simulate environmental noise. The identification of noise model, known as training process, is based on the estimation of the noise model parameters by genetic algorithms (GA) utilizing real experimental features. The proposed fault classification/diagnosis algorithm is applied to the noise contaminated features. Then, the results are compared to that obtained without noise modeling. The performance of the proposed method is examined using three laboratory case studies in two healthy and damaged conditions. Finally three different types of noise models are studied and it is shown experimentally that the proposed algorithm with non-Gaussian noise modeling leads to more accurate clustering of memory cells as the major part of the fault classification procedure.

  6. Combined action of time-delay and colored cross-associated multiplicative and additive noises on stability and stochastic resonance for a stochastic metapopulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang-Kang; Zong, De-Cai; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the transition between the stable state of a big density and the extinction state and stochastic resonance (SR) for a time-delayed metapopulation system disturbed by colored cross-correlated noises are investigated. By applying the fast descent method, the small time-delay approximation and McNamara and Wiesenfeld's SR theory, we investigate the impacts of time-delay, the multiplicative, additive noises and colored cross-correlated noise on the SNR and the shift between the two states of the system. Numerical results show that the multiplicative, additive noises and time-delay can all speed up the transition from the stable state to the extinction state, while the correlation noise and its correlation time can slow down the extinction process of the population system. With respect to SNR, the multiplicative noise always weakens the SR effect, while noise correlation time plays a dual role in motivating the SR phenomenon. Meanwhile, time-delay mainly plays a negative role in stimulating the SR phenomenon. Conversely, it could motivate the SR effect to increase the strength of the cross-correlation noise in the SNR-β plot, while the increase of additive noise intensity will firstly excite SR, and then suppress the SR effect.

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Enhanced propagation modeling of directional aviation noise: A hybrid parabolic equation-fast field program method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Joyce E.

    2011-12-01

    Commercial air traffic is anticipated to increase rapidly in the coming years. The impact of aviation noise on communities surrounding airports is, therefore, a growing concern. Accurate prediction of noise can help to mitigate the impact on communities and foster smoother integration of aerospace engineering advances. The problem of accurate sound level prediction requires careful inclusion of all mechanisms that affect propagation, in addition to correct source characterization. Terrain, ground type, meteorological effects, and source directivity can have a substantial influence on the noise level. Because they are difficult to model, these effects are often included only by rough approximation. This dissertation presents a model designed for sound propagation over uneven terrain, with mixed ground type and realistic meteorological conditions. The model is a hybrid of two numerical techniques: the parabolic equation (PE) and fast field program (FFP) methods, which allow for physics-based inclusion of propagation effects and ensure the low frequency content, a factor in community impact, is predicted accurately. Extension of the hybrid model to a pseudo-three-dimensional representation allows it to produce aviation noise contour maps in the standard form. In order for the model to correctly characterize aviation noise sources, a method of representing arbitrary source directivity patterns was developed for the unique form of the parabolic equation starting field. With this advancement, the model can represent broadband, directional moving sound sources, traveling along user-specified paths. This work was prepared for possible use in the research version of the sound propagation module in the Federal Aviation Administration's new standard predictive tool.

  9. Noise in the brain: a physical network model.

    PubMed

    Haken, H

    1996-09-01

    In the brain as in any other open physical systems, noise is inevitable. We present an explicit model of an active physical system that is borrowed from laser physics and allows us to establish the properties of the fluctuating forces that cause noise in the system. It is shown how the cooperation of the individual parts of a system (atoms or neurons) can considerably reduce the noise level. In particular we determine the correlation function between the individual parts. The basic equations can be transformed in such a way that a close analogy with typical equations of neural nets are obtained. In particular, the nonlinear properties of neurons described by the sigmoid function are well captured. Propagation of excitation in axons and dendrites is represented by a linear equation, where we consider both a bandwidth filter and more or less free propagation. In the latter case, a close analogy with an equation for neural activity in the sense of Nunez and established by Jirsa and Haken is pointed out.

  10. Additive interaction in survival analysis: use of the additive hazards model.

    PubMed

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise; Marott, Jacob Louis; Diderichsen, Finn

    2012-09-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects is the relevant measure of interest. Multiplicative survival models, such as the Cox proportional hazards model, are often used to estimate the association between exposure and risk of disease in prospective studies. In Cox models, deviations from additivity have usually been assessed by surrogate measures of additive interaction derived from multiplicative models-an approach that is both counter-intuitive and sometimes invalid. This paper presents a straightforward and intuitive way of assessing deviation from additivity of effects in survival analysis by use of the additive hazards model. The model directly estimates the absolute size of the deviation from additivity and provides confidence intervals. In addition, the model can accommodate both continuous and categorical exposures and models both exposures and potential confounders on the same underlying scale. To illustrate the approach, we present an empirical example of interaction between education and smoking on risk of lung cancer. We argue that deviations from additivity of effects are important for public health interventions and clinical decision-making, and such estimations should be encouraged in prospective studies on health. A detailed implementation guide of the additive hazards model is provided in the appendix.

  11. Modeling techniques for gaining additional urban space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thunig, Holger; Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    One of the major accompaniments of the globalization is the rapid growing of urban areas. Urban sprawl is the main environmental problem affecting those cities across different characteristics and continents. Various reasons for the increase in urban sprawl in the last 10 to 30 years have been proposed [1], and often depend on the socio-economic situation of cities. The quantitative reduction and the sustainable handling of land should be performed by inner urban development instead of expanding urban regions. Following the principal "spare the urban fringe, develop the inner suburbs first" requires differentiated tools allowing for quantitative and qualitative appraisals of current building potentials. Using spatial high resolution remote sensing data within an object-based approach enables the detection of potential areas while GIS-data provides information for the quantitative valuation. This paper presents techniques for modeling urban environment and opportunities of utilization of the retrieved information for urban planners and their special needs.

  12. Bicoherence analysis of model-scale jet noise.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kent L; Atchley, Anthony A; Falco, Lauren E; Shepherd, Micah R; Ukeiley, Lawrence S; Jansen, Bernard J; Seiner, John M

    2010-11-01

    Bicoherence analysis has been used to characterize nonlinear effects in the propagation of noise from a model-scale, Mach-2.0, unheated jet. Nonlinear propagation effects are predominantly limited to regions near the peak directivity angle for this jet source and propagation range. The analysis also examines the practice of identifying nonlinear propagation by comparing spectra measured at two different distances and assuming far-field, linear propagation between them. This spectral comparison method can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the role of nonlinearity when the observations are made in the geometric near field of an extended, directional radiator, such as a jet. PMID:21110528

  13. Modeling and Validation of Damped Plexiglas Windows for Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Gibbs, Gary P.; Klos, Jacob; Mazur, Marina

    2003-01-01

    Windows are a significant path for structure-borne and air-borne noise transmission in general aviation aircraft. In this paper, numerical and experimental results are used to evaluate damped plexiglas windows for the reduction of structure-borne and air-borne noise transmitted into the interior of an aircraft. In contrast to conventional homogeneous windows, the damped plexiglas windows were fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. Transmission loss and radiated sound power measurements were used to compare different layups of the damped plexiglas windows with uniform windows of the same nominal thickness. This vibro-acoustic test data was also used for the verification and validation of finite element and boundary element models of the damped plexiglas windows. Numerical models are presented for the prediction of radiated sound power for a point force excitation and transmission loss for diffuse acoustic excitation. Radiated sound power and transmission loss predictions are in good agreement with experimental data. Once validated, the numerical models were used to perform a parametric study to determine the optimum configuration of the damped plexiglas windows for reducing the radiated sound power for a point force excitation.

  14. Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband reproducible noise maskers. IV. Models using interaural time, level, and envelope differences

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Junwen; Carney, Laurel H.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of out-of-phase tones to in-phase noises results in dynamic interaural level difference (ILD) and interaural time difference (ITD) cues for the dichotic tone-in-noise detection task. Several models have been used to predict listeners' detection performance based on ILD, ITD, or different combinations of the two cues. The models can be tested using detection performance from an ensemble of reproducible-noise maskers. Previous models cannot predict listeners' detection performance for reproducible-noise maskers without fitting the data. Here, two models were tested for narrowband and wideband reproducible-noise experiments. One model was a linear combination of ILD and ITD that included the generally ignored correlation between the two cues. The other model was based on a newly proposed cue, the slope of the interaural envelope difference (SIED). Predictions from both models explained a significant portion of listeners' performance for detection of a 500-Hz tone in wideband noise. Predictions based on the SIED approached the predictable variance in the wideband condition. The SIED represented a nonlinear combination of ILD and ITD, with the latter cue dominating. Listeners did not use a common strategy (cue) to detect tones in the narrowband condition and may use different single frequencies or different combinations of frequency channels. PMID:25234891

  15. Roughness distribution of multiple hit and long surface diffusion length noise reduced discrete growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disrattakit, P.; Chanphana, R.; Chatraphorn, P.

    2016-11-01

    Conventionally, the universality class of a discrete growth model is identified via the scaling of interface width. This method requires large-scale simulations to minimize finite-size effects on the results. The multiple hit noise reduction techniques (m > 1 NRT) and the long surface diffusion length noise reduction techniques (ℓ > 1 NRT) have been used to promote the asymptotic behaviors of the growth models. Lately, an alternative method involving comparison of roughness distribution in the steady state has been proposed. In this work, the roughness distribution of the (2 +1)-dimensional Das Sarma-Tamborenea (DT), Wolf-Villain (WV), and Larger Curvature (LC) models, with and without NRTs, are calculated in order to investigate effects of the NRTs on the roughness distribution. Additionally, effective growth exponents of the noise reduced (2 +1)-dimensional DT, WV and LC models are also calculated. Our results indicate that the NRTs affect the interface width both in the growth and the saturation regimes. In the steady state, the NRTs do not seem to have any impact on the roughness distribution of the DT model, but it significantly changes the roughness distribution of the WV and LC models to the normal distribution curves.

  16. On the use of sensor fusion to reduce the impact of rotational and additive noise in human activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of fusion mechanisms is to increase the individual reliability of the systems through the use of the collectivity knowledge. Moreover, fusion models are also intended to guarantee a certain level of robustness. This is particularly required for problems such as human activity recognition where runtime changes in the sensor setup seriously disturb the reliability of the initial deployed systems. For commonly used recognition systems based on inertial sensors, these changes are primarily characterized as sensor rotations, displacements or faults related to the batteries or calibration. In this work we show the robustness capabilities of a sensor-weighted fusion model when dealing with such disturbances under different circumstances. Using the proposed method, up to 60% outperformance is obtained when a minority of the sensors are artificially rotated or degraded, independent of the level of disturbance (noise) imposed. These robustness capabilities also apply for any number of sensors affected by a low to moderate noise level. The presented fusion mechanism compensates the poor performance that otherwise would be obtained when just a single sensor is considered.

  17. On the Use of Sensor Fusion to Reduce the Impact of Rotational and Additive Noise in Human Activity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Banos, Oresti; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of fusion mechanisms is to increase the individual reliability of the systems through the use of the collectivity knowledge. Moreover, fusion models are also intended to guarantee a certain level of robustness. This is particularly required for problems such as human activity recognition where runtime changes in the sensor setup seriously disturb the reliability of the initial deployed systems. For commonly used recognition systems based on inertial sensors, these changes are primarily characterized as sensor rotations, displacements or faults related to the batteries or calibration. In this work we show the robustness capabilities of a sensor-weighted fusion model when dealing with such disturbances under different circumstances. Using the proposed method, up to 60% outperformance is obtained when a minority of the sensors are artificially rotated or degraded, independent of the level of disturbance (noise) imposed. These robustness capabilities also apply for any number of sensors affected by a low to moderate noise level. The presented fusion mechanism compensates the poor performance that otherwise would be obtained when just a single sensor is considered. PMID:22969386

  18. Noise with memory as a model of lemming cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichigina, O. A.

    2008-10-01

    Population cycles in small rodents of the north are modeled by noise with memory. Multiannual lemming density fluctuations are presented as a pulse sequence. These pulses correspond to the peaks of lemming density. The memory is presented as some delay time after each pulse. During this time the next pulse is forbidden. Parameter of periodicity, average period, correlation function and parameter of synchronization are calculated for different places of North America. Examples of equations modeling population dynamics of lemmings (or their predators) are considered. The model of connected oscillators gives the qualitative explanation of synchronization effects and relation between synchronization and periodicity. These results have implication for the testing of hypotheses regarding lemming cycles.

  19. Over-the-wing model thrust reverser noise tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodykoontz, J.; Gutierrez, O.

    1977-01-01

    Static acoustic tests were conducted on a 1/12 scale model over-the-wing target type thrust reverser. The model configuration simulates a design that is applicable to the over-the-wing short-haul advanced technology engine. Aerodynamic screening tests of a variety of reverser designs identified configurations that satisfied a reverse thrust requirement of 35 percent of forward thrust at a nozzle pressure ratio of 1.29. The variations in the reverser configuration included, blocker door angle, blocker door lip angle and shape, and side skirt shape. Acoustic data are presented and compared for the various configurations. The model data scaled to a single full size engine show that peak free field perceived noise (PN) levels at a 152.4 meter sideline distance range from 98 to 104 PNdb.

  20. Empirical refinements to boundary layer transition noise models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marboe, Richard C.; Lauchle, Gerald C.

    We have discussed two similar theoretical models for direct radiation from a transitioning boundary layer zone. When Ffowcs Williams suggested that a turbulent spot may yield 'intense sound radiation', he suggested that analysis was insufficient to resolve the growth mechanism and that empiricism was necessary. The predicted radiated noise levels due to the transition process are sensitive to several factors which will require such empirical description in order to practically use the models, whether applied to flow over a wall, around a body of revolution, or over an airfoil or hydrofoil. They include: the effect of the dynamics of the spot substructures identified by Sankaran et al. on the normal surface velocity, v(sub n); accurate displacement thickness rise time, t(sub i) and spatially-dependent normal velocity measurements; and effects of adverse pressure gradient including the possibility of laminar separation prior to transition. The radiated noise component magnitude can be added to the convective and low wavenumber contribution to find the wall pressure forcing spectrum as input to the fluid-structure interaction problems of interest.

  1. Modeling the anti-masking effects of the olivocochlear reflex in auditory nerve responses to tones in sustained noise.

    PubMed

    Chintanpalli, Ananthakrishna; Jennings, Skyler G; Heinz, Michael G; Strickland, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-01

    The medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) has been hypothesized to provide benefit for listening in noise. Strong physiological support for an anti-masking role for the MOCR has come from the observation that auditory nerve (AN) fibers exhibit reduced firing to sustained noise and increased sensitivity to tones when the MOCR is elicited. The present study extended a well-established computational model for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired AN responses to demonstrate that these anti-masking effects can be accounted for by reducing outer hair cell (OHC) gain, which is a primary effect of the MOCR. Tone responses in noise were examined systematically as a function of tone level, noise level, and OHC gain. Signal detection theory was used to predict detection and discrimination for different spontaneous rate fiber groups. Decreasing OHC gain decreased the sustained noise response and increased maximum discharge rate to the tone, thus modeling the ability of the MOCR to decompress AN fiber rate-level functions. Comparing the present modeling results with previous data from AN fibers in decerebrate cats suggests that the ipsilateral masking noise used in the physiological study may have elicited up to 20 dB of OHC gain reduction in addition to that inferred from the contralateral noise effects. Reducing OHC gain in the model also extended the dynamic range for discrimination over a wide range of background noise levels. For each masker level, an optimal OHC gain reduction was predicted (i.e., where maximum discrimination was achieved without increased detection threshold). These optimal gain reductions increased with masker level and were physiologically realistic. Thus, reducing OHC gain can improve tone-in-noise discrimination even though it may produce a “hearing loss” in quiet. Combining MOCR effects with the sensorineural hearing loss effects already captured by this computational AN model will be beneficial for exploring the implications of their interaction

  2. Flux noise resulting from vortex avalanches using a simple kinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Mohler, G.; Stroud, D.

    1999-10-01

    We have carried out a model calculation of the flux noise produced by vortex avalanches in a type-II superconductor, using a simple kinetic model proposed by Bassler and Paczuski. Over a broad range of frequencies, we find that the flux noise S{sub {Phi}}({omega}) has a power-law dependence on frequency, S{sub {Phi}}({omega}){approximately}{omega}{sup {minus}s}, with s{approximately}1.4 in reasonable agreement with experiment. In addition, for small lattices, the calculated S{sub {Phi}}({omega}) has a high-frequency knee, which is seen in some experiments, and which is due to the finite lattice size. Deviations between calculation and experiment are attributed mostly to uncertainties in the measured critical current densities and pinning strengths of the experimental samples. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Flux noise resulting from vortex avalanches using a simple kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohler, G.; Stroud, D.

    1999-10-01

    We have carried out a model calculation of the flux noise produced by vortex avalanches in a type-II superconductor, using a simple kinetic model proposed by Bassler and Paczuski. Over a broad range of frequencies, we find that the flux noise SΦ(ω) has a power-law dependence on frequency, SΦ(ω)~ω-s, with s~1.4 in reasonable agreement with experiment. In addition, for small lattices, the calculated SΦ(ω) has a high-frequency knee, which is seen in some experiments, and which is due to the finite lattice size. Deviations between calculation and experiment are attributed mostly to uncertainties in the measured critical current densities and pinning strengths of the experimental samples.

  4. Noise-induced absorbing phase transition in a model of opinion formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Allan R.; Crokidakis, Nuno

    2016-08-01

    In this work we study a 3-state (+1, -1, 0) opinion model in the presence of noise and disorder. We consider pairwise competitive interactions, with a fraction p of those interactions being negative (disorder). Moreover, there is a noise q that represents the probability of an individual spontaneously change his opinion to the neutral state. Our aim is to study how the increase/decrease of the fraction of neutral agents affects the critical behavior of the system and the evolution of opinions. We derive analytical expressions for the order parameter of the model, as well as for the stationary fraction of each opinion, and we show that there are distinct phase transitions. One is the usual ferro-paramagnetic transition, that is in the Ising universality class. In addition, there are para-absorbing and ferro-absorbing transitions, presenting the directed percolation universality class. Our results are complemented by numerical simulations.

  5. A cocktail party model of spatial release from masking by both noise and speech interferers a)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gary L.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical formula for estimating spatial release from masking (SRM) in a cocktail party environment would be useful as a simpler alternative to computationally intensive algorithms and may enhance understanding of underlying mechanisms. The experiment presented herein was designed to provide a strong test of a model that divides SRM into contributions of asymmetry and angular separation [Bronkhorst (2000). Acustica 86, 117–128] and to examine whether that model can be extended to include speech maskers. Across masker types the contribution to SRM of angular separation of maskers from the target was found to grow at a diminishing rate as angular separation increased within the frontal hemifield, contrary to predictions of the model. Speech maskers differed from noise maskers in the overall magnitude of SRM and in the contribution of angular separation (both greater for speech). These results were used to develop a modified model that achieved good fits to data for noise maskers (ρ = 0.93) and for speech maskers (ρ = 0.94) while using the same functions to describe separation and asymmetry components of SRM for both masker types. These findings suggest that this approach can be used to accurately model SRM for speech maskers in addition to primarily “energetic” noise maskers. PMID:21895087

  6. Noise monitoring and modeling on four lanning of national highways corridor.

    PubMed

    Devi, P Shiyamala; Rosaline, G Vimala

    2012-10-01

    Noise emitted from traffic contributes to about 55% of total noise pollution in India. This paper is an effort of a research conducted to quantify and analyze the traffic noise emissions along the Salem-Namakkal NH 7 corridor with an ultimate objective of setting up a traffic noise model based on the traffic noise conditions of Indian cities. Noise levels and other variables have been measured in 15 locations to develop a statistical regression model based on A-weighted equivalent noise level for Indian road conditions. The ambient noise levels recorded represent the higher noise levels prevailing along the NH 7 corridor. The Receptor Oriented Technique adopted proves to be helpful in characterizing the ambient noise levels along the study area. The newly developed road traffic noise model can be effectively used as a decision support tool for predicting equivalent noise levels in the cities of India. The present analysis also reveals that the magnitude of noise levels has an increasing trend due to the increased traffic flow and presents the attention needed for minimization. The mitigation measures and the future evaluations are discussed.

  7. Numerical modeling of wind turbine aerodynamic noise in the time domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Soogab

    2013-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a wind turbine is numerically modeled in the time domain. An analytic trailing edge noise model is used to determine the unsteady pressure on the blade surface. The far-field noise due to the unsteady pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy theory. By using a strip theory approach, the two-dimensional noise model is applied to rotating wind turbine blades. The numerical results indicate that, although the operating and atmospheric conditions are identical, the acoustical characteristics of wind turbine noise can be quite different with respect to the distance and direction from the wind turbine.

  8. Numerical modeling of wind turbine aerodynamic noise in the time domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Soogab

    2013-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a wind turbine is numerically modeled in the time domain. An analytic trailing edge noise model is used to determine the unsteady pressure on the blade surface. The far-field noise due to the unsteady pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy theory. By using a strip theory approach, the two-dimensional noise model is applied to rotating wind turbine blades. The numerical results indicate that, although the operating and atmospheric conditions are identical, the acoustical characteristics of wind turbine noise can be quite different with respect to the distance and direction from the wind turbine. PMID:23363200

  9. Analysis and modeling of noise in biomedical systems.

    PubMed

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Jalaleddini, Kian; Lopez, Diego Guarin; Kearney, Robert E; Galiana, Henrietta L

    2013-01-01

    Noise characteristics play an important role in evaluating tools developed to study biomedical systems. Despite usual assumptions, noise in biomedical systems is often nonwhite or non-Gaussian. In this paper, we present a method to analyze the noise component of a biomedical system. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in the analysis of noise in voluntary ankle torque measured by a torque transducer and eye movements measured by electro-oculography (EOG).

  10. Modelling the Noise-Robustness of Infants’ Word Representations: The Impact of Previous Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Christina; Bosch, Louis ten; Fikkert, Paula; Boves, Lou

    2015-01-01

    During language acquisition, infants frequently encounter ambient noise. We present a computational model to address whether specific acoustic processing abilities are necessary to detect known words in moderate noise—an ability attested experimentally in infants. The model implements a general purpose speech encoding and word detection procedure. Importantly, the model contains no dedicated processes for removing or cancelling out ambient noise, and it can replicate the patterns of results obtained in several infant experiments. In addition to noise, we also addressed the role of previous experience with particular target words: does the frequency of a word matter, and does it play a role whether that word has been spoken by one or multiple speakers? The simulation results show that both factors affect noise robustness. We also investigated how robust word detection is to changes in speaker identity by comparing words spoken by known versus unknown speakers during the simulated test. This factor interacted with both noise level and past experience, showing that an increase in exposure is only helpful when a familiar speaker provides the test material. Added variability proved helpful only when encountering an unknown speaker. Finally, we addressed whether infants need to recognise specific words, or whether a more parsimonious explanation of infant behaviour, which we refer to as matching, is sufficient. Recognition involves a focus of attention on a specific target word, while matching only requires finding the best correspondence of acoustic input to a known pattern in the memory. Attending to a specific target word proves to be more noise robust, but a general word matching procedure can be sufficient to simulate experimental data stemming from young infants. A change from acoustic matching to targeted recognition provides an explanation of the improvements observed in infants around their first birthday. In summary, we present a computational model

  11. Adaptive Autoregressive Model for Reduction of Noise in SPECT.

    PubMed

    Takalo, Reijo; Hytti, Heli; Ihalainen, Heimo; Sohlberg, Antti

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents improved autoregressive modelling (AR) to reduce noise in SPECT images. An AR filter was applied to prefilter projection images and postfilter ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction images (AR-OSEM-AR method). The performance of this method was compared with filtered back projection (FBP) preceded by Butterworth filtering (BW-FBP method) and the OSEM reconstruction method followed by Butterworth filtering (OSEM-BW method). A mathematical cylinder phantom was used for the study. It consisted of hot and cold objects. The tests were performed using three simulated SPECT datasets. Image quality was assessed by means of the percentage contrast resolution (CR%) and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the line spread functions of the cylinders. The BW-FBP method showed the highest CR% values and the AR-OSEM-AR method gave the lowest CR% values for cold stacks. In the analysis of hot stacks, the BW-FBP method had higher CR% values than the OSEM-BW method. The BW-FBP method exhibited the lowest FWHM values for cold stacks and the AR-OSEM-AR method for hot stacks. In conclusion, the AR-OSEM-AR method is a feasible way to remove noise from SPECT images. It has good spatial resolution for hot objects.

  12. Phase Noise in Photonic Phased-Array Antenna Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.; Maleki, Lute

    1998-01-01

    The total noise of a phased-array antenna system employing a photonic feed network is analyzed using a model for the individual component noise including both additive and multiplicative equivalent noise generators.

  13. The Harmonoise/IMAGINE model for traction noise of powered railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, M. G.; Zhang, X.

    2006-06-01

    Traction noise is one of the noise sources of powered railway vehicles such as locomotives, electric- and diesel-powered multiple unit trains and high-speed trains. Especially at speeds below 60 km/h and at idling, but also at acceleration conditions for a wide range of speeds, traction noise can be dominant. This is relevant for noise in residential areas near stations and shunting yards, but in some cases also along the line. The other relevant sources are rolling noise, often dominant between 100 and 250 km/h, aerodynamic noise, which can be dominant above 300 km/h, braking noise, curve squeal and impact noise. The braking system can often technically be considered part of the overall traction system, although acoustically it will often have separate noise sources. In the Harmonoise and IMAGINE EU projects, a generalised prediction model for railway traction noise has been proposed to cover a broad range of powered railway vehicles. The model is one of the prediction modules for overall rail traffic noise, which also covers the other main sources. The traction noise model includes the main operational parameters such as driveshaft speed and power settings, and also takes individual auxiliary components and their duty cycles into account, such as compressors, valves and fans. Source height is included in the model. The level of modelling detail in the many potential traction noise sources has been kept to a minimum, as for the purpose of rail traffic noise prediction it often suffices to model only the dominant sources. Measurement methods are outlined to determine the noise emission spectra, from which extrapolations are made to obtain estimates for different operating conditions.

  14. Modeling the cardiovascular system using a nonlinear additive autoregressive model with exogenous input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, M.; Suhrbier, A.; Malberg, H.; Penzel, T.; Bretthauer, G.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

    2008-07-01

    The parameters of heart rate variability and blood pressure variability have proved to be useful analytical tools in cardiovascular physics and medicine. Model-based analysis of these variabilities additionally leads to new prognostic information about mechanisms behind regulations in the cardiovascular system. In this paper, we analyze the complex interaction between heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration by nonparametric fitted nonlinear additive autoregressive models with external inputs. Therefore, we consider measurements of healthy persons and patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), with and without hypertension. It is shown that the proposed nonlinear models are capable of describing short-term fluctuations in heart rate as well as systolic blood pressure significantly better than similar linear ones, which confirms the assumption of nonlinear controlled heart rate and blood pressure. Furthermore, the comparison of the nonlinear and linear approaches reveals that the heart rate and blood pressure variability in healthy subjects is caused by a higher level of noise as well as nonlinearity than in patients suffering from OSAS. The residue analysis points at a further source of heart rate and blood pressure variability in healthy subjects, in addition to heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration. Comparison of the nonlinear models within and among the different groups of subjects suggests the ability to discriminate the cohorts that could lead to a stratification of hypertension risk in OSAS patients.

  15. A mathematical model for simulating noise suppression of lined ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model containing the essential features embodied in the noise suppression of lined ejectors is presented. Although some simplification of the physics is necessary to render the model mathematically tractable, the current model is the most versatile and technologically advanced at the current time. A system of linearized equations and the boundary conditions governing the sound field are derived starting from the equations of fluid dynamics. A nonreflecting boundary condition is developed. In view of the complex nature of the equations, a parametric study requires the use of numerical techniques and modern computers. A finite element algorithm that solves the differential equations coupled with the boundary condition is then introduced. The numerical method results in a matrix equation with several hundred thousand degrees of freedom that is solved efficiently on a supercomputer. The model is validated by comparing results either with exact solutions or with approximate solutions from other works. In each case, excellent correlations are obtained. The usefulness of the model as an optimization tool and the importance of variable impedance liners as a mechanism for achieving broadband suppression within a lined ejector are demonstrated.

  16. Predictability of the coherent-noise model and its applications.

    PubMed

    Sarlis, N V; Christopoulos, S-R G

    2012-05-01

    We study the threshold distribution function of the coherent-noise model for the case of infinite number of agents. This function is piecewise constant with a finite number of steps n. The latter exhibits a 1/f behavior as a function of the order of occurrence of an avalanche and hence versus natural time. An analytic expression of the expectation value E(S) for the size S of the next avalanche is obtained and used for the prediction of the next avalanche. Apart from E(S), the number of steps n can also serve for this purpose. This enables the construction of a similar prediction scheme which can be applied to real earthquake aftershock data.

  17. Image discrimination models predict detection in fixed but not random noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Beard, B. L.; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    By means of a two-interval forced-choice procedure, contrast detection thresholds for an aircraft positioned on a simulated airport runway scene were measured with fixed and random white-noise masks. The term fixed noise refers to a constant, or unchanging, noise pattern for each stimulus presentation. The random noise was either the same or different in the two intervals. Contrary to simple image discrimination model predictions, the same random noise condition produced greater masking than the fixed noise. This suggests that observers seem unable to hold a new noisy image for comparison. Also, performance appeared limited by internal process variability rather than by external noise variability, since similar masking was obtained for both random noise types.

  18. Modeling of road traffic noise and estimated human exposure in Fulton County, Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Seong, Jeong C; Park, Tae H; Ko, Joon H; Chang, Seo I; Kim, Minho; Holt, James B; Mehdi, Mohammed R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental noise is a major source of public complaints. Noise in the community causes physical and socio-economic effects and has been shown to be related to adverse health impacts. Noise, however, has not been actively researched in the United States compared with the European Union countries in recent years. In this research, we aimed at modeling road traffic noise and analyzing human exposure in Fulton County, Georgia, United States. We modeled road traffic noise levels using the United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Traffic Noise Model implemented in SoundPLAN®. After analyzing noise levels with raster, vector and façade maps, we estimated human exposure to high noise levels. Accurate digital elevation models and building heights were derived from Light Detection And Ranging survey datasets and building footprint boundaries. Traffic datasets were collected from the Georgia Department of Transportation and the Atlanta Regional Commission. Noise level simulation was performed with 62 computers in a distributed computing environment. Finally, the noise-exposed population was calculated using geographic information system techniques. Results show that 48% of the total county population [N=870,166 residents] is potentially exposed to 55 dB(A) or higher noise levels during daytime. About 9% of the population is potentially exposed to 67 dB(A) or higher noises. At nighttime, 32% of the population is expected to be exposed to noise levels higher than 50 dB(A). This research shows that large-scale traffic noise estimation is possible with the help of various organizations. We believe that this research is a significant stepping stone for analyzing community health associated with noise exposures in the United States.

  19. The fundamental structure function of oscillator noise models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Continuous-time models of oscillator phase noise x(t) usually have stationary nth differences, for some n. The covariance structure of such a model can be characterized in the time domain by the structure function: D sub n (t;gamma sub 1, gamma sub 2) = E delta (n) sub gamma sub 1 x(s+t) delta(n) sub gamma sub 2 x (s). Although formulas for the special case D sub 2 (0;gamma,gamma) (the Allan variance times 2 gamma(2)) exist for power-law spectral models, certain estimation problems require a more complete knowledge of (0). Exhibited is a much simpler function of one time variable, D(t), from which (0) can easily be obtained from the spectral density by uncomplicated integrations. Believing that D(t) is the simplest function of time that holds the same information as (0), D(t) is called the fundamental structure function. D(t) is computed for several power-law spectral models. Two examples are D(t) = K/t/(3) for random walk FM, D(t) = Kt(2) 1n/t/ for flicker FM. Then, to demonstrate its use, a BASIC program is given that computes means and variances of two Allan variance estimators, one of which incorporates a method of frequency drift estimation and removal.

