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Sample records for additive protective effect

  1. Protective Effect of Two Yeast Based Feed Additives on Pigs Chronically Exposed to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs. PMID:25533517

  2. Effect of partially protected butyrate used as feed additive on growth and intestinal metabolism in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Robles, R; Lozano, A B; Sevilla, A; Márquez, L; Nuez-Ortín, W; Moyano, F J

    2013-12-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid extensively used in animal nutrition since it promotes increases in body weight and other multiple beneficial effects on the intestinal tract. Although such effects have been demonstrated in several species, very few studies have assessed them in fish. On the other hand, little is known about the metabolic processes underlying these effects. In the present work, growth parameters and changes in more than 80 intestinal metabolites (nucleotides, amino acids and derivatives, glycolytic intermediates, redox coenzymes and lipid metabolism coenzymes) have been quantified in juvenile sea bream fed a butyrate-supplemented diet. Results showed a significant increase in the weight of fish receiving butyrate, while metabolomics provided some clues on the suggested effects of this feed additive. It seems that butyrate increased the availability of several essential amino acids and nucleotide derivatives. Also, the energy provision for enteric cells might have been enhanced by a decrease in glucose and amino acid oxidation related to the use of butyrate as fuel. Additionally, butyrate might have increased transmethylation activity. This work represents an advance in the knowledge of the metabolic consequences of using butyrate as an additive in fish diets.

  3. Evaluation of the protective effect of chemical additives in the oxidation of phenolic compounds catalysed by peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juliana Arriel; Chagas, Pricila Maria Batista; Silva, Maria Cristina; Dos Santos, Custódio Donizete; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte

    2016-01-01

    The use of oxidoredutive enzymes in removing organic pollutants has been the subject of much research. The oxidation of phenolic compounds in the presence of chemical additives has been the focus of this study. In this investigation, the influence of the additives polyethylene glycol and Triton X-100 was evaluated in the phenol oxidation, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and total phenolic compounds present in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) at different pH values, performed by turnip peroxidase and peroxidase extracted from soybean seed hulls. The influence of these additives was observed only in the oxidation of phenol and caffeic acid. In the oxidation of other studied phenolic compounds, the percentage of oxidation remained unchanged in the presence of these chemical additives. In the oxidation of CPW in the presence of additives, no change in the oxidation of phenolic compounds was observed. Although several studies show the importance of evaluating the influence of additives on the behaviour of enzymes, this study found a positive response from the economic point of view for the treatment of real wastewater, since the addition of these substances showed no influence on the oxidation of phenolic compounds, which makes the process less costly.

  4. Evaluation of the protective effect of chemical additives in the oxidation of phenolic compounds catalysed by peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juliana Arriel; Chagas, Pricila Maria Batista; Silva, Maria Cristina; Dos Santos, Custódio Donizete; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte

    2016-01-01

    The use of oxidoredutive enzymes in removing organic pollutants has been the subject of much research. The oxidation of phenolic compounds in the presence of chemical additives has been the focus of this study. In this investigation, the influence of the additives polyethylene glycol and Triton X-100 was evaluated in the phenol oxidation, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and total phenolic compounds present in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) at different pH values, performed by turnip peroxidase and peroxidase extracted from soybean seed hulls. The influence of these additives was observed only in the oxidation of phenol and caffeic acid. In the oxidation of other studied phenolic compounds, the percentage of oxidation remained unchanged in the presence of these chemical additives. In the oxidation of CPW in the presence of additives, no change in the oxidation of phenolic compounds was observed. Although several studies show the importance of evaluating the influence of additives on the behaviour of enzymes, this study found a positive response from the economic point of view for the treatment of real wastewater, since the addition of these substances showed no influence on the oxidation of phenolic compounds, which makes the process less costly. PMID:26502790

  5. 46 CFR 95.17-25 - Additional protection required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-25 Additional protection required. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system...

  6. 46 CFR 95.17-25 - Additional protection required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-25 Additional protection required. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system...

  7. 46 CFR 95.17-25 - Additional protection required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-25 Additional protection required. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system...

  8. 46 CFR 76.17-25 - Additional protection required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-25 Additional protection required. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system is...

  9. 46 CFR 76.17-25 - Additional protection required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-25 Additional protection required. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system is...

  10. 46 CFR 76.17-25 - Additional protection required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-25 Additional protection required. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system is...

  11. 46 CFR 95.17-25 - Additional protection required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-25 Additional protection required. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system...

  12. 46 CFR 95.17-25 - Additional protection required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-25 Additional protection required. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system...

  13. 46 CFR 76.17-25 - Additional protection required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-25 Additional protection required. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system is...

  14. 46 CFR 76.17-25 - Additional protection required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-25 Additional protection required. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system is...

  15. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  16. Cathodic protection -- Addition of 6 anodes to existing rectifier 31

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, W.M.

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system additions are installed, connected, and function as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms on the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive wastes.

  17. Protecting child health and nutrition status with ready-to-use food in addition to food assistance in urban Chad: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in use of lipid nutrient supplements for preventing child malnutrition and morbidity, there is inconclusive evidence on the effectiveness, and no evidence on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted comparing costs and outcomes of two arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial implemented in eastern Chad during the 2010 hunger gap by Action contre la Faim France and Ghent University. This trial assessed the effect on child malnutrition and morbidity of a 5-month general distribution of staple rations, or staple rations plus a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF). RUSF was distributed to households with a child aged 6–36 months who was not acutely malnourished (weight-for-height > = 80% of the NCHS reference median, and absence of bilateral pitting edema), to prevent acute malnutrition in these children. While the addition of RUSF to a staple ration did not result in significant reduction in wasting rates, cost-effectiveness was assessed using successful secondary outcomes of cases of diarrhea and anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L) averted among children receiving RUSF. Total costs of the program and incremental costs of RUSF and related management and logistics were estimated using accounting records and key informant interviews, and include costs to institutions and communities. An activity-based costing methodology was applied and incremental costs were calculated per episode of diarrhea and case of anemia averted. Results Adding RUSF to a general food distribution increased total costs by 23%, resulting in an additional cost per child of 374 EUR, and an incremental cost per episode of diarrhea averted of 1,083 EUR and per case of anemia averted of 3,627 EUR. Conclusions Adding RUSF to a staple ration was less cost-effective than other standard intervention options for averting diarrhea and anemia. This strategy holds potential to address a broad array of health and

  18. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    PubMed

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  19. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  20. Advax-adjuvanted recombinant protective antigen provides protection against inhalational anthrax that is further enhanced by addition of murabutide adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita; Merkel, Tod J

    2014-04-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ∼4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy.

  1. Modification of silicone sealant to improve gamma radiation resistance, by addition of protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, Giovanni; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sealant (SS) was modified with the addition of different protective compounds to conserve its physical-chemical properties during gamma irradiation. 2-Vinyl naphthalene (2-VN), bisphenol-A (BPA) and poly (vinyl carbazole) (PVK) were used to evaluate radiation protection through the crosslinking effect of radiation. The samples were irradiated with doses from 100 kGy to 500 kGy at room temperature in air, with a 60Co gamma source, and the changes in molecular weight, thermal behavior, elastic properties and infrared spectra (FTIR-ATR) absorbance analysis were determined. The molecular weight of unmodified silicone sealant increases with the absorbed dose because of crosslinking as predominant effect. However, the crosslinking effect was inhibited with the addition of protective agent due to the aromatic compounds present. Modified silicone sealant films present better radiation resistance than unmodified system.

  2. Butyric acid-based feed additives help protect broiler chickens from Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rubio, C; Ordóñez, C; Abad-González, J; Garcia-Gallego, A; Honrubia, M Pilar; Mallo, J Jose; Balaña-Fouce, R

    2009-05-01

    Sodium butyrate is a sodium salt of a volatile short-chain fatty acid (butyric acid) used to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis infection in birds. Three groups of fifty 1-d-old broilers each were fed the following diets: T0 = standard broiler diet (control); T1 = standard broiler diet supplemented with 0.92 g/kg of an additive with free sodium butyrate (Gustor XXI B92); and T2 = standard broiler diet supplemented with 0.92 g/kg of an additive with sodium butyrate partially protected with vegetable fats (Gustor XXI BP70). Twenty percent of the birds were orally infected with Salmonella Enteritidis at d 5 posthatching and fecal Salmonella shedding was assessed at d 6, 9, 13, 20, 27, 34, and 41 of the trial. At d 42, all birds were slaughtered and 20 of them dissected: crop, cecum, liver, and spleen were sampled for bacteriological analyses. Both butyrate-based additives showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of Salmonella Enteritidis infection in birds from d 27 onward. However, the partially protected butyrate additive was more effective at the late phase of infection. Partially protected butyrate treatment successfully decreased infection not only in the crop and cecum but also in the liver. There were no differences in the spleen. These results suggest that sodium butyrate partially protected with vegetable fats offers a unique balance of free and protected active substances effective all along the gastrointestinal tract because it is slowly released during digestion.