  20. Modelling the effect of telegraph noise in the SIRS epidemic model using Markovian switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, D.; Liang, Y.; Mao, X.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the effect of introducing telegraph noise, which is an example of an environmental noise, into the susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model by examining the model using a finite-state Markov Chain (MC). First we start with a two-state MC and show that there exists a unique nonnegative solution and establish the conditions for extinction and persistence. We then explain how the results can be generalised to a finite-state MC. The results for the SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Removed) model with Markovian Switching (MS) are a special case. Numerical simulations are produced to confirm our theoretical results.

  1. An investigation of rotor harmonic noise by the use of small scale wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Schaffer, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    Noise measurements of small scale helicopter rotor models were compared with noise measurements of full scale helicopters to determine what information about the full scale helicopters could be derived from noise measurements of small scale helicopter models. Comparisons were made of the discrete frequency (rotational) noise for 4 pairs of tests. Areas covered were tip speed effects, isolated rotor, tandem rotor, and main rotor/tail rotor interaction. Results show good comparison of noise trends with configuration and test condition changes, and good comparison of absolute noise measurements with the corrections used except for the isolated rotor case. Noise measurements of the isolated rotor show a great deal of scatter reflecting the fact that the rotor in hover is basically unstable.

  2. Circuit models and experimental noise measurements of micropipette amplifiers for extracellular neural recordings from live animals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang Hao; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Vai, Mang I; Klug, Achim; Lei, Tim C

    2014-01-01

    Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study of noise in extracellular recordings with glass micropipettes. The purpose of this work was to assess various noise sources that affect extracellular recordings and to create model systems in which novel micropipette neural amplifier designs can be tested. An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipette and the noise model of this circuit, which accurately describe the various noise sources involved in extracellular recordings, have been developed. Measurement schemes using dead brain tissue as well as extracellular recordings from neurons in the inferior colliculus, an auditory brain nucleus of an anesthetized gerbil, were used to characterize noise performance and amplification efficacy of the proposed micropipette neural amplifier. According to our model, the major noise sources which influence the signal to noise ratio are the intrinsic noise of the neural amplifier and the thermal noise from distributed pipette resistance. These two types of noise were calculated and measured and were shown to be the dominating sources of background noise for in vivo experiments.

  3. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  4. Tuning of turbulent boundary layer anisotropy for improved surface pressure and trailing-edge noise modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas; Jun Zhu, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The modeling of the surface pressure spectrum beneath a turbulent boundary layer is investigated, focusing on the case of airfoil flows and associated trailing edge noise prediction using the so-called TNO model. This type of flow is characterized by the presence of an adverse pressure gradient along the airfoil chord. It is shown that discrepancies between measurements and results from the TNO model increase as the pressure gradient increases. The original model is modified by introducing anisotropy in the definition of the turbulent vertical velocity spectrum across the boundary layer and by considering a frequency-dependent vertical correlation length. The degree of anisotropy is directly related to the strength of the pressure gradient. It is shown that by appropriately normalizing the pressure gradient and by tuning the degree of anisotropy, experimental results can be closely reproduced by the modified model. The model is validated against Large Eddy Simulation results and additional wind tunnel measurements. It is further validated in the context of trailing edge noise for which the model formulation makes use of the above surface pressure spectrum.

  5. Core-Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a technical progress report and near-term outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external work on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge; the current research activities in the core-noise area, with some additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustion-noise prediction capability; the need for a core-noise diagnostic capability to generate benchmark data for validation of both high-fidelity work and improved models, as well as testing of future noise-reduction technologies; relevant existing core-noise tests using real engines and auxiliary power units; and examples of possible scenarios for a future diagnostic facility. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge aims to enable concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical for enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor designs could increase

  6. Columnar architecture improves noise robustness in a model cortical network.

    PubMed

    Bush, Paul C; Mainen, Zachary F

    2015-01-01

    Cortical columnar architecture was discovered decades ago yet there is no agreed upon explanation for its function. Indeed, some have suggested that it has no function, it is simply an epiphenomenon of developmental processes. To investigate this problem we have constructed a computer model of one square millimeter of layer 2/3 of the primary visual cortex (V1) of the cat. Model cells are connected according to data from recent paired cell studies, in particular the connection probability between pyramidal cells is inversely proportional both to the distance separating the cells and to the distance between the preferred parameters (features) of the cells. We find that these constraints, together with a columnar architecture, produce more tightly clustered populations of cells when compared to the random architecture seen in, for example, rodents. This causes the columnar network to converge more quickly and accurately on the pattern representing a particular stimulus in the presence of noise, suggesting that columnar connectivity functions to improve pattern recognition in cortical circuits. The model also suggests that synaptic failure, a phenomenon exhibited by weak synapses, may conserve metabolic resources by reducing transmitter release at these connections that do not contribute to network function.

  7. A Semi-Empirical Noise Modeling Method for Helicopter Maneuvering Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Schmitz, Fredric; Sickenberger, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    A new model for Blade-Vortex Interaction noise generation during maneuvering flight is developed in this paper. Acoustic and performance data from both flight and wind tunnels are used to derive a non-dimensional and analytical performance/acoustic model that describes BVI noise in steady flight. The model is extended to transient maneuvering flight (pure pitch and roll transients) by using quasisteady assumptions throughout the prescribed maneuvers. Ground noise measurements, taken during maneuvering flight of a Bell 206B helicopter, show that many of the noise radiation details are captured. The result is a computationally efficient Blade-Vortex Interaction noise model with sufficient accuracy to account for transient maneuvering flight. The code can be run in real time to predict transient maneuver noise and is suitable for use in an acoustic mission-planning tool.

  8. Removal of correlated noise by modeling the signal of interest in the wavelet domain.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Bart; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2009-06-01

    Images, captured with digital imaging devices, often contain noise. In literature, many algorithms exist for the removal of white uncorrelated noise, but they usually fail when applied to images with correlated noise. In this paper, we design a new denoising method for the removal of correlated noise, by modeling the significance of the noise-free wavelet coefficients in a local window using a new significance measure that defines the "signal of interest" and that is applicable to correlated noise. We combine the intrascale model with a hidden Markov tree model to capture the interscale dependencies between the wavelet coefficients. We propose a denoising method based on the combined model and a less redundant wavelet transform. We present results that show that the new method performs as well as the state-of-the-art wavelet-based methods, while having a lower computational complexity.

  9. Criteria for deviation from predictions by the concentration addition model.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Jun-Ichi; Seki, Masanori; Kamo, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Loewe's additivity (concentration addition) is a well-known model for predicting the toxic effects of chemical mixtures under the additivity assumption of toxicity. However, from the perspective of chemical risk assessment and/or management, it is important to identify chemicals whose toxicities are additive when present concurrently, that is, it should be established whether there are chemical mixtures to which the concentration addition predictive model can be applied. The objective of the present study was to develop criteria for judging test results that deviated from the predictions by the concentration addition chemical mixture model. These criteria were based on the confidence interval of the concentration addition model's prediction and on estimation of errors of the predicted concentration-effect curves by toxicity tests after exposure to single chemicals. A log-logit model with 2 parameters was assumed for the concentration-effect curve of each individual chemical. These parameters were determined by the maximum-likelihood method, and the criteria were defined using the variances and the covariance of the parameters. In addition, the criteria were applied to a toxicity test of a binary mixture of p-n-nonylphenol and p-n-octylphenol using the Japanese killifish, medaka (Oryzias latipes). Consequently, the concentration addition model using confidence interval was capable of predicting the test results at any level, and no reason for rejecting the concentration addition was found. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1806-1814. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26660330

  10. Channel-noise-induced stochastic facilitation in an auditory brainstem neuron model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerl, Brett A.; McDonnell, Mark D.

    2013-11-01

    Neuronal membrane potentials fluctuate stochastically due to conductance changes caused by random transitions between the open and closed states of ion channels. Although it has previously been shown that channel noise can nontrivially affect neuronal dynamics, it is unknown whether ion-channel noise is strong enough to act as a noise source for hypothesized noise-enhanced information processing in real neuronal systems, i.e., “stochastic facilitation”. Here we demonstrate that biophysical models of channel noise can give rise to two kinds of recently discovered stochastic facilitation effects in a Hodgkin-Huxley-like model of auditory brainstem neurons. The first, known as slope-based stochastic resonance (SBSR), enables phasic neurons to emit action potentials that can encode the slope of inputs that vary slowly relative to key time constants in the model. The second, known as inverse stochastic resonance (ISR), occurs in tonically firing neurons when small levels of noise inhibit tonic firing and replace it with burstlike dynamics. Consistent with previous work, we conclude that channel noise can provide significant variability in firing dynamics, even for large numbers of channels. Moreover, our results show that possible associated computational benefits may occur due to channel noise in neurons of the auditory brainstem. This holds whether the firing dynamics in the model are phasic (SBSR can occur due to channel noise) or tonic (ISR can occur due to channel noise).

  11. Effects of noise variance model on optimal feedback design and actuator placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruan, Mifang; Choudhury, Ajit K.

    1994-01-01

    In optimal placement of actuators for stochastic systems, it is commonly assumed that the actuator noise variances are not related to the feedback matrix and the actuator locations. In this paper, we will discuss the limitation of that assumption and develop a more practical noise variance model. Various properties associated with optimal actuator placement under the assumption of this noise variance model are discovered through the analytical study of a second order system.

  12. Modeling noise-induced resonance in an excitable system: an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Nurujjaman, Md

    2010-03-01

    Recently, it has been observed [Md. Nurujjaman, Phy. Rev. E 80, 015201(R) (2009)] that in an excitable system, one can maintain noise-induced coherency in the coherence resonance by blocking the destructive effect of the noise on the system at higher noise level. This phenomenon of constant coherence resonance (CCR) cannot be explained by the existing way of simulation of the model equations of an excitable system with added noise. In this paper, we have proposed a general model which explains the noise-induced resonance phenomenon CCR as well as coherence resonance (CR) and stochastic resonance (SR). The simulation has been carried out considering the basic mechanism of noise-induced resonance phenomena: noise only perturbs the system control parameter to excite coherent oscillations, taking proper precautions so that the destructive effect of noise does not affect the system. In this approach, the CR has been obtained from the interference between the system output and noise and the SR has been obtained by adding noise and a subthreshold signal. This also explains the observation of the frequency shift of coherent oscillations in the CCR with noise level.

  13. A critical review of principal traffic noise models: Strategies and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Naveen; Maji, Sagar

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents an exhaustive comparison of principal traffic noise models adopted in recent years in developed nations. The comparison is drawn on the basis of technical attributes including source modelling and sound propagation algorithms. Although the characterization of source in terms of rolling and propulsion noise in conjunction with advanced numerical methods for sound propagation has significantly reduced the uncertainty in traffic noise predictions, the approach followed is quite complex and requires specialized mathematical skills for predictions which is sometimes quite cumbersome for town planners. Also, it is sometimes difficult to follow the best approach when a variety of solutions have been proposed. This paper critically reviews all these aspects pertaining to the recent models developed and adapted in some countries and also discusses the strategies followed and implications of these models. - Highlights: • Principal traffic noise models developed are reviewed. • Sound propagation algorithms used in traffic noise models are compared. • Implications of models are discussed.

  14. Comment on ``Correlated noise in a logistic growth model''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Anita; O'Rourke, S. Francesca C.

    2008-01-01

    We argue that the results published by Ai [Phys. Rev. E 67, 022903 (2003)] on “correlated noise in logistic growth” are not correct. Their conclusion that, for larger values of the correlation parameter λ , the cell population is peaked at x=0 , which denotes a high extinction rate, is also incorrect. We find the reverse behavior to their results, that increasing λ promotes the stable growth of tumor cells. In particular, their results for the steady-state probability, as a function of cell number, at different correlation strengths, presented in Figs. 1 and 2 of their paper show different behavior than one would expect from the simple mathematical expression for the steady-state probability. Additionally, their interpretation that at small values of cell number the steady-state probability increases as the correlation parameter is increased is also questionable. Another striking feature in their Figs. 1 and 3 is that, for the same values of the parameters λ and α , their simulation produces two different curves, both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  15. End-to-End Models for Effects of System Noise on LIMS Analysis of Igneous Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Samuel M; Bender, Steven; Wiens, R. C.; Carmosino, Marco L; Speicher, Elly A; Dyar, M. D.

    2010-12-23

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory will be the first extraterrestial deployment of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (UBS) for remote geochemical analysis. LIBS instruments are also being proposed for future NASA missions. In quantitative LIBS applications using multivariate analysis techniques, it is essential to understand the effects of key instrument parameters and their variability on the elemental predictions. Baseline experiments were run on a laboratory instrument in conditions reproducing ChemCam performance on Mars. These experiments employed Nd:YAG laser producing 17 mJ/pulse on target and an with a 200 {micro}m FWHM spot size on the surface of a sample. The emission is collected by a telescope, imaged on a fiber optic and then interfaced to a demultiplexer capable of >40% transmission into each spectrometer. We report here on an integrated end-to-end system performance model that simulates the effects of output signal degradation that might result from the input signal chain and the impact on multivariate model predictions. There are two approaches to modifying signal to noise (SNR): degrade the signal and/or increase the noise. Ishibashi used a much smaller data set to show that the addition of noise had significant impact while degradation of spectral resolution had much less impact on accuracy and precision. Here, we specifically focus on aspects of remote LIBS instrument performance as they relate to various types of signal degradation. To assess the sensitivity of LIBS analysis to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution, the signal in each spectrum from a suite of 50 laboratory spectra of igneous rocks was variably degraded by increasing the peak widths (simulating misalignment) and decreasing the spectral amplitude (simulating decreases in SNR).

  16. Noise Benefits of Rotor Trailing Edge Blowing for a Model Turbofan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Fite, E. Brian; Podboy, Gary G.

    2007-01-01

    An advanced model turbofan was tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) to explore far field acoustic effects associated with rotor Trailing-Edge-Blowing (TEB) for a modern, 1.294 stage pressure ratio turbofan model. The TEB rotor (Fan9) was designed to be aerodynamically similar to the previously tested Fan1, and used the same stator and nacelle hardware. Fan9 was designed with trailing edge blowing slots using an external air supply directed through the rotor hub. The TEB flow was heated to approximate the average fan exit temperature at each fan test speed. Rotor root blockage inserts were used to block TEB to all but the outer 40 and 20% span in addition to full-span blowing. A configuration with full-span TEB on alternate rotor blades was also tested. Far field acoustic data were taken at takeoff/approach conditions at 0.10 tunnel Mach. Far-field acoustic results showed that full-span blowing near 2.0% of the total flow could reduce the overall sound power level by about 2 dB. This noise reduction was observed in both the rotor-stator interaction tones and for the spectral broadband noise levels. Blowing only the outer span region was not very effective for lowering noise, and actually increased the far field noise level in some instances. Full-span blowing of alternate blades at 1.0% of the overall flow rate (equivalent to full-span blowing of all blades at 2.0% flow) showed a more modest noise decrease relative to full-span blowing of all blades. Detailed hot film measurements of the TEB rotor wake at 2.0% flow showed that TEB was not every effective for filling in the wake defect at approach fan speed toward the tip region, but did result in overfilling the wake toward the hub. Downstream turbulence measurements supported this finding, and support the observed reduction in spectral broadband noise.

  17. Noise and disorder: Phase transitions and universality in a model of opinion formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crokidakis, Nuno

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we study a three-state opinion formation model considering two distinct mechanisms, namely independence and conviction. Independence is introduced in the model as a noise by means of a probability of occurrence q. On the other hand, conviction acts as a disorder in the system, and it is introduced by two discrete probability distributions. We analyze the effects of such two mechanisms on the phase transitions of the model, and we found that the critical exponents are universal over the order-disorder frontier, presenting the same universality class of the mean-field Ising model. In addition, for one of the probability distributions, the transition may be eliminated for a wide range of the parameters.

  18. Quantitative nonlinearity analysis of model-scale jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kyle G.; Reichman, Brent O.; Gee, Kent L.; Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Atchley, Anthony A.

    2015-10-01

    The effects of nonlinearity on the power spectrum of jet noise can be directly compared with those of atmospheric absorption and geometric spreading through an ensemble-averaged, frequency-domain version of the generalized Burgers equation (GBE) [B. O. Reichman et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 2102 (2014)]. The rate of change in the sound pressure level due to the nonlinearity, in decibels per jet nozzle diameter, is calculated using a dimensionless form of the quadspectrum of the pressure and the squared-pressure waveforms. In this paper, this formulation is applied to atmospheric propagation of a spherically spreading, initial sinusoid and unheated model-scale supersonic (Mach 2.0) jet data. The rate of change in level due to nonlinearity is calculated and compared with estimated effects due to absorption and geometric spreading. Comparing these losses with the change predicted due to nonlinearity shows that absorption and nonlinearity are of similar magnitude in the geometric far field, where shocks are present, which causes the high-frequency spectral shape to remain unchanged.

  19. RETRACTED: Flap side edge noise modeling and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yueping

    2013-08-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy).This article has been retracted at the request of the first author because of the overlap with previously published papers. The first author takes full responsibility and sincerely apologizes for the error made.This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief.The article duplicates significant parts of an earlier paper by the same author, published in AIAA (Y.P. Guo, Aircraft flap side edge noise modeling and prediction. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, (2011), 10.2514/6.2011-2731). Prior to republication, conference papers should be comprehensively extended, and re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  20. Modeling of the cell-electrode interface noise for microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Yuan, Jie; Chan, Mansun

    2012-12-01

    Microelectrodes are widely used in the physiological recording of cell field potentials. As microelectrode signals are generally in the μV range, characteristics of the cell-electrode interface are important to the recording accuracy. Although the impedance of the microelectrode-solution interface has been well studied and modeled in the past, no effective model has been experimentally verified to estimate the noise of the cell-electrode interface. Also in existing interface models, spectral information is largely disregarded. In this work, we developed a model for estimating the noise of the cell-electrode interface from interface impedances. This model improves over existing noise models by including the cell membrane capacitor and frequency dependent impedances. With low-noise experiment setups, this model is verified by microelectrode array (MEA) experiments with mouse muscle myoblast cells. Experiments show that the noise estimated from this model has <;10% error, which is much less than estimations from existing models. With this model, noise of the cell-electrode interface can be estimated by simply measuring interface impedances. This model also provides insights for micro- electrode design to achieve good recording signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Identification procedures for the charge-controlled nonlinear noise model of microwave electron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filicori, Fabio; Traverso, Pier Andrea; Florian, Corrado; Borgarino, Mattia

    2004-05-01

    The basic features of the recently proposed Charge-Controlled Non-linear Noise (CCNN) model for the prediction of low-to-high-frequency noise up-conversion in electron devices under large-signal RF operation are synthetically presented. It is shown that the different noise generation phenomena within the device can be described by four equivalent noise sources, which are connected at the ports of a "noiseless" device model and are non-linearly controlled by the time-varying instantaneous values of the intrinsic device voltages. For the empirical identification of the voltage-controlled equivalent noise sources, different possible characterization procedures, based not only on conventional low-frequency noise data, but also on different types of noise measurements carried out under large-signal RF operating conditions are discussed. As an example of application, the measurement-based identification of the CCNN model for a GaInP heterojunction bipolar microwave transistor is presented. Preliminary validation results show that the proposed model can describe with adequate accuracy not only the low-frequency noise of the HBT, but also its phase-noise performance in a prototype VCO implemented by using the same monolithic GaAs technology.

  2. Stability of a Beddington-DeAngelis type predator-prey model with trichotomous noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yanfei; Niu, Siyong

    2016-06-01

    The stability analysis of a Beddington-DeAngelis (B-D) type predator-prey model driven by symmetric trichotomous noises is presented in this paper. Using the Shapiro-Loginov formula, the first-order and second-order solution moments of the system are obtained. The moment stability conditions of the B-D predator-prey model are given by using Routh-Hurwitz criterion. It is found that the stabilities of the first-order and second-order solution moments depend on the noise intensities and correlation time of noise. The first-order and second-order moments are stable when the correlation time of noise is increased. That is, the trichotomous noise plays a constructive role in stabilizing the solution moment with regard to Gaussian white noise. Finally, some numerical results are performed to support the theoretical analyses.

  3. Model of shipping noise in the deep water: Directional density and spatial coherence functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peng; Yang, Kun-de; Lei, Bo

    2016-07-01

    The shipping noise properties in the deep ocean are studied. Shipping noise exhibits the strong dual-horned directionality features in the flat-seabed ocean, and its directional density can be modeled by a Von Mises distribution. With the explicit expression for the directional density function, the spatial coherence functions of shipping noise are also derived, and the relative features are studied. The research result shows that the properties of shipping noise are different from the ambient noise of other sources, and it can be used for the sonar array design. The model is well matched with the experimental result, and it can be extended to the situations when the ambient noise exhibits the dual-horned structure.

  4. A noise power spectrum study of a new model-based iterative reconstruction system: Veo 3.0.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xinming; Dodge, Cristina T; Jensen, Corey T; Rong, X John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the third generation of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) system, Veo 3.0, based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis with various clinical presets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. A CatPhan 600 surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape was scanned 10 times at each of six dose levels on a GE HD 750 scanner. NPS analysis was performed on images reconstructed with various Veo 3.0 preset combinations for comparisons of those images reconstructed using Veo 2.0, filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruc-tion (ASiR). The new Target Thickness setting resulted in higher noise in thicker axial images. The new Texture Enhancement function achieved a more isotropic noise behavior with less image artifacts. Veo 3.0 provides additional reconstruction options designed to allow the user choice of balance between spatial resolution and image noise, relative to Veo 2.0. Veo 3.0 provides more user selectable options and in general improved isotropic noise behavior in comparison to Veo 2.0. The overall noise reduction performance of both versions of MBIR was improved in comparison to FBP and ASiR, especially at low-dose levels. PMID:27685118

  5. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  6. Improvement in perception of image sharpness through the addition of noise and its relationship with memory texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiazi; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Naokazu

    2015-03-01

    In a preceding study, we investigated the effects of image noise on the perception of image sharpness using white noise, and one- and two-dimensional single-frequency sinusoidal patterns as stimuli. This study extends our preceding study by evaluating natural color images, rather than black-and-white patterns. The results showed that the effect of noise in improving image sharpness perception is more evident in blurred images than in sharp images. This is consistent with the results of the preceding study. In another preceding study, we proposed "memory texture" to explain the preferred granularity of images, as a concept similar to "memory color" for preferred color reproduction. We observed individual differences in type of memory texture for each object, that is, white or 1/f noise. This study discusses the relationship between improvement of sharpness perception by adding noise, and the memory texture, following its individual differences. We found that memory texture is one of the elements that affect sharpness perception.

  7. Comparison of Far-Field Noise for Three Significantly Different Model Turbofans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Far-field noise sound power level (PWL) spectra and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) directivities were compared for three significantly different model fan stages which were tested in the NASA Glenn 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The test fans included the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Fan1, the baseline Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) fan, and the Quiet High Speed Fan2 (QHSF2) These fans had design rotor tangential tip speeds from 840 to 1474 ft/s and stage pressure ratios from 1.29 to 1.82. Additional parameters included rotor-stator spacing, stator sweep, and downstream support struts. Acoustic comparison points were selected on the basis of stage thrust. Acoustic results for the low tip speed/low pressure ratio fan (ADP Fan1) were thrust-adjusted to show how a geometrically-scaled version of this fan might compare at the higher design thrust levels of the other two fans. Lowest noise levels were typically observed for ADP Fan1 (which had a radial stator) and for the intermediate tip speed fan (Source Diagnostics Test, SDT, R4 rotor) with a swept stator. Projected noise levels for the ADP fan to the SDT swept stator configuration at design point conditions showed the fans to have similar noise levels. However, it is possible that the ADP fan could be 2 to 3 dB quieter with incorporation of a swept stator. Benefits of a scaled ADP fan include avoidance of multiple pure tones associated with transonic and higher blade tip speeds. Penalties of a larger size ADP fan would include increased nacelle size and drag.

  8. Comparison of Far-field Noise for Three Significantly Different Model Turbofans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Far-field noise sound power level (PWL) spectra and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) directivities were compared for three significantly different model fan stages which were tested in the NASA Glenn 9 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The test fans included the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Fan1, the baseline Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) fan, and the Quiet High Speed Fan2 (QHSF2). These fans had design rotor tangential tip speeds from 840 to 1474 ft/s and stage pressure ratios from 1.29 to 1.82. Additional parameters included rotor-stator spacing, stator sweep, and downstream support struts. Acoustic comparison points were selected on the basis of stage thrust. Acoustic results for the low tip speed/low pressure ratio fan (ADP Fan1) were thrust-adjusted to show how a geometrically-scaled version of this fan might compare at the higher design thrust levels of the other two fans. Lowest noise levels were typically observed for ADP Fan1 (which had a radial stator) and for the intermediate tip speed fan (Source Diagnostics Test, SDT, R4 rotor) with a swept stator. Projected noise levels for the ADP fan to the SDT swept stator configuration at design point conditions showed the fans to have similar noise levels. However, it is possible that the ADP fan could be 2 to 3 dB quieter with incorporation of a swept stator. Benefits of a scaled ADP fan include avoidance of multiple pure tones associated with transonic and higher blade tip speeds. Penalties of a larger size ADP fan would include increased nacelle size and drag.

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Road Traffic Noise Using Artificial Neural Network and Regression.

    PubMed

    Honarmand, M; Mousavi, S M

    2014-04-01

    Modeling and simulation of noise pollution has been done in a large city, where the population is over 2 millions. Two models of artificial neural network and regression were developed to predict in-city road traffic noise pollution with using the data of noise measurements and vehicle counts at three points of the city for a period of 12 hours. The MATLAB and DATAFIT softwares were used for simulation. The predicted results of noise level were compared with the measured noise levels in three stations. The values of normalized bias, sum of squared errors, mean of squared errors, root mean of squared errors, and squared correlation coefficient calculated for each model show the results of two models are suitable, and the predictions of artificial neural network are closer to the experimental data.

  10. Modeling and Prediction of the Noise from Non-Axisymmetric Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leib, Stewart J.

    2014-01-01

    mean flows which were meant to represent noise reduction concepts being considered by NASA. Testing (Ref. 5) showed that the method was feasible for the types of mean flows of interest in jet noise applications. Subsequently, this method was further developed to allow use of mean flow profiles obtained from a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution of the flow. Preliminary testing of the generalized code was among the last tasks completed under this contract. The stringent noise-reduction goals of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program suggest that, in addition to potentially complex exhaust nozzle geometries, next generation aircraft will also involve tighter integration of the engine with the airframe. Therefore, noise generated and propagated by jet flows in the vicinity of solid surfaces is expected to be quite significant, and reduced-order noise prediction tools will be needed that can deal with such geometries. One important source of noise is that generated by the interaction of a turbulent jet with the edge of a solid surface (edge noise). Such noise is generated, for example, by the passing of the engine exhaust over a shielding surface, such as a wing. Work under this task supported an effort to develop a RANS-based prediction code for edge noise based on an extension of the classical Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) to transversely sheared base flows (Refs. 6 and 7). The RDT-based theoretical analysis was applied to the generic problem of a turbulent jet interacting with the trailing edge of a flat plate. A code was written to evaluate the formula derived for the spectrum of the noise produced by this interaction and results were compared with data taken at NASA Glenn for a variety of jet/plate configurations and flow conditions (Ref. 8). A longer-term goal of this task was to work toward the development of a high-fidelity model of sound propagation in spatially developing non-axisymmetric jets using direct numerical methods for solving the relevant

  11. Modeling helicopter near-horizon harmonic noise due to transient maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickenberger, Richard D.

    A new first principles model has been developed to estimate the external harmonic noise radiation for a helicopter performing transient maneuvers in the longitudinal plane. This model, which simulates the longitudinal fuselage dynamics, main rotor blade flapping, and far field acoustics, was validated using in-flight measurements and recordings from ground microphones during a full-scale flight test featuring a Bell 206B-3 helicopter. The flight test was specifically designed to study transient maneuvers. The validated model demonstrated that the flapping of the main rotor blades does not significantly affect the acoustics radiated by the helicopter during maneuvering flight. Furthermore, the model also demonstrated that Quasi-Static Acoustic Mapping (Q-SAM) methods can be used to reliably predict the noise radiated during transient maneuvers. The model was also used to identify and quantify the contributions of main rotor thickness noise, low frequency loading noise, and blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise during maneuvering flight for the Bell 206B-3 helicopter. Pull-up and push-over maneuvers from pure longitudinal cyclic and pure collective control inputs were investigated. The contribution of thickness noise and low frequency loading noise during maneuvering flight was found to depend on the orientation of the tip-path plane relative to the observer. The contribution of impulsive BVI noise during maneuvering flight was found to depend on the inflow through the main rotor and the orientation of the tip-path plane relative to the observer.

  12. Effect of wind on seismic exploration random noise on land: Modeling and analyzing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guanghui; Li, Yue; Yang, Baojun

    2015-08-01

    Random noise is a key factor which impacts the Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) of seismic records, and its interference without regularity makes seismic data process difficult. It is a first requirement for noise attenuation to know how random noise generated. Since the main effect of wind on seismic noise, we model wind-induced noise by wind induced vibration theory, aeroacoustics and wave equation, and analyze the influencing factors which cause the differences of noise in the desert in Tarim basin, the loess tableland in northern Shaanxi, the mountain land in Yunnan and the forest belt in north in China in this paper. There are wind speed, surface roughness, terrain, and vegetation. The greater the wind speed, the rougher the surface, the higher and the steeper the mountain, the more the vegetations and the thinner the branches and leaves of vegetations, the greater the amplitude and the frequency of wind-induced noise is. The simulated results explain the differences of wind induced noise in different areas. It lays a foundation for random noise attenuation both in data acquisition and data processing.

  13. Modeling nonlinear errors in surface electromyography due to baseline noise: a new methodology.

    PubMed

    Law, Laura Frey; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Avin, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The surface electromyographic (EMG) signal is often contaminated by some degree of baseline noise. It is customary for scientists to subtract baseline noise from the measured EMG signal prior to further analyses based on the assumption that baseline noise adds linearly to the observed EMG signal. The stochastic nature of both the baseline and EMG signal, however, may invalidate this assumption. Alternately, "true" EMG signals may be either minimally or nonlinearly affected by baseline noise. This information is particularly relevant at low contraction intensities when signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) may be lowest. Thus, the purpose of this simulation study was to investigate the influence of varying levels of baseline noise (approximately 2-40% maximum EMG amplitude) on mean EMG burst amplitude and to assess the best means to account for signal noise. The simulations indicated baseline noise had minimal effects on mean EMG activity for maximum contractions, but increased nonlinearly with increasing noise levels and decreasing signal amplitudes. Thus, the simple baseline noise subtraction resulted in substantial error when estimating mean activity during low intensity EMG bursts. Conversely, correcting EMG signal as a nonlinear function of both baseline and measured signal amplitude provided highly accurate estimates of EMG amplitude. This novel nonlinear error modeling approach has potential implications for EMG signal processing, particularly when assessing co-activation of antagonist muscles or small amplitude contractions where the SNR can be low.

  14. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  15. A structured population modeling framework for quantifying and predicting gene expression noise in flow cytometry data.