  3. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  4. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  5. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  6. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  7. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  8. 46 CFR 111.105-15 - Additional methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1); (b) An oil-immersed apparatus must meet either IEC 79-6 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) or Article 500.7(I) of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1); (c) Type of protection “e” must meet IEC 60079-7 (incorporated by reference;...

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-15 - Additional methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1); (b) An oil-immersed apparatus must meet either IEC 79-6 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) or Article 500.7(I) of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1); (c) Type of protection “e” must meet IEC 60079-7 (incorporated by reference;...

  10. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A; Echeverria, Cristian M; Moya, Danisa E

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others.

  11. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A.; Echeverria, Cristian M.; Moya, Danisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others. PMID:26848856

  12. 46 CFR 34.17-25 - Additional protection required-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional protection required-T/ALL. 34.17-25 Section 34.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-25 Additional protection required—T/ALL. (a) In...

  13. Development of a Mo-Si-B coating for Nb-based Alloys and the Effects of Zr Additions to Mo-Si-B Coatings for Enhanced Oxidation Protection in Ultra-High Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu-Steffes, Otto John

    Higher efficiencies and reduced emissions performance of fossil fuel energy systems are achieved with increasing operation temperatures. This increase in operating temperature requires the use of materials with higher melting points such as refractory metal alloys. However, refractory metals suffer from catastrophic oxidation in this type of environment. Thus, oxidation protection for refractory metal alloys is a crucial step in developing next generation ultra-high temperature materials. To meet this challenge, an oxidation resistant coating for Nb based alloys has been designed as well as the incorporation of zirconium into the Mo-Si-B coating to provide further corrosion protection and a reduction in temperature for the underlying multi-layered structure. Niobium samples coated with a Mo-Si-B coating demonstrate enhanced oxidation protection compared to samples only coated with Si-B. Thermogravimetric analysis testing at 1300°C for 24 hours for both the Mo-Si-B coated Nb and Nb-based alloys show enhanced oxidation protection with mass changes of 0.44 mg/cm2 and 0.55 mg/cm2, respectively, compared to the uncoated alloy that had a mass change of 87.6 mg/cm2. To demonstrate the design concept for a coating with thermal barrier behavior, Zr is added to the Mo-Si-B coating through the pack cementation technique. The resulting coating shows that the Zr reacts with the aluminosilica top layer to form Zr silicides and ZrO2. Upon oxidation, the coating forms a mixed top layer composed of borosilica, ZrO2 and ZrSiO 4. Oxidation testing of the Zr modified Mo-Si-B coating exhibits low mass change indicating that the coating provides oxidation protection and that the Zr additions do not interfere with the oxidation protection of the Mo-Si-B coating. Finite element modeling using object oriented finite element analysis of the coating structures yielded an evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of the coatings, providing insight into the thermal performance and

  14. Additive effects on lubricant fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, S.; Moore, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Bench and engine tests were used to determine the effects of typical lubricating oil components on the fuel economy performance of energy conserving oils. The bench studies identified negative fuel economy effects of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates and positive effects of overbased sulfonates. The Sequence VI dynamometer test quantified viscometric influences on fuel economy; results indicated that SAE 5W-30 oils are not always more fuel efficient than 10W-30 analogs, and that viscosity index improver type has a large impact on fuel economy. These effects were integrated with additive effects on other formulation criteria to design an overall system.

  15. Effect of additives on protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2009-06-01

    This paper overviews solution additives that affect protein stability and aggregation during refolding, heating, and freezing processes. Solution additives are mainly grouped into two classes, i.e., protein denaturants and stabilizers. The former includes guanidine, urea, strong ionic detergents, and certain chaotropic salts; the latter includes certain amino acids, sugars, polyhydric alcohols, osmolytes, and kosmotropic salts. However, there are solution additives that are not unambiguously placed into these two classes, including arginine, certain divalent cation salts (e.g., MgCl(2)) and certain polyhydric alcohols (e.g., ethylene glycol). Certain non-ionic or non-detergent surfactants, ionic liquids, amino acid derivatives, polyamines, and certain amphiphilic polymers may belong to this class. They have marginal effects on protein structure and stability, but are able to disrupt protein interactions. Information on additives that do not catalyze chemical reactions nor affect protein functions helps us to design protein solutions for increased stability or reduced aggregation. PMID:19519415

  16. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nonpower reactors. 73.60 Section 73.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.60 Additional... nuclear material from theft or diversion pursuant to the requirements of paragraphs 73.67 (a), (b),...

  17. 46 CFR 34.17-25 - Additional protection required-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-25 Additional protection required—T/ALL. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system is installed...

  18. 46 CFR 34.17-25 - Additional protection required-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-25 Additional protection required—T/ALL. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system is installed...

  19. 46 CFR 34.17-25 - Additional protection required-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-25 Additional protection required—T/ALL. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system is installed...

  20. 46 CFR 34.17-25 - Additional protection required-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-25 Additional protection required—T/ALL. (a) In order that any residual fires above the floor plates may be extinguished when a foam system is installed...

  1. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  2. Launch pad lightning protection effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahmann, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the striking distance theory that lightning leaders will strike the nearest grounded point on their last jump to earth corresponding to the striking distance, the probability of striking a point on a structure in the presence of other points can be estimated. The lightning strokes are divided into deciles having an average peak current and striking distance. The striking distances are used as radii from the points to generate windows of approach through which the leader must pass to reach a designated point. The projections of the windows on a horizontal plane as they are rotated through all possible angles of approach define an area that can be multiplied by the decile stroke density to arrive at the probability of strokes with the window average striking distance. The sum of all decile probabilities gives the cumulative probability for all strokes. The techniques can be applied to NASA-Kennedy launch pad structures to estimate the lightning protection effectiveness for the crane, gaseous oxygen vent arm, and other points. Streamers from sharp points on the structure provide protection for surfaces having large radii of curvature. The effects of nearby structures can also be estimated.

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. Survival of free and microencapsulated Bifidobacterium: effect of honey addition.

    PubMed

    Favarin, Luciana; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Luchese, Rosa Helena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of honey addition on the viability of free and emulsion encapsulated cells of two strains of Bifidobacterium that underwent simulation of human upper gastrointestinal transit. In the control condition, without honey, free cells were drastically reduced after exposure to gastrointestinal conditions. The reduction was more pronounced with Bifidobacterium J7 of human origin. On the other hand, when cells were encapsulated, the viability reduction was higher for strain Bifidobacterium Bb12. The microencapsulation improved the viability maintenance of both Bifidobacterium strains, in recommended amounts for probiotic activity, after exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, suspending free cells of both Bifidobacterium strains in honey solutions resulted in a protective effect, equivalent to the plain microencapsulation with sodium alginate 3%. It is concluded that microencapsulation and the addition of honey improved the ability of Bifidobacterium to tolerate gastrointestinal conditions in vitro. PMID:25775038

  5. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  6. Solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical storage cell containing a redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross, Philip N.

    1999-01-01

    A class of organic redox shuttle additives is described, preferably comprising nitrogen-containing aromatics compounds, which can be used in a high temperature (85.degree. C. or higher) electrochemical storage cell comprising a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and a solid polymer electrolyte to provide overcharge protection to the cell. The organic redox additives or shuttles are characterized by a high diffusion coefficient of at least 2.1.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.2 /second and a high onset potential of 2.5 volts or higher. Examples of such organic redox shuttle additives include an alkali metal salt of 1,2,4-triazole, an alkali metal salt of imidazole, 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, 1,3,5-tricyanobenzene, and a dialkali metal salt of 3-4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione.