    PubMed

    Flores, Kevin B

    2013-07-01

    We formulated a structured population model with distributed parameters to identify mechanisms that contribute to gene expression noise in time-dependent flow cytometry data. The model was validated using cell population-level gene expression data from two experiments with synthetically engineered eukaryotic cells. Our model captures the qualitative noise features of both experiments and accurately fit the data from the first experiment. Our results suggest that cellular switching between high and low expression states and transcriptional re-initiation are important factors needed to accurately describe gene expression noise with a structured population model.

  16. Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) Modeling Method for Gyro Random Noise Using a Robust Kalman Filter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei

    2015-09-30

    To solve the problem in which the conventional ARMA modeling methods for gyro random noise require a large number of samples and converge slowly, an ARMA modeling method using a robust Kalman filtering is developed. The ARMA model parameters are employed as state arguments. Unknown time-varying estimators of observation noise are used to achieve the estimated mean and variance of the observation noise. Using the robust Kalman filtering, the ARMA model parameters are estimated accurately. The developed ARMA modeling method has the advantages of a rapid convergence and high accuracy. Thus, the required sample size is reduced. It can be applied to modeling applications for gyro random noise in which a fast and accurate ARMA modeling method is required.

  17. A frequency domain model for the spatial fixed-pattern noise in infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Osvaldo J.; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Torres, Sergio N.

    2011-10-01

    The multiplicative and additive components of the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) in infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) are typically modeled as time-stationary, spatially unstructured random processes. Even though the latter assumption is convenient, it is also inaccurate due to FPN is indeed observed as a spatial pattern, with random intensity values, superimposed over the true images. In this paper, the spatial structure in both the multiplicative and the additive components of the FPN has been modeled in the frequency domain. The key observation in the proposed models is that regular spatial patterns manifest themselves as narrowband components in the magnitude spectrum of an image. Thus, the spatial structure of FPN can be abstracted in a straightforward manner by approximating the spectral response of the FPN. Moreover, the random intensity of the FPN has been also modeled by matching the empirically estimated distributions of the intensity values of both multiplicative and additive components of the FPN. Experimental characterization of FPN has been conducted using black-body radiator sources, and the theoretical as well as practical applicability of the proposed models has been illustrated by both synthesizing FPN from three different IR cameras and by proposing a simple yet effective metric to assess the amount of FPN in FPA-based cameras.

  18. Survey of Turbulence Models for the Computation of Turbulent Jet Flow and Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, N.

    1999-01-01

    The report presents an overview of jet noise computation utilizing the computational fluid dynamic solution of the turbulent jet flow field. The jet flow solution obtained with an appropriate turbulence model provides the turbulence characteristics needed for the computation of jet mixing noise. A brief account of turbulence models that are relevant for the jet noise computation is presented. The jet flow solutions that have been directly used to calculate jet noise are first reviewed. Then, the turbulent jet flow studies that compute the turbulence characteristics that may be used for noise calculations are summarized. In particular, flow solutions obtained with the k-e model, algebraic Reynolds stress model, and Reynolds stress transport equation model are reviewed. Since, the small scale jet mixing noise predictions can be improved by utilizing anisotropic turbulence characteristics, turbulence models that can provide the Reynolds stress components must now be considered for jet flow computations. In this regard, algebraic stress models and Reynolds stress transport models are good candidates. Reynolds stress transport models involve more modeling and computational effort and time compared to algebraic stress models. Hence, it is recommended that an algebraic Reynolds stress model (ASM) be implemented in flow solvers to compute the Reynolds stress components.

  19. Noise-enhanced information transmission in a model of multichannel cochlear implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allingham, David; Stocks, Nigel G.; Morse, Robert P.; Meyer, Georg F.

    2004-05-01

    Cochlear implants are used to restore functional hearing to people with profound deafness. Success, as measured by speech intelligibility scores, varies greatly amongst patients; a few receive almost no benefit while some are able to use a telephone under favourable listening conditions. Using a novel nerve model and the principles of suprathreshold stochastic resonance, we demonstrate that the rate of information transfer through a cochlear implant system can be globally maximized by the addition of noise. If this additional information could be used by the brain then it would lead to greater speech intelligibility, which is important given that the intelligibility of all cochlear implant recipients is poorer than that of people with normal hearing, particularly in adverse listening conditions.

  20. Noise reduction tests of large-scale-model externally blown flap using trailing-edge blowing and partial flap slot covering. [jet aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.; Burns, R. J.; Wagner, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Noise data were obtained with a large-scale cold-flow model of a two-flap, under-the-wing, externally blown flap proposed for use on future STOL aircraft. The noise suppression effectiveness of locating a slot conical nozzle at the trailing edge of the second flap and of applying partial covers to the slots between the wing and flaps was evaluated. Overall-sound-pressure-level reductions of 5 db occurred below the wing in the flyover plane. Existing models of several noise sources were applied to the test results. The resulting analytical relation compares favorably with the test data. The noise source mechanisms were analyzed and are discussed.

  1. Helicopter main-rotor noise: Determination of source contributions using scaled model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1988-08-01

    Acoustic data from a test of a 40 percent model MBB BO-105 helicopter main rotor are scaled to equivalent full-scale flyover cases. The test was conducted in the anechoic open test section of the German-Dutch Windtunnel (DNW). The measured data are in the form of acoustic pressure time histories and spectra from two out-of-flow microphones underneath and foward of the model. These are scaled to correspond to measurements made at locations 150 m below the flight path of a full-scale rotor. For the scaled data, a detailed analysis is given for the identification in the data of the noise contributions from different rotor noise sources. Key results include a component breakdown of the noise contributions, in terms of noise criteria calculations of a weighted sound pressure level (dBA) and perceived noise level (PNL), as functions of rotor advance ratio and descent angle. It is shown for the scaled rotor that, during descent, impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is the dominant contributor to the noise. In level flight and mild climb, broadband blade-turbulent wake interaction (BWI) noise is dominant due to the absence of BVI activity. At high climb angles, BWI is reduced and self-noise from blade boundary-layer turbulence becomes the most prominent.

  2. Helicopter main-rotor noise: Determination of source contributions using scaled model data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data from a test of a 40 percent model MBB BO-105 helicopter main rotor are scaled to equivalent full-scale flyover cases. The test was conducted in the anechoic open test section of the German-Dutch Windtunnel (DNW). The measured data are in the form of acoustic pressure time histories and spectra from two out-of-flow microphones underneath and foward of the model. These are scaled to correspond to measurements made at locations 150 m below the flight path of a full-scale rotor. For the scaled data, a detailed analysis is given for the identification in the data of the noise contributions from different rotor noise sources. Key results include a component breakdown of the noise contributions, in terms of noise criteria calculations of a weighted sound pressure level (dBA) and perceived noise level (PNL), as functions of rotor advance ratio and descent angle. It is shown for the scaled rotor that, during descent, impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is the dominant contributor to the noise. In level flight and mild climb, broadband blade-turbulent wake interaction (BWI) noise is dominant due to the absence of BVI activity. At high climb angles, BWI is reduced and self-noise from blade boundary-layer turbulence becomes the most prominent.

  3. ANOPP Landing Gear Noise Prediction Comparisons to Model-scale Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Rawls, John W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP) includes two methods for computing the noise from landing gear: the "Fink" method and the "Guo" method. Both methods have been predominately validated and used to predict full-scale landing gear noise. The two methods are compared, and their ability to predict the noise for model-scale landing gear is investigated. Predictions are made using both the Fink and Guo methods and compared to measured acoustic data obtained for a high-fidelity, 6.3%-scale, Boeing 777 main landing gear. A process is developed by which full-scale predictions can be scaled to compare with model-scale data. The measurements were obtained in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility for a range of Mach numbers at a large number of observer polar (flyover) and azimuthal (sideline) observer angles. Spectra and contours of the measured sound pressure levels as a function of polar and azimuthal angle characterize the directivity of landing gear noise. Comparisons of predicted noise spectra and contours from each ANOPP method are made. Both methods predict comparable amplitudes and trends for the flyover locations, but deviate at the sideline locations. Neither method fully captures the measured noise directivity. The availability of these measured data provides the opportunity to further understand and advance noise prediction capabilities, particularly for noise directivity.

  4. Improved Airport Noise Modeling for High Altitudes and Flexible Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsyth, David W.; Follet, Jesse I.

    2006-01-01

    The FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) is widely used to estimate noise in the vicinity of airports. This study supports the development of standards by which the fleet data in the INM can be updated. A comparison of weather corrections to noise data using INM Spectral Classes is made with the Boeing integrated method. The INM spectral class method is shown to work well, capturing noise level differences due to weather especially at long distances. Two studies conducted at the Denver International Airport are included in the appendices. The two studies adopted different approaches to modeling flight operations at the airport. When compared to the original, year 2000, results, it is apparent that changes made to the INM in terms of modeling processes and databases have resulted in improved agreement between predicted and measured noise levels.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Road Traffic Noise Using Artificial Neural Network and Regression.

    PubMed

    Honarmand, M; Mousavi, S M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of traffic composition on the noise pollution has been investigated in a large city, where the population is over 2 millions. Noise measurements and vehicle counts were performed at three points of the city for a period of 12 hours. Two models of artificial neural network and regression were applied to predict in-city road traffic noise pollution. The MATLAB and DATAFIT softwares were used for simulation. The predicted results of noise level were compared with the measured noise levels in three stations. The values of normalized bias, standard squared error, mean-squared error, root-mean-squared error, and squared correlation coefficient calculated for each model showed that the results of two models are suitable, and the predictions of artificial neural network are closer to experimental data.

  6. Self-noise models of five commercial strong-motion accelerometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.; Hutt, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    To better characterize the noise of a number of commonly deployed accelerometers in a standardized way, we conducted noise measurements on five different models of strong‐motion accelerometers. Our study was limited to traditional accelerometers (Fig. 1) and is in no way exhaustive.

  7. Use of noise attenuation modeling in managing missile motor detonation activities.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Watkins, Jeffrey W; Kordich, Micheal M; Pollet, Dean A; Palmer, Glenn R

    2004-03-01

    The Sound Intensity Prediction System (SIPS) and Blast Operation Overpressure Model (BOOM) are semiempirical sound models that are employed by the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) to predict whether noise levels from the detonation of large missile motors will exceed regulatory thresholds. Field validation of SIPS confirmed that the model was effective in limiting the number of detonations of large missile motors that could potentially result in a regulatory noise exceedance. Although the SIPS accurately predicted the impact of weather on detonation noise propagation, regulators have required that the more conservative BOOM model be employed in conjunction with SIPS in evaluating peak noise levels in populated areas. By simultaneously considering the output of both models, in 2001, UTTR detonated 104 missile motors having net explosive weights (NEW) that ranged between 14,960 and 38,938 lb without a recorded public noise complaint. Based on the encouraging results, the U.S. Department of Defense is considering expanding the application of these noise models to support the detonation of missile motors having a NEW of 81,000 lb. Recent modeling results suggest that, under appropriate weather conditions, missile motors containing up to 96,000 lb NEW can be detonated at the UTTR without exceeding the regulatory noise limit of 134 decibels (dB).

  8. Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry: Noise characteristics of aerosols, application of generalized standard additions method, and Mach disk as an emission source

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Luan

    1995-10-06

    This dissertation is focused on three problem areas in the performance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. The noise characteristics of aerosols produced by ICP nebulizers are investigated. A laser beam is scattered by aerosol and detected by a photomultiplier tube and the noise amplitude spectrum of the scattered radiation is measured by a spectrum analyzer. Discrete frequency noise in the aerosol generated by a Meinhard nebulizer or a direct injection nebulizer is primarily caused by pulsation in the liquid flow from the pump. A Scott-type spray chamber suppresses white noise, while a conical, straight-pass spray chamber enhances white noise, relative to the noise seen from the primary aerosol. Simultaneous correction for both spectral interferences and matrix effects in ICP atomic emission spectrometry (AES) can be accomplished by using the generalized standard additions method (GSAM). Results obtained with the application of the GSAM to the Perkin-Elmer Optima 3000 ICP atomic emission spectrometer are presented. The echelle-based polychromator with segmented-array charge-coupled device detectors enables the direct, visual examination of the overlapping lines Cd (1) 228.802 nm and As (1) 228.812 nm. The slit translation capability allows a large number of data points to be sampled, therefore, the advantage of noise averaging is gained. An ICP is extracted into a small quartz vacuum chamber through a sampling orifice in a water-cooled copper plate. Optical emission from the Mach disk region is measured with a new type of echelle spectrometer equipped with two segmented-array charge-coupled-device detectors, with an effort to improve the detection limits for simultaneous multielement analysis by ICP-AES.

  9. Modeling of certain electrode parameters on the electrochemical noise response

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, M.

    1997-10-01

    Electrical circuit analogs of electrochemical corrosion processes were used to investigate the electrochemical noise (EN) behavior of electrodes. The Simulation Program with Integrated-Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) was used to solve the equations that describe the current-vs-potential transient response of the electrical circuits. Results provided insight into the effects of electrode area, solution conductivity, coatings, and instrumentation on the measurement and interpretation of EN events in one- and two-electrode configurations. A technique was suggested to permit measurement of the current and potential noise for polarized electrodes.

  10. Tone-dependent error diffusion based on an updated blue-noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Yik-Hing; Chan, Yuk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    The conventional blue-noise model that specifies the desired noise characteristics of an ideal halftone has been updated recently, and simulation results showed that the updated model can serve as a better guideline for developing halftone algorithms. At the moment, only a feature-preserving multiscale error diffusion-based algorithm was developed based on the updated noise model. As the algorithm does not support real-time applications, a tone-dependent error diffusion (TDED) algorithm is developed based on the updated noise model. To support the proposed TDED algorithm, we optimize a diffusion filter and a quantizer threshold for each possible input gray level based on the updated noise model, such that the algorithm can adapt its diffusion filter and quantizer according to the input intensity value of a pixel to produce a halftone. Simulation results showed that the proposed TDED algorithm can successfully produce halftones bearing the desired noise characteristics as specified by the updated noise model. As a consequence, it provides better performance than conventional error diffusion-based algorithms in terms of various measures including radially averaged power spectrum density and anisotropy. When processing real images, it can eliminate directional artifacts, regular structure patterns, and unintended sharpening effects in its halftoning outputs.

  11. Modeling speech intelligibility in quiet and noise in listeners with normal and impaired hearing.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, Koenraad S; Lyzenga, Johannes; Dreschler, Wouter A; Festen, Joost M

    2010-03-01

    The speech intelligibility index (SII) is an often used calculation method for estimating the proportion of audible speech in noise. For speech reception thresholds (SRTs), measured in normally hearing listeners using various types of stationary noise, this model predicts a fairly constant speech proportion of about 0.33, necessary for Dutch sentence intelligibility. However, when the SII model is applied for SRTs in quiet, the estimated speech proportions are often higher, and show a larger inter-subject variability, than found for speech in noise near normal speech levels [65 dB sound pressure level (SPL)]. The present model attempts to alleviate this problem by including cochlear compression. It is based on a loudness model for normally hearing and hearing-impaired listeners of Moore and Glasberg [(2004). Hear. Res. 188, 70-88]. It estimates internal excitation levels for speech and noise and then calculates the proportion of speech above noise and threshold using similar spectral weighting as used in the SII. The present model and the standard SII were used to predict SII values in quiet and in stationary noise for normally hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. The present model predicted SIIs for three listener types (normal hearing, noise-induced, and age-induced hearing loss) with markedly less variability than the standard SII.

  12. Long wave atmospheric noise model, phase 1. Volume 2: Mode parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warber, Chris R.

    1989-04-01

    The full wave propagation code is used to calculate waveguide mode parameters in spread debris environments in order to develop a long wave atmospheric noise model. The parameters are stored for retrieval whenever the model is exercised. Because the noise-model data encompass parameters of all significant modes for a wide range of ground conductivities, frequencies, and nuclear environment intensities, graphs of those parameters are presented in this volume handbook format.

  13. Installation noise measurements of model SR and CR propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, P. J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Noise measurements on a 0.1 scale SR-2 propeller in a single and counter rotation mode, in a pusher and tractor configuration, and operating at non-zero angles of attack are summarized. A measurement scheme which permitted 143 measurements of each of these configurations in the Langley 4- by 7-meter low speed tunnel is also described.

  14. Fluorescence microscopy image noise reduction using a stochastically-connected random field model

    PubMed Central

    Haider, S. A.; Cameron, A.; Siva, P.; Lui, D.; Shafiee, M. J.; Boroomand, A.; Haider, N.; Wong, A.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an essential part of a biologist’s toolkit, allowing assaying of many parameters like subcellular localization of proteins, changes in cytoskeletal dynamics, protein-protein interactions, and the concentration of specific cellular ions. A fundamental challenge with using fluorescence microscopy is the presence of noise. This study introduces a novel approach to reducing noise in fluorescence microscopy images. The noise reduction problem is posed as a Maximum A Posteriori estimation problem, and solved using a novel random field model called stochastically-connected random field (SRF), which combines random graph and field theory. Experimental results using synthetic and real fluorescence microscopy data show the proposed approach achieving strong noise reduction performance when compared to several other noise reduction algorithms, using quantitative metrics. The proposed SRF approach was able to achieve strong performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio in the synthetic results, high signal to noise ratio and contrast to noise ratio in the real fluorescence microscopy data results, and was able to maintain cell structure and subtle details while reducing background and intra-cellular noise. PMID:26884148

  15. Model calculations of the underwater noise of breaking waves and comparison with experiment.

    PubMed

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale

    2010-06-01

    A model for the underwater noise of whitecaps is presented and compared with the noise measured beneath plunging seawater laboratory waves. The noise from a few hundred hertz up to at least 80 kHz is assumed to be due to the pulses of sound radiated by bubbles formed within a breaking wave crest. The total noise level and its dependence on frequency are a function of bubble creation rate, bubble damping factor and an 'acoustical skin depth' associated with scattering and absorption by the bubble plume formed within the crest. Calculation of breaking wave noise is made using estimates of these factors, which are made independently of the noise itself. The results are in good agreement with wave noise measured in a laboratory flume when compensated for reverberation. A closed-form, analytical expression for the wave noise is presented, which shows a -11/6 power-law dependence of noise level on frequency, in good agreement with the -10/6 scaling law commonly observed in the open ocean.

  16. Fan broadband interaction noise modeling using a low-order method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, S. M.

    2015-06-01

    A low-order method for simulating broadband interaction noise downstream of the fan stage in a turbofan engine is explored in this paper. The particular noise source of interest is due to the interaction of the fan rotor wake with the fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs). The vanes are modeled as flat plates and the method utilizes strip theory relying on unsteady aerodynamic cascade theory at each strip. This paper shows predictions for 6 of the 9 cases from NASA's Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) and all 4 cases from the 2014 Fan Broadband Workshop Fundamental Case 2 (FC2). The turbulence in the rotor wake is taken from hot-wire data for the low speed SDT cases and the FC2 cases. Additionally, four different computational simulations of the rotor wake flow for all of the SDT rotor speeds have been used to determine the rotor wake turbulence parameters. Comparisons between predictions based on the different inputs highlight the possibility of a potential effect present in the hot-wire data for the SDT as well as the importance of accurately describing the turbulence length scale when using this model. The method produces accurate predictions of the spectral shape for all of the cases. It also predicts reasonably well all of the trends that can be considered based on the included cases such as vane geometry, vane count, turbulence level, and rotor speed.

  17. Modeling reaction noise with a desired accuracy by using the X level approach reaction noise estimator (XARNES) method.

    PubMed

    Konkoli, Zoran

    2012-07-21

    A novel computational method for modeling reaction noise characteristics has been suggested. The method can be classified as a moment closure method. The approach is based on the concept of correlation forms which are used for describing spatially extended many body problems where particle numbers change in space and time. In here, it was shown how the formalism of spatially extended correlation forms can be adapted to study well mixed reaction systems. Stochastic fluctuations in particle numbers are described by selectively capturing correlation effects up to the desired order, ξ. The method is referred to as the ξ-level Approximation Reaction Noise Estimator method (XARNES). For example, the ξ=1 description is equivalent to the mean field theory (first-order effects), the ξ=2 case corresponds to the previously developed PARNES method (pair effects), etc. The main idea is that inclusion of higher order correlation effects should lead to better (more accurate) results. Several models were used to test the method, two versions of a simple complex formation model, the Michaelis-Menten model of enzymatic kinetics, the smallest bistable reaction network, a gene expression network with negative feedback, and a random large network. It was explicitly demonstrated that increase in ξ indeed improves accuracy in all cases investigated. The approach has been implemented as automatic software using the Mathematica programming language. The user only needs to input reaction rates, stoichiometry coefficients, and the desired level of computation ξ.

  18. Noise-and delay-induced phase transitions of the dimer-monomer surface reaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chunhua; Wang, Hua

    2012-06-01

    The effects of noise and time-delayed feedback in the dimer-monomer (DM) surface reaction model are investigated. Applying small delay approximation, we construct a stochastic delayed differential equation and its Fokker-Planck equation to describe the state evolution of the DM reaction model. We show that the noise can only induce first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT) characteristic of the DM model, however the combination of the noise and time-delayed feedback can simultaneously induce first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model. Therefore, it is shown that the well-known first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model may be viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions.

  19. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems. Volume 2; Fan Suppression Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen B.; Kraft, Robert E.; Gliebe, Philip R.

    1996-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Predication Program (ANOPP) is an industry-wide tool used to predict turbofan engine flyover noise in system noise optimization studies. Its goal is to provide the best currently available methods for source noise prediction. As part of a program to improve the Heidmann fan noise model, models for fan inlet and fan exhaust noise suppression estimation that are based on simple engine and acoustic geometry inputs have been developed. The models can be used to predict sound power level suppression and sound pressure level suppression at a position specified relative to the engine inlet.

  20. Modeling Errors in Daily Precipitation Measurements: Additive or Multiplicative?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Tang, Ling; Sapiano, Matthew; Maggioni, Viviana; Wu, Huan

    2013-01-01

    The definition and quantification of uncertainty depend on the error model used. For uncertainties in precipitation measurements, two types of error models have been widely adopted: the additive error model and the multiplicative error model. This leads to incompatible specifications of uncertainties and impedes intercomparison and application.In this letter, we assess the suitability of both models for satellite-based daily precipitation measurements in an effort to clarify the uncertainty representation. Three criteria were employed to evaluate the applicability of either model: (1) better separation of the systematic and random errors; (2) applicability to the large range of variability in daily precipitation; and (3) better predictive skills. It is found that the multiplicative error model is a much better choice under all three criteria. It extracted the systematic errors more cleanly, was more consistent with the large variability of precipitation measurements, and produced superior predictions of the error characteristics. The additive error model had several weaknesses, such as non constant variance resulting from systematic errors leaking into random errors, and the lack of prediction capability. Therefore, the multiplicative error model is a better choice.

  1. Electroacoustics modeling of piezoelectric welders for ultrasonic additive manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent 3D metal printing technology which utilizes ultrasonic vibrations from high power piezoelectric transducers to additively weld similar and dissimilar metal foils. CNC machining is used intermittent of welding to create internal channels, embed temperature sensitive components, sensors, and materials, and for net shaping parts. Structural dynamics of the welder and work piece influence the performance of the welder and part quality. To understand the impact of structural dynamics on UAM, a linear time-invariant model is used to relate system shear force and electric current inputs to the system outputs of welder velocity and voltage. Frequency response measurements are combined with in-situ operating measurements of the welder to identify model parameters and to verify model assumptions. The proposed LTI model can enhance process consistency, performance, and guide the development of improved quality monitoring and control strategies.

  2. Adaptive alpha-trimmed mean filters under deviations from assumed noise model.

    PubMed

    Oten, Remzi; de Figueiredo, Rui J P

    2004-05-01

    Alpha-trimmed mean filters are widely used for the restoration of signals and images corrupted by additive non-Gaussian noise. They are especially preferred if the underlying noise deviates from Gaussian with the impulsive noise components. The key design issue of these filters is to select its only parameter, alpha, optimally for a given noise type. In image restoration, adaptive filters utilize the flexibility of selecting alpha according to some local noise statistics. In the present paper, we first review the existing adaptive alpha-trimmed mean filter schemes. We then analyze the performance of these filters when the underlying noise distribution deviates from the Gaussian and does not satisfy the assumptions such as symmetry. Specifically, the clipping effect and the mixed noise cases are analyzed. We also present a new adaptive alpha-trimmed filter implementation that detects the nonsymmetry points locally and applies alpha-trimmed mean filter that trims out the outlier pixels such as edges or impulsive noise according to this local decision. Comparisons of the speed and filtering performances under deviations from symmetry and Gaussian assumptions show that the proposed filter is a very good alternative to the existing schemes. PMID:15376595

  3. An Additional Symmetry in the Weinberg-Salam Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Veselov, A.I.; Zubkov, M.A.

    2005-06-01

    An additional Z{sub 6} symmetry hidden in the fermion and Higgs sectors of the Standard Model has been found recently. It has a singular nature and is connected to the centers of the SU(3) and SU(2) subgroups of the gauge group. A lattice regularization of the Standard Model was constructed that possesses this symmetry. In this paper, we report our results on the numerical simulation of its electroweak sector.

  4. Modeling Thermal Noise from Crystaline Coatings for Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demos, Nicholas; Lovelace, Geoffrey; LSC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The sensitivity of current and future ground-based gravitational-wave detectors are, in part, limited in sensitivity by Brownian and thermoelastic noise in each detector's mirror substrate and coating. Crystalline mirror coatings could potentially reduce thermal noise, but thermal noise is challenging to model analytically in the case of crystalline materials. Thermal noise can be modeled using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which relates thermal noise to an auxiliary elastic problem. In this poster, I will present results from a new code that numerically models thermal noise by numerically solving the auxiliary elastic problem for various types of crystalline mirror coatings. The code uses a finite element method with adaptive mesh refinement to model the auxiliary elastic problem which is then related to thermal noise. I will present preliminary results for a crystal coating on a fused silica substrate of varying sizes and elastic properties. This and future work will help develop the next generation of ground-based gravitational-wave detectors.

  5. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  6. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Gu, Baohua

    2011-06-15

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  7. A directional HF noise model: Calibration and validation in the Australian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederick, L. H.; Cervera, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of systems using HF (high frequency) radio waves, such as over-the-horizon radars, is strongly dependent on the external noise environment. However, this environment has complex behavior and is known to vary with location, time, season, sunspot number, and radio frequency. It is also highly anisotropic, with the directional variation of noise being very important for the design and development of next generation over-the-horizon radar. By combining global maps of lightning occurrence, raytracing propagation, a model background ionosphere and ionospheric absorption, the behavior of noise at HF may be modeled. This article outlines the principles, techniques, and current progress of the model and calibrates it against a 5 year data set of background noise measurements. The calibrated model is then compared with data at a second site.

  8. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  9. Using Set Model for Learning Addition of Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestari, Umi Puji; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how set model can help students' understanding of addition of integers in fourth grade. The study has been carried out to 23 students and a teacher of IVC SD Iba Palembang in January 2015. This study is a design research that also promotes PMRI as the underlying design context and activity. Results showed that the…

  10. Testing Nested Additive, Multiplicative, and General Multitrait-Multimethod Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coenders, Germa; Saris, Willem E.

    2000-01-01

    Provides alternatives to the definitions of additive and multiplicative method effects in multitrait-multimethod data given by D. Campbell and E. O'Connell (1967). The alternative definitions can be formulated by means of constraints in the parameters of the correlated uniqueness model (H. Marsh, 1989). (SLD)

  11. Models of reduced-noise, probabilistic linear amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, Joshua; Walk, Nathan; Lund, A. P.; Ralph, T. C.; Caves, Carlton M.

    2016-05-01

    We construct an amplifier that interpolates between a nondeterministic, immaculate linear amplifier and a deterministic, ideal linear amplifier and beyond to nonideal linear amplifiers. The construction involves cascading an immaculate linear amplifier that has amplitude gain g1 with a (possibly) nonideal linear amplifier that has gain g2. With respect to normally ordered moments, the device has output noise μ2(G2-1 ) where G =g1g2 is the overall amplitude gain and μ2 is a noise parameter. When μ2≥1 , our devices realize ideal (μ2=1 ) and nonideal (μ2>1 ) linear amplifiers. When 0 ≤μ2<1 , these devices work effectively only over a restricted region of phase space and with some subunity success probability p✓. We investigate the performance of our μ2 amplifiers in terms of a gain-corrected probability-fidelity product and the ratio of input to output signal-to-noise ratios corrected for success probability.

  12. Flap noise and aerodynamic results for model QCSEE over-the-wing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.; Burns, R.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Noise spectra in three dimensions and aerodynamic data were measured for a model of the NASA quiet clean short-haul experimental engine (QCSEE) over-the-wing configuration. The effects of flap length, nozzle exhaust velocity, and nozzle geometry were determined using a single nozzle and wing-flap segment. The scaled-up model data is representative of full scale flap noise with the QCSEE engine.

  13. Model ducted propulsor noise characteristics at takeoff conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Bock, Lawrence A.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Hall, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A model Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) was tested in the NASA Lewis Low-Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff velocity of Mach 0.2. The model was designed and manufactured by Pratt & Whitney. The 16-blade rotor ADP was tested with 22- and 40-vane stators to achieve cut-on and cut-off criterion with respect to propagation of the fundamental rotor-stator interaction tone. Additional test parameters included three inlet lengths, three nozzle sizes, two spinner configurations, and two rotor rub strip configurations. The model was tested over a range of rotor blade setting angles and inlet angles of attack. Acoustic data were taken with a sideline translating microphone probe and with a unique inlet microphone probe that identified inlet rotating acoustic modes. The beneficial acoustic effects of cut-off were clearly demonstrated. A 10-dB fundamental tone reduction was associated with the long inlet and 40-vane stator. The fundamental tone level was essentially unaffected by inlet angle of attack at rotor speeds of above 96% design.

  14. Moment stability for a predator-prey model with parametric dichotomous noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yan-Fei

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the solution moment stability for a Harrison-type predator-prey model with parametric dichotomous noises. Using the Shapiro-Loginov formula, the equations for the first-order and second-order moments are obtained and the corresponding stable conditions are given. It is found that the solution moment stability depends on the noise intensity and correlation time of noise. The first-order and second-order moments become unstable with the decrease of correlation time. That is, the dichotomous noise can improve the solution moment stability with respect to Gaussian white noise. Finally, some numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical analyses. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11272051).

  15. Experimental evidence and theoretical modeling of two-photon absorption dynamics in the reduction of intensity noise of solid-state Er:Yb lasers.

    PubMed

    El Amili, Abdelkrim; Kervella, Gaël; Alouini, Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity noise reduction induced by two-photon absorption in a Er,Yb:Glass laser is reported. The time response of the two-photon absorption mechanism is shown to play an important role on the behavior of the intensity noise spectrum of the laser. A model including an additional rate equation for the two-photon-absorption losses is developed and allows the experimental observations to be predicted.

  16. International scale implementation of the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Morley, D W; de Hoogh, K; Fecht, D; Fabbri, F; Bell, M; Goodman, P S; Elliott, P; Hodgson, S; Hansell, A L; Gulliver, J

    2015-11-01

    The EU-FP7-funded BioSHaRE project is using individual-level data pooled from several national cohort studies in Europe to investigate the relationship of road traffic noise and health. The detailed input data (land cover and traffic characteristics) required for noise exposure modelling are not always available over whole countries while data that are comparable in spatial resolution between different countries is needed for harmonised exposure assessment. Here, we assess the feasibility using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with coarser input data in terms of model performance. Starting with a model using the highest resolution datasets, we progressively introduced lower resolution data over five further model runs and compared noise level estimates to measurements. We conclude that a low resolution noise model should provide adequate performance for exposure ranking (Spearman's rank = 0.75; p < 0.001), but with relatively large errors in predicted noise levels (RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)). PMID:26232738

  17. Modelling of noise suppression in gain-saturated fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakarzadeh, H.; Zakery, A.

    2013-11-01

    Noise properties of both one-pump (1-P) and two-pump (2-P) fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are theoretically investigated and particularly the unique feature of FOPAs for the noise suppression in the gain-saturated regime is modeled. For the 1-P FOPAs, the simulation results are compared with the available experimental data and a very good agreement is obtained. Also, for the 2-P FOPA where no experimental work has been reported regarding their noise properties in the saturation regime, the noise behavior of the amplified signal is simulated for the first time. It is shown that for a specific power in the deep saturation regime, the signal noise is suppressed; and with further increase of the signal power when the gain saturation reaches its new cycle, a periodic behavior of noise suppression is observed originating from the phase-matching condition. The existence of a negative feedback mechanism which is responsible to the suppression of the excess noise in the first cycle of the gain saturation is confirmed both for 1-P and 2-P FOPAs. Generally, it is shown that the noise suppression can be observed for several specific powers at which the slope of the output signal power versus the input one is zero. The results of this paper may have some applications in signal processing, e.g., cleaning noisy signals.

  18. Applicability of a noise-based model to estimate in-traffic exposure to black carbon and particle number concentrations in different cultures.

    PubMed

    Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Panis, Luc Int; Hankey, Steve; Jain, Grishma; S, Karthik; Marshall, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Several studies show that a significant portion of daily air pollution exposure, in particular black carbon (BC), occurs during transport. In a previous work, a model for the in-traffic exposure of bicyclists to BC was proposed based on spectral evaluation of mobile noise measurements and validated with BC measurements in Ghent, Belgium. In this paper, applicability of this model in a different cultural context with a totally different traffic and mobility situation is presented. In addition, a similar modeling approach is tested for particle number (PN) concentration. Indirectly assessing BC and PN exposure through a model based on noise measurements is advantageous because of the availability of very affordable noise monitoring devices. Our previous work showed that a model including specific spectral components of the noise that relate to engine and rolling emission and basic meteorological data, could be quite accurate. Moreover, including a background concentration adjustment improved the model considerably. To explore whether this model could also be used in a different context, with or without tuning of the model parameters, a study was conducted in Bangalore, India. Noise measurement equipment, data storage, data processing, continent, country, measurement operators, vehicle fleet, driving behavior, biking facilities, background concentration, and meteorology are all very different from the first measurement campaign in Belgium. More than 24h of combined in-traffic noise, BC, and PN measurements were collected. It was shown that the noise-based BC exposure model gives good predictions in Bangalore and that the same approach is also successful for PN. Cross validation of the model parameters was used to compare factors that impact exposure across study sites. A pooled model (combining the measurements of the two locations) results in a correlation of 0.84 when fitting the total trip exposure in Bangalore. Estimating particulate matter exposure with traffic

  19. Applicability of a noise-based model to estimate in-traffic exposure to black carbon and particle number concentrations in different cultures.

    PubMed

    Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Panis, Luc Int; Hankey, Steve; Jain, Grishma; S, Karthik; Marshall, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Several studies show that a significant portion of daily air pollution exposure, in particular black carbon (BC), occurs during transport. In a previous work, a model for the in-traffic exposure of bicyclists to BC was proposed based on spectral evaluation of mobile noise measurements and validated with BC measurements in Ghent, Belgium. In this paper, applicability of this model in a different cultural context with a totally different traffic and mobility situation is presented. In addition, a similar modeling approach is tested for particle number (PN) concentration. Indirectly assessing BC and PN exposure through a model based on noise measurements is advantageous because of the availability of very affordable noise monitoring devices. Our previous work showed that a model including specific spectral components of the noise that relate to engine and rolling emission and basic meteorological data, could be quite accurate. Moreover, including a background concentration adjustment improved the model considerably. To explore whether this model could also be used in a different context, with or without tuning of the model parameters, a study was conducted in Bangalore, India. Noise measurement equipment, data storage, data processing, continent, country, measurement operators, vehicle fleet, driving behavior, biking facilities, background concentration, and meteorology are all very different from the first measurement campaign in Belgium. More than 24h of combined in-traffic noise, BC, and PN measurements were collected. It was shown that the noise-based BC exposure model gives good predictions in Bangalore and that the same approach is also successful for PN. Cross validation of the model parameters was used to compare factors that impact exposure across study sites. A pooled model (combining the measurements of the two locations) results in a correlation of 0.84 when fitting the total trip exposure in Bangalore. Estimating particulate matter exposure with traffic

  20. Effects of two types of noise and switching on the asymptotic dynamics of an epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Xi-Ying; Liu, Xin-Zhi

    2015-05-01

    This paper mainly investigates dynamics behavior of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infectious disease model with switching parameters, and combined bounded noise and Gaussian white noise. This model is different from existing HIV models. Based on stochastic Itô lemma and Razumikhin-type approach, some threshold conditions are established to guarantee the disease eradication or persistence. Results show that the smaller amplitude of bounded noise and R¯0 < 1 can cause the disease to die out; the disease becomes persistent if R̂0 > 1 Moreover, it is found that larger noise intensity suppresses the prevalence of the disease even if R̂0 > 1. Some numerical examples are given to verify the obtained results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172233, 11472212, 11272258, and 11302170) and the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

  1. Helicopter Model Rotor-Blade Vortex Interaction Impulsive Noise: Scalability and Parametric Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model-scale data were compared with averaged full-scale, in-flight acoustic data under similar non-dimensional test conditions using an improved data analysis technique. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 - 0.194), the BVI impulsive noise data scale remarkably well in level, waveform, and directivity patterns. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 - 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model-scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full-scale BVI noise. Presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Measured BVI noise radiation is highly sensitive to all of the four governing nondimensional parameters--hover tip Mach number, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient.

  2. Secondary Path Modeling Method for Active Noise Control of Power Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Liang, Jiabi; Liang, Yuanbin; Wang, Lixin; Pei, Xiugao; Li, Peng

    The accuracy of the secondary path modeling is critical to the stability of active noise control system. On condition of knowing the input and output of the secondary path, system identification theory can be used to identify the path. Based on the experiment data, correlation analysis is adopted to eliminate the random noise and nonlinear harmonic in the output data in order to obtain the accurate frequency characteristic of the secondary path. After that, Levy's Method is applied to identify the transfer function of the path. Computer simulation results are given respectively, both showing the proposed off-line modeling method is feasible and applicable. At last, Levy's Method is used to attain an accurate secondary path model in the active control of transformer noise experiment and achieves to make the noise sound level decrease about 10dB.

  3. Numerical modeling of multi-mode active control of turbofan tonal noise using a boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Laralee Gordon

    A numerical model was developed to investigate the possibility of implementing active control (ANC) to minimize noise radiation from high-bypass turbofan engines. Previous experimental work on the NASA Glenn Research Center active noise control fan (ANCF) was encouraging, but the question remained whether the modal approach investigated could be effective on real engines. The engine model developed for this research project uses an indirect boundary element method, implemented with Sysnoise, and a multi-mode Newton's algorithm, implemented with MATLAB(TM), to simulate the active control. Noise from the inlet was targeted. Both the experimental and numerical results based on the NASA ANCF simplified cylindrical engine geometry indicate overall reductions in the m = 2 component of the noise. Reductions obtained at the numerical sensor rings range from 17 dB to 63 dB and at a plane in the duct inlet, -8 dB to 33 dB. Rings mounted on the inlet duct are unable to accurately predict the total reduction of the inlet field, but the controller is still able to effectively reduce the total acoustic field. Generally, one sensor ring and one actuator ring per propagating mode were necessary to control the inlet field. At frequencies close to the cut-off frequency of a mode, an additional sensor and actuator ring were needed to adequately control the inlet field due to the evanescent mode. A more realistic, but still axisymmetric, engine geometry based on the GE CF6-80C engine was developed and the same algorithm used. Reductions obtained at the sensor rings range from 4 dB to 56 dB and at the duct inlet plane, from 12 dB to 26 dB. The overall far field noise radiation from the engine remained unchanged (0.4 dB) or decreased slightly (3.6 dB). The inlet noise was controlled at all frequencies but the noise from the exhaust was increased. The effect of inlet control on the exhaust radiation suggests the need for a controller that targets both the inlet and exhaust noise

  4. Rotor noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, F. H.

    1991-08-01

    The physical characteristics and sources of rotorcraft noise as they exist today are presented. Emphasis is on helicopter-like vehicles, that is, on rotorcraft in nonaxial flight. The mechanisms of rotor noise are reviewed in a simple physical manner for the most dominant sources of rotorcraft noise. With simple models, the characteristic time- and frequency-domain features of these noise sources are presented for idealized cases. Full-scale data on several rotorcraft are then reviewed to allow for the easy identification of the type and extent of the radiating noise. Methods and limitations of using scaled models to test for several noise sources are subsequently presented. Theoretical prediction methods are then discussed and compared with experimental data taken under very controlled conditions. Finally, some promising noise reduction technology is reviewed.

  5. Rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.

    1991-01-01

    The physical characteristics and sources of rotorcraft noise as they exist today are presented. Emphasis is on helicopter-like vehicles, that is, on rotorcraft in nonaxial flight. The mechanisms of rotor noise are reviewed in a simple physical manner for the most dominant sources of rotorcraft noise. With simple models, the characteristic time- and frequency-domain features of these noise sources are presented for idealized cases. Full-scale data on several rotorcraft are then reviewed to allow for the easy identification of the type and extent of the radiating noise. Methods and limitations of using scaled models to test for several noise sources are subsequently presented. Theoretical prediction methods are then discussed and compared with experimental data taken under very controlled conditions. Finally, some promising noise reduction technology is reviewed.

  6. Masking by Gratings Predicted by an Image Sequence Discriminating Model: Testing Models for Perceptual Discrimination Using Repeatable Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Adding noise to stimuli to be discriminated allows estimation of observer classification functions based on the correlation between observer responses and relevant features of the noisy stimuli. Examples will be presented of stimulus features that are found in auditory tone detection and visual vernier acuity. using the standard signal detection model (Thurstone scaling), we derive formulas to estimate the proportion of the observers decision variable variance that is controlled by the added noise. one is based on the probability of agreement of the observer with him/herself on trials with the same noise sample. Another is based on the relative performance of the observer and the model. When these do not agree, the model can be rejected. A second derivation gives the probability of agreement of observer and model when the observer follows the model except for internal noise. Agreement significantly less than this amount allows rejection of the model.

  7. Development of a traffic noise prediction model on inland waterway of China using the FHWA.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ben-lin; He, Yu-long; Mu, Fei-hu; Xu, Ning; Wu, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Based on the local environmental standards, vessels types and traffic conditions, an inland waterway traffic noise prediction model was developed for use in China. This model was modified from the US FHWA model by adding the ground absorption and water surface attenuation correction terms to the governing equations. The parameters that were input into the equations, including traffic flow, vessel speed, distance from the center of the inland waterway to the receiver, position and height of the barriers and buildings, location of the receiver, type of ground, percentage of soft ground cover within the segment, and water surface conditions were re-defined. The model was validated by comparing the measured noise levels obtained at 33 sampling sites from Shugang Channel, Yanhe Channel and Danjinlicaohe Channel in China with the predicted values. The deviation between the predicted and measured noise levels within the range of ±1.5dB(A) was 81.8%. The mean difference between the predicted and measured noise levels was 0.15±1.75dB(A). However, the noise levels predicted developed model are generally higher than the measured levels. Overall, the comparison has proved that the developed method is of a high precision, and that it can be applied to estimate the traffic noise exposure level on inland waterway in China.

  8. Retrospective Correction of Physiological Noise in DTI Using an Extended Tensor Model and Peripheral Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Hutton, Chloe; Nagy, Zoltan; Josephs, Oliver; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is widely used in research and clinical applications, but this modality is highly sensitive to artefacts. We developed an easy-to-implement extension of the original diffusion tensor model to account for physiological noise in diffusion tensor imaging using measures of peripheral physiology (pulse and respiration), the so-called extended tensor model. Within the framework of the extended tensor model two types of regressors, which respectively modeled small (linear) and strong (nonlinear) variations in the diffusion signal, were derived from peripheral measures. We tested the performance of four extended tensor models with different physiological noise regressors on nongated and gated diffusion tensor imaging data, and compared it to an established data-driven robust fitting method. In the brainstem and cerebellum the extended tensor models reduced the noise in the tensor-fit by up to 23% in accordance with previous studies on physiological noise. The extended tensor model addresses both large-amplitude outliers and small-amplitude signal-changes. The framework of the extended tensor model also facilitates further investigation into physiological noise in diffusion tensor imaging. The proposed extended tensor model can be readily combined with other artefact correction methods such as robust fitting and eddy current correction. PMID:22936599

  9. Local retrodiction models for photon-noise-limited images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnleitner, Matthias; Jeffers, John; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging technologies working at very low light levels acquire data by attempting to count the number of photons impinging on each pixel. Especially in cases with, on average, less than one photocount per pixel the resulting images are heavily corrupted by Poissonian noise and a host of successful algorithms trying to reconstruct the original image from this noisy data have been developed. Here we review a recently proposed scheme that complements these algorithms by calculating the full probability distribution for the local intensity distribution behind the noisy photocount measurements. Such a probabilistic treatment opens the way to hypothesis testing and confidence levels for conclusions drawn from image analysis.

  10. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Rotor Source Noise Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Frederic H.; Greenwood, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new physics-based method called Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) is used to demonstrate the change in rotor harmonic noise of a helicopter operating at different ambient conditions. FRAME is based upon a non-dimensional representation of the governing acoustic and performance equations of a single rotor helicopter. Measured external noise is used together with parameter identification techniques to develop a model of helicopter external noise that is a hybrid between theory and experiment. The FRAME method is used to evaluate the main rotor harmonic noise of a Bell 206B3 helicopter operating at different altitudes. The variation with altitude of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, known to be a strong function of the helicopter s advance ratio, is dependent upon which definition of airspeed is flown by the pilot. If normal flight procedures are followed and indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant, the true airspeed (TAS) of the helicopter increases with altitude. This causes an increase in advance ratio and a decrease in the speed of sound which results in large changes to BVI noise levels. Results also show that thickness noise on this helicopter becomes more intense at high altitudes where advancing tip Mach number increases because the speed of sound is decreasing and advance ratio increasing for the same indicated airspeed. These results suggest that existing measurement-based empirically derived helicopter rotor noise source models may give incorrect noise estimates when they are used at conditions where data were not measured and may need to be corrected for mission land-use planning purposes.

  11. Analysis and models of pre-injection surface seismic array noise recorded at the Aquistore carbon storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnie, Claire; Chambers, Kit; Angus, Doug; Stork, Anna L.

    2016-08-01

    Noise is a persistent feature in seismic data and so poses challenges in extracting increased accuracy in seismic images and physical interpretation of the subsurface. In this paper, we analyse passive seismic data from the Aquistore carbon capture and storage pilot project permanent seismic array to characterise, classify and model seismic noise. We perform noise analysis for a three-month subset of passive seismic data from the array and provide conclusive evidence that the noise field is not white, stationary, or Gaussian; characteristics commonly yet erroneously assumed in most conventional noise models. We introduce a novel noise modelling method that provides a significantly more accurate characterisation of real seismic noise compared to conventional methods, which is quantified using the Mann-Whitney-White statistical test. This method is based on a statistical covariance modelling approach created through the modelling of individual noise signals. The identification of individual noise signals, broadly classified as stationary, pseudo-stationary and non-stationary, provides a basis on which to build an appropriate spatial and temporal noise field model. Furthermore, we have developed a workflow to incorporate realistic noise models within synthetic seismic data sets providing an opportunity to test and analyse detection and imaging algorithms under realistic noise conditions.

  12. Noise modeling by the trend of each range gate for coherent Doppler LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Zhichao; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Guo, Pan; Li, Lu; Chen, He

    2014-06-01

    A denoising method of all-fiber pulsed coherent Doppler LIDAR (CDL) is investigated. The goal is to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the weak signal regime. Based on differential detection theory, the total noise expression of CDL with a dual-balanced detector is introduced and analyzed. The conclusion is drawn that the total noise can be acquired under the local oscillator laser exposure conditions by reasonable simplification. Using the actual measured data, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean value of the total noise in each range gate is obtained and is up to approximately 11%. In order to suppress the jitter of the noise, an effective noise modeling by the trend of each range gate is developed. The feasibility of this method is verified by a long set of measured data. The spatial and temporal distribution of wind speed is illustrated with 400 pulses accumulation. Compared to the noise modeling of the tail, the detection range of wind speed using the proposed method can be improved by 35.3%.

  13. Modeling and Compensating Temperature-Dependent Non-Uniformity Noise in IR Microbolometer Cameras.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Alejandro; Pezoa, Jorge E; Figueroa, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Images rendered by uncooled microbolometer-based infrared (IR) cameras are severely degraded by the spatial non-uniformity (NU) noise. The NU noise imposes a fixed-pattern over the true images, and the intensity of the pattern changes with time due to the temperature instability of such cameras. In this paper, we present a novel model and a compensation algorithm for the spatial NU noise and its temperature-dependent variations. The model separates the NU noise into two components: a constant term, which corresponds to a set of NU parameters determining the spatial structure of the noise, and a dynamic term, which scales linearly with the fluctuations of the temperature surrounding the array of microbolometers. We use a black-body radiator and samples of the temperature surrounding the IR array to offline characterize both the constant and the temperature-dependent NU noise parameters. Next, the temperature-dependent variations are estimated online using both a spatially uniform Hammerstein-Wiener estimator and a pixelwise least mean squares (LMS) estimator. We compensate for the NU noise in IR images from two long-wave IR cameras. Results show an excellent NU correction performance and a root mean square error of less than 0.25 ∘ C, when the array's temperature varies by approximately 15 ∘ C. PMID:27447637

  14. Modeling and Compensating Temperature-Dependent Non-Uniformity Noise in IR Microbolometer Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Alejandro; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Figueroa, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Images rendered by uncooled microbolometer-based infrared (IR) cameras are severely degraded by the spatial non-uniformity (NU) noise. The NU noise imposes a fixed-pattern over the true images, and the intensity of the pattern changes with time due to the temperature instability of such cameras. In this paper, we present a novel model and a compensation algorithm for the spatial NU noise and its temperature-dependent variations. The model separates the NU noise into two components: a constant term, which corresponds to a set of NU parameters determining the spatial structure of the noise, and a dynamic term, which scales linearly with the fluctuations of the temperature surrounding the array of microbolometers. We use a black-body radiator and samples of the temperature surrounding the IR array to offline characterize both the constant and the temperature-dependent NU noise parameters. Next, the temperature-dependent variations are estimated online using both a spatially uniform Hammerstein-Wiener estimator and a pixelwise least mean squares (LMS) estimator. We compensate for the NU noise in IR images from two long-wave IR cameras. Results show an excellent NU correction performance and a root mean square error of less than 0.25 ∘C, when the array’s temperature varies by approximately 15 ∘C. PMID:27447637

  15. Modeling and Compensating Temperature-Dependent Non-Uniformity Noise in IR Microbolometer Cameras.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Alejandro; Pezoa, Jorge E; Figueroa, Miguel

    2016-07-19

    Images rendered by uncooled microbolometer-based infrared (IR) cameras are severely degraded by the spatial non-uniformity (NU) noise. The NU noise imposes a fixed-pattern over the true images, and the intensity of the pattern changes with time due to the temperature instability of such cameras. In this paper, we present a novel model and a compensation algorithm for the spatial NU noise and its temperature-dependent variations. The model separates the NU noise into two components: a constant term, which corresponds to a set of NU parameters determining the spatial structure of the noise, and a dynamic term, which scales linearly with the fluctuations of the temperature surrounding the array of microbolometers. We use a black-body radiator and samples of the temperature surrounding the IR array to offline characterize both the constant and the temperature-dependent NU noise parameters. Next, the temperature-dependent variations are estimated online using both a spatially uniform Hammerstein-Wiener estimator and a pixelwise least mean squares (LMS) estimator. We compensate for the NU noise in IR images from two long-wave IR cameras. Results show an excellent NU correction performance and a root mean square error of less than 0.25 ∘ C, when the array's temperature varies by approximately 15 ∘ C.

  16. Airframe Noise Prediction of a Full Aircraft in Model and Full Scale Using a Lattice Boltzmann Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, Ehab; Duda, Benjamin; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2016-01-01

    Unsteady flow computations are presented for a Gulfstream aircraft model in landing configuration, i.e., flap deflected 39deg and main landing gear deployed. The simulations employ the lattice Boltzmann solver PowerFLOW(Trademark) to simultaneously capture the flow physics and acoustics in the near field. Sound propagation to the far field is obtained using a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. Two geometry representations of the same aircraft are analyzed: an 18% scale, high-fidelity, semi-span model at wind tunnel Reynolds number and a full-scale, full-span model at half-flight Reynolds number. Previously published and newly generated model-scale results are presented; all full-scale data are disclosed here for the first time. Reynolds number and geometrical fidelity effects are carefully examined to discern aerodynamic and aeroacoustic trends with a special focus on the scaling of surface pressure fluctuations and farfield noise. An additional study of the effects of geometrical detail on farfield noise is also documented. The present investigation reveals that, overall, the model-scale and full-scale aeroacoustic results compare rather well. Nevertheless, the study also highlights that finer geometrical details that are typically not captured at model scales can have a non-negligible contribution to the farfield noise signature.

  17. Strategies for reducing the climate noise in model simulations: ensemble runs versus a long continuous run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decremer, Damien; Chung, Chul E.; Räisänen, Petri

    2015-03-01

    Climate modelers often integrate the model with constant forcing over a long time period, and make an average over the period in order to reduce climate noise. If the time series is persistent, as opposed to rapidly varying, such an average does not reduce noise efficiently. In this case, ensemble runs, which ideally represent independent runs, can reduce noise more efficiently. We quantify the noise reduction gain by using ensemble runs over a long continuous run in constant-forcing simulations. We find that in terms of the amplitude of the noise, a continuous simulation of 30 years may be equivalent to as few as five 3-year long ensemble runs in a slab ocean-atmosphere coupled model and as few as two 3-year long ensemble runs in a fully coupled model. The outperformance of ensemble runs over a continuous run is strictly a function of the persistence of the time series. We find that persistence depends on model, location and variable, and that persistence in surface air temperature has robust spatial structures in coupled models. We demonstrate that lag-1 year autocorrelation represents persistence fairly well, but the use of lag-1 year-lag-5 years autocorrelations represents the persistence far more sufficiently. Furthermore, there is more persistence in coupled model output than in the output of a first-order autoregressive model with the same lag-1 autocorrelation.

  18. A noise model for the evaluation of defect states in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Landi, G; Barone, C; Mauro, C; Neitzert, H C; Pagano, S

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical model, combining trapping/detrapping and recombination mechanisms, is formulated to explain the origin of random current fluctuations in silicon-based solar cells. In this framework, the comparison between dark and photo-induced noise allows the determination of important electronic parameters of the defect states. A detailed analysis of the electric noise, at different temperatures and for different illumination levels, is reported for crystalline silicon-based solar cells, in the pristine form and after artificial degradation with high energy protons. The evolution of the dominating defect properties is studied through noise spectroscopy. PMID:27412097

  19. Validation of Aircraft Noise Prediction Models at Low Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hobbs, Christopher M.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Stusnick, Eric; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aircraft noise measurements were made at Denver International Airport for a period of four weeks. Detailed operational information was provided by airline operators which enabled noise levels to be predicted using the FAA's Integrated Noise Model. Several thrust prediction techniques were evaluated. Measured sound exposure levels for departure operations were found to be 4 to 10 dB higher than predicted, depending on the thrust prediction technique employed. Differences between measured and predicted levels are shown to be related to atmospheric conditions present at the aircraft altitude.

  20. A noise model for the evaluation of defect states in solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Landi, G.; Barone, C.; Mauro, C.; Neitzert, H. C.; Pagano, S.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical model, combining trapping/detrapping and recombination mechanisms, is formulated to explain the origin of random current fluctuations in silicon-based solar cells. In this framework, the comparison between dark and photo-induced noise allows the determination of important electronic parameters of the defect states. A detailed analysis of the electric noise, at different temperatures and for different illumination levels, is reported for crystalline silicon-based solar cells, in the pristine form and after artificial degradation with high energy protons. The evolution of the dominating defect properties is studied through noise spectroscopy. PMID:27412097

  1. Coupling and noise induced spiking-bursting transition in a parabolic bursting model.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lin; Zhang, Jia; Lang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Xiuhui

    2013-03-01

    The transition from tonic spiking to bursting is an important dynamic process that carry physiologically relevant information. In this work, coupling and noise induced spiking-bursting transition is investigated in a parabolic bursting model with specific discussion on their cooperation effects. Fast/slow analysis shows that weak coupling may help to induce the bursting by changing the geometric property of the fast subsystem so that the original unstable periodical solution are stabilized. It turned out that noise can play the similar stabilization role and induce bursting at appropriate moderate intensity. However, their cooperation may either strengthen or weaken the overall effect depending on the choice of noise level.

  2. Effects of noise on a computational model for disease states of mood disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias Huber, Martin; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Braun, Hans Albert; Moss, Frank

    2000-03-01

    Nonlinear dynamics are currently proposed to explain the progressive course of recurrent mood disorders starting with isolated episodes and ending with accelerated irregular (``chaotic") mood fluctuations. Such a low-dimensional disease model is attractive because of its principal accordance with biological disease models, i.e. the kindling and biological rhythms model. However, most natural systems are nonlinear and noisy and several studies in the neuro- and physical sciences have demonstrated interesting cooperative behaviors arising from interacting random and deterministic dynamics. Here, we consider the effects of noise on a recent neurodynamical model for the timecourse of affective disorders (Huber et al.: Biological Psychiatry 1999;46:256-262). We describe noise effects on temporal patterns and mean episode frequencies of various in computo disease states. Our simulations demonstrate that noise can cause unstructured randomness or can maximize periodic order. The frequency of episode occurence can increase with noise but it can also remain unaffected or even can decrease. We show further that noise can make visible bifurcations before they would normally occur under deterministic conditions and we quantify this behavior with a recently developed statistical method. All these effects depend critically on both, the dynamic state and the noise intensity. Implications for neurobiology and course of mood disorders are discussed.

  3. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (MARS-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification was also made which allows heights to go 'below' local terrain height and return 'realistic' pressure, density, and temperature, and not the surface values, as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local 'valley' areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch versions of Mars-GRAM are presented.

  4. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.

    1991-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification has also been made which allows heights to go below local terrain height and return realistic pressure, density, and temperature (not the surface values) as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local valley areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch version of Mars-GRAM are presented.

  5. Performance analysis for time-frequency MUSIC algorithm in presence of both additive noise and array calibration errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodja, Mohamed; Belouchrani, Adel; Abed-Meraim, Karim

    2012-12-01

    This article deals with the application of Spatial Time-Frequency Distribution (STFD) to the direction finding problem using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC)algorithm. A comparative performance analysis is performed for the method under consideration with respect to that using data covariance matrix when the received array signals are subject to calibration errors in a non-stationary environment. An unified analytical expression of the Direction Of Arrival (DOA) error estimation is derived for both methods. Numerical results show the effect of the parameters intervening in the derived expression on the algorithm performance. It is particularly observed that for low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and high Signal to sensor Perturbation Ratio (SPR) the STFD method gives better performance, while for high SNR and for the same SPR both methods give similar performance.

  6. Single velocity-component modeling of leading edge turbulence interaction noise.

    PubMed

    Gill, J; Zhang, X; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    A computational aeroacoustics approach is used to predict leading edge turbulence interaction noise for real airfoils. One-component (transverse), two-component (transverse and streamwise), and three-component (transverse, streamwise, and spanwise) synthesized turbulence disturbances are modeled instead of harmonic transverse gusts, to which previous computational studies of leading edge noise have often been confined. The effects of the inclusion of streamwise and spanwise disturbances on the noise are assessed. It is shown that accurate noise predictions can be made by modeling only transverse disturbances which reduces the computational expense of simulations. The accuracy of using only transverse disturbances is assessed for symmetric and cambered airfoils, and also for airfoils at non-zero angle of attack.

  7. Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 1: Development and validation of preliminary analytical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    The basic theoretical work required to understand sound transmission into an enclosed space (that is, one closed by the transmitting structure) is developed for random pressure fields and for harmonic (tonal) excitation. The analysis is used to predict the noise reducton of unpressurized unstiffened cylinder, and also the interior response of the cylinder given a tonal (plane wave) excitation. Predictions and measurements are compared and the transmission is analyzed. In addition, results for tonal (harmonic) mechanical excitation are considered.

  8. Noise processes modeling in HgCdTe infrared photodiode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlakov, Igor D.; Selyakov, Andrew Y.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir P.; Filachev, Anatoly M.

    2010-04-01

    A numerical model of the current noise spectral density in elements of infrared focal plane array based on HgCdTe photodiodes has been developed. Model is based on Langevine method and applied to the photodiode with p+-n-junction and base of finite length d. Dominated dark current diffusion mechanism and random nature of thermal generationrecombination and scattering processes determined the diffusion current fluctuations has been taken into account. The model main peculiar properties are the stochastic boundary conditions on the interface between the depletion and quasineutral regions. Current noise spectral density of the diode with thin base d < Lp, where Lp is the hole diffusion length in n-region, has been calculated. In thin base diodes with blocking contact to substrate, in which recombination velocity S = 0, a noise suppression effect is revealed. At noticeable reverse junction biases |qV| > 3kT the diffusion current noise suppression is to be observed in whole frequency band ωtfl << 1, where tfl is the hole flight time through the depletion region. In this case the diffusion current noise spectral density is less than in diodes with thick base (d >> Lp) by a factor th(d/Lp). At slight biases |qV| < 3kT the diffusion current noise suppression occurs only in limited frequency band ωτ < 1, where τ is the minority carriers lifetime. At high frequencies ωτ >> 1 diffusion current noise comes out of fluctuations caused by scattering processes and is independent on the diode structure. Photocurrent noise spectral density has been calculated too. Model developed is useful for the photodiode elements and arrays optimization.

  9. Backbone Additivity in the Transfer Model of Protein Solvation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Char Y.; Kokubo, Hironori; Lynch, Gillian C.; Bolen, D Wayne; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2010-05-01

    The transfer model implying additivity of the peptide backbone free energy of transfer is computationally tested. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to determine the extent of change in transfer free energy (ΔGtr) with increase in chain length of oligoglycine with capped end groups. Solvation free energies of oligoglycine models of varying lengths in pure water and in the osmolyte solutions, 2M urea and 2M trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), were calculated from simulations of all atom models, and ΔGtr values for peptide backbone transfer from water to the osmolyte solutions were determined. The results show that the transfer free energies change linearly with increasing chain length, demonstrating the principle of additivity, and provide values in reasonable agreement with experiment. The peptide backbone transfer free energy contributions arise from van der Waals interactions in the case of transfer to urea, but from electrostatics on transfer to TMAO solution. The simulations used here allow for the calculation of the solvation and transfer free energy of longer oligoglycine models to be evaluated than is currently possible through experiment. The peptide backbone unit computed transfer free energy of –54 cal/mol/Mcompares quite favorably with –43 cal/mol/M determined experimentally.

  10. Airframe noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crighton, David G.

    1991-08-01

    Current understanding of airframe noise was reviewed as represented by experiment at model and full scale, by theoretical modeling, and by empirical correlation models. The principal component sources are associated with the trailing edges of wing and tail, deflected trailing edge flaps, flap side edges, leading edge flaps or slats, undercarriage gear elements, gear wheel wells, fuselage and wing boundary layers, and panel vibration, together with many minor protrusions like radio antennas and air conditioning intakes which may contribute significantly to perceived noise. There are also possibilities for interactions between the various mechanisms. With current engine technology, the principal airframe noise mechanisms dominate only at low frequencies, typically less than 1 kHz and often much lower, but further reduction of turbomachinery noise in particular may make airframe noise the principal element of approach noise at frequencies in the sensitive range.