  7. Analysis of redox additive-based overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Bankston, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    The overcharge condition in secondary lithium batteries employing redox additives for overcharge protection, has been theoretically analyzed in terms of a finite linear diffusion model. The analysis leads to expressions relating the steady-state overcharge current density and cell voltage to the concentration, diffusion coefficient, standard reduction potential of the redox couple, and interelectrode distance. The model permits the estimation of the maximum permissible overcharge rate for any chosen set of system conditions. Digital simulation of the overcharge experiment leads to numerical representation of the potential transients, and estimate of the influence of diffusion coefficient and interelectrode distance on the transient attainment of the steady state during overcharge. The model has been experimentally verified using 1,1-prime-dimethyl ferrocene as a redox additive. The analysis of the experimental results in terms of the theory allows the calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the formal potential of the redox couple. The model and the theoretical results may be exploited in the design and optimization of overcharge protection by the redox additive approach.

  8. Regulating tissue research: do we need additional rules to protect research participants?

    PubMed

    Wright, Jessica; Ploem, Corrette; Sliwka, Marcin; Gevers, Sjef

    2010-12-01

    This article explores whether additional rules are needed for the regulation of tissue research in Europe. A human rights-based approach (referring to international documents and illustrative examples from national legislation) is taken to address the question: what is so special about tissue, in particular when compared to personal data? The existing regimes in Europe on data protection and clinical trials are presented and examined for their suitability to govern tissue research, taking into account the differences between data and tissue. Six recommendations are outlined, highlighting important points future legislation on tissue research must take into account.

  9. Evaluating Heterogeneous Conservation Effects of Forest Protection in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Payal; Baylis, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Establishing legal protection for forest areas is the most common policy used to limit forest loss. This article evaluates the effectiveness of seven Indonesian forest protected areas introduced between 1999 and 2012. Specifically, we explore how the effectiveness of these parks varies over space. Protected areas have mixed success in preserving forest, and it is important for conservationists to understand where they work and where they do not. Observed differences in the estimated treatment effect of protection may be driven by several factors. Indonesia is particularly diverse, with the landscape, forest and forest threats varying greatly from region to region, and this diversity may drive differences in the effectiveness of protected areas in conserving forest. However, the observed variation may also be spurious and arise from differing degrees of bias in the estimated treatment effect over space. In this paper, we use a difference-in-differences approach comparing treated observations and matched controls to estimate the effect of each protected area. We then distinguish the true variation in protected area effectiveness from spurious variation driven by several sources of estimation bias. Based on our most flexible method that allows the data generating process to vary across space, we find that the national average effect of protection preserves an additional 1.1% of forest cover; however the effect of individual parks range from a decrease of 3.4% to an increase of 5.3% and the effect of most parks differ from the national average. Potential biases may affect estimates in two parks, but results consistently show Sebangau National Park is more effective while two parks are substantially less able to protect forest cover than the national average. PMID:26039754

  10. Evaluating heterogeneous conservation effects of forest protection in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Payal; Baylis, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Establishing legal protection for forest areas is the most common policy used to limit forest loss. This article evaluates the effectiveness of seven Indonesian forest protected areas introduced between 1999 and 2012. Specifically, we explore how the effectiveness of these parks varies over space. Protected areas have mixed success in preserving forest, and it is important for conservationists to understand where they work and where they do not. Observed differences in the estimated treatment effect of protection may be driven by several factors. Indonesia is particularly diverse, with the landscape, forest and forest threats varying greatly from region to region, and this diversity may drive differences in the effectiveness of protected areas in conserving forest. However, the observed variation may also be spurious and arise from differing degrees of bias in the estimated treatment effect over space. In this paper, we use a difference-in-differences approach comparing treated observations and matched controls to estimate the effect of each protected area. We then distinguish the true variation in protected area effectiveness from spurious variation driven by several sources of estimation bias. Based on our most flexible method that allows the data generating process to vary across space, we find that the national average effect of protection preserves an additional 1.1% of forest cover; however the effect of individual parks range from a decrease of 3.4% to an increase of 5.3% and the effect of most parks differ from the national average. Potential biases may affect estimates in two parks, but results consistently show Sebangau National Park is more effective while two parks are substantially less able to protect forest cover than the national average.

  11. Use of fetal bovine serum substitutes for the protection of the mouse zona pellucida against hardening during cryoprotectant addition.

    PubMed

    George, M A; Johnson, M H

    1993-11-01

    The addition of 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to media used for mouse oocyte cryopreservation prevents hardening of the zona pellucida that otherwise can occur due to premature release of cortical granule contents (George et al., Hum. Reprod., 7, 401-412, 1992). Protection of human oocytes would ideally be achieved by using a human macromolecular source or a more defined bovine source than total FBS. Here we investigate whether FBS can be replaced by human serum, human cord serum, human serum albumin or fetuin, the major protein component of FBS. Only fetuin was found to be effective. PMID:7507131

  12. Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules can protect from diabetes by positively selecting T cells with additional specificities.

    PubMed

    Lühder, F; Katz, J; Benoist, C; Mathis, D

    1998-02-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes is heavily influenced by genes encoded within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), positively by some class II alleles and negatively by others. We have explored the mechanism of MHC class II-mediated protection from diabetes using a mouse model carrying the rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) transgenes from a diabetogenic T cell clone derived from a nonobese diabetic mouse. BDC2.5 TCR transgenics with C57Bl/6 background genes and two doses of the H-2(g7) allele exhibited strong insulitis at approximately 3 wk of age and most developed diabetes a few weeks later. When one of the H-2(g7) alleles was replaced by H-2(b), insulitis was still severe and only slightly delayed, but diabetes was markedly inhibited in both its penetrance and time of onset. The protective effect was mediated by the Abetab gene, and did not merely reflect haplozygosity of the Abetag7 gene. The only differences we observed in the T cell compartments of g7/g7 and g7/b mice were a decrease in CD4(+) cells displaying the transgene-encoded TCR and an increase in cells expressing endogenously encoded TCR alpha-chains. When the synthesis of endogenously encoded alpha-chains was prevented, the g7/b animals were no longer protected from diabetes. g7/b mice did not have a general defect in the production of Ag7-restricted T cells, and antigen-presenting cells from g7/b animals were as effective as those from g7/g7 mice in stimulating Ag7-restricted T cell hybridomas. These results argue against mechanisms of protection involving clonal deletion or anergization of diabetogenic T cells, or one depending on capture of potentially pathogenic Ag7-restricted epitopes by Ab molecules. Rather, they support a mechanism based on MHC class II-mediated positive selection of T cells expressing additional specificities. PMID:9449718

  13. Analysis of cell-to-bubble attachment in sparged bioreactors in the presence of cell-protecting additives.

    PubMed

    Michaels, J D; Nowak, J E; Mallik, A K; Koczo, K; Wasan, D T; Papoutsakis, E T

    1995-08-20

    To investigate the mechanisms of cell protection provided by medium additives against animal cell injury in sparged bioreactors, we have analyzed the effect of various additives on the cell-to-bubble attachment process using CHO cells in suspension. Cell-to-bubble attachment was examined using three experimental techniques: (1) cell-bubble induction time analysis (cell-to-bubble attachment times); (2) forming thin liquid films and observing the movement and location of cells in the thin films; and (3) foam flotation experiments. The induction times we measured for the various additives are as follows: no additive (50 to 500 ms), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP: 20 to 500 ms), polyethylene glycol (PEG: 200 to 1000 ms), 3% serum (500 to 1000 ms), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA: 2 to 10 s), Pluronic F68 (5 to 20 s), and Methocel (20 to 60 s). In the thin film formation experiments, cells in medium with either F68, PVA, or Methocel quickly flowed out of draining thin liquid films and entered the plateau border. When using media with no additive or with serum, the flow of cells out of the thin liquid film and film drainage were slower than for media containing Pluronic F68. PVA, or Methocel. With PVP and PEG, the thin film drainage was much slower and cells remained trapped in the film. For the foam flotation experiments, a separation factor (ratio of cell concentration in the foam catch to that in the bubble column) was determined for the various additives. In the order of increasing separation factors (i.e., increasing cell attachment to bubbles), the additives are as follows: Methocel, PVA, Pluronic F68, 3% serum, serum-free medium with no additives, PEG, and PVP. Based on the results of these three different cell-to-bubble attachment experiments, we have classified the cell-protecting additives into three groups: (1) Pluronic F68, PVA, and Methocel (reduced cell-to-bubble attachment); (2) PEG and PVP (high or increased cell-to-bubble attachment); and (3) FBS (reduced cell