  11. Dynamics of Order Parameters in Oscillator Associative Memory Models with Scattered Natural Frequency under External Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we consider the dynamics of the order parameters in oscillator associative memory models with scattered natural frequency under external noise. We first study the stationary state of the continuous-time model. Based on this knowledge, by applying the adiabatic approximation and the ergodic hypothesis to the continuous-time model, we propose a discrete-time model. For the discrete-time model, we derive maps of order parameters by applying statistical neuro dynamics. When the external noise is large, the system cannot retrieve an imbedded pattern, and hence, the overlap becomes zero and variance of the crosstalk noise becomes small in the stationary state. We discuss the limitations of our theory and the reason for the gaps between simulation results and theoretical results.

  12. Practical Poissonian-Gaussian noise modeling and fitting for single-image raw-data.

    PubMed

    Foi, Alessandro; Trimeche, Mejdi; Katkovnik, Vladimir; Egiazarian, Karen

    2008-10-01

    We present a simple and usable noise model for the raw-data of digital imaging sensors. This signal-dependent noise model, which gives the pointwise standard-deviation of the noise as a function of the expectation of the pixel raw-data output, is composed of a Poissonian part, modeling the photon sensing, and Gaussian part, for the remaining stationary disturbances in the output data. We further explicitly take into account the clipping of the data (over- and under-exposure), faithfully reproducing the nonlinear response of the sensor. We propose an algorithm for the fully automatic estimation of the model parameters given a single noisy image. Experiments with synthetic images and with real raw-data from various sensors prove the practical applicability of the method and the accuracy of the proposed model. PMID:18784024

  13. Multiscale and Multiphysics Modeling of Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Frank; Newkirk, Joseph; Fan, Zhiqiang; Sparks, Todd; Chen, Xueyang; Fletcher, Kenneth; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Yunlu; Kumar, Kannan Suresh; Karnati, Sreekar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this proposed project is to research and develop a prediction tool for advanced additive manufacturing (AAM) processes for advanced materials and develop experimental methods to provide fundamental properties and establish validation data. Aircraft structures and engines demand materials that are stronger, useable at much higher temperatures, provide less acoustic transmission, and enable more aeroelastic tailoring than those currently used. Significant improvements in properties can only be achieved by processing the materials under nonequilibrium conditions, such as AAM processes. AAM processes encompass a class of processes that use a focused heat source to create a melt pool on a substrate. Examples include Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Direct Metal Deposition. These types of additive processes enable fabrication of parts directly from CAD drawings. To achieve the desired material properties and geometries of the final structure, assessing the impact of process parameters and predicting optimized conditions with numerical modeling as an effective prediction tool is necessary. The targets for the processing are multiple and at different spatial scales, and the physical phenomena associated occur in multiphysics and multiscale. In this project, the research work has been developed to model AAM processes in a multiscale and multiphysics approach. A macroscale model was developed to investigate the residual stresses and distortion in AAM processes. A sequentially coupled, thermomechanical, finite element model was developed and validated experimentally. The results showed the temperature distribution, residual stress, and deformation within the formed deposits and substrates. A mesoscale model was developed to include heat transfer, phase change with mushy zone, incompressible free surface flow, solute redistribution, and surface tension. Because of excessive computing time needed, a parallel computing approach was also tested. In addition

  14. Nonlinear modeling of low-to-high-frequency noise up-conversion in microwave electron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filicori, Fabio; Traverso, Pier A.; Florian, Corrado

    2003-05-01

    Measurement-based, circuit-oriented non-linear noise modeling of microwave electron devices is still an open field of research, since existing approaches are not always suitable for the accurate prediction of low-frequency noise up-conversion to RF, which represents an essential information for the non-linear circuit analyses performed in the CAD of low phase-noise oscillators. In this paper a technology-independent, empirical approach to the modeling of noise contributions at the ports of electron devices, operating under strongly non-linear conditions, is proposed. Details concerning the analytical formulation of the model, which is derived by considering randomly time-varying perturbations in the basic equations of an otherwise conventional charge-controlled non-linear model, are presented, along with a discussion about the measurement techniques devoted to its experimental characterization. An example of application of the proposed Charge-Controlled Non-linear Noise (CCNN) model is considered in the case of a HBT transistor. Techniques devoted to the implementation of the obtained model in the framework of commercial CAD tools for circuit analysis and design are provided as well.

  15. A distributed, dynamic, parallel computational model: the role of noise in velocity storage

    PubMed Central

    Merfeld, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Networks of neurons perform complex calculations using distributed, parallel computation, including dynamic “real-time” calculations required for motion control. The brain must combine sensory signals to estimate the motion of body parts using imperfect information from noisy neurons. Models and experiments suggest that the brain sometimes optimally minimizes the influence of noise, although it remains unclear when and precisely how neurons perform such optimal computations. To investigate, we created a model of velocity storage based on a relatively new technique–“particle filtering”–that is both distributed and parallel. It extends existing observer and Kalman filter models of vestibular processing by simulating the observer model many times in parallel with noise added. During simulation, the variance of the particles defining the estimator state is used to compute the particle filter gain. We applied our model to estimate one-dimensional angular velocity during yaw rotation, which yielded estimates for the velocity storage time constant, afferent noise, and perceptual noise that matched experimental data. We also found that the velocity storage time constant was Bayesian optimal by comparing the estimate of our particle filter with the estimate of the Kalman filter, which is optimal. The particle filter demonstrated a reduced velocity storage time constant when afferent noise increased, which mimics what is known about aminoglycoside ablation of semicircular canal hair cells. This model helps bridge the gap between parallel distributed neural computation and systems-level behavioral responses like the vestibuloocular response and perception. PMID:22514288

  16. A general procedure to generate models for urban environmental-noise pollution using feature selection and machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of environmental noise in urban environments requires the solution of a complex and non-linear problem, since there are complex relationships among the multitude of variables involved in the characterization and modelling of environmental noise and environmental-noise magnitudes. Moreover, the inclusion of the great spatial heterogeneity characteristic of urban environments seems to be essential in order to achieve an accurate environmental-noise prediction in cities. This problem is addressed in this paper, where a procedure based on feature-selection techniques and machine-learning regression methods is proposed and applied to this environmental problem. Three machine-learning regression methods, which are considered very robust in solving non-linear problems, are used to estimate the energy-equivalent sound-pressure level descriptor (LAeq). These three methods are: (i) multilayer perceptron (MLP), (ii) sequential minimal optimisation (SMO), and (iii) Gaussian processes for regression (GPR). In addition, because of the high number of input variables involved in environmental-noise modelling and estimation in urban environments, which make LAeq prediction models quite complex and costly in terms of time and resources for application to real situations, three different techniques are used to approach feature selection or data reduction. The feature-selection techniques used are: (i) correlation-based feature-subset selection (CFS), (ii) wrapper for feature-subset selection (WFS), and the data reduction technique is principal-component analysis (PCA). The subsequent analysis leads to a proposal of different schemes, depending on the needs regarding data collection and accuracy. The use of WFS as the feature-selection technique with the implementation of SMO or GPR as regression algorithm provides the best LAeq estimation (R(2)=0.94 and mean absolute error (MAE)=1.14-1.16 dB(A)).

  17. Optimization and Modeling of Noise Reduction for Turbulent Jets with Induced Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostamimonjezi, Sara

    This project relates to the development of next-generation high-speed aircraft that are efficient and environmentally compliant. The emphasis of the research is on reducing noise from high-performance engines that will power these aircraft. A strong component of engine noise is jet mixing noise that comes from the turbulent mixing process between the high-speed exhaust flow of the engine and the atmosphere. The fan flow deflection method (FFD) suppresses jet noise by deflecting the fan stream downward, by a few degrees, with respect to the core stream. This reduces the convective Mach number of the primary shear layer and turbulent kinetic energy in the downward direction and therefore reduces the noise emitted towards the ground. The redistribution of the fan stream is achieved with inserting airfoil-shaped vanes inside the fan duct. Aerodynamic optimization of FFD has been done by Dr. Juntao Xiong using a computational fluid dynamics code to maximize reduction of noise perceived by the community while minimizing aerodynamic losses. The optimal vane airfoils are used in a parametric experimental study of 50 4-vane deflector configurations. The vane chord length, angle of attack, and azimuthal location are the parameters studied in acoustic optimization. The best vane configuration yields a reduction in cumulative (downward + sideline) effective perceived noise level (EPNL) of 5.3 dB. The optimization study underscores the sensitivity of FFD to deflector parameters and the need for careful design in the practical implementation of this noise reduction approach. An analytical model based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and acoustic analogy is developed to predict the spectral changes from a known baseline in the direction of peak emission. A generalized form for space-time correlation is introduced that allows shapes beyond the traditional exponential forms. Azimuthal directivity based on the wavepacket model of jet noise is integrated with the acoustic

  18. Measurement of Model Noise in a Hard-Wall Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.

    2006-01-01

    Identification, analysis, and control of fluid-mechanically-generated sound from models of aircraft and automobiles in special low-noise, semi-anechoic wind tunnels are an important research endeavor. Such studies can also be done in aerodynamic wind tunnels that have hard walls if phased microphone arrays are used to focus on the noise-source regions and reject unwanted reflections or background noise. Although it may be difficult to simulate the total flyover or drive-by noise in a closed wind tunnel, individual noise sources can be isolated and analyzed. An acoustic and aerodynamic study was made of a 7-percent-scale aircraft model in a NASA Ames 7-by-10-ft (about 2-by-3-m) wind tunnel for the purpose of identifying and attenuating airframe noise sources. Simulated landing, takeoff, and approach configurations were evaluated at Mach 0.26. Using a phased microphone array mounted in the ceiling over the inverted model, various noise sources in the high-lift system, landing gear, fins, and miscellaneous other components were located and compared for sound level and frequency at one flyover location. Numerous noise-alleviation devices and modifications of the model were evaluated. Simultaneously with acoustic measurements, aerodynamic forces were recorded to document aircraft conditions and any performance changes caused by geometric modifications. Most modern microphone-array systems function in the frequency domain in the sense that spectra of the microphone outputs are computed, then operations are performed on the matrices of microphone-signal cross-spectra. The entire acoustic field at one station in such a system is acquired quickly and interrogated during postprocessing. Beam-forming algorithms are employed to scan a plane near the model surface and locate noise sources while rejecting most background noise and spurious reflections. In the case of the system used in this study, previous studies in the wind tunnel have identified noise sources up to 19 d

  19. Symmetry: modeling the effects of masking noise, axial cueing and salience.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Tyler, Christopher W

    2010-04-06

    Symmetry detection is an interesting probe of pattern processing because it requires the matching of novel patterns without the benefit of prior recognition. However, there is evidence that prior knowledge of the axis location plays an important role in symmetry detection. We investigated how the prior information about the symmetry axis affects symmetry detection under noise-masking conditions. The target stimuli were random-dot displays structured to be symmetric about vertical, horizontal, or diagonal axes and viewed through eight apertures (1.2 degrees diameter) evenly distributed around a 6 degrees diameter circle. The information about axis orientation was manipulated by (1) cueing of axis orientation before the trial and (2) varying axis salience by including or excluding the axis region within the noise apertures. The percentage of correct detection of the symmetry was measured at for a range of both target and masking noise densities. The threshold vs. noise density function was flat at low noise density and increased with a slope of 0.75-0.8 beyond a critical density. Axis cueing reduced the target threshold 2-4 fold at all noise densities while axis salience had an effect only at high noise density. Our results are inconsistent with an ideal observer or signal-to-noise account of symmetry detection but can be explained by a multiple-channel model is which the response in each channel is the ratio between the nonlinear transform of the responses of sets of early symmetry detectors and the sum of external and intrinsic sources of noise.

  20. 77 FR 18297 - Air Traffic Noise, Fuel Burn, and Emissions Modeling Using the Aviation Environmental Design Tool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Noise, Fuel Burn, and Emissions Modeling Using the Aviation... Aviation Environmental Design Tool version 2a (AEDT 2a) to analyze noise, fuel burn, and emissions for FAA... assess noise, fuel burn, and emissions impacts of such actions under the National Environmental...

  1. Sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in additive manufacturing medical models.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jose Miguel; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo E; Uribe, Sergio; Ramos-Grez, Jorge; Vargas, Alex; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) models are used in medical applications for surgical planning, prosthesis design and teaching. For these applications, the accuracy of the AM models is essential. Unfortunately, this accuracy is compromised due to errors introduced by each of the building steps: image acquisition, segmentation, triangulation, printing and infiltration. However, the contribution of each step to the final error remains unclear. We performed a sensitivity analysis comparing errors obtained from a reference with those obtained modifying parameters of each building step. Our analysis considered global indexes to evaluate the overall error, and local indexes to show how this error is distributed along the surface of the AM models. Our results show that the standard building process tends to overestimate the AM models, i.e. models are larger than the original structures. They also show that the triangulation resolution and the segmentation threshold are critical factors, and that the errors are concentrated at regions with high curvatures. Errors could be reduced choosing better triangulation and printing resolutions, but there is an important need for modifying some of the standard building processes, particularly the segmentation algorithms.

  2. Addition Table of Colours: Additive and Subtractive Mixtures Described Using a Single Reasoning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, A. R.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Students' misconceptions concerning colour phenomena and the apparent complexity of the underlying concepts--due to the different domains of knowledge involved--make its teaching very difficult. We have developed and tested a teaching device, the addition table of colours (ATC), that encompasses additive and subtractive mixtures in a single…

  3. Construction and solution of an adaptive image-restoration model for removing blur and mixed noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youquan; Cui, Lihong; Cen, Yigang; Sun, Jianjun

    2016-03-01

    We establish a practical regularized least-squares model with adaptive regularization for dealing with blur and mixed noise in images. This model has some advantages, such as good adaptability for edge restoration and noise suppression due to the application of a priori spatial information obtained from a polluted image. We further focus on finding an important feature of image restoration using an adaptive restoration model with different regularization parameters in polluted images. A more important observation is that the gradient of an image varies regularly from one regularization parameter to another under certain conditions. Then, a modified graduated nonconvexity approach combined with a median filter version of a spatial information indicator is proposed to seek the solution of our adaptive image-restoration model by applying variable splitting and weighted penalty techniques. Numerical experiments show that the method is robust and effective for dealing with various blur and mixed noise levels in images.

  4. Accounting for anatomical noise in search-capable model observers for planar nuclear imaging.

    PubMed

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Model observers intended to predict the diagnostic performance of human observers should account for the effects of both quantum and anatomical noise. We compared the abilities of several visual-search (VS) and scanning Hotelling-type models to account for anatomical noise in a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study involving simulated nuclear medicine images. Our VS observer invoked a two-stage process of search and analysis. The images featured lesions in the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Lesion contrast and the geometric resolution and sensitivity of the imaging collimator were the study variables. A set of anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms was imaged with an analytic projector based on eight parallel-hole collimators with different sensitivity and resolution properties. The LROC study was conducted with human observers and the channelized nonprewhitening, channelized Hotelling (CH) and VS model observers. The CH observer was applied in a "background-known-statistically" protocol while the VS observer performed a quasi-background-known-exactly task. Both of these models were applied with and without internal noise in the decision variables. A perceptual search threshold was also tested with the VS observer. The model observers without inefficiencies failed to mimic the average performance trend for the humans. The CH and VS observers with internal noise matched the humans primarily at low collimator sensitivities. With both internal noise and the search threshold, the VS observer attained quantitative agreement with the human observers. Computational efficiency is an important advantage of the VS observer.

  5. Preliminary experiments on the noise generated by target-type thrust reverser models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, O. A.; Stone, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments are reported on the noise generated by model V-gutter and semicylindrical target-type reversers with circular nozzles. Nozzles were 5.24 and 7.78 cm in diameter. Nozzle pressure ratio ranged from 1.25 to 1.72. The spacing between reversers and nozzle, as well as the reverser orientation, was also varied. More noise was generated with reversers than with the nozzle alone. The measured maximum overall sound pressure level varied with the sixth power of the nozzle exit velocity. Noise levels were more uniform in regard to directivity with reversers than with the nozzle alone. It is concluded that thrust reversers, can be a significant noise problem, especially for STOL aircraft using thrust reversers during approach.

  6. An Immune Quantum Communication Model for Dephasing Noise Using Four-Qubit Cluster State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Qin, Zhi-guang

    2016-01-01

    Quantum secure communication of dephasing in the presence of noise is a hot spot in research in the field of quantum secure communication. Quantum steganography aims is to transfer secret information in public quantum channel. But because effect of annealing phase noise, quantum states which is need to transfer easily delayed or changed. So, quantum steganography is very meaning apply to transmit secret information covertly in quantum noisy channels. The article introduced dephasing noise impact on the physics of quantum state, through the theoretical research, construct the logic of quantum states to back the phase noise immunity, and construct the decoherence free subspace, It can guarantees fidelity secret information exchange through quantum communication model in a noisy environment.

  7. Noise induced oscillations and coherence resonance in a generic model of the nonisothermal chemical oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Simakov, David S. A.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Oscillating chemical reactions are common in biological systems and they also occur in artificial non-biological systems. Generally, these reactions are subject to random fluctuations in environmental conditions which translate into fluctuations in the values of physical variables, for example, temperature. We formulate a mathematical model for a nonisothermal minimal chemical oscillator containing a single negative feedback loop and study numerically the effects of stochastic fluctuations in temperature in the absence of any deterministic limit cycle or periodic forcing. We show that noise in temperature can induce sustained limit cycle oscillations with a relatively narrow frequency distribution and some characteristic frequency. These properties differ significantly depending on the noise correlation. Here, we have explored white and colored (correlated) noise. A plot of the characteristic frequency of the noise induced oscillations as a function of the correlation exponent shows a maximum, therefore indicating the existence of autonomous stochastic resonance, i.e. coherence resonance. PMID:23929212

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Medical Models--Applications in Rhinology.

    PubMed

    Raos, Pero; Klapan, Ivica; Galeta, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we are introducing guidelines and suggestions for use of 3D image processing SW in head pathology diagnostic and procedures for obtaining physical medical model by additive manufacturing/rapid prototyping techniques, bearing in mind the improvement of surgery performance, its maximum security and faster postoperative recovery of patients. This approach has been verified in two case reports. In the treatment we used intelligent classifier-schemes for abnormal patterns using computer-based system for 3D-virtual and endoscopic assistance in rhinology, with appropriate visualization of anatomy and pathology within the nose, paranasal sinuses, and scull base area.

  9. Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

  10. Bursting noise in gene expression dynamics: linking microscopic and mesoscopic models

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of short-lived mRNA results in bursts of protein production in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the propagation of bursting noise between different levels of mathematical modelling and demonstrate that conventional approaches based on diffusion approximations can fail to capture bursting noise. An alternative coarse-grained model, the so-called piecewise deterministic Markov process (PDMP), is seen to outperform the diffusion approximation in biologically relevant parameter regimes. We provide a systematic embedding of the PDMP model into the landscape of existing approaches, and we present analytical methods to calculate its stationary distribution and switching frequencies. PMID:26763330

  11. Effects on generalized growth models driven by a non-Poissonian dichotomic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, M.; Calisto, H.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we consider a general growth model with stochastic growth rate modelled via a symmetric non-poissonian dichotomic noise. We find an exact analytical solution for its probability distribution. We consider the, as yet, unexplored case where the deterministic growth rate is perturbed by a dichotomic noise characterized by a waiting time distribution in the two state that is a power law with power 1 < μ < 2. We apply the results to two well-known growth models; Malthus-Verhulst and Gompertz.

  12. Jet Noise Modeling for Suppressed and Unsuppressed Aircraft in Simulated Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the development of further extensions and improvements to the jet noise model developed by Modern Technologies Corporation (MTC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The noise component extraction and correlation approach, first used successfully by MTC in developing a noise prediction model for two-dimensional mixer ejector (2DME) nozzles under the High Speed Research (HSR) Program, has been applied to dual-stream nozzles, then extended and improved in earlier tasks under this contract. Under Task 6, the coannular jet noise model was formulated and calibrated with limited scale model data, mainly at high bypass ratio, including a limited-range prediction of the effects of mixing-enhancement nozzle-exit chevrons on jet noise. Under Task 9 this model was extended to a wider range of conditions, particularly those appropriate for a Supersonic Business Jet, with an improvement in simulated flight effects modeling and generalization of the suppressor model. In the present task further comparisons are made over a still wider range of conditions from more test facilities. The model is also further generalized to cover single-stream nozzles of otherwise similar configuration. So the evolution of this prediction/analysis/correlation approach has been in a sense backward, from the complex to the simple; but from this approach a very robust capability is emerging. Also from these studies, some observations emerge relative to theoretical considerations. The purpose of this task is to develop an analytical, semi-empirical jet noise prediction method applicable to takeoff, sideline and approach noise of subsonic and supersonic cruise aircraft over a wide size range. The product of this task is an even more consistent and robust model for the Footprint/Radius (FOOTPR) code than even the Task 9 model. The model is validated for a wider range of cases and statistically quantified for the various reference facilities. The possible

  13. Evaluation of Turbulence-Model Performance as Applied to Jet-Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, S. L.; Seiner, J. M.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Erlebacher, G.

    1998-01-01

    The accurate prediction of jet noise is possible only if the jet flow field can be predicted accurately. Predictions for the mean velocity and turbulence quantities in the jet flowfield are typically the product of a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver coupled with a turbulence model. To evaluate the effectiveness of solvers and turbulence models in predicting those quantities most important to jet noise prediction, two CFD codes and several turbulence models were applied to a jet configuration over a range of jet temperatures for which experimental data is available.

  14. Advanced modeling of active control of fan noise for ultra high bypass turbofan engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Florence Vanel

    1999-11-01

    An advanced model of active control of fan noise for ultra high bypass turbofan engines has been developed. This model is based on a boundary integral equation method and simulates the propagation, radiation and control of the noise generated by an engine fan surrounded by a duct of finite length and cylindrical shape, placed in a uniform flow. Control sources, modeled by point monopoles placed along the wall of the engine inlet or outlet duct, inject anti-noise into the duct to destructively interfere with the sound field generated by the fan. The duct inner wall can be lined or rigid. Unlike current methods, reflection from the duct openings is taken into account, as well as the presence of the evanescent modes. Forward, as well as backward (i.e., from the rear of the engine), external radiation is computed. The development of analytical expressions for the sound field resulting from both the fan loading noise and the control sources is presented. Two fan models are described. The first model uses spinning line sources with radially distributed strength to model the loading force that the fan blades exert on the medium. The second model uses radial arrays of spinning point dipoles to simulate the generation of fan modes of specific modal amplitudes. It is shown that these fan models can provide a reasonable approximation of actual engine fan noise in the instance when the modal amplitude of the propagating modes or the loading force distribution on the fan blades, is known. Sample cases of active noise control are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the model. The results from these tests indicate that this model (1)is conducive to more realistic studies of active control of fan noise on ultra high bypass turbofan engines because it accounts for the presence of evanescent modes and for interference between inlet and outlet radiation, which were shown to have some impact on the performance of the active control system; (2)is very useful because it allows

  15. Multiscale Modeling of Powder Bed-Based Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Matthias; Körner, Carolin

    2016-07-01

    Powder bed fusion processes are additive manufacturing technologies that are expected to induce the third industrial revolution. Components are built up layer by layer in a powder bed by selectively melting confined areas, according to sliced 3D model data. This technique allows for manufacturing of highly complex geometries hardly machinable with conventional technologies. However, the underlying physical phenomena are sparsely understood and difficult to observe during processing. Therefore, an intensive and expensive trial-and-error principle is applied to produce components with the desired dimensional accuracy, material characteristics, and mechanical properties. This review presents numerical modeling approaches on multiple length scales and timescales to describe different aspects of powder bed fusion processes. In combination with tailored experiments, the numerical results enlarge the process understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and support the development of suitable process strategies and component topologies.

  16. Multiscale Modeling of Powder Bed–Based Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Matthias; Körner, Carolin

    2016-07-01

    Powder bed fusion processes are additive manufacturing technologies that are expected to induce the third industrial revolution. Components are built up layer by layer in a powder bed by selectively melting confined areas, according to sliced 3D model data. This technique allows for manufacturing of highly complex geometries hardly machinable with conventional technologies. However, the underlying physical phenomena are sparsely understood and difficult to observe during processing. Therefore, an intensive and expensive trial-and-error principle is applied to produce components with the desired dimensional accuracy, material characteristics, and mechanical properties. This review presents numerical modeling approaches on multiple length scales and timescales to describe different aspects of powder bed fusion processes. In combination with tailored experiments, the numerical results enlarge the process understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and support the development of suitable process strategies and component topologies.

  17. Fatigue Modeling via Mammalian Auditory System for Prediction of Noise Induced Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Qin, Jun; Campbell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains as a severe health problem worldwide. Existing noise metrics and modeling for evaluation of NIHL are limited on prediction of gradually developing NIHL (GDHL) caused by high-level occupational noise. In this study, we proposed two auditory fatigue based models, including equal velocity level (EVL) and complex velocity level (CVL), which combine the high-cycle fatigue theory with the mammalian auditory model, to predict GDHL. The mammalian auditory model is introduced by combining the transfer function of the external-middle ear and the triple-path nonlinear (TRNL) filter to obtain velocities of basilar membrane (BM) in cochlea. The high-cycle fatigue theory is based on the assumption that GDHL can be considered as a process of long-cycle mechanical fatigue failure of organ of Corti. Furthermore, a series of chinchilla experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed fatigue models. The regression analysis results show that both proposed fatigue models have high corrections with four hearing loss indices. It indicates that the proposed models can accurately predict hearing loss in chinchilla. Results suggest that the CVL model is more accurate compared to the EVL model on prediction of the auditory risk of exposure to hazardous occupational noise.

  18. Fatigue Modeling via Mammalian Auditory System for Prediction of Noise Induced Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Qin, Jun; Campbell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains as a severe health problem worldwide. Existing noise metrics and modeling for evaluation of NIHL are limited on prediction of gradually developing NIHL (GDHL) caused by high-level occupational noise. In this study, we proposed two auditory fatigue based models, including equal velocity level (EVL) and complex velocity level (CVL), which combine the high-cycle fatigue theory with the mammalian auditory model, to predict GDHL. The mammalian auditory model is introduced by combining the transfer function of the external-middle ear and the triple-path nonlinear (TRNL) filter to obtain velocities of basilar membrane (BM) in cochlea. The high-cycle fatigue theory is based on the assumption that GDHL can be considered as a process of long-cycle mechanical fatigue failure of organ of Corti. Furthermore, a series of chinchilla experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed fatigue models. The regression analysis results show that both proposed fatigue models have high corrections with four hearing loss indices. It indicates that the proposed models can accurately predict hearing loss in chinchilla. Results suggest that the CVL model is more accurate compared to the EVL model on prediction of the auditory risk of exposure to hazardous occupational noise. PMID:26691685

  19. Towards a Comprehensive Model of Jet Noise Using an Acoustic Analogy and Steady RANS Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed to predict the noise from jet flows. It contains two source models that independently predict the noise from turbulence and shock wave shear layer interactions. The acoustic analogy is based on the Euler equations and separates the sources from propagation. Propagation effects are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations. The sources are modeled following the work of Tam and Auriault, Morris and Boluriaan, and Morris and Miller. A statistical model of the two-point cross-correlation of the velocity fluctuations is used to describe the turbulence. The acoustic analogy attempts to take into account the correct scaling of the sources for a wide range of nozzle pressure and temperature ratios. It does not make assumptions regarding fine- or large-scale turbulent noise sources, self- or shear-noise, or convective amplification. The acoustic analogy is partially informed by three-dimensional steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions that include the nozzle geometry. The predictions are compared with experiments of jets operating subsonically through supersonically and at unheated and heated temperatures. Predictions generally capture the scaling of both mixing noise and BBSAN for the conditions examined, but some discrepancies remain that are due to the accuracy of the steady RANS turbulence model closure, the equivalent sources, and the use of a simplified vector Green's function solver of the linearized Euler equations.

  20. Additive functions in boolean models of gene regulatory network modules.

    PubMed

    Darabos, Christian; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Tomassini, Marco; Moore, Jason H; Provero, Paolo; Giacobini, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Gene-on-gene regulations are key components of every living organism. Dynamical abstract models of genetic regulatory networks help explain the genome's evolvability and robustness. These properties can be attributed to the structural topology of the graph formed by genes, as vertices, and regulatory interactions, as edges. Moreover, the actual gene interaction of each gene is believed to play a key role in the stability of the structure. With advances in biology, some effort was deployed to develop update functions in boolean models that include recent knowledge. We combine real-life gene interaction networks with novel update functions in a boolean model. We use two sub-networks of biological organisms, the yeast cell-cycle and the mouse embryonic stem cell, as topological support for our system. On these structures, we substitute the original random update functions by a novel threshold-based dynamic function in which the promoting and repressing effect of each interaction is considered. We use a third real-life regulatory network, along with its inferred boolean update functions to validate the proposed update function. Results of this validation hint to increased biological plausibility of the threshold-based function. To investigate the dynamical behavior of this new model, we visualized the phase transition between order and chaos into the critical regime using Derrida plots. We complement the qualitative nature of Derrida plots with an alternative measure, the criticality distance, that also allows to discriminate between regimes in a quantitative way. Simulation on both real-life genetic regulatory networks show that there exists a set of parameters that allows the systems to operate in the critical region. This new model includes experimentally derived biological information and recent discoveries, which makes it potentially useful to guide experimental research. The update function confers additional realism to the model, while reducing the complexity

  1. Additive Functions in Boolean Models of Gene Regulatory Network Modules

    PubMed Central

    Darabos, Christian; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Tomassini, Marco; Moore, Jason H.; Provero, Paolo; Giacobini, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Gene-on-gene regulations are key components of every living organism. Dynamical abstract models of genetic regulatory networks help explain the genome's evolvability and robustness. These properties can be attributed to the structural topology of the graph formed by genes, as vertices, and regulatory interactions, as edges. Moreover, the actual gene interaction of each gene is believed to play a key role in the stability of the structure. With advances in biology, some effort was deployed to develop update functions in Boolean models that include recent knowledge. We combine real-life gene interaction networks with novel update functions in a Boolean model. We use two sub-networks of biological organisms, the yeast cell-cycle and the mouse embryonic stem cell, as topological support for our system. On these structures, we substitute the original random update functions by a novel threshold-based dynamic function in which the promoting and repressing effect of each interaction is considered. We use a third real-life regulatory network, along with its inferred Boolean update functions to validate the proposed update function. Results of this validation hint to increased biological plausibility of the threshold-based function. To investigate the dynamical behavior of this new model, we visualized the phase transition between order and chaos into the critical regime using Derrida plots. We complement the qualitative nature of Derrida plots with an alternative measure, the criticality distance, that also allows to discriminate between regimes in a quantitative way. Simulation on both real-life genetic regulatory networks show that there exists a set of parameters that allows the systems to operate in the critical region. This new model includes experimentally derived biological information and recent discoveries, which makes it potentially useful to guide experimental research. The update function confers additional realism to the model, while reducing the complexity

  2. WATEQ3 geochemical model: thermodynamic data for several additional solids

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.