  14. Protective effects of natural rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, F Raúl

    2009-03-01

    Rotavirus is a ubiquitous infection that is the leading cause of severe diarrhea worldwide. Severe infections are most commonly observed in the first 2 years of life. Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality rates and socioeconomic costs with adverse outcomes particularly prevalent in developing countries. The natural history of rotavirus infection can provide guidance for the development and optimization of an effective vaccine. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that children who acquire natural rotavirus infections develop immunity to subsequent infections, with the protective effect increasing with each natural infection. Natural infections also decrease the severity of any subsequent rotavirus infections. Notably, asymptomatic infections provide protection similar to that induced by symptomatic infections. Data also suggest that the antibody response to natural infection is heterotypic, and therefore may provide protection against multiple serotypes. These data suggest that the development of a vaccine that produces asymptomatic infection at an optimal time point may provide effective immunity. An effective vaccine should mimic protection provided by natural infection and provide protection against the most common rotavirus serotypes (ie, G1, G2, G3, G4, G9) and be able to decrease disease severity, reduce hospitalizations, and decrease disease-related costs.

  15. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ikuko; Yoneda, Toshikazu; Omura, Yoshihiko; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Kazuo; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Murahata, Yusuke; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2015-12-19

    Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs) and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm²), and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation.

  16. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ikuko; Yoneda, Toshikazu; Omura, Yoshihiko; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Kazuo; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Murahata, Yusuke; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2015-01-01

    Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs) and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm2), and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation. PMID:26703629

  17. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ikuko; Yoneda, Toshikazu; Omura, Yoshihiko; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Kazuo; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Murahata, Yusuke; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2015-12-01

    Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs) and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm²), and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation. PMID:26703629

  18. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  19. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  20. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  1. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  2. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  3. Clam predator protection is effective and necessary for food production.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Daphne; Kraeuter, John; Beal, Brian; Chew, Ken; Luckenbach, Mark; Peterson, Charles P

    2015-11-15

    Shellfish aquaculture is a widely practiced way of producing food for human consumption in coastal areas. When farming intertidal clams, farmers commonly protect young seedling clams from predatory losses by covering farmed plots with netting or screening. Recent discussion of the effectiveness of protective nets or screens and their environmental effects has raised questions concerning the utility of the practice. We provide data based on a review of more than 35 peer-reviewed articles, as well as our own research that demonstrates the efficacy of predator protection for clam farms in various habitats around the world. In addition, we evaluate the effects of screening on temperature, and comment on ancient practices of clam gardening as conducted in the Pacific Northwest. PMID:26433775

  4. Implementation of Complexity Analyzing Based on Additional Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Na; Liang, Yanhong; Liu, Fang

    According to the Complexity Theory, there is complexity in the system when the functional requirement is not be satisfied. There are several study performances for Complexity Theory based on Axiomatic Design. However, they focus on reducing the complexity in their study and no one focus on method of analyzing the complexity in the system. Therefore, this paper put forth a method of analyzing the complexity which is sought to make up the deficiency of the researches. In order to discussing the method of analyzing the complexity based on additional effect, this paper put forth two concepts which are ideal effect and additional effect. The method of analyzing complexity based on additional effect combines Complexity Theory with Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). It is helpful for designers to analyze the complexity by using additional effect. A case study shows the application of the process.

  5. Effect of additives on the purification of urease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of additives on the purification of proteins was investigated. The target protein studied here is the enzyme urease. Studies on the purification of urease from jack bean meal were carried out. 32% (v/v) acetone was utilized to extract urease from the jack bean meal. Further purification by crystallization with the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol and EDTA disodium salt dehydrate was carried out. It was found out that the presence of additives can affect the selectivity of the crystallization. Increases in both purity and yield of the urease after crystallization were observed in the presence of additives, which were proven using both SDS-PAGE and activity. Urease crystals with a yield of 69.9% and a purity of 85.1% were obtained in one crystallization step in the presence of additives. Furthermore, the effect of additives on the thermodynamics and kinetics of urease crystallization was studied.

  6. The effects of beryllium additions on the oxidation of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide based intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Chen, K.C.; Brady, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    The effects of Be additions on the oxidation behavior of {beta}-NiAl in moist air at 1,000 C and borderline alumina-forming {gamma} (TiAl) + Laves Ti-Al-Cr based alloys at 800 C and 1,000 C in dry and moist air were investigated. The addition of Be to {beta}-NiAl suppressed the formation of transient alumina, and resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In dry air, the addition of Be to the Ti-Al-Cr alloys also resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In moist air, only Ti-Al-Cr-Be alloys with a high Cr content (10 to 15 a/o) formed the protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} scale.

  7. The effects of beryllium additions on the oxidation of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide based intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Chen, K.C.; Brady, M.P.

    1998-11-01

    The effects of Be additions on the oxidation behavior of {beta}-NiAl in moist air at 1,000 C as well as on the borderline alumina-forming {gamma} + Laves Ti-Al-Cr based alloys at 800 C and 1,000 C in dry and moist air were investigated. The addition of Be to {beta}-NiAl suppressed the formation of transient alumina and resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In dry air, the addition of Be to the Ti-Al-Cr alloys also resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In moist air, only Ti-Al-Cr-Be alloys with a high Cr content (10 to 15 a/o) formed the protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} scale.

  8. The protective effect of education on cognition in professional fighters.

    PubMed

    Banks, Sarah J; Obuchowski, Nancy; Shin, Wanyong; Lowe, Mark; Phillips, Michael; Modic, Michael; Bernick, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Education has a protective effect against cognitive deficits following various forms of brain insult. Professional fighting (boxing and mixed martial arts) provides a model for assessing the impact of cumulative brain injuries on cognition and brain health. In the current cross-sectional observational study, we explore whether education would be protective against cognitive loss in fighters. We tested 141 professional fighters using a computerized neurocognitive battery, in addition to structural MRI. We used automated segmentation software to compute the volumes of various brain structures. We found fighters with high school education or less to show more associations between fight exposure and cognitive test scores. The relationship between brain structure volume and exposure did not differ based on education. These results are interpreted as putatively showing a protective effect of education on functional integrity in fighters, although longitudinal data and a larger sample size are required to further understand this relationship. PMID:24191967

  9. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  10. Unraveling Additive from Nonadditive Effects Using Genomic Relationship Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Patricio R.; Resende, Marcio F. R.; Gezan, Salvador A.; Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de los Campos, Gustavo; Kirst, Matias; Huber, Dudley; Peter, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    The application of quantitative genetics in plant and animal breeding has largely focused on additive models, which may also capture dominance and epistatic effects. Partitioning genetic variance into its additive and nonadditive components using pedigree-based models (P-genomic best linear unbiased predictor) (P-BLUP) is difficult with most commonly available family structures. However, the availability of dense panels of molecular markers makes possible the use of additive- and dominance-realized genomic relationships for the estimation of variance components and the prediction of genetic values (G-BLUP). We evaluated height data from a multifamily population of the tree species Pinus taeda with a systematic series of models accounting for additive, dominance, and first-order epistatic interactions (additive by additive, dominance by dominance, and additive by dominance), using either pedigree- or marker-based information. We show that, compared with the pedigree, use of realized genomic relationships in marker-based models yields a substantially more precise separation of additive and nonadditive components of genetic variance. We conclude that the marker-based relationship matrices in a model including additive and nonadditive effects performed better, improving breeding value prediction. Moreover, our results suggest that, for tree height in this population, the additive and nonadditive components of genetic variance are similar in magnitude. This novel result improves our current understanding of the genetic control and architecture of a quantitative trait and should be considered when developing breeding strategies. PMID:25324160

  11. Interactive effects of nutrient additions and predation on infaunal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Posey, M.H.; Alphin, T.D.; Cahoon, L.; Lindquist, D.; Becker, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrient additions represent an important anthropogenic stress on coastal ecosystems. At moderate levels, increased nutrients may lead to increased primary production and, possibly, to increased biomass of consumers although complex trophic interactions may modify or mask these effects. We examined the influence of nutrient additions and interactive effects of trophic interactions (predation) on benthic infaunal composition and abundances through small-scale field experiments in 2 estuaries that differed in ambient nutrient conditions. A blocked experimental design was used that allowed an assessment of direct nutrient effects in the presence and absence of predation by epibenthic predators as well as an assessment of the independent effects of predation. Benthic microalgal production increased with experimental nutrient additions and was greater when infaunal abundances were lower, but there were no significant interactions between these factors. Increased abundances of one infaunal taxa, Laeonereis culveri, as well as the grazer feeding guild were observed with nutrient additions and a number of taxa exhibited higher abundances with predator exclusion. In contrast to results from freshwater systems there were no significant interactive effects between nutrient additions and predator exclusion as was predicted. The infaunal responses observed here emphasize the importance of both bottom-up (nutrient addition and primary producer driven) and top-down (predation) controls in structuring benthic communities. These processes may work at different spatial and temporal scales, and affect different taxa, making observation of potential interactive effects difficult.