    1982-09-01

    Geochemical models such as WATEQ3 can be used to model the concentrations of water-soluble pollutants that may result from the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. However, for a model to competently deal with these water-soluble pollutants, an adequate thermodynamic data base must be provided that includes elements identified as important in modeling these pollutants. To this end, several minerals and related solid phases were identified that were absent from the thermodynamic data base of WATEQ3. In this study, the thermodynamic data for the identified solids were compiled and selected from several published tabulations of thermodynamic data. For these solids, an accepted Gibbs free energy of formation, ..delta..G/sup 0//sub f,298/, was selected for each solid phase based on the recentness of the tabulated data and on considerations of internal consistency with respect to both the published tabulations and the existing data in WATEQ3. For those solids not included in these published tabulations, Gibbs free energies of formation were calculated from published solubility data (e.g., lepidocrocite), or were estimated (e.g., nontronite) using a free-energy summation method described by Mattigod and Sposito (1978). The accepted or estimated free energies were then combined with internally consistent, ancillary thermodynamic data to calculate equilibrium constants for the hydrolysis reactions of these minerals and related solid phases. Including these values in the WATEQ3 data base increased the competency of this geochemical model in applications associated with the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. Additional minerals and related solid phases that need to be added to the solubility submodel will be identified as modeling applications continue in these two programs.

  3. An Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Model with Temperature and Nozzle Aspect Ratio Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    An empirical model for jet-surface interaction (JSI) noise produced by a round jet near a flat plate is described and the resulting model evaluated. The model covers unheated and hot jet conditions (1 less than or equal to jet total temperature ratio less than or equal to 2.7) in the subsonic range (0.5 less than or equal to M(sub a) less than or equal to 0.9), surface lengths 0.6 less than or equal to (axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)/nozzle exit diameter) less than or equal to 10, and surface standoff distances (0 less than or equal to (radial distance from jet lipline to surface (inches)/axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)) less than or equal to 1) using only second-order polynomials to provide predictable behavior. The JSI noise model is combined with an existing jet mixing noise model to produce exhaust noise predictions. Fit quality metrics and comparisons to between the predicted and experimental data indicate that the model is suitable for many system level studies. A first-order correction to the JSI source model that accounts for the effect of nozzle aspect ratio is also explored. This correction is based on changes to the potential core length and frequency scaling associated with rectangular nozzles up to 8:1 aspect ratio. However, more work is needed to refine these findings into a formal model.

  4. Statistics of a leaky integrate-and-fire model of neurons driven by dichotomous noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, Romi; Lumi, Neeme

    2016-05-01

    The behavior of a stochastic leaky integrate-and-fire model of neurons is considered. The effect of temporally correlated random neuronal input is modeled as a colored two-level (dichotomous) Markovian noise. Relying on the Riemann method, exact expressions for the output interspike interval density and for the serial correlation coefficient are derived, and their dependence on noise parameters (such as correlation time and amplitude) is analyzed. Particularly, noise-induced sign reversal and a resonancelike amplification of the kurtosis of the interspike interval distribution are established. The features of spike statistics, analytically revealed in our study, are compared with recently obtained results for a perfect integrate-and-fire neuron model.

  5. Statistics of a leaky integrate-and-fire model of neurons driven by dichotomous noise.

    PubMed

    Mankin, Romi; Lumi, Neeme

    2016-05-01

    The behavior of a stochastic leaky integrate-and-fire model of neurons is considered. The effect of temporally correlated random neuronal input is modeled as a colored two-level (dichotomous) Markovian noise. Relying on the Riemann method, exact expressions for the output interspike interval density and for the serial correlation coefficient are derived, and their dependence on noise parameters (such as correlation time and amplitude) is analyzed. Particularly, noise-induced sign reversal and a resonancelike amplification of the kurtosis of the interspike interval distribution are established. The features of spike statistics, analytically revealed in our study, are compared with recently obtained results for a perfect integrate-and-fire neuron model.

  6. Modeling Barkhausen Noise in magnetic glasses with dipole-dipole interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Awadhesh K.; Hentschel, H. George E.; Jaiswal, Prabhat K.; Mondal, Chandana; Procaccia, Itamar; Gupta, Bhaskar Sen

    2015-10-01

    Long-ranged dipole-dipole interactions in magnetic glasses give rise to magnetic domains having labyrinthine patterns on the scale of about 1 micron. Barkhausen Noise then results from the movement of domain boundaries which is modeled by the motion of elastic membranes with random pinning. Here we propose that on the nanoscale new sources of Barkhausen Noise can arise. We propose an atomistic model of magnetic glasses in which we measure the Barkhausen Noise which results from the creation of new domains and the movement of domain boundaries on the nanoscale. The statistics of the Barkhausen Noise found in our simulations is in striking disagreement with the expectations in the literature. In fact we find exponential statistics without any power law, stressing the fact that Barkhausen Noise can belong to very different universality classes. In the present model the essence of the phenomenon is the fact that the spin response Green's function is decaying too rapidly for having sufficiently large magnetic jumps. A theory is offered in excellent agreement with the measured data without any free parameter.

  7. A survey of models for the prediction of ambient ocean noise: Circa 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The state of the art of model development for application to computer studies of undersea search systems utilizing acoustics is surveyed in this document. Due to the demands for surveillance of submarines operating in ocean basins, the development of noise models for application in deep oceans is fairly advanced and somewhat generic. This is due to the deep sound channel, discovered during World War II, which when present allows for long-range sound propagation with little or no interaction with the bottom. Exceptions to this channel, also well understood, are found in both the high latitudes where the sound is upward refracting and in tropical ocean areas with downward refracting sound transmission. The controlling parameter is the sound speed as a function of depth within the ocean, the sound speed profile. When independent of range, this profile may be converted to a noise-versus-depth profile with well-validated consequences for deep-ocean ambient noise. When considering ocean areas of shallow water, the littoral regions, the idea of a genenic ocean channel advisedly is abandoned. The locally unique nature of both the noise production mechanisms and of the channel carrying the sound, obviates the generic treatment. Nevertheless, idealizations of this case exist and promote the understanding if not the exact predictability of the statistics of shallow water ambient noise. Some examples of these models are given in this document.

  8. Direct estimation and correction of bias from temporally variable non-stationary noise in a channelized Hotelling model observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A.; Favazza, Christopher P.

    2016-08-01

    of bias in Hotelling model observers due to temporally variable non-stationary noise and correct this bias when the temporally variable non-stationary noise is independent and additive with respect to the test object signal.

  9. Direct estimation and correction of bias from temporally variable non-stationary noise in a channelized Hotelling model observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A.; Favazza, Christopher P.

    2016-08-01

    in Hotelling model observers due to temporally variable non-stationary noise and correct this bias when the temporally variable non-stationary noise is independent and additive with respect to the test object signal.

  10. Direct estimation and correction of bias from temporally variable non-stationary noise in a channelized Hotelling model observer.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Favazza, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    presence of bias in Hotelling model observers due to temporally variable non-stationary noise and correct this bias when the temporally variable non-stationary noise is independent and additive with respect to the test object signal.

  11. Dispersion modelling approaches for near road applications involving noise barriers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The talk will present comparisons with two datasets of the barrier algorithms implemented in two different dispersion models: US EPA’s R-LINE (a research dispersion modelling tool under development by the US EPA’s Office of Research and Development) and CERC’s A...

  12. [Critical of the additive model of the randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Boussageon, Rémy; Gueyffier, François; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Felden-Dominiak, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are currently the best way to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of drugs. Its methodology relies on the method of difference (John Stuart Mill), through which the observed difference between two groups (drug vs placebo) can be attributed to the pharmacological effect of the drug being tested. However, this additive model can be questioned in the event of statistical interactions between the pharmacological and the placebo effects. Evidence in different domains has shown that the placebo effect can influence the effect of the active principle. This article evaluates the methodological, clinical and epistemological consequences of this phenomenon. Topics treated include extrapolating results, accounting for heterogeneous results, demonstrating the existence of several factors in the placebo effect, the necessity to take these factors into account for given symptoms or pathologies, as well as the problem of the "specific" effect.

  13. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2014-01-01

    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  14. Noise tests of a model engine-over-the-wing STOL configuration using a multijet nozzle with deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W. A.; Friedman, R.

    1973-01-01

    Noise data were obtained with a small scale model stationary STOL configuration that used an eight lobe mixer nozzle with deflector mounted above a 32-cm-chord wing section. The factors varied to determine their effect upon the noise were wing flap angle, nozzle shape, nozzle location, deflector configuration, and jet velocity. The noise from the mixer nozzle model was compared to the noise from a model using a circular nozzle of the same area. The mixer nozzle model was quieter at the low to middle frequencies, while the circular nozzle was quieter at high frequencies. The perceived noise level (PNL) was calculated for an aircraft 10 times larger than the model. The PNL at 500 feet for the mixer nozzle turned out to be within 1 db of the PNL for the circular nozzle. For some configurations at highly directional broadband noise, which could be eliminated by changes in nozzle and/or deflector location, occurred below the wing.

  15. Aerodynamic Performance of Scale-Model Turbofan Outlet Guide Vanes Designed for Low Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on an understanding of the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine. In order to more fully understand the physics of noise in a turbofan engine, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test programs was conducted called the 'Source Diagnostic Test.' The text was cooperative effort between NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines, as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. A 1/5-scale model simulator representing the bypass stage of a current technology high bypass ratio turbofan engine was used in the test. The test article consisted of the bypass fan and outlet guide vanes in a flight-type nacelle. The fan used was a medium pressure ratio design with 22 individual, wide chord blades. Three outlet guide vane design configurations were investigated, representing a 54-vane radial Baseline configuration, a 26-vane radial, wide chord Low Count configuration and a 26-vane, wide chord Low Noise configuration with 30 deg of aft sweep. The test was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9 by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities simulating the takeoff and approach phases of the aircraft flight envelope. The Source Diagnostic Test had several acoustic and aerodynamic technical objectives: (1) establish the performance of a scale model fan selected to represent the current technology turbofan product; (2) assess the performance of the fan stage with each of the three distinct outlet guide vane designs; (3) determine the effect of the outlet guide vane configuration on the fan baseline performance; and (4) conduct detailed flowfield diagnostic surveys, both acoustic and aerodynamic, to characterize and understand the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan engine. This paper addresses the fan and stage aerodynamic performance results from the Source Diagnostic Test.

  16. Atmospheric Weather Noise Characteristics in 20th Century Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colfescu, Ioana; Schneider, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    The statistical characteristics of the atmospheric internal variability (hereafter weather noise) for surface pressure (PS) in 20th century simulations of a coupled general circulation model are documented. The weather noise is determined from post-industrial (1871-1998) Community Climate System Model 3 simulations by removing the SST and externally forced responses from the total fields.The forced responses are found from atmosphere-only simulations forced by the SST and external forcing of the coupled runs. The spatial patterns of the main modes of weather noise variability of the noise are found for boreal winter and summer from empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses performed globally, and for various regions, including the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and the equatorial Pacific. The temporal characteristics of the modes are illustrated by power spectra and probability density functions (PDF) of the principal components (PC). Our findings show that, for two different realizations of weather noise, the variability is dominated by large scale spatial structures of the weather noise that resemble observed patterns, and that their relative amplitudes in the CGCM and AGCM simulations are very similar. The regional expression of the seasonally dependent AO-like or AAO-like dominant global pattern is also found in the regional analyses, giving similar PCs. The PCs in the CGCM and the corresponding SST forced AGCM simulations are uncorrelated, but the spectra and PDFs of the CGCM and AGCM PCs are similar. The temporal structures of the PCs are white at timescales larger than few months, so that these modes can be thought of as stochastic forcings (in time) for the climate system. The PDFs of the weather noise PCs are not statistically distinguishable from Gaussian distributions with the same standard deviation. The PDFs do not change substantially between the first and second half of the 20th century.

  17. High-fidelity Simulation of Jet Noise from Rectangular Nozzles . [Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model for Noise Reduction in Advanced Jet Engines and Automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    This Phase II project validated a state-of-the-art LES model, coupled with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) far-field acoustic solver, to support the development of advanced engine concepts. These concepts include innovative flow control strategies to attenuate jet noise emissions. The end-to-end LES/ FW-H noise prediction model was demonstrated and validated by applying it to rectangular nozzle designs with a high aspect ratio. The model also was validated against acoustic and flow-field data from a realistic jet-pylon experiment, thereby significantly advancing the state of the art for LES.

  18. An efficient feedback active noise control algorithm based on reduced-order linear predictive modeling of FMRI acoustic noise.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Govind; Milani, Ali A; Panahi, Issa M S; Briggs, Richard W

    2011-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acoustic noise exhibits an almost periodic nature (quasi-periodicity) due to the repetitive nature of currents in the gradient coils. Small changes occur in the waveform in consecutive periods due to the background noise and slow drifts in the electroacoustic transfer functions that map the gradient coil waveforms to the measured acoustic waveforms. The period depends on the number of slices per second, when echo planar imaging (EPI) sequencing is used. Linear predictability of fMRI acoustic noise has a direct effect on the performance of active noise control (ANC) systems targeted to cancel the acoustic noise. It is shown that by incorporating some samples from the previous period, very high linear prediction accuracy can be reached with a very low order predictor. This has direct implications on feedback ANC systems since their performance is governed by the predictability of the acoustic noise to be cancelled. The low complexity linear prediction of fMRI acoustic noise developed in this paper is used to derive an effective and low-cost feedback ANC system.

  19. A critical review of noise production models for turbulent, gas-fueled burners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The combustion noise literature for the period between 1952 and early 1984 is critically reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on past theoretical and semi-empirical attempts to predict or explain observed direct combustion noise characteristics of turbulent, gas-fueled burners; works involving liquid-fueled burners are reviewed only when ideas equally applicable to gas-fueled burners are pesented. The historical development of the most important contemporary direct combustion noise theories is traced, and the theories themselves are compared and criticized. While most theories explain combustion noise production by turbulent flames in terms of randomly distributed acoustic monopoles produced by turbulent mixing of products and reactants, none is able to predict the sound pressure in the acoustic farfield of a practical burner because of the lack of a proven model which relates the combustion noise source strenght at a given frequency to the design and operating parameters of the burner. Recommendations are given for establishing a benchmark-quality data base needed to support the development of such a model.

  20. Spherical Deconvolution of Multichannel Diffusion MRI Data with Non-Gaussian Noise Models and Spatial Regularization.

    PubMed

    Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Daducci, Alessandro; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Aja-Fernández, Santiago; Radua, Joaquim; Yurramendi Mendizabal, Jesús M; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Melie-García, Lester; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Sarró, Salvador; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Salvador, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Spherical deconvolution (SD) methods are widely used to estimate the intra-voxel white-matter fiber orientations from diffusion MRI data. However, while some of these methods assume a zero-mean Gaussian distribution for the underlying noise, its real distribution is known to be non-Gaussian and to depend on many factors such as the number of coils and the methodology used to combine multichannel MRI signals. Indeed, the two prevailing methods for multichannel signal combination lead to noise patterns better described by Rician and noncentral Chi distributions. Here we develop a Robust and Unbiased Model-BAsed Spherical Deconvolution (RUMBA-SD) technique, intended to deal with realistic MRI noise, based on a Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm adapted to Rician and noncentral Chi likelihood models. To quantify the benefits of using proper noise models, RUMBA-SD was compared with dRL-SD, a well-established method based on the RL algorithm for Gaussian noise. Another aim of the study was to quantify the impact of including a total variation (TV) spatial regularization term in the estimation framework. To do this, we developed TV spatially-regularized versions of both RUMBA-SD and dRL-SD algorithms. The evaluation was performed by comparing various quality metrics on 132 three-dimensional synthetic phantoms involving different inter-fiber angles and volume fractions, which were contaminated with noise mimicking patterns generated by data processing in multichannel scanners. The results demonstrate that the inclusion of proper likelihood models leads to an increased ability to resolve fiber crossings with smaller inter-fiber angles and to better detect non-dominant fibers. The inclusion of TV regularization dramatically improved the resolution power of both techniques. The above findings were also verified in human brain data.

  1. Spherical Deconvolution of Multichannel Diffusion MRI Data with Non-Gaussian Noise Models and Spatial Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J.; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Aja-Fernández, Santiago; Radua, Joaquim; Yurramendi Mendizabal, Jesús M.; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Melie-García, Lester; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Sarró, Salvador; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Salvador, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Spherical deconvolution (SD) methods are widely used to estimate the intra-voxel white-matter fiber orientations from diffusion MRI data. However, while some of these methods assume a zero-mean Gaussian distribution for the underlying noise, its real distribution is known to be non-Gaussian and to depend on many factors such as the number of coils and the methodology used to combine multichannel MRI signals. Indeed, the two prevailing methods for multichannel signal combination lead to noise patterns better described by Rician and noncentral Chi distributions. Here we develop a Robust and Unbiased Model-BAsed Spherical Deconvolution (RUMBA-SD) technique, intended to deal with realistic MRI noise, based on a Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm adapted to Rician and noncentral Chi likelihood models. To quantify the benefits of using proper noise models, RUMBA-SD was compared with dRL-SD, a well-established method based on the RL algorithm for Gaussian noise. Another aim of the study was to quantify the impact of including a total variation (TV) spatial regularization term in the estimation framework. To do this, we developed TV spatially-regularized versions of both RUMBA-SD and dRL-SD algorithms. The evaluation was performed by comparing various quality metrics on 132 three-dimensional synthetic phantoms involving different inter-fiber angles and volume fractions, which were contaminated with noise mimicking patterns generated by data processing in multichannel scanners. The results demonstrate that the inclusion of proper likelihood models leads to an increased ability to resolve fiber crossings with smaller inter-fiber angles and to better detect non-dominant fibers. The inclusion of TV regularization dramatically improved the resolution power of both techniques. The above findings were also verified in human brain data. PMID:26470024

  2. Spherical Deconvolution of Multichannel Diffusion MRI Data with Non-Gaussian Noise Models and Spatial Regularization.

    PubMed

    Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Daducci, Alessandro; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Aja-Fernández, Santiago; Radua, Joaquim; Yurramendi Mendizabal, Jesús M; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Melie-García, Lester; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Sarró, Salvador; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Salvador, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Spherical deconvolution (SD) methods are widely used to estimate the intra-voxel white-matter fiber orientations from diffusion MRI data. However, while some of these methods assume a zero-mean Gaussian distribution for the underlying noise, its real distribution is known to be non-Gaussian and to depend on many factors such as the number of coils and the methodology used to combine multichannel MRI signals. Indeed, the two prevailing methods for multichannel signal combination lead to noise patterns better described by Rician and noncentral Chi distributions. Here we develop a Robust and Unbiased Model-BAsed Spherical Deconvolution (RUMBA-SD) technique, intended to deal with realistic MRI noise, based on a Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm adapted to Rician and noncentral Chi likelihood models. To quantify the benefits of using proper noise models, RUMBA-SD was compared with dRL-SD, a well-established method based on the RL algorithm for Gaussian noise. Another aim of the study was to quantify the impact of including a total variation (TV) spatial regularization term in the estimation framework. To do this, we developed TV spatially-regularized versions of both RUMBA-SD and dRL-SD algorithms. The evaluation was performed by comparing various quality metrics on 132 three-dimensional synthetic phantoms involving different inter-fiber angles and volume fractions, which were contaminated with noise mimicking patterns generated by data processing in multichannel scanners. The results demonstrate that the inclusion of proper likelihood models leads to an increased ability to resolve fiber crossings with smaller inter-fiber angles and to better detect non-dominant fibers. The inclusion of TV regularization dramatically improved the resolution power of both techniques. The above findings were also verified in human brain data. PMID:26470024

  3. Modeling and mitigating noise in graph and manifold representations of hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Can; Bachmann, Charles M.

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decade, manifold and graph representations of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) have been explored widely in HSI applications. There are a large number of data-driven approaches to deriving manifold coordinate representations including Isometric Mapping (ISOMAP)1, Local Linear Embedding (LLE)2, Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE)3, Diffusion Kernels (DK)4, and many related methods. Improvements to specific algorithms have been developed to ease computational burden or otherwise improve algorithm performance. For example, the best way to estimate the size of the locally linear neighborhoods used in graph construction have been addressed6 as well as the best method of linking the manifold representation with classifiers in applications. However, the problem of how to model and mitigate noise in manifold representations of hyperspectral imagery has not been well studied and remains a challenge for graph and manifold representations of hyperspectral imagery and their application. It is relatively easy to apply standard linear methods to remove noise from the data in advance of further processing, however, these approaches by and large treat the noise model in a global sense, using statistics derived from the entire data set and applying the results globally over the data set. Graph and manifold representations by their nature attempt to find an intrinsic representation of the local data structure, so it is natural to ask how can one best represent the noise model in a local sense. In this paper, we explore the approaches to modeling and mitigating noise at a local level, using manifold coordinates of local spectral subsets. The issue of landmark selection of the current landmark ISOMAP algorithm5 is addressed and a workflow is proposed to make use of manifold coordinates of local spectral subsets to make optimal landmark selection and minimize the effect of local noise.

  4. The twelfth Sir Richard Fairey memorial lecture: The annoyance due to road traffic noise, the mathematical modelling of such noise and the sound proofing of road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamure, C.

    1981-12-01

    The paper is divided into three parts illustrating three directions in traffic noise research. Studies on the effects of noise habitually involve surveys about people living close to highways, and these are discussed in the first part. There are still many difficulties in connecting the kinds and extent of disturbance people say they experience with traffic noise, but great hopes lie in the observation of behaviour. The accuracy in the descriptions of real exposure to noise becomes increasingly significant in the analyses of sleep disturbances. The bulk of the studies carried out so far has led to the definition of indices and thresholds for daytime disturbances but progress is still required in the field of night-time disturbances. The second part is about methods of prediction of traffic noise and some principles are recalled that tend to be overlooked in the current use of Leq. The use of other indices and studies on measure-accuracy would restore their significance to statistical approaches which must follow realistic laws of distribution of vehicle intervals and also of vehicle acoustical powers. Yet too much mathematical sophistication is often useless in common cases of application. The last part ddeals with noise reduction at source. Various prototypes of quiet trucks enable us to evaluate fairly correctly the costs and additional weights entailed by reductions of emissions of about 10 dB(A) when engines are encapsulated. The range of experiments on cars is not so wide but various operations in Europe are currently aiming at designing cars that would not emit more than 73-74 dB (instead of 80 dB(A) in the present regulations). Similarly, the methods and instrumentation to study engine noise have been greatly developed over the last five years. In conclusion it can be said that traffic noise has touched off widely diversified research involving various specialities. Metrology is comparatively less important than it used to be 15 years ago.

  5. Simulated masking of right whale sounds by shipping noise: incorporating a model of the auditory periphery.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kane A; Mountain, David C

    2014-03-01

    Many species of large, mysticete whales are known to produce low-frequency communication sounds. These low-frequency sounds are susceptible to communication masking by shipping noise, which also tends to be low frequency in nature. The size of these species makes behavioral assessment of auditory capabilities in controlled, captive environments nearly impossible, and field-based playback experiments are expensive and necessarily limited in scope. Hence, it is desirable to produce a masking model for these species that can aid in determining the potential effects of shipping and other anthropogenic noises on these protected animals. The aim of this study was to build a model that combines a sophisticated representation of the auditory periphery with a spectrogram-based decision stage to predict masking levels. The output of this model can then be combined with a habitat-appropriate propagation model to calculate the potential effects of noise on communication range. For this study, the model was tested on three common North Atlantic right whale communication sounds, both to demonstrate the method and to probe how shipping noise affects the detection of sounds with varying spectral and temporal characteristics.

  6. Jet Noise Modeling for Coannular Nozzles Including the Effects of Chevrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Development of good predictive models for jet noise has always been plagued by the difficulty in obtaining good quality data over a wide range of conditions in different facilities.We consider such issues very carefully in selecting data to be used in developing our model. Flight effects are of critical importance, and none of the means of determining them are without significant problems. Free-jet flight simulation facilities are very useful, and can provide meaningful data so long as they can be analytically transformed to the flight frame of reference. In this report we show that different methodologies used by NASA and industry to perform this transformation produce very different results, especially in the rear quadrant; this compels us to rely largely on static data to develop our model, but we show reasonable agreement with simulated flight data when these transformation issues are considered. A persistent problem in obtaining good quality data is noise generated in the experimental facility upstream of the test nozzle: valves, elbows, obstructions, and especially the combustor can contribute significant noise, and much of this noise is of a broadband nature, easily confused with jet noise. Muffling of these sources is costly in terms of size as well as expense, and it is particularly difficult in flight simulation facilities, where compactness of hardware is very important, as discussed by Viswanathan (Ref. 13). We feel that the effects of jet density on jet mixing noise may have been somewhat obscured by these problems, leading to the variable density exponent used in most jet noise prediction procedures including our own. We investigate this issue, applying Occam s razor, (e.g., Ref. 14), in a search for the simplest physically meaningful model that adequately describes the observed phenomena. In a similar vein, we see no reason to reject the Lighthill approach; it provides a very solid basis upon which to build a predictive procedure, as we believe we

  7. Power spectrum for inflation models with quantum and thermal noises

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Rudnei O.; Silva, L.A. da E-mail: las.leandro@gmail.com

    2013-03-01

    We determine the power spectrum for inflation models covering all regimes from cold (isentropic) to warm (nonisentropic) inflation. We work in the context of the stochastic inflation approach, which can nicely describe both types of inflationary regimes concomitantly. A throughout analysis is carried out to determine the allowed parameter space for simple single field polynomial chaotic inflation models that is consistent with the most recent cosmological data from the nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and in conjunction with other observational cosmological sources. We present the results for both the amplitude of the power spectrum, the spectral index and for the tensor to scalar curvature perturbation amplitude ratio. We briefly discuss cases when running is present. Despite single field polynomial-type inflaton potential models be strongly disfavored, or even be already ruled out in their simplest versions in the case of cold inflation, this is not the case for nonisentropic inflation models in general (warm inflation in particular), though higher order polynomial potentials (higher than quartic order) tend to become less favorable also in this case, presenting a much smaller region of parameter space compatible with the recent observational cosmological data.

  8. Identifying modeled ship noise hotspots for marine mammals of Canada's Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Williams, Rob; Sandilands, Doug; Ashe, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The inshore, continental shelf waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada are busy with ship traffic. South coast waters are heavily trafficked by ships using the ports of Vancouver and Seattle. North coast waters are less busy, but expected to get busier based on proposals for container port and liquefied natural gas development and expansion. Abundance estimates and density surface maps are available for 10 commonly seen marine mammals, including northern resident killer whales, fin whales, humpback whales, and other species with at-risk status under Canadian legislation. Ship noise is the dominant anthropogenic contributor to the marine soundscape of BC, and it is chronic. Underwater noise is now being considered in habitat quality assessments in some countries and in marine spatial planning. We modeled the propagation of underwater noise from ships and weighted the received levels by species-specific audiograms. We overlaid the audiogram-weighted maps of ship audibility with animal density maps. The result is a series of so-called "hotspot" maps of ship noise for all 10 marine mammal species, based on cumulative ship noise energy and average distribution in the boreal summer. South coast waters (Juan de Fuca and Haro Straits) are hotspots for all species that use the area, irrespective of their hearing sensitivity, simply due to ubiquitous ship traffic. Secondary hotspots were found on the central and north coasts (Johnstone Strait and the region around Prince Rupert). These maps can identify where anthropogenic noise is predicted to have above-average impact on species-specific habitat, and where mitigation measures may be most effective. This approach can guide effective mitigation without requiring fleet-wide modification in sites where no animals are present or where the area is used by species that are relatively insensitive to ship noise. PMID:24598866

  9. Identifying Modeled Ship Noise Hotspots for Marine Mammals of Canada's Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Erbe, Christine; Williams, Rob; Sandilands, Doug; Ashe, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The inshore, continental shelf waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada are busy with ship traffic. South coast waters are heavily trafficked by ships using the ports of Vancouver and Seattle. North coast waters are less busy, but expected to get busier based on proposals for container port and liquefied natural gas development and expansion. Abundance estimates and density surface maps are available for 10 commonly seen marine mammals, including northern resident killer whales, fin whales, humpback whales, and other species with at-risk status under Canadian legislation. Ship noise is the dominant anthropogenic contributor to the marine soundscape of BC, and it is chronic. Underwater noise is now being considered in habitat quality assessments in some countries and in marine spatial planning. We modeled the propagation of underwater noise from ships and weighted the received levels by species-specific audiograms. We overlaid the audiogram-weighted maps of ship audibility with animal density maps. The result is a series of so-called “hotspot” maps of ship noise for all 10 marine mammal species, based on cumulative ship noise energy and average distribution in the boreal summer. South coast waters (Juan de Fuca and Haro Straits) are hotspots for all species that use the area, irrespective of their hearing sensitivity, simply due to ubiquitous ship traffic. Secondary hotspots were found on the central and north coasts (Johnstone Strait and the region around Prince Rupert). These maps can identify where anthropogenic noise is predicted to have above-average impact on species-specific habitat, and where mitigation measures may be most effective. This approach can guide effective mitigation without requiring fleet-wide modification in sites where no animals are present or where the area is used by species that are relatively insensitive to ship noise. PMID:24598866

  10. Identifying modeled ship noise hotspots for marine mammals of Canada's Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Williams, Rob; Sandilands, Doug; Ashe, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The inshore, continental shelf waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada are busy with ship traffic. South coast waters are heavily trafficked by ships using the ports of Vancouver and Seattle. North coast waters are less busy, but expected to get busier based on proposals for container port and liquefied natural gas development and expansion. Abundance estimates and density surface maps are available for 10 commonly seen marine mammals, including northern resident killer whales, fin whales, humpback whales, and other species with at-risk status under Canadian legislation. Ship noise is the dominant anthropogenic contributor to the marine soundscape of BC, and it is chronic. Underwater noise is now being considered in habitat quality assessments in some countries and in marine spatial planning. We modeled the propagation of underwater noise from ships and weighted the received levels by species-specific audiograms. We overlaid the audiogram-weighted maps of ship audibility with animal density maps. The result is a series of so-called "hotspot" maps of ship noise for all 10 marine mammal species, based on cumulative ship noise energy and average distribution in the boreal summer. South coast waters (Juan de Fuca and Haro Straits) are hotspots for all species that use the area, irrespective of their hearing sensitivity, simply due to ubiquitous ship traffic. Secondary hotspots were found on the central and north coasts (Johnstone Strait and the region around Prince Rupert). These maps can identify where anthropogenic noise is predicted to have above-average impact on species-specific habitat, and where mitigation measures may be most effective. This approach can guide effective mitigation without requiring fleet-wide modification in sites where no animals are present or where the area is used by species that are relatively insensitive to ship noise.

  11. Modeling random telegraph signal noise in CMOS image sensor under low light based on binomial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhang; Xinmiao, Lu; Guangyi, Wang; Yongcai, Hu; Jiangtao, Xu

    2016-07-01

    The random telegraph signal noise in the pixel source follower MOSFET is the principle component of the noise in the CMOS image sensor under low light. In this paper, the physical and statistical model of the random telegraph signal noise in the pixel source follower based on the binomial distribution is set up. The number of electrons captured or released by the oxide traps in the unit time is described as the random variables which obey the binomial distribution. As a result, the output states and the corresponding probabilities of the first and the second samples of the correlated double sampling circuit are acquired. The standard deviation of the output states after the correlated double sampling circuit can be obtained accordingly. In the simulation section, one hundred thousand samples of the source follower MOSFET have been simulated, and the simulation results show that the proposed model has the similar statistical characteristics with the existing models under the effect of the channel length and the density of the oxide trap. Moreover, the noise histogram of the proposed model has been evaluated at different environmental temperatures. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61372156 and 61405053) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province of China (Grant No. LZ13F04001).