  12. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  13. Effects of some polymeric additives on the cocrystallization of caffeine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jihae; Kim, Il Won

    2011-11-01

    Effects of polymeric additives on the model cocrystallization were examined. The model cocrystal was made from caffeine and oxalic acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were the additives. The cocrystals were formed as millimeter-sized crystals without additives, and they became microcrystals with PLLA and PCL, and nanocrystals with PAA. XRD and IR revealed that the cocrystal structure was unchanged despite the strong effects of the additives on the crystal morphology, although some decrease in crystallinity was observed with PAA as confirmed by DSC. The DSC study also showed that the cocrystal melted and recrystallized to form α-caffeine upon heating. The present study verified that the polymeric additives can be utilized to modulate the size and morphology of the cocrystals without interfering the intermolecular interactions essential to the integrity of the cocrystal structures.

  14. Additive effects on the toughening of unsaturated polyester resins

    SciTech Connect

    Suspene, L.; Yang, Y.S.; Pascault, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    An elastomer additive, carboxy-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, was used for toughening in the free radical cross-linking copolymerization of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins. For molded parts, Charpy impact behavior was generally enhanced and the number of catastrophic failures was reduced. The miscibility and interfacial properties of additive and resin blends play important roles in the toughening process. Phase-diagram studies showed that the elastomer additive is immiscible with the UP resin and is phase-separated from the resin matrix during curing. This phase-separation phenomenon is similar to that in the low-profile mechanism of UP resins. Additive-resin system miscibility greatly influences curing morphology. Microvoids occurred in the additive phase of cured resin because of shrinkage stress. The intrinsic inhomogeneity of the polyester network and the existence of microvoids in the final product limit the toughening effect of additives on unsaturated polyester resins. 49 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... performed particle counts on samples collected during the Study. Table 1 provides the exercise and sampling... revised PortaCount quantitative fit-testing protocols are not sufficiently accurate or reliable to include...) to Appendix A of ] its Respiratory Protection Standard (see 69 FR 46986). OSHA also published...

  16. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be stored in a vault equipped with an intrusion alarm or in a vault-type room, and each such vault or... intervals not exceeding 4 hours, or by intrusion alarms. (5) Admittance to a material access area shall be... requirement. Each unoccupied material access area shall be locked and protected by an intrusion alarm...

  17. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1988-11-14

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  18. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to sue chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. (VC)

  19. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of additives on the ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow them to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 49 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Effects of additives on alum hematoxylin staining solutions.

    PubMed

    Clark, G

    1975-03-01

    All additives tested (ethyl alcohol, glycerine, chloral hydrate, ethylene and propylene glycol, and citric, malonic and maleic acids) in varying degrees limited the conversion of hematein to insoluble compounds. Peak absorbances increased slightly in hematoxylin solutions containing citric, malonic and maleic acids, but decreased with other additives, and in controls. After four months storage the absorbance in all solutions increased about 50%, acidity increased and staining effectiveness increased.

  1. Protective effects of ginseng on neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Wei-Yi; Farooqui, Tahira; Koh, Hwee-Ling; Farooqui, Akhlaq A.; Ling, Eng-Ang

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effects of ginseng on neurological disorders are discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide (NO) production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) including β-amyloid (Aβ) formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis are presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in neurological disorders. PMID:26236231

  2. Effect of Ca addition on the corrosion behavior of Mg-Al-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiang; Peng, Jian; Nyberg, Eric A.; Pan, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures and corrosion resistance of magnesium-5 wt% aluminum-0.3 wt% manganese alloys (Mg-Al-Mn) with different Ca additions (0.2-4 wt%) were investigated. Results showed that with increasing Ca addition, the grain of the alloys became more refined, whereas the corrosion resistant ability of the alloys initially increased and then decreased. The alloy with 2 wt% Ca addition exhibited the best corrosion resistance, attributed to the effect of the oxide film and (Mg,Al)2Ca phases which were discontinuously distributed on the grain boundaries. These phases acted as micro-victims, they preferentially corroded to protect the α-Mg matrix. The oxide film formed on the alloy surface can hinder the solution further to protect the α-Mg matrix.

  3. Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl Phosphate: Phosphorus – Nitrogen Synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Gaan, Sabyasachi; Sun, Gang; Hutches, Katherine; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen additives like urea, guanidine carbonate and melamine formaldehyde on the flame retardant efficacy of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of activation energy of decomposition of treated cotton indicated that nitrogen additives enhance the thermal stability during the burning process. SEM pictures of chars formed after LOI test showed the formation of protective polymeric coating on the surface. The surface of chars formed were evaluated using FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis which showed that the coating was composed of Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Oxygen containing species. Formation of this coating during the burning process could lead to the synergistic interaction of phosphorus and nitrogen. Based on the experimental data we have further proposed several reaction mechanisms which could contribute to synergistic action and formation of protective coating on the surface of char.

  4. NUTRIENT ADDITION TO RESTORE SALMON RUNS: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION POLICIES AND REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One scheme to help restore salmon to the Pacific Northwest is the addition of nutrients (i.e., raw or processed salmon carcasses, and commercially produced organic or inorganic fertilizers) to headwaters (e.g., watersheds, lakes, or streams) that are now nutrient deficient becau...

  5. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the susceptibility of Onchorhynchus mykiss to Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Menanteau-Ledouble, S; Krauss, I; Santos, G; Fibi, S; Weber, B; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-06-29

    In recent years, feed additives have increasingly been adopted by the aquaculture industry. These supplements not only offer an alternative to antibiotics but have also been linked to enhanced growth performance. However, the literature is still limited and provides contradictory information on their effectiveness. This is mainly due to the wide variety of available products and their complex mechanisms of action. Phytogenic feed additives have been shown to have antimicrobial effects and can improve growth performance. In the present study, we investigated the susceptibility of several fish pathogenic bacteria to a phytogenic essential oil product in vitro. In addition, we determined the protective effect of a commercial phytogenic feed additive containing oregano, anis and citrus oils on the resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida. The bacterium was administered through 3 different routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion in a bacterial solution and cohabitation with infected fish. Mortality rates were significantly lower in infected rainbow trout that had received the feed additive: the overall mortality rate across all routes of infection was 18% in fish fed a diet containing the additive compared to 37% in fish that received unsupplemented feed. The route of infection also significantly impacted mortality, with average mortality rates of 60, 17.5 and 5% for intra-peritoneal injection, immersion and cohabitation, respectively. In general, fish were better protected against infection by immersion than infection by injection. PMID:26119300

  6. Multitrophic effects of nutrient addition in upland grassland.

    PubMed

    Fountain, M T; Brown, V K; Gange, A C; Symondson, W O C; Murray, P J

    2008-06-01

    Although the effects of nutrient enhancement on aquatic systems are well documented, the consequences of nutritional supplements on soil food webs are poorly understood, and results of past research examining bottom-up effects are often conflicting. In addition, many studies have failed to separate the effects of nutrient enrichment and the physical effects of adding organic matter. In this field study, we hypothesised that the addition of nitrogen to soil would result in a trophic cascade, through detritivores (Collembola) to predators (spiders), increasing invertebrate numbers and diversity. Nitrogen and lime were added to plots in an upland grassland in a randomised block design. Populations of Collembola and spiders were sampled by means of pitfall traps and identified to species. Seventeen species of Collembola were identified from the nitrogen plus lime (N+L) and control plots. Species assemblage, diversity, richness, evenness and total number were not affected by nutrient additions. However, there was an increase in the number of Isotomidae juveniles and Parisotoma anglicana trapped in the N+L plots. Of the 44 spider species identified, over 80% were Linyphiidae. An effect on species assemblage from the addition of N+L to the plots was observed on two of the four sampling dates (July 2002 and June 2003). The linyphiid, Oedothorax retusus, was the only species significantly affected by the treatments and was more likely to be trapped in the control plots.The increased number of juvenile Collembola, and change in community composition of spiders, were consequences of the bottom-up effect caused by nutrient inputs. However, despite efforts to eliminate the indirect effects of nutrient inputs, a reduction in soil moisture in the N+L plots cannot be eliminated as a cause of the invertebrate population changes observed. Even so, this experiment was not confounded by the physical effects of habitat structure reported in most previous studies. It provides evidence