  12. Investigation of the Jet Noise Prediction Theory and Application Utilizing the PAO Formulation. [mathematical model for calculating noise radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Application of the Phillips theory to engineering calculations of rocket and high speed jet noise radiation is reported. Presented are a detailed derivation of the theory, the composition of the numerical scheme, and discussions of the practical problems arising in the application of the present noise prediction method. The present method still contains some empirical elements, yet it provides a unified approach in the prediction of sound power, spectrum, and directivity.

  13. Wind Turbine Noise Propagation Modelling: An Unsteady Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlas, E.; Zhu, W. J.; Shen, W. Z.; Andersen, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine sound generation and propagation phenomena are inherently time dependent, hence tools that incorporate the dynamic nature of these two issues are needed for accurate modelling. In this paper, we investigate the sound propagation from a wind turbine by considering the effects of unsteady flow around it and time dependent source characteristics. For the acoustics modelling we employ the Parabolic Equation (PE) method while Large Eddy Simulation (LES) as well as synthetically generated turbulence fields are used to generate the medium flow upon which sound propagates. Unsteady acoustic simulations are carried out for three incoming wind shear and various turbulence intensities, using a moving source approach to mimic the rotating turbine blades. The focus of the present paper is to study the near and far field amplitude modulation characteristics and time evolution of Sound Pressure Level (SPL).

  14. Numerical Verification of an Analytical Model for Phase Noise in MEMS Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, D K; Bizzarri, F; Brambilla, A; Seshia, A A

    2016-08-01

    A new analytical formulation for phase noise in MEMS oscillators was recently presented encompassing the role of essential nonlinearities in the electrical and mechanical domains. In this paper, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed analytical formulation with respect to the unified theory developed by Demir et al. describing phase noise in oscillators. In particular, it is shown that, over a range of the second-order mechanical nonlinear stiffness of the MEMS resonator, both models exhibit an excellent match in the phase diffusion coefficient calculation for a square-wave MEMS oscillator. PMID:27295660

  15. Image reconstruction with noise and error modelling in quantitative photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, Tanja; Pulkkinen, Aki; Cox, Ben T.; Kaipio, Jari P.; Arridge, Simon R.

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative photoacoustic tomography is an emerging imaging technique aimed at estimating the optical parameters inside tissue from photoacoustic images. The method proceeds from photoacoustic tomography by taking the estimated initial pressure distributions as data and estimating the absolute values of the optical parameters. Therefore, both the data and the noise of the second (optical) inverse problem are affected by the method applied to solve the first (acoustic) inverse problem. In this work, the Bayesian approach for quantitative photoacoustic tomography is taken. Modelling of noise and errors and incorporating their statistics into the solution of the inverse problem are investigated.

  16. Numerical Verification of an Analytical Model for Phase Noise in MEMS Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, D K; Bizzarri, F; Brambilla, A; Seshia, A A

    2016-08-01

    A new analytical formulation for phase noise in MEMS oscillators was recently presented encompassing the role of essential nonlinearities in the electrical and mechanical domains. In this paper, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed analytical formulation with respect to the unified theory developed by Demir et al. describing phase noise in oscillators. In particular, it is shown that, over a range of the second-order mechanical nonlinear stiffness of the MEMS resonator, both models exhibit an excellent match in the phase diffusion coefficient calculation for a square-wave MEMS oscillator.

  17. Modeling the acoustical characteristics of silencers for suppressing noise from a gas-turbine unit compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Yablonik, L. R.

    2010-02-01

    An acoustic model constructed for silencers of noise from the air intake paths of gas-turbine units is proposed, which correlates indicators characterizing the effectiveness of noise suppression with dimension-less parameters that depend on linear dimensions of the construction, current frequency of sound, as well as factors characterizing the properties of working medium and sound-absorbing material. Universal acoustic characteristics of extended dissipative plate silencers filled with a fibrous sound absorber are constructed. The influence of protective fabric coating on the sound-proofing properties of silencers is analyzed.

  18. Modeling the effect of transcriptional noise on switching in gene networks in a genetic bistable switch.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Srabanti

    2015-06-01

    Gene regulatory networks in cells allow transitions between gene expression states under the influence of both intrinsic and extrinsic noise. Here we introduce a new theoretical method to study the dynamics of switching in a two-state gene expression model with positive feedback by explicitly accounting for the transcriptional noise. Within this theoretical framework, we employ a semi-classical path integral technique to calculate the mean switching time starting from either an active or inactive promoter state. Our analytical predictions are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations and experimental observations.

  19. Low-frequency noise in bare SOI wafers: Experiments and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirro, L.; Ionica, I.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2016-11-01

    Low-frequency noise (LFN) measurements are largely used for interface quality characterization in MOSFETs. In this work, a detailed investigation of LFN technique applied to pseudo-MOSFETs in bare silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates is provided. A physical model capable to describe the experimental results is proposed and validated using different die areas and inter-probe distances. The effective silicon area contributing to the noise signal, the impact of defects induced by probes and the possibility to extract interface trap density are addressed.

  20. A simple model to determine multiplication and noise in avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, D. S.; Li, K. F.; Rees, G. J.; David, J. P. R.; Robson, P. N.

    1998-03-01

    Avalanche multiplication and noise in 1.0, 0.5, 0.1, and 0.05 μm GaAs p+-i-n+ diodes have been calculated for both electron and hole initiated multiplication using a simple model which incorporates a randomly-generated ionization path length (RPL) and a hard-threshold dead space. We find that the mean multiplication obtained using this RPL model is in excellent agreement, even for the shortest structure, with that obtained from an analytical-band structure Monte Carlo (MC) model, which incorporates soft-threshold effects. However, it predicts slightly lower avalanche noise in the shorter devices. This difference results from the narrower ionization path length probability distribution and larger dead space of the hard-threshold RPL model at high electric fields as compared to the more realistic distribution function associated with the relatively sophisticated MC model.

  1. Empirical Models for the Shielding and Reflection of Jet Mixing Noise by a Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Empirical models for the shielding and refection of jet mixing noise by a nearby surface are described and the resulting models evaluated. The flow variables are used to non-dimensionalize the surface position variables, reducing the variable space and producing models that are linear function of non-dimensional surface position and logarithmic in Strouhal frequency. A separate set of coefficients are determined at each observer angle in the dataset and linear interpolation is used to for the intermediate observer angles. The shielding and rejection models are then combined with existing empirical models for the jet mixing and jet-surface interaction noise sources to produce predicted spectra for a jet operating near a surface. These predictions are then evaluated against experimental data.

  2. Empirical Models for the Shielding and Reflection of Jet Mixing Noise by a Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical models for the shielding and reflection of jet mixing noise by a nearby surface are described and the resulting models evaluated. The flow variables are used to non-dimensionalize the surface position variables, reducing the variable space and producing models that are linear function of non-dimensional surface position and logarithmic in Strouhal frequency. A separate set of coefficients are determined at each observer angle in the dataset and linear interpolation is used to for the intermediate observer angles. The shielding and reflection models are then combined with existing empirical models for the jet mixing and jet-surface interaction noise sources to produce predicted spectra for a jet operating near a surface. These predictions are then evaluated against experimental data.

  3. Noise Suppression Based on Multi-Model Compositions Using Multi-Pass Search with Multi-Label N-gram Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitsuhiro, Takatoshi; Toriyama, Tomoji; Kogure, Kiyoshi

    We propose a noise suppression method based on multi-model compositions and multi-pass search. In real environments, input speech for speech recognition includes many kinds of noise signals. To obtain good recognized candidates, suppressing many kinds of noise signals at once and finding target speech is important. Before noise suppression, to find speech and noise label sequences, we introduce multi-pass search with acoustic models including many kinds of noise models and their compositions, their n-gram models, and their lexicon. Noise suppression is frame-synchronously performed using the multiple models selected by recognized label sequences with time alignments. We evaluated this method using the E-Nightingale task, which contains voice memoranda spoken by nurses during actual work at hospitals. The proposed method obtained higher performance than the conventional method.

  4. Multilevel modelling of aircraft noise on performance tests in schools around Heathrow Airport London

    PubMed Central

    Haines, M; Stansfeld, S; Head, J; Job, R

    2002-01-01

    Design: This is a cross sectional study using the National Standardised Scores (SATs) in mathematics, science, and English (11 000 scores from children aged 11 years). The analyses used multilevel modelling to determine the effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on childrens' school performance adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and school factors in 123 primary schools around Heathrow Airport. Schools were assigned aircraft noise exposure level from the 1994 Civil Aviation Authority aircraft noise contour maps. Setting: Primary schools. Participants: The sample were approximately 11 000 children in year 6 (approximately 11 years old) from 123 schools in the three boroughs surrounding Heathrow Airport. Main results: Chronic exposure to aircraft noise was significantly related to poorer reading and mathematics performance. After adjustment for the average socioeconomic status of the school intake (measured by percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals) these associations were no longer statistically significant. Conclusions: Chronic exposure to aircraft noise is associated with school performance in reading and mathematics in a dose-response function but this association is confounded by socioeconomic factors. PMID:11812814

  5. Static and wind tunnel model tests for the development of externally blown flap noise reduction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennock, A. P.; Swift, G.; Marbert, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Externally blown flap models were tested for noise and performance at one-fifth scale in a static facility and at one-tenth scale in a large acoustically-treated wind tunnel. The static tests covered two flap designs, conical and ejector nozzles, third-flap noise-reduction treatments, internal blowing, and flap/nozzle geometry variations. The wind tunnel variables were triple-slotted or single-slotted flaps, sweep angle, and solid or perforated third flap. The static test program showed the following noise reductions at takeoff: 1.5 PNdB due to treating the third flap; 0.5 PNdB due to blowing from the third flap; 6 PNdB at flyover and 4.5 PNdB in the critical sideline plane (30 deg elevation) due to installation of the ejector nozzle. The wind tunnel program showed a reduction of 2 PNdB in the sideline plane due to a forward speed of 43.8 m/s (85 kn). The best combination of noise reduction concepts reduced the sideline noise of the reference aircraft at constant field length by 4 PNdB.

  6. Signal-to-noise performance analysis of streak tube imaging lidar systems. I. Cascaded model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongru; Wu, Lei; Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Chao; Yu, Bing; Yang, Bin; Yuan, Liang; Wu, Lipeng; Xue, Zhanli; Li, Gaoping; Wu, Baoning

    2012-12-20

    Streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) is an active imaging system using a pulsed laser transmitter and a streak tube receiver to produce 3D range and intensity imagery. The STIL has recently attracted a great deal of interest and attention due to its advantages of wide azimuth field-of-view, high range and angle resolution, and high frame rate. This work investigates the signal-to-noise performance of STIL systems. A theoretical model for characterizing the signal-to-noise performance of the STIL system with an internal or external intensified streak tube receiver is presented, based on the linear cascaded systems theory of signal and noise propagation. The STIL system is decomposed into a series of cascaded imaging chains whose signal and noise transfer properties are described by the general (or the spatial-frequency dependent) noise factors (NFs). Expressions for the general NFs of the cascaded chains (or the main components) in the STIL system are derived. The work presented here is useful for the design and evaluation of STIL systems.

  7. Signal-to-noise performance analysis of streak tube imaging lidar systems. I. Cascaded model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongru; Wu, Lei; Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Chao; Yu, Bing; Yang, Bin; Yuan, Liang; Wu, Lipeng; Xue, Zhanli; Li, Gaoping; Wu, Baoning

    2012-12-20

    Streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) is an active imaging system using a pulsed laser transmitter and a streak tube receiver to produce 3D range and intensity imagery. The STIL has recently attracted a great deal of interest and attention due to its advantages of wide azimuth field-of-view, high range and angle resolution, and high frame rate. This work investigates the signal-to-noise performance of STIL systems. A theoretical model for characterizing the signal-to-noise performance of the STIL system with an internal or external intensified streak tube receiver is presented, based on the linear cascaded systems theory of signal and noise propagation. The STIL system is decomposed into a series of cascaded imaging chains whose signal and noise transfer properties are described by the general (or the spatial-frequency dependent) noise factors (NFs). Expressions for the general NFs of the cascaded chains (or the main components) in the STIL system are derived. The work presented here is useful for the design and evaluation of STIL systems. PMID:23262622

  8. Model studies of surface noise interference in ground-probing radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, S. A.; Delaney, A. J.

    1985-11-01

    Ground-probing radar can be an effective tool for exploring the top 10 to 20 m of ground, especially in cold regions where the freezing of water decreases signal absorption. However, the large electrical variability of the surface, combined with the short wavelengths used, can often cause severe ground clutter that can mask a desired, deeper return. In this study a model facility was constructed consisting of a metallic reflector covered by sand. Troughs of saturated sand were emplaced at the surface to carry surface electrical properties and to act as a noise source to interfere with the bottom reflections. Antenna polarization and height, and signal stacking in both static (antennas stationary) and dynamic (antennas moving) modes were then investigated as methods for reducing the surface clutter. Polarization parallel to the profile direction (perpendicular to the troughs' axes) gave profiles superior to the perpendicular case because of the dimensional sensitivity of the antenna radiation. Dynamic stacking greatly improved the signal-to-noise ratio because noise sources were averaged as the antennas moved, while the desired reflector, buried at constant depth, was enhanced. Raising the antennas above the surface also reduced noise because the surface area over which reflections were integrated increased. All three noise reduction techniques could be effective in surveys for reflectors at nearly constant depth such as groundwater tables or ice/water interfaces.

  9. A model and plan for a longitudinal study of community response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.; Patterson, H. P.; Cornog, J.; Klaus, P.; Connor, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    A new approach is discussed for the study of the effects of aircraft noise on people who live near large airports. The approach was an outgrowth of a planned study of the reactions of individuals exposed to changing aircraft noise conditions around the Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW) regional airport. The rationale, concepts, and methods employed in the study are discussed. A critical review of major past studies traces the history of community response research in an effort to identify strengths and limitations of the various approaches and methodologies. A stress-reduction model is presented to provide a framework for studying the dynamics of human response to a changing noise environment. The development of the survey instrument is detailed, and preliminary results of pretest data are discussed.

  10. Restoring the encoding properties of a stochastic neuron model by an exogenous noise

    PubMed Central

    Paffi, Alessandra; Camera, Francesca; Apollonio, Francesca; d'Inzeo, Guglielmo; Liberti, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Here we evaluate the possibility of improving the encoding properties of an impaired neuronal system by superimposing an exogenous noise to an external electric stimulation signal. The approach is based on the use of mathematical neuron models consisting of stochastic HH-like circuit, where the impairment of the endogenous presynaptic inputs is described as a subthreshold injected current and the exogenous stimulation signal is a sinusoidal voltage perturbation across the membrane. Our results indicate that a correlated Gaussian noise, added to the sinusoidal signal can significantly increase the encoding properties of the impaired system, through the Stochastic Resonance (SR) phenomenon. These results suggest that an exogenous noise, suitably tailored, could improve the efficacy of those stimulation techniques used in neuronal systems, where the presynaptic sensory neurons are impaired and have to be artificially bypassed. PMID:25999845

  11. A full-spectrum 3D noise-based infrared imaging sensor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richwine, Robert; Sood, Ashok; Puri, Yash; Heckathorn, Harry; Wilson, Larry; Goldspiel, Jules

    2006-08-01

    This model was developed in matlab with I/O links to excel spreadsheets to add realistic and accurate sensor effects to scene generator or actual sensor/camera images. The model imports scene generator or sensor images, converts these radiance images into electron maps and digital count maps, and modifies these images in accordance with user-defined sensor characteristics such as the response map, the detector dark current map, defective pixel maps, and 3-D noise (temporal and spatial noise). The model provides realistic line-of-sight motion and accurate and dynamic PSF blurring of the images. The sensor model allows for the import of raw nonuniformities in dark current and photoresponse, performs a user-defined two-point nonuniformity correction to calculate gain and offset terms and applies these terms to subsequent scene images. Some of the model's capabilities include the ability to fluctuate or ramp FPA and optics temperatures, or modify the PSF on a frame-by-frame basis. The model also functions as an FPA/sensor performance predictor and an FPA data analysis tool as FPA data frames can be input into the 3-D noise evaluation section of the model. The model was developed to produce realistic infrared images for IR sensors.

  12. Image simulation and a model of noise power spectra across a range of mammographic beam qualities

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, Alistair Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Diaz, Oliver

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to create a model to predict the noise power spectra (NPS) for a range of mammographic radiographic factors. The noise model was necessary to degrade images acquired on one system to match the image quality of different systems for a range of beam qualities. Methods: Five detectors and x-ray systems [Hologic Selenia (ASEh), Carestream computed radiography CR900 (CRc), GE Essential (CSI), Carestream NIP (NIPc), and Siemens Inspiration (ASEs)] were characterized for this study. The signal transfer property was measured as the pixel value against absorbed energy per unit area (E) at a reference beam quality of 28 kV, Mo/Mo or 29 kV, W/Rh with 45 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) at the tube head. The contributions of the three noise sources (electronic, quantum, and structure) to the NPS were calculated by fitting a quadratic at each spatial frequency of the NPS against E. A quantum noise correction factor which was dependent on beam quality was quantified using a set of images acquired over a range of radiographic factors with different thicknesses of PMMA. The noise model was tested for images acquired at 26 kV, Mo/Mo with 20 mm PMMA and 34 kV, Mo/Rh with 70 mm PMMA for three detectors (ASEh, CRc, and CSI) over a range of exposures. The NPS were modeled with and without the noise correction factor and compared with the measured NPS. A previous method for adapting an image to appear as if acquired on a different system was modified to allow the reference beam quality to be different from the beam quality of the image. The method was validated by adapting the ASEh flat field images with two thicknesses of PMMA (20 and 70 mm) to appear with the imaging characteristics of the CSI and CRc systems. Results: The quantum noise correction factor rises with higher beam qualities, except for CR systems at high spatial frequencies, where a flat response was found against mean photon energy. This is due to the dominance of secondary quantum noise

  13. A semi-analytical model for the prediction of underwater noise from offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2013-06-01

    Underwater noise from offshore pile driving gained considerable attention in recent years mainly due to the large scale construction of offshore wind farms. The most common foundation type of a wind turbine is a monopile, upon which the wind tower rests. The pile is driven into place with the help of hydraulic hammers. During the hammering of the pile, high levels of noise are generated which are known to produce deleterious effects on both mammals and fish. In this work, a linear semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the levels of underwater noise for a wide range of system parameters. The model incorporates all major parts of the system. The hydraulic hammer is substituted by an external force, the pile is described as a thin circular cylindrical shell, the water is modelled as a compressible fluid and the water-saturated seabed is defined by distributed springs and dashpots in all directions. The solution of the coupled vibroacoustic problem is based on the representation of the response of the complete system on the modal basis of the in vacuo shell structure. The influence that the inter-modal coupling, the choice of the soil parameters and the acoustic impedance of the seabed have on the generated noise levels is studied in the frequency domain. Strong and weak points of the present model are discussed on the basis of a comparison with a set of available experimental data. The obtained results show the capability of the model to predict the underwater noise levels both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  14. The effects of noise on binocular rivalry waves: a stochastic neural field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Matthew A.; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the effects of extrinsic noise on traveling waves of visual perception in a competitive neural field model of binocular rivalry. The model consists of two one-dimensional excitatory neural fields, whose activity variables represent the responses to left-eye and right-eye stimuli, respectively. The two networks mutually inhibit each other, and slow adaptation is incorporated into the model by taking the network connections to exhibit synaptic depression. We first show how, in the absence of any noise, the system supports a propagating composite wave consisting of an invading activity front in one network co-moving with a retreating front in the other network. Using a separation of time scales and perturbation methods previously developed for stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, we then show how extrinsic noise in the activity variables leads to a diffusive-like displacement (wandering) of the composite wave from its uniformly translating position at long time scales, and fluctuations in the wave profile around its instantaneous position at short time scales. We use our analysis to calculate the first-passage-time distribution for a stochastic rivalry wave to travel a fixed distance, which we find to be given by an inverse Gaussian. Finally, we investigate the effects of noise in the depression variables, which under an adiabatic approximation lead to quenched disorder in the neural fields during propagation of a wave.

  15. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise: Scalability and parametric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  16. A first-principles model for estimating the prevalence of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Mestre, Vincent; Schomer, Paul; Berry, Bernard; Gjestland, Truls; Vallet, Michel; Reid, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Numerous relationships between noise exposure and transportation noise-induced annoyance have been inferred by curve-fitting methods. The present paper develops a different approach. It derives a systematic relationship by applying an a priori, first-principles model to the findings of forty three studies of the annoyance of aviation noise. The rate of change of annoyance with day-night average sound level (DNL) due to aircraft noise exposure was found to closely resemble the rate of change of loudness with sound level. The agreement of model predictions with the findings of recent curve-fitting exercises (cf. Miedma and Vos, 1998) is noteworthy, considering that other analyses have relied on different analytic methods and disparate data sets. Even though annoyance prevalence rates within individual communities consistently grow in proportion to duration-adjusted loudness, variability in annoyance prevalence rates across communities remains great. The present analyses demonstrate that 1) community-specific differences in annoyance prevalence rates can be plausibly attributed to the joint effect of acoustic and non-DNL related factors and (2) a simple model can account for the aggregate influences of non-DNL related factors on annoyance prevalence rates in different communities in terms of a single parameter expressed in DNL units-a "community tolerance level."

  17. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise - Scalability and parametric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scalig deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  18. Are Quasi-Steady-State Approximated Models Suitable for Quantifying Intrinsic Noise Accurately?

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Dola; Kar, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Large gene regulatory networks (GRN) are often modeled with quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) to reduce the huge computational time required for intrinsic noise quantification using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA). However, the question still remains whether the stochastic QSSA model measures the intrinsic noise as accurately as the SSA performed for a detailed mechanistic model or not? To address this issue, we have constructed mechanistic and QSSA models for few frequently observed GRNs exhibiting switching behavior and performed stochastic simulations with them. Our results strongly suggest that the performance of a stochastic QSSA model in comparison to SSA performed for a mechanistic model critically relies on the absolute values of the mRNA and protein half-lives involved in the corresponding GRN. The extent of accuracy level achieved by the stochastic QSSA model calculations will depend on the level of bursting frequency generated due to the absolute value of the half-life of either mRNA or protein or for both the species. For the GRNs considered, the stochastic QSSA quantifies the intrinsic noise at the protein level with greater accuracy and for larger combinations of half-life values of mRNA and protein, whereas in case of mRNA the satisfactory accuracy level can only be reached for limited combinations of absolute values of half-lives. Further, we have clearly demonstrated that the abundance levels of mRNA and protein hardly matter for such comparison between QSSA and mechanistic models. Based on our findings, we conclude that QSSA model can be a good choice for evaluating intrinsic noise for other GRNs as well, provided we make a rational choice based on experimental half-life values available in literature. PMID:26327626

  19. Rotorcraft Transmission Noise Path Model, Including Distributed Fluid Film Bearing Impedance Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambric, Stephen A.; Hanford, Amanda D.; Shepherd, Micah R.; Campbell, Robert L.; Smith, Edward C.

    2010-01-01

    A computational approach for simulating the effects of rolling element and journal bearings on the vibration and sound transmission through gearboxes has been demonstrated. The approach, using ARL/Penn State s CHAMP methodology, uses Component Mode Synthesis of housing and shafting modes computed using Finite Element (FE) models to allow for rapid adjustment of bearing impedances in gearbox models. The approach has been demonstrated on NASA GRC s test gearbox with three different bearing configurations: in the first condition, traditional rolling element (ball and roller) bearings were installed, and in the second and third conditions, the traditional bearings were replaced with journal and wave bearings (wave bearings are journal bearings with a multi-lobed wave pattern on the bearing surface). A methodology for computing the stiffnesses and damping in journal and wave bearings has been presented, and demonstrated for the journal and wave bearings used in the NASA GRC test gearbox. The FE model of the gearbox, along with the rolling element bearing coupling impedances, was analyzed to compute dynamic transfer functions between forces applied to the meshing gears and accelerations on the gearbox housing, including several locations near the bearings. A Boundary Element (BE) acoustic model was used to compute the sound radiated by the gearbox. Measurements of the Gear Mesh Frequency (GMF) tones were made by NASA GRC at several operational speeds for the rolling element and journal bearing gearbox configurations. Both the measurements and the CHAMP numerical model indicate that the journal bearings reduce vibration and noise for the second harmonic of the gear meshing tones, but show no clear benefit to using journal bearings to reduce the amplitudes of the fundamental gear meshing tones. Also, the numerical model shows that the gearbox vibrations and radiated sound are similar for journal and wave bearing configurations.

  20. Predicting the Inflow Distortion Tone Noise of the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan with a Combined Quadrupole-Dipole Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2012-01-01

    A combined quadrupole-dipole model of fan inflow distortion tone noise has been extended to calculate tone sound power levels generated by obstructions arranged in circumferentially asymmetric locations upstream of a rotor. Trends in calculated sound power level agreed well with measurements from tests conducted in 2007 in the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan. Calculated values of sound power levels radiated upstream were demonstrated to be sensitive to the accuracy of the modeled wakes from the cylindrical rods that were placed upstream of the fan to distort the inflow. Results indicate a continued need to obtain accurate aerodynamic predictions and measurements at the fan inlet plane as engineers work towards developing fan inflow distortion tone noise prediction tools.

  1. Modeling the impact of common noise inputs on the network activity of retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Yashar; Shlens, Jonathon; Pillow, Jonathan W.; Kulkarni, Jayant; Litke, Alan M.; Chichilnisky, E. J.; Simoncelli, Eero; Paninski, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Synchronized spontaneous firing among retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), on timescales faster than visual responses, has been reported in many studies. Two candidate mechanisms of synchronized firing include direct coupling and shared noisy inputs. In neighboring parasol cells of primate retina, which exhibit rapid synchronized firing that has been studied extensively, recent experimental work indicates that direct electrical or synaptic coupling is weak, but shared synaptic input in the absence of modulated stimuli is strong. However, previous modeling efforts have not accounted for this aspect of firing in the parasol cell population. Here we develop a new model that incorporates the effects of common noise, and apply it to analyze the light responses and synchronized firing of a large, densely-sampled network of over 250 simultaneously recorded parasol cells. We use a generalized linear model in which the spike rate in each cell is determined by the linear combination of the spatio-temporally filtered visual input, the temporally filtered prior spikes of that cell, and unobserved sources representing common noise. The model accurately captures the statistical structure of the spike trains and the encoding of the visual stimulus, without the direct coupling assumption present in previous modeling work. Finally, we examined the problem of decoding the visual stimulus from the spike train given the estimated parameters. The common-noise model produces Bayesian decoding performance as accurate as that of a model with direct coupling, but with significantly more robustness to spike timing perturbations. PMID:22203465

  2. Modeling the impact of common noise inputs on the network activity of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Vidne, Michael; Ahmadian, Yashar; Shlens, Jonathon; Pillow, Jonathan W; Kulkarni, Jayant; Litke, Alan M; Chichilnisky, E J; Simoncelli, Eero; Paninski, Liam

    2012-08-01

    Synchronized spontaneous firing among retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), on timescales faster than visual responses, has been reported in many studies. Two candidate mechanisms of synchronized firing include direct coupling and shared noisy inputs. In neighboring parasol cells of primate retina, which exhibit rapid synchronized firing that has been studied extensively, recent experimental work indicates that direct electrical or synaptic coupling is weak, but shared synaptic input in the absence of modulated stimuli is strong. However, previous modeling efforts have not accounted for this aspect of firing in the parasol cell population. Here we develop a new model that incorporates the effects of common noise, and apply it to analyze the light responses and synchronized firing of a large, densely-sampled network of over 250 simultaneously recorded parasol cells. We use a generalized linear model in which the spike rate in each cell is determined by the linear combination of the spatio-temporally filtered visual input, the temporally filtered prior spikes of that cell, and unobserved sources representing common noise. The model accurately captures the statistical structure of the spike trains and the encoding of the visual stimulus, without the direct coupling assumption present in previous modeling work. Finally, we examined the problem of decoding the visual stimulus from the spike train given the estimated parameters. The common-noise model produces Bayesian decoding performance as accurate as that of a model with direct coupling, but with significantly more robustness to spike timing perturbations.

  3. Analysis of Acoustic Modeling and Sound Propagation in Aircraft Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    An analysis has been performed of measured and predicted aircraft noise levels around Denver International Airport. A detailed examination was made of 90 straight-out departures that yielded good measurements on multiple monitors. Predictions were made with INM 5, INM 6 and the simulation model NMSIM. Predictions were consistently lower than measurements, less so for the simulation model than for the integrated models. Lateral directivity ("installation effect") patterns were seen which are consistent with other recent measurements. Atmospheric absorption was determined to be a significant factor in the underprediction. Calculations of atmospheric attenuation were made over a full year of upper air data at seven locations across the United States. It was found that temperature/humidity effects could cause variations of up to +/-4 dB, depending on season, for the sites examined. It was concluded that local temperature and humidity should be accounted for in aircraft noise modeling.

  4. The mirrors model: macroscopic diffusion without noise or chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiffaudel, Yann; Lefevere, Raphaël

    2016-03-01

    Before stating our main result, we first clarify through classical examples the status of the laws of macroscopic physics as laws of large numbers. We next consider the mirrors model in a finite d-dimensional domain and connected to particles reservoirs at fixed chemical potentials. The dynamics is purely deterministic and non-ergodic but takes place in a random environment. We study the macroscopic current of particles in the stationary regime. We show first that when the size of the system goes to infinity, the behaviour of the stationary current of particles is governed by the proportion of orbits crossing the system. This allows us to formulate a necessary and sufficient condition on the distribution of the set of orbits that ensures the validity of Fick’s law. Using this approach, we show that Fick’s law relating the stationary macroscopic current of particles to the concentration difference holds in three dimensions and above. The negative correlations between crossing orbits play a key role in the argument.

  5. Simulations of Bluff Body Flow Interaction for Noise Source Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Medi R.; Lockard David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Neuhart, Dan H.; McGinley, Catherine B.

    2006-01-01

    The current study is a continuation of our effort to characterize the details of flow interaction between two cylinders in a tandem configuration. This configuration is viewed to possess many of the pertinent flow features of the highly interactive unsteady flow field associated with the main landing gear of large civil transports. The present effort extends our previous two-dimensional, unsteady, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computations to three dimensions using a quasilaminar, zonal approach, in conjunction with a two-equation turbulence model. Two distinct separation length-to-diameter ratios of L/D = 3.7 and 1.435, representing intermediate and short separation distances between the two cylinders, are simulated. The Mach 0.166 simulations are performed at a Reynolds number of Re = 1.66 105 to match the companion experiments at NASA Langley Research Center. Extensive comparisons with the measured steady and unsteady surface pressure and off-surface particle image velocimetry data show encouraging agreement. Both prominent and some of the more subtle trends in the mean and fluctuating flow fields are correctly predicted. Both computations and the measured data reveal a more robust and energetic shedding process at L/D = 3.7 in comparison with the weaker shedding in the shorter separation case of L/D = 1.435. The vortex shedding frequency based on the computed surface pressure spectra is in reasonable agreement with the measured Strouhal frequency.

  6. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p . Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R1 and R2 of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R1-R2 plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is pc(sq) , the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R ∈{0 ,R0} and a percolation transition is observed with R0 as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability.

  7. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S S

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p. Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R_{1} and R_{2} of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R_{1}-R_{2} plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is p_{c}(sq), the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R∈{0,R_{0}} and a percolation transition is observed with R_{0} as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability.

  8. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S S

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p. Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R_{1} and R_{2} of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R_{1}-R_{2} plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is p_{c}(sq), the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R∈{0,R_{0}} and a percolation transition is observed with R_{0} as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability. PMID:27415234

  9. Evaluation of the channelized Hotelling observer with an internal-noise model in a train-test paradigm for cardiac SPECT defect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brankov, Jovan G.