  7. Effects of additional cysteine in fish diet on mercury concentration.

    PubMed

    Mok, W J; Hatanaka, Y; Seoka, M; Itoh, T; Tsukamasa, Y; Ando, M

    2014-03-15

    Mercury contamination, especially of seafood, continues to attract public concern. Cysteine, NH2CH(CH2SH)COOH, is a naturally occurring hydrophobic amino acid that contains a thiol group. The purpose of our study was to investigate the use of the additive cysteine in fish diets to reduce mercury concentration in fish, and to observe the effectiveness of dietary cysteine in fish livers. Diets containing 1% and 10% cysteine successfully decreased mercury concentrations in fish compared with the 0% cysteine diet. The liver may have formed excessive lipid droplets or was unable to mobilize lipid stores during exposure to mercury; additional cysteine could help to mobilize excessive lipids in it.

  8. Effects of a Preschool Staff Intervention on Children's Sun Protection: Outcomes of Sun Protection Is Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Tripp, Mary K.; James, Aimee S.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Mueller, Nancy H.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Parcel, Guy S.

    2007-01-01

    The preschool is an important yet understudied setting for sun-protection interventions. This study evaluates the effects of Sun Protection is Fun! (SPF) on preschool staff behavioral and psychosocial outcomes related to protecting children from sun exposure. Twenty preschools participated in a 2-year, group-randomized trial to evaluate SPF, a…

  9. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  10. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Beaudette, C; Guo, J; Bozhilov, K; Mangolini, L

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive "dead spots" in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  11. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  12. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-08-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction.

  13. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-02-04

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation over Rh catalysts. Ethylene hydroformylation has often served as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of Rh catalysts. The mechanism of CO insertion in ethylene hydroformylation over Rh/SiO{sub 2} was investigated.

  14. Effect of additives on the thermolysis of ammonia borane

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J; Linehan, John C; Camaioni, Donald M; Rassat, Scot D; Zheng, Feng; Autrey, Thomas

    2007-08-21

    Ammonia borane (AB) is an attractive hydrogen storage material with high gravimetric and volumetric density of hydrogen. The thermolysis of solid ammonia borane follows sigmoidal kinetics with an "induction period" prior to rapid hydrogen release, generating a complex mixture of spent fuel products. We present evidence for the induction period involving isomerization of AB into the diammoniate of diborane (DADB). The induction period is substantially decreased with the addition of DADB. The induction period is also dependent on AB purity and temperature. Reducing the induction period and enhancing the rate of hydrogen release ultimately makes AB an attractive hydrogen storage material for fuel applications. This study profiles the mechanism of the thermolysis of AB, the effect of AB purity and the effect of chemical additives on the induction period and rates of dehydrogenation of AB.

  15. Protective Effect of Progesterone during Pregnancy against Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung Hee; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2013-01-01

    There have been several epidemiologic studies supporting the protective role of pregnancy, although the mechanism is not clear. High level of progesterone, which is crucial in maintaining pregnancy, has been supposed to be one of the causative factors. Progesterone is produced at the corpus luteum in the early pregnancy and the placenta in the late pregnancy period. In several experimental studies, progesterone was reported to induce apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. In addition, progesterone has been shown to exert its anticancer effect through genomic and non-genomic action. The objective of this review is to discuss the protective mechanism of pregnancy against ovarian cancer focusing on the steroid hormone, progesterone. PMID:25337537

  16. Effect of additives on physicochemical properties in amorphous starch matrices.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Wang, Simon; Ludescher, Richard D

    2015-03-15

    The effect of the addition of non-reducing sugars or methylcellulose on the matrix physical properties and rate of non-enzymatic browning (NBR) between exogenous glucose+lysine in a starch-based glassy matrix were studied, using the methods of luminescence and FTIR. Amorphous starch-based matrices were formulated by rapidly dehydrating potato starch gel mixed with additives at weight ratios of 7:93 (additive:starch). Data on the phosphorescence emission energy and lifetime from erythrosin B dispersed in the matrices indicated that sugars decreased starch matrix mobility in a Tg-dependent manner, except for trehalose that interacted with starch in a unique mode, while methylcellulose, the additive with the highest Tg, increased the molecular mobility. Using FTIR, we found that methylcellulose decreased the strength of hydrogen bond network and sugars enhanced the hydrogen bond strength in the order: trehalose>maltitol>sucrose. Comparing those changes with the rate of NBR between exogenous glucose+lysine, we suggest that NBR rates are primarily influenced by matrix mobility, which is modulated by the hydrogen bond network, and interactions among components. PMID:25308673

  17. Cantaloupe melon peroxidase: characterization and effects of additives on activity.

    PubMed

    Lamikanra, O; Watson, M A

    2000-06-01

    Peroxidase in cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.), a fruit commonly fresh cut processed, was characterized to determine reaction pathway, optimal conditions for activity and effect of some additives on enzymatic action. Mn2+, CaCl2, NaNO2 and kinetin had partial inhibitory effects on enzyme activity. Activity was effectively inhibited by compounds capable of chelating peroxidase heme iron such as diethyldithiocarbamate and tiron, but unaffected by EDTA. Free radical scavenger, superoxide dismutase, also had no effect on reaction velocity. Enzymatic action was consistent with that of ascorbate peroxidase based on the relatively higher affinity for ascorbate over guaiacol. Optimum activity temperature was 50-55 degrees C. The enzyme was stable at temperatures below 40 degrees C and at 50 degrees C for up to 10 min. Over 90% of total activity was lost at 80 degrees C within 5 min. Broad pH optima, 5.5-7.5 at 50 degrees C and 6-7 at 30 degrees C, were obtained. Peroxidase activity in cantaloupe was higher than those in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), suggesting a relatively high oxidative stress in fresh cut cantaloupe. The potential use of ascorbate as an additive in fresh cut cantaloupe melon was demonstrated by its ability to preserve color in minimally processed fruits for 25 days at 4 degrees C, possibly as a result of an enhanced antioxidative action of the ascorbate-peroxidase complex and trace metal ion cofactors.

  18. Effects of acetylacetone additions on PZT thin film processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.W.; Assink, R.A.; Dimos, D.; Sinclair, M.B.; Boyle, T.J.; Buchheit, C.D.

    1995-02-01

    Sol-gel processing methods are frequently used for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for many electronic applications. Our standard approach for film fabrication utilizes lead acetate and acetic acid modified metal alkoxides of zirconium and titanium in the preparation of our precursor solutions. This report highlights some of our recent results on the effects of the addition of a second chelating ligand, acetylacetone, to this process. The authors discuss the changes in film drying behavior, densification and ceramic microstructure which accompany acetylacetone additions to the precursor solution and relate the observed variations in processing behavior to differences in chemical precursor structure induced by the acetylacetone ligand. Improvements in thin film microstructure, ferroelectric and optical properties are observed when acetylacetone is added to the precursor solution.

  19. [Alcohol and cardiovascular system: mechanisms of the protective effects].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, J L

    2001-11-01

    Moderate and regularly alcohol consumption reduces death rate from coronary heart disease and thrombotic stroke. This beneficial correlation observed with several alcoholic beverages seems to be mainly due to an ethanol effect. However the particular role of microconstituants contained in red wine must be considered. The mechanism of the putative protective effect of alcohol intake is mediated through the elevation of HDL cholesterol and through the aintioxydative effect of polyphenolic compounds. In addition, alcohol acts favourably on platelets agregation, fibrinolysis and several other coagulation parameters. Despite these explanations are yet speculative and there is no causal relation between alcohol and reduced coronary death, epidemiological data are consistent with the belief that daily consumption of one or two glasses of an alcoholic beverage has salutary effect on health.

  20. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Pronounced effects of additional resistance in Andreev reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. Y.; Huang, S. X.; Chien, C. L.

    2010-06-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the additional resistance (RE) , which is an unavoidable consequence of pseudo-four-probe electrical measurements, on the point-contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectrum by both modeling and experiments. Instead of considering the total resistance between the two voltage leads across a point contact as a sum of a contact resistance (RC) and a fixed sample resistance (RS) , it is essential to treat the total resistance as a sum of the Andreev resistance RAR and the additional resistance RE , which are, respectively, the resistances affected and unaffected by the Andreev reflection process. We show a detailed formalism of taking RE into account in modeling and demonstrate that the PCAR spectrum can be drastically affected by the presence of RE . Experimentally, we have found that not only RE cannot be readily measured or even estimated, it is in fact different for each contact, depending on the contact resistance and whether the contact is near the purely ballistic regime or the purely diffusive regime. A self-consistent process is necessary to analyze the entire PCAR spectrum, properly normalize the conductance, determine RE , and other parameters including the spin polarization and the superconducting gap for each contact. We determine RE for various contacts on specimens with different resistivity and resolve the causes of RE . For contacts close to the diffusive regime, there are two sources of RE : a dominant contribution which is linearly proportional to the total resistance and a constant value from the sample resistance. We also address the effects of additional resistance when PCAR is administered in the ballistic limit and in the diffusive limit. With the proper treatment of the additional resistance, we demonstrate that PCAR can quantitatively extract essential information of spin polarization and superconducting gap.

  2. Effects of Salinity and Nutrient Addition on Mangrove Excoecaria agallocha

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition. PMID:24691495

  3. Effectiveness of antibacterial copper additives in silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Gosau, Martin; Bürgers, Ralf; Vollkommer, Tobias; Holzmann, Thomas; Prantl, Lukas

    2013-08-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis plays a major role in capsular contractures of silicone breast implants. This in vitro study evaluates the antibacterial effect of copper on S. epidermidis in silicone implants. Specimens of a silicone material used for breast augmentation (Cu0) and specimens coated with different copper concentrations (Cu1, Cu2) were artificially aged. Surface roughness and surface free energy were assessed. The specimens were incubated in an S. epidermidis suspension. We assessed the quantification and the viability of adhering bacteria by live/dead cell labeling with fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, inhibition of bacterial growth was evaluated by agar diffusion, broth culture, and quantitative culture of surface bacteria. No significant differences in surface roughness and surface free energy were found between Cu0, Cu1 and Cu2. Aging did not change surface characteristics and the extent of bacterial adhesion. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the quantity of bacteria on Cu0 was significantly higher than that on Cu1 and Cu2. The ratio of dead to total adhering bacteria was significantly lower on Cu0 than on Cu1 and Cu2, and tended to be higher for Cu2 than for Cu1. Quantitative culture showed equal trends. Copper additives seem to have anti-adherence and bactericidal effects on S. epidermidis in vitro.

  4. Effects of salinity and nutrient addition on mangrove Excoecaria agallocha.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition.

  5. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  6. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  7. Additional disinfectants effective against the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Webb, R; Mendez, D; Berger, L; Speare, R

    2007-02-01

    Chytridiomycosis, a disease contributing to amphibian declines worldwide, is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Identifying efficient and practical disinfectants effective against B. dendrobatidis is important to reduce the spread of the disease both in the wild and captivity. Previous studies identified a range of suitable disinfectant strategies. We evaluated the suitability of 3 additional disinfectants: two of these (TriGene Virucidal Disinfectant Cleaner and F10 Super Concentrate Disinfectant) are mixtures of chemicals and one (Betadine Antiseptic Liquid) contains a single active ingredient, povidone iodine. The disinfectants were tested using a range of concentrations for 1,5 and 10 min to determine their ability to kill B. dendrobatidis in vitro. The measure of effectiveness was 100% kill of zoosporangia grown in multiwell plates. All disinfectants had a 100% efficacy at concentrations recommended by the manufacturers. The lowest concentrations capable of 100% kill after exposure for 1 min were 0.1 ml l(-1) for TriGene, 0.33 ml l(-1) for F10 and 100 ml l(-1) for Betadine. TriGene is the most effective disinfectant yet to be found, and both TriGene and F10 are more effective than various disinfectants tested in previous studies. TriGene and F10 are considered suitable for use in the field, as only small amounts of concentrate are needed. PMID:17425259

  8. Additive effectiveness in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    This study has presented evidence for improved design of soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff walls for containment of contaminants in the subsurface. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are designed and built as hydraulic barriers. These studies show that these hydraulic barriers can be enhanced to significantly retard the transport of metals such as cadmium. The results of these laboratory studies and the associated mathematical modeling suggest that passive barrier systems can be readily transformed to active systems which effect some treatment of the ground water passing through the barrier. This study examined the effectiveness of three mineral enhancements (attapulgite, calcium chabazite and bentonite) on the retention of cadmium in barrier systems. Cadmium is chosen as the model compound because it is a common, hazardous contaminant which has been found to be among the most mobile of the heavy metals under a range of field conditions. Previous studies have predicted the migration rates of cadmium through adsorbent barrier systems by using isotherm data in conjunction with one dimensional transport models. This study extends the earlier work by examining the effect of adsorbent concentration on predicted barrier effectiveness. Enhancement of a soil-bentonite slurry wall backfill was best enhanced through the addition of attapulgite, followed by ca-chabazite and finally by increasing bentonite content. It was found that the effectiveness of barriers increases with adsorbent concentration. Increasing the bentonite content is less effective in retarding the transport of cadmium than adding attapulgite or ca-chabazite. Note that these were laboratory findings and readers are provided the usual caution regarding extrapolation to field performance.

  9. The effect of additives and substrates on nonferrous metal electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zeyang

    Electrodeposits play an important role in science and industry today. Control of the quality of electrodeposits becomes more critical. One of the major factors which can lead to better products is the ability to control the electrocrystallization process to obtain smooth, dense and coherent deposits with good mechanical and physical properties, such as corrosion resistance, ductility and less internal stress. Many parameters may play a prominent role in electrodeposition. Two of the more important parameters is the control of impurities/additives present in the solution and cathode condition. In this study, the effects of small concentrations of tin additions on the composition, structure and surface morphology of Zn-Ni alloy deposits were studied. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were conducted to study the role of tin in changing the charge transfer resistance of the reaction. The results obtained were promising in elucidating some basic factors which influence Zn-Ni alloy electrocrystallization mechanisms. The effects of thermal oxidation of stainless steel cathodes used in copper electrodeposition were studied. Particular emphasis was given to the initial stages of copper nucleation and growth. The copper electrocrystallization process was strongly influenced by the temperature applied in oxidizing the stainless steel. In this research, the effects of the impurities Alsp{3+} and Crsp{3+} using two stainless steels as cathodes during Ni electrowinning from a sulfate bath were studied. The current efficiency decreased in the presence of the impurities over the concentration range studied. Certain changes in the surface morphology, internal stress, crystallographic orientation and polarization behavior were observed. The changes were different for two stainless steel substrates.

  10. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Rao, Suresh; Rai, Manoj P; D'souza, Prema

    2016-01-01

    The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent. PMID:27072205

  11. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.; Pien, S.I.

    1991-06-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  12. Effect of Nb addition on the microstructure of BNT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangsubun, Chontira

    2014-11-01

    This research studied the fabrication of bismuth-sodium-titanate (BNT) powders and the effect of Nb2O5 addition on the structure and the properties of BNT ceramics. The powders were synthesized via high-energy ball milling by using a mixed-oxide process. The results show that the perovskite structure was obtained in BNT powders at a calcination temperature of 800 °C. Particle sizes below 200 nm were observed. For the study, BNT/xNb ceramics were prepared using x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.05. The ceramics were sintered at a temperature of 1200 °C for 2 hours. The results showed that the relative density increased with increasing Nb2O5 from 0 to 0.03 whereas the grain size decreased with increasing Nb2O5 from 0.01 to 0.05. In addition, the dielectric constant increased with increasing Nb2O5 content.