    2013-10-01

    to overfitting, and will not likely generalize well to new data. In addition, we present an alternative interpretation of the CHO as a penalized linear regression wherein the penalization term is defined by the internal-noise model.

  10. Hyperbolic value addition and general models of animal choice.

    PubMed

    Mazur, J E

    2001-01-01

    Three mathematical models of choice--the contextual-choice model (R. Grace, 1994), delay-reduction theory (N. Squires & E. Fantino, 1971), and a new model called the hyperbolic value-added model--were compared in their ability to predict the results from a wide variety of experiments with animal subjects. When supplied with 2 or 3 free parameters, all 3 models made fairly accurate predictions for a large set of experiments that used concurrent-chain procedures. One advantage of the hyperbolic value-added model is that it is derived from a simpler model that makes accurate predictions for many experiments using discrete-trial adjusting-delay procedures. Some results favor the hyperbolic value-added model and delay-reduction theory over the contextual-choice model, but more data are needed from choice situations for which the models make distinctly different predictions.

  11. Wavelet-based noise-model driven denoising algorithm for differential phase contrast mammography.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Carolina; Wang, Zhentian; Stampanoni, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Traditional mammography can be positively complemented by phase contrast and scattering x-ray imaging, because they can detect subtle differences in the electron density of a material and measure the local small-angle scattering power generated by the microscopic density fluctuations in the specimen, respectively. The grating-based x-ray interferometry technique can produce absorption, differential phase contrast (DPC) and scattering signals of the sample, in parallel, and works well with conventional X-ray sources; thus, it constitutes a promising method for more reliable breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Recently, our team proved that this novel technology can provide images superior to conventional mammography. This new technology was used to image whole native breast samples directly after mastectomy. The images acquired show high potential, but the noise level associated to the DPC and scattering signals is significant, so it is necessary to remove it in order to improve image quality and visualization. The noise models of the three signals have been investigated and the noise variance can be computed. In this work, a wavelet-based denoising algorithm using these noise models is proposed. It was evaluated with both simulated and experimental mammography data. The outcomes demonstrated that our method offers a good denoising quality, while simultaneously preserving the edges and important structural features. Therefore, it can help improve diagnosis and implement further post-processing techniques such as fusion of the three signals acquired.

  12. Applications of the predictability of the Coherent Noise Model to aftershock sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulos, Stavros-Richard; Sarlis, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    A study [1] of the coherent noise model [2-4] in natural time [5-7] has shown that it exhibits predictability. Interestingly, one of the predictors suggested [1] for the coherent noise model can be generalized and applied to the case of (real) aftershock sequences. The results obtained [8] so far are beyond chance. Here, we apply this approach to several aftershock sequences of strong earthquakes with magnitudes Mw ≥6.9 in Indonesia, California and Greece, including the Mw9.2 earthquake that occurred on 26 December 2004 in Sumatra. References. [1] N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, Predictability of the coherent-noise model and its applications, Physical Review E, 85, 051136, 2012. [2] M.E.J. Newman, Self-organized criticality, evolution and the fossil extinction record, Proc. R. Soc. London B, 263, 1605-1610, 1996. [3] M. E. J. Newman and K. Sneppen, Avalanches, scaling, and coherent noise, Phys. Rev. E, 54, 6226-6231, 1996. [4] K. Sneppen and M. Newman, Coherent noise, scale invariance and intermittency in large systems, Physica D, 110, 209 - 222. [5] P. Varotsos, N. Sarlis, and E. Skordas, Spatiotemporal complexity aspects on the interrelation between Seismic Electric Signals and seismicity, Practica of Athens Academy, 76, 294-321, 2001. [6] P.A. Varotsos, N.V. Sarlis, and E.S. Skordas, Long-range correlations in the electric signals that precede rupture, Phys. Rev. E, 66, 011902, 2002. [7] Varotsos P. A., Sarlis N. V. and Skordas E. S., Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. Precursory Seismic Electric Signals, Earthquakes and other Complex Time-Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg) 2011. [8] N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, "Visualization of the significance of Receiver Operating Characteristics based on confidence ellipses", Computer Physics Communications, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpc.2013.12.009

  13. Nonlinear statistical reconstruction for flat-panel cone-beam CT with blur and correlated noise models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Steven; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Stayman, J. Webster

    2016-03-01

    Flat-panel cone-beam CT (FP-CBCT) is a promising imaging modality, partly due to its potential for high spatial resolution reconstructions in relatively compact scanners. Despite this potential, FP-CBCT can face difficulty resolving important fine scale structures (e.g, trabecular details in dedicated extremities scanners and microcalcifications in dedicated CBCT mammography). Model-based methods offer one opportunity to improve high-resolution performance without any hardware changes. Previous work, based on a linearized forward model, demonstrated improved performance when both system blur and spatial correlations characteristics of FP-CBCT systems are modeled. Unfortunately, the linearized model relies on a staged processing approach that complicates tuning parameter selection and can limit the finest achievable spatial resolution. In this work, we present an alternative scheme that leverages a full nonlinear forward model with both system blur and spatially correlated noise. A likelihood-based objective function is derived from this forward model and we derive an iterative optimization algorithm for its solution. The proposed approach is evaluated in simulation studies using a digital extremities phantom and resolution-noise trade-offs are quantitatively evaluated. The correlated nonlinear model outperformed both the uncorrelated nonlinear model and the staged linearized technique with up to a 86% reduction in variance at matched spatial resolution. Additionally, the nonlinear models could achieve finer spatial resolution (correlated: 0.10 mm, uncorrelated: 0.11 mm) than the linear correlated model (0.15 mm), and traditional FDK (0.40 mm). This suggests the proposed nonlinear approach may be an important tool in improving performance for high-resolution clinical applications.

  14. Nonlinear Statistical Reconstruction for Flat-Panel Cone-Beam CT with Blur and Correlated Noise Models

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Steven; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Stayman, J. Webster

    2016-01-01

    Flat-panel cone-beam CT (FP-CBCT) is a promising imaging modality, partly due to its potential for high spatial resolution reconstructions in relatively compact scanners. Despite this potential, FP-CBCT can face difficulty resolving important fine scale structures (e.g, trabecular details in dedicated extremities scanners and microcalcifications in dedicated CBCT mammography). Model-based methods offer one opportunity to improve high-resolution performance without any hardware changes. Previous work, based on a linearized forward model, demonstrated improved performance when both system blur and spatial correlations characteristics of FP-CBCT systems are modeled. Unfortunately, the linearized model relies on a staged processing approach that complicates tuning parameter selection and can limit the finest achievable spatial resolution. In this work, we present an alternative scheme that leverages a full nonlinear forward model with both system blur and spatially correlated noise. A likelihood-based objective function is derived from this forward model and we derive an iterative optimization algorithm for its solution. The proposed approach is evaluated in simulation studies using a digital extremities phantom and resolution-noise trade-offs are quantitatively evaluated. The correlated nonlinear model outperformed both the uncorrelated nonlinear model and the staged linearized technique with up to a 86% reduction in variance at matched spatial resolution. Additionally, the nonlinear models could achieve finer spatial resolution (correlated: 0.10 mm, uncorrelated: 0.11 mm) than the linear correlated model (0.15 mm), and traditional FDK (0.40 mm). This suggests the proposed nonlinear approach may be an important tool in improving performance for high-resolution clinical applications. PMID:27110051

  15. Diversity and Noise Effects in a Model of Homeostatic Regulation of the Sleep-Wake Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Patriarca, Marco; Postnova, Svetlana; Braun, Hans A.; Hernández-García, Emilio; Toral, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in sleep neurobiology have allowed development of physiologically based mathematical models of sleep regulation that account for the neuronal dynamics responsible for the regulation of sleep-wake cycles and allow detailed examination of the underlying mechanisms. Neuronal systems in general, and those involved in sleep regulation in particular, are noisy and heterogeneous by their nature. It has been shown in various systems that certain levels of noise and diversity can significantly improve signal encoding. However, these phenomena, especially the effects of diversity, are rarely considered in the models of sleep regulation. The present paper is focused on a neuron-based physiologically motivated model of sleep-wake cycles that proposes a novel mechanism of the homeostatic regulation of sleep based on the dynamics of a wake-promoting neuropeptide orexin. Here this model is generalized by the introduction of intrinsic diversity and noise in the orexin-producing neurons, in order to study the effect of their presence on the sleep-wake cycle. A simple quantitative measure of the quality of a sleep-wake cycle is introduced and used to systematically study the generalized model for different levels of noise and diversity. The model is shown to exhibit a clear diversity-induced resonance: that is, the best wake-sleep cycle turns out to correspond to an intermediate level of diversity at the synapses of the orexin-producing neurons. On the other hand, only a mild evidence of stochastic resonance is found, when the level of noise is varied. These results show that disorder, especially in the form of quenched diversity, can be a key-element for an efficient or optimal functioning of the homeostatic regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Furthermore, this study provides an example of a constructive role of diversity in a neuronal system that can be extended beyond the system studied here. PMID:22927806

  16. Martian Ambient Seismic Noise: from the first modeling to the future data of the InSight Seismic experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, W. B.; Mimoun, D.; Kobayashi, N.; Panning, M. P.; Pike, W. T.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Nishikawa, Y.; Murdoch, N.; Kawamura, T.; Kedar, S.; Spiga, A.

    2014-12-01

    The InSight NASA Discovery mission is expected to deploy a 3 axis VBB and a 3 axis SP seismometer on Mars by late september 2016. This seismic station will explore the Martian ambient noise, in addition to more classical science goals related to the detection of Marsquakes, Meteoritic Impacts and Tides. Mars, in contrast with the Earth (with both atmosphere and ocean) and the Moon (with no atmosphere nor ocean) is expected to have ambient noise only related to its atmosphere. Mars seismic data are therefore expecting to reveal the atmospheric coupling for a different atmospheric dynamics than Earth, especially in the 0.1-1 Hz bandwidth, dominated by oceanic microseisms on Earth. We rapidly present the expected performances of the SEIS experiment onboard InSight. This experiment is based on two 3 axis seismometers, one covering the tide and low seismic frequencies (up to 10 Hz) and a second one covering the high frequencies (from 0.1 Hz to 50 Hz). Both sensors are mounted on a sensors plateform, deployed by a robotic arm 1-2 meters from the lander and covered by thermal protection and a wind protection. The expected performances indicates that signal as low as 10**(-9) m/s**2/Hz**(1/2) will be detected in the 0.005-2 Hz bandwidth. We then focus on the modeling of this ambient atmospheric noise.This modeling has been done not only from constraints gathered by the atmospheric sensors of previous Mars missions (e.g. Viking and Pathfinder) but also by numerical modeling of the atmospheric perturbations, both at global scale and mesoscale. Theoretical estimation of the ambient noise has then been obtained for the pressure-correlated surface loading and the stochastic excitation of surface waves, at both long and very long period (e.g. Mars hum) and at medium or short period (e.g. regional and local generated surface waves). Results shows that most of these source of ambient noise will be detected, likely during the day for those generated locally and possibly during the

  17. Acoustic noise improves motor learning in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a rat model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Göran B W; Eckernäs, Daniel; Holmblad, Olof; Bergquist, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat model of ADHD displays impaired motor learning. We used this characteristic to study if the recently described acoustic noise benefit in learning in children with ADHD is also observed in the SH rat model. SH rats and a Wistar control strain were trained in skilled reach and rotarod running under either ambient noise or in 75 dBA white noise. In other animals the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on motor learning was assessed with the same paradigms. To determine if acoustic noise influenced spontaneous motor activity, the effect of acoustic noise was also determined in the open field activity paradigm. We confirm impaired motor learning in the SH rat compared to Wistar SCA controls. Acoustic noise restored motor learning in SH rats learning the Montoya reach test and the rotarod test, but had no influence on learning in Wistar rats. Noise had no effect on open field activity in SH rats, but increased corner time in Wistar. MPH completely restored rotarod learning and performance but did not improve skilled reach in the SH rat. It is suggested that the acoustic noise benefit previously reported in children with ADHD is shared by the SH rat model of ADHD, and the effect is in the same range as that of stimulant treatment. Acoustic noise may be useful as a non-pharmacological alternative to stimulant medication in the treatment of ADHD.

  18. Stochastic differential equation models for ion channel noise in Hodgkin-Huxley neurons.

    PubMed

    Goldwyn, Joshua H; Imennov, Nikita S; Famulare, Michael; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2011-04-01

    The random transitions of ion channels between conducting and nonconducting states generate a source of internal fluctuations in a neuron, known as channel noise. The standard method for modeling the states of ion channels nonlinearly couples continuous-time Markov chains to a differential equation for voltage. Beginning with the work of R. F. Fox and Y.-N. Lu [Phys. Rev. E 49, 3421 (1994)], there have been attempts to generate simpler models that use stochastic differential equation (SDEs) to approximate the stochastic spiking activity produced by Markov chain models. Recent numerical investigations, however, have raised doubts that SDE models can capture the stochastic dynamics of Markov chain models.We analyze three SDE models that have been proposed as approximations to the Markov chain model: one that describes the states of the ion channels and two that describe the states of the ion channel subunits. We show that the former channel-based approach can capture the distribution of channel noise and its effects on spiking in a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model to a degree not previously demonstrated, but the latter two subunit-based approaches cannot. Our analysis provides intuitive and mathematical explanations for why this is the case. The temporal correlation in the channel noise is determined by the combinatorics of bundling subunits into channels, but the subunit-based approaches do not correctly account for this structure. Our study confirms and elucidates the findings of previous numerical investigations of subunit-based SDE models. Moreover, it presents evidence that Markov chain models of the nonlinear, stochastic dynamics of neural membranes can be accurately approximated by SDEs. This finding opens a door to future modeling work using SDE techniques to further illuminate the effects of ion channel fluctuations on electrically active cells. PMID:21599202

  19. Model building and measurement of the temporal noise for thermal infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xun; Nie, Liang; Hu, Tieli; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Fang

    2008-09-01

    In the measurement of the infrared imager, noise is the primary parameter in evaluating the quality of the infrared imager. In the engineering application of the infrared imager, three-dimensional noise pattern is not applied widely in the hard technology of the infrared imager due to its pattern is complex, physical significance is not definite and visualized. Noise parameters include the temporal noise and the spatial noise. The temporal noise can be divided into high frequency temporal noise and low frequency temporal noise (namely 1/f noise), and the spatial noise can be divided into high frequency spatial noise (namely fixed pattern noise, FPN) and low frequency spatial noise (un-uniform noise). The strict definition about high frequency temporal noise and low frequency temporal noise is given in this paper. The algorithm and measuring methods for low frequency temporal noise equivalent temperature difference are proposed. The algorithms and measuring methods of high frequency noise equivalent temperature difference are given, ignoring low frequency temporal noise in short-time during measuring high frequency noise equivalent temperature difference or not. Moreover, the uncertainty of measurement results for high frequency temporal noise equivalent temperature difference is analyzed in the paper.

  20. Simulating Flying Insects Using Dynamics and Data-Driven Noise Modeling to Generate Diverse Collective Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiaping; Wang, Xinjie; Jin, Xiaogang; Manocha, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    We present a biologically plausible dynamics model to simulate swarms of flying insects. Our formulation, which is based on biological conclusions and experimental observations, is designed to simulate large insect swarms of varying densities. We use a force-based model that captures different interactions between the insects and the environment and computes collision-free trajectories for each individual insect. Furthermore, we model the noise as a constructive force at the collective level and present a technique to generate noise-induced insect movements in a large swarm that are similar to those observed in real-world trajectories. We use a data-driven formulation that is based on pre-recorded insect trajectories. We also present a novel evaluation metric and a statistical validation approach that takes into account various characteristics of insect motions. In practice, the combination of Curl noise function with our dynamics model is used to generate realistic swarm simulations and emergent behaviors. We highlight its performance for simulating large flying swarms of midges, fruit fly, locusts and moths and demonstrate many collective behaviors, including aggregation, migration, phase transition, and escape responses. PMID:27187068

  1. Modeling the impact of solid noise barriers on near road air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, Akula; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Baldauf, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Studies based on field measurements, wind tunnel experiments, and controlled tracer gas releases indicate that solid, roadside noise barriers can lead to reductions in downwind near-road air pollutant concentrations. A tracer gas study showed that a solid barrier reduced pollutant concentrations as much as 80% next to the barrier relative to an open area under unstable meteorological conditions, which corresponds to typical daytime conditions when residents living or children going to school near roadways are most likely to be exposed to traffic emissions. The data from this tracer gas study and a wind tunnel simulation were used to develop a model to describe dispersion of traffic emissions near a highway in the presence of a solid noise barrier. The model is used to interpret real-world data collected during a field study conducted in a complex urban environment next to a large highway in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. We show that the analysis of the data with the model yields useful information on the emission factors and the mitigation impact of the barrier on near-road air quality. The estimated emission factors for the four species, ultrafine particles, CO, NO2, and black carbon, are consistent with data cited in the literature. The results suggest that the model accounted for reductions in pollutant concentrations from a 4.5 m high noise barrier, ranging from 40% next to the barrier to 10% at 300 m from the barrier.

  2. Simulating Flying Insects Using Dynamics and Data-Driven Noise Modeling to Generate Diverse Collective Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiaping; Wang, Xinjie; Manocha, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    We present a biologically plausible dynamics model to simulate swarms of flying insects. Our formulation, which is based on biological conclusions and experimental observations, is designed to simulate large insect swarms of varying densities. We use a force-based model that captures different interactions between the insects and the environment and computes collision-free trajectories for each individual insect. Furthermore, we model the noise as a constructive force at the collective level and present a technique to generate noise-induced insect movements in a large swarm that are similar to those observed in real-world trajectories. We use a data-driven formulation that is based on pre-recorded insect trajectories. We also present a novel evaluation metric and a statistical validation approach that takes into account various characteristics of insect motions. In practice, the combination of Curl noise function with our dynamics model is used to generate realistic swarm simulations and emergent behaviors. We highlight its performance for simulating large flying swarms of midges, fruit fly, locusts and moths and demonstrate many collective behaviors, including aggregation, migration, phase transition, and escape responses. PMID:27187068

  3. Simulating Flying Insects Using Dynamics and Data-Driven Noise Modeling to Generate Diverse Collective Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiaping; Wang, Xinjie; Jin, Xiaogang; Manocha, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    We present a biologically plausible dynamics model to simulate swarms of flying insects. Our formulation, which is based on biological conclusions and experimental observations, is designed to simulate large insect swarms of varying densities. We use a force-based model that captures different interactions between the insects and the environment and computes collision-free trajectories for each individual insect. Furthermore, we model the noise as a constructive force at the collective level and present a technique to generate noise-induced insect movements in a large swarm that are similar to those observed in real-world trajectories. We use a data-driven formulation that is based on pre-recorded insect trajectories. We also present a novel evaluation metric and a statistical validation approach that takes into account various characteristics of insect motions. In practice, the combination of Curl noise function with our dynamics model is used to generate realistic swarm simulations and emergent behaviors. We highlight its performance for simulating large flying swarms of midges, fruit fly, locusts and moths and demonstrate many collective behaviors, including aggregation, migration, phase transition, and escape responses.

  4. Statistical methods for efficient design of community surveys of response to noise: Random coefficients regression models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomberlin, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Research studies of residents' responses to noise consist of interviews with samples of individuals who are drawn from a number of different compact study areas. The statistical techniques developed provide a basis for those sample design decisions. These techniques are suitable for a wide range of sample survey applications. A sample may consist of a random sample of residents selected from a sample of compact study areas, or in a more complex design, of a sample of residents selected from a sample of larger areas (e.g., cities). The techniques may be applied to estimates of the effects on annoyance of noise level, numbers of noise events, the time-of-day of the events, ambient noise levels, or other factors. Methods are provided for determining, in advance, how accurately these effects can be estimated for different sample sizes and study designs. Using a simple cost function, they also provide for optimum allocation of the sample across the stages of the design for estimating these effects. These techniques are developed via a regression model in which the regression coefficients are assumed to be random, with components of variance associated with the various stages of a multi-stage sample design.

  5. Vortex Noise Reductions from a Flexible Fiber Model of Owl Down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Justin; Peake, Nigel

    2013-11-01

    Many species of owl rely on specialized plumage to reduce their self-noise levels and enable hunting in acoustic stealth. In contrast to the leading-edge comb and compliant trailing-edge fringe attributes of owls, the aeroacoustic impact of the fluffy down material on the upper wing surface remains largely speculative as a means to eliminate aerodynamic noise across a broad range of frequencies. The down is presently idealized as a collection of independent and rigid fibers, which emerge perpendicularly from a rigid plane and are allowed to rotate under elastic restraint. Noise generation from an isolated fiber is effected by its interaction with a point vortex, whose motion is induced by the presence of the rigid half-plane and the elastically-restrained fiber. Numerical evaluations of the vortex path and acoustic signature furnish a comparison with known analytical results for stationary fibers, and results from this primitive model seek to address how aerodynamic noise could be mitigated by flexible fibers.

  6. Simultaneous bilateral laser therapy accelerates recovery after noise-induced hearing loss in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hun; Chang, So-Young; Moy, Wesley J.; Oh, Connie; Kim, Se-Hyung; Rhee, Chung-Ku; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae Yun

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a common type of hearing loss. The effects of laser therapy have been investigated from various perspectives, including in wound healing, inflammation reduction, and nerve regeneration, as well as in hearing research. A promising feature of the laser is its capability to penetrate soft tissue; depending on the wavelength, laser energy can penetrate into the deepest part of the body without damaging non-target soft tissues. Based on this idea, we developed bilateral transtympanic laser therapy, which uses simultaneous laser irradiation in both ears, and evaluated the effects of bilateral laser therapy on cochlear damage caused by noise overexposure. Thus, the purpose of this research was to assess the benefits of simultaneous bilateral laser therapy compared with unilateral laser therapy and a control. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to narrow-band noise at 115 dB SPL for 6 h. Multiple auditory brainstem responses were measured after each laser irradiation, and cochlear hair cells were counted after the 15th such irradiation. The penetration depth of the 808 nm laser was also measured after sacrifice. Approximately 5% of the laser energy reached the contralateral cochlea. Both bilateral and unilateral laser therapy decreased the hearing threshold after noise overstimulation in the rat model. The bilateral laser therapy group showed faster functional recovery at all tested frequencies compared with the unilateral laser therapy group. However, there was no difference in the endpoint ABR results or final hair cell survival, which was analyzed histologically. PMID:27547558

  7. Simultaneous bilateral laser therapy accelerates recovery after noise-induced hearing loss in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hun; Chang, So-Young; Moy, Wesley J; Oh, Connie; Kim, Se-Hyung; Rhee, Chung-Ku; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae Yun; Lee, Min Young

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a common type of hearing loss. The effects of laser therapy have been investigated from various perspectives, including in wound healing, inflammation reduction, and nerve regeneration, as well as in hearing research. A promising feature of the laser is its capability to penetrate soft tissue; depending on the wavelength, laser energy can penetrate into the deepest part of the body without damaging non-target soft tissues. Based on this idea, we developed bilateral transtympanic laser therapy, which uses simultaneous laser irradiation in both ears, and evaluated the effects of bilateral laser therapy on cochlear damage caused by noise overexposure. Thus, the purpose of this research was to assess the benefits of simultaneous bilateral laser therapy compared with unilateral laser therapy and a control. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to narrow-band noise at 115 dB SPL for 6 h. Multiple auditory brainstem responses were measured after each laser irradiation, and cochlear hair cells were counted after the 15th such irradiation. The penetration depth of the 808 nm laser was also measured after sacrifice. Approximately 5% of the laser energy reached the contralateral cochlea. Both bilateral and unilateral laser therapy decreased the hearing threshold after noise overstimulation in the rat model. The bilateral laser therapy group showed faster functional recovery at all tested frequencies compared with the unilateral laser therapy group. However, there was no difference in the endpoint ABR results or final hair cell survival, which was analyzed histologically. PMID:27547558

  8. Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam.

    PubMed

    Danared, H; Källberg, A; Rensfelt, K-G; Simonsson, A

    2002-04-29

    Some years ago it was found at GSI in Darmstadt that the momentum spread of electron-cooled beams of highly charged ions dropped abruptly to very low values when the particle number decreased to 10 000 or less. This has been interpreted as an ordering of the ions, such that they line up after one another in the ring. We report observations of similar transitions at CRYRING, including an accompanying drop in Schottky-noise power. We also introduce a model of the ordered beam from which the Schottky-noise power can be calculated numerically. The good agreement between the model calculation and the experimental data is seen as evidence for a spatial ordering of the ions.

  9. Waveform modeling and inversion of ambient noise cross-correlation functions in a coastal ocean environment.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xiaoqin; Brown, Michael G; Godin, Oleg A

    2015-09-01

    Theoretical studies have shown that cross-correlation functions (CFs) of time series of ambient noise measured at two locations yield approximations to the Green's functions (GFs) that describe propagation between those locations. Specifically, CFs are estimates of weighted GFs. In this paper, it is demonstrated that measured CFs in the 20-70 Hz band can be accurately modeled as weighted GFs using ambient noise data collected in the Florida Straits at ∼100 m depth with horizontal separations of 5 and 10 km. Two weighting functions are employed. These account for (1) the dipole radiation pattern produced by a near-surface source, and (2) coherence loss of surface-reflecting energy in time-averaged CFs resulting from tidal fluctuations. After describing the relationship between CFs and GFs, the inverse problem is considered and is shown to result in an environmental model for which agreement between computed and simulated CFs is good. PMID:26428771

  10. Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam.

    PubMed

    Danared, H; Källberg, A; Rensfelt, K-G; Simonsson, A

    2002-04-29

    Some years ago it was found at GSI in Darmstadt that the momentum spread of electron-cooled beams of highly charged ions dropped abruptly to very low values when the particle number decreased to 10 000 or less. This has been interpreted as an ordering of the ions, such that they line up after one another in the ring. We report observations of similar transitions at CRYRING, including an accompanying drop in Schottky-noise power. We also introduce a model of the ordered beam from which the Schottky-noise power can be calculated numerically. The good agreement between the model calculation and the experimental data is seen as evidence for a spatial ordering of the ions. PMID:12005764

  11. Waveform modeling and inversion of ambient noise cross-correlation functions in a coastal ocean environment.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xiaoqin; Brown, Michael G; Godin, Oleg A

    2015-09-01

    Theoretical studies have shown that cross-correlation functions (CFs) of time series of ambient noise measured at two locations yield approximations to the Green's functions (GFs) that describe propagation between those locations. Specifically, CFs are estimates of weighted GFs. In this paper, it is demonstrated that measured CFs in the 20-70 Hz band can be accurately modeled as weighted GFs using ambient noise data collected in the Florida Straits at ∼100 m depth with horizontal separations of 5 and 10 km. Two weighting functions are employed. These account for (1) the dipole radiation pattern produced by a near-surface source, and (2) coherence loss of surface-reflecting energy in time-averaged CFs resulting from tidal fluctuations. After describing the relationship between CFs and GFs, the inverse problem is considered and is shown to result in an environmental model for which agreement between computed and simulated CFs is good.

  12. Using Generalized Additive Models to Analyze Single-Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William; Sullivan, Kristynn

    2013-01-01

    Many analyses for single-case designs (SCDs)--including nearly all the effect size indicators-- currently assume no trend in the data. Regression and multilevel models allow for trend, but usually test only linear trend and have no principled way of knowing if higher order trends should be represented in the model. This paper shows how Generalized…

  13. Performance analysis of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing wireless system in additive white Gaussian noise and indoor multipath channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjha, Bilal; Zhou, Zhou; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    We have compared the bit error rate (BER) performance of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) and pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT) optical wireless (OW) systems in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and indoor multipath frequency selective channel. Simulation and analytical results show that precoding schemes such as discrete Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, and Zadoff-Chu sequences do not affect the performance of the OW systems in the AWGN channel while they do reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM output signal. However, in a multipath indoor channel, using zero forcing frequency domain equalization precoding-based systems give better BER performance than their conventional counterparts. With additional clipping to further reduce the PAPR, precoding-based systems also show better BER performance compared to nonprecoded systems when clipped relative to the peak of nonprecoded systems. Therefore, precoding-based ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT systems offer better BER performance, zero signaling overhead, and low PAPR compared to conventional systems.

  14. Characterization of Flap Edge Noise Radiation from a High-Fidelity Airframe Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockhard, David P.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Bahr, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the noise generated by a baseline high-fidelity airframe model are presented. The test campaign was conducted in the open-jet test section of the NASA Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Tunnel on an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream airframe model incorporating a trailing edge flap and main landing gear. Unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained from a series of sensors positioned along the two flap edges, and far field acoustic measurements were obtained using a 97-microphone phased array that viewed the pressure side of the airframe. The DAMAS array deconvolution method was employed to determine the locations and strengths of relevant noise sources in the vicinity of the flap edges and the landing gear. A Coherent Output Power (COP) spectral method was used to couple the unsteady surface pressures measured along the flap edges with the phased array output. The results indicate that outboard flap edge noise is dominated by the flap bulb seal cavity with very strong COP coherence over an approximate model-scale frequency range of 1 to 5 kHz observed between the array output and those unsteady pressure sensors nearest the aft end of the cavity. An examination of experimental COP spectra for the inboard flap proved inconclusive, most likely due to a combination of coherence loss caused by decorrelation of acoustic waves propagating through the thick wind tunnel shear layer and contamination of the spectra by tunnel background noise at lower frequencies. Directivity measurements obtained from integration of DAMAS pressure-squared values over defined geometric zones around the model show that the baseline flap and landing gear are only moderately directional as a function of polar emission angle.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    PubMed

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models.

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    PubMed

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models. PMID:26336695

  17. How much additional model complexity do the use of catchment hydrological signatures, additional data and expert knowledge warrant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, M.; Fovet, O.; RUIZ, L.; Gascuel-odoux, C.; Savenije, H.

    2013-12-01

    In the frequent absence of sufficient suitable data to constrain hydrological models, it is not uncommon to represent catchments at a range of scales by lumped model set-ups. Although process heterogeneity can average out on the catchment scale to generate simple catchment integrated responses whose general flow features can frequently be reproduced by lumped models, these models often fail to get details of the flow pattern as well as catchment internal dynamics, such as groundwater level changes, right to a sufficient degree, resulting in considerable predictive uncertainty. Traditionally, models are constrained by only one or two objectives functions, which does not warrant more than a handful of parameters to avoid elevated predictive uncertainty, thereby preventing more complex model set-ups accounting for increased process heterogeneity. In this study it was tested how much additional process heterogeneity is warranted in models when optimizing the model calibration strategy, using additional data and expert knowledge. Long-term timeseries of flow and groundwater levels for small nested experimental catchments in French Brittany with considerable differences in geology, topography and flow regime were used in this study to test which degree of model process heterogeneity is warranted with increased availability of information. In a first step, as a benchmark, the system was treated as one lumped entity and the model was trained based only on its ability to reproduce the hydrograph. Although it was found that the overall modelled flow generally reflects the observed flow response quite well, the internal system dynamics could not be reproduced. In further steps the complexity of this model was gradually increased, first by adding a separate riparian reservoir to the lumped set-up and then by a semi-distributed set-up, allowing for independent, parallel model structures, representing the contrasting nested catchments. Although calibration performance increased

  18. Multichannel ECG and Noise Modeling: Application to Maternal and Fetal ECG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameni, Reza; Clifford, Gari D.; Jutten, Christian; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B.

    2007-12-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic model of the electrical activity of the heart is presented. The model is based on the single dipole model of the heart and is later related to the body surface potentials through a linear model which accounts for the temporal movements and rotations of the cardiac dipole, together with a realistic ECG noise model. The proposed model is also generalized to maternal and fetal ECG mixtures recorded from the abdomen of pregnant women in single and multiple pregnancies.