  13. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Robalino, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services. PMID:18854414

  14. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation.

    PubMed

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Robalino, Juan A

    2008-10-21

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services.

  15. Effect of adsorbent addition on floc formation and clarification.

    PubMed

    Younker, Jessica M; Walsh, Margaret E

    2016-07-01

    Adding adsorbent into the coagulation process is an emerging treatment solution for targeting hard-to-remove dissolved organic compounds from both drinking water and industrial wastewater. The impact of adding powdered activated carbon (PAC) or organoclay (OC) adsorbents with ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant was investigated in terms of potential changes to the coagulated flocs formed with respect to size, structure, and breakage and regrowth properties. The ability of dissolved air flotation (DAF) and sedimentation (SED) clarification processes to remove hybrid adsorbent-coagulant flocs was also evaluated through clarified water quality analysis of samples collected in bench-scale jar test experiments. The jar tests were conducted using both a synthetic fresh water and oily wastewater test water spiked with dissolved aromatic compounds phenol and naphthalene. Results of the study demonstrated that addition of adsorbent reduced the median coagulated floc size by up to 50% but did not affect floc strength or regrowth potential after application of high shear. Experimental results in fresh water demonstrated that sedimentation was more effective than DAF for clarification of both FeCl3-PAC and FeCl3-OC floc aggregates. However, experimental tests performed on the synthetic oily wastewater showed that coagulant-adsorbent floc aggregates were effectively removed with both DAF and sedimentation treatment, with lower residual turbidity achieved in clarified water samples than with coagulation treatment alone. Addition of OC or PAC into the coagulation process resulted in removals of over half, or nearly all of the dissolved aromatics, respectively. PMID:27064206

  16. Additional Nucleophile-Free FeCl3-Catalyzed Green Deprotection of 2,4-Dimethoxyphenylmethyl-Protected Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Masuda, Masahiro; Honda, Akie; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Park, Kwihwan; Yasukawa, Naoki; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2016-01-01

    The deprotection of the methoxyphenylmethyl (MPM) ether and ester derivatives can be generally achieved by the combinatorial use of a catalytic Lewis acid and stoichiometric nucleophile. The deprotections of 2,4-dimethoxyphenylmethyl (DMPM)-protected alcohols and carboxylic acids were found to be effectively catalyzed by iron(III) chloride without any additional nucleophile to form the deprotected mother alcohols and carboxylic acids in excellent yields. Since the present deprotection proceeds via the self-assembling mechanism of the 2,4-DMPM protective group itself to give the hardly-soluble resorcinarene derivative as a precipitate, the rigorous purification process by silica-gel column chromatography was unnecessary and the sufficiently-pure alcohols and carboxylic acids were easily obtained in satisfactory yields after simple filtration.

  17. [Addition of pomegranate juice to statin inhibits cholesterol accumulation in macrophages: protective role for the phytosterol beta-sitosterol and for the polyphenolic antioxidant punicalagin].

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Mira; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Macrophage cholesterol and oxidized lipids accumulation and foam cell formation occur in the early stages of atherosclerosis development. In the current study we used the J774A.1 murine macrophage cell line in order to analyze two atherogenic functions: a. the ability of the cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and to increase cellular oxidative stress, and b. the ability of the cells to synthesize cholesterol, leading to cholesterol accumulation in the cells. The addition of punicalagin, or beta-sitosterol, or pomegranate juice (which contains both of the above) to simvastatin, significantly improved the statin's ability to inhibit macrophage cholesterol biosynthesis. Furthermore, the addition of pomegranate juice (or punicalagin, but not beta sitosterol) to simvastatin significantly increased the statin ability to protect the cells from oxidative stress. Taken together, the current research provides evidence for the additional cardio protection of statins, that is provided by pomegranate juice antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effects. The use of statins in combination with pomegranate juice in hypercholesterolemic patients, may allow for the use of lower dosages of statin in order to prevent statin deleterious side effects.

  18. Effect of salts addition on hydrogen production by C. acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Alshiyab, H; Kalil, M S; Hamid, A A; Wan Yusoff, W M

    2008-09-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of salts addition to fermentation medium on hydrogen production, under anaerobic batch culture system. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of both NaCl and sodium acetate on hydrogen production. The optimum pH and temperature for hydrogen production were at initial pH of 7.0 and 30 degrees C. Enhanced production of hydrogen, using glucose as substrate was achieved. In the absence of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Acetate enhanced hydrogen yield (Y(P/S)) from 350 mL g(-1) glucose utilized to 391 mL g(-1) glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 ml/L/h. Results also show that sodium chloride and sodium acetate in the medium adversely affect growth. Hydrogen yield per biomass (Y(P/X)) of 254 ml/L/g, biomass per substrate utilized (Y(X/S)) of 0.268 and (Y(H2/S) of 0.0349. The results suggested that Sodium at any concentration resulted to inhibit the bacterial productivity of hydrogen.

  19. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  20. Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive.

    PubMed

    Maher, T J; Wurtman, R J

    1987-11-01

    The artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester), is consumed, primarily in beverages, by a very large number of Americans, causing significant elevations in plasma and, probably, brain phenylalanine levels. Anecdotal reports suggest that some people suffer neurologic or behavioral reactions in association with aspartame consumption. Since phenylalanine can be neurotoxic and can affect the synthesis of inhibitory monoamine neurotransmitters, the phenylalanine in aspartame could conceiveably mediate neurologic effects. If mice are given aspartame in doses that elevate plasma phenylalanine levels more than those of tyrosine (which probably occurs after any aspartame dose in humans), the frequency of seizures following the administration of an epileptogenic drug, pentylenetetrazole, is enhanced. This effect is simulated by equimolar phenylalanine and blocked by concurrent administration of valine, which blocks phenylalanine's entry into the brain. Aspartame also potentiates the induction of seizures by inhaled fluorothyl or by electroconvulsive shock. Perhaps regulations concerning the sale of food additives should be modified to require the reporting of adverse reactions and the continuing conduct of mandated safety research.

  1. Studies on nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Fan, Weijie; Duan, Jizhou; Hou, Baorong

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion and growth of biofouling organisms have severe influence on the reliability, service life and environmental adaptability of marine ships. Based on the bactericidal capacity of cuprous oxide and photochemical effect of nano-additive, environment-friendly and efficient marine antifouling paints were prepared in this study. The evaluation of the antifouling paints was carried out by the laboratory method using bacteria and phytoplanktonic microorganisms as target organisms, as well as measurements with panels in shallow submergence in natural seawater. Results showed good agreement of all the tests, indicating the remarkable antifouling performance of the paints. To our knowledge, this was one of the first systematic studies on effects of nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls by measurements on bacterial inhibition, algal adhesion and growth of large organisms. PMID:25016277

  2. Studies on nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Fan, Weijie; Duan, Jizhou; Hou, Baorong

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion and growth of biofouling organisms have severe influence on the reliability, service life and environmental adaptability of marine ships. Based on the bactericidal capacity of cuprous oxide and photochemical effect of nano-additive, environment-friendly and efficient marine antifouling paints were prepared in this study. The evaluation of the antifouling paints was carried out by the laboratory method using bacteria and phytoplanktonic microorganisms as target organisms, as well as measurements with panels in shallow submergence in natural seawater. Results showed good agreement of all the tests, indicating the remarkable antifouling performance of the paints. To our knowledge, this was one of the first systematic studies on effects of nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls by measurements on bacterial inhibition, algal adhesion and growth of large organisms.

  3. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  4. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricants was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricant tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwar additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt pct sulfur and 0.1 wt pct phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  5. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  6. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, George H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  7. Protective netting, an additional method for the integrated control of livestock trypanosomosis in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen, J; Van den Bossche, P

    2006-12-01

    Studies were conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to evaluate the effectiveness of netting in preventing Glossina austeni and Glossina brevipalpis from entering H-traps. Results indicated that a net of 1.5 m in height was effective in reducing catches of G. austeni by 59.6% and catches of G. brevipalpis by 80.9%. Increasing the net height to 2.5 m, reduced catches by 96.6% and 100% for G. brevipalpis and G. austeni, respectively. Nets of this height also reduced catches of horse flies by 55%. Although the potential use of protective netting has limitations in tsetse-infested areas of rural northern KwaZulu-Natal, it is a low-technology method that can be used as part of integrated disease management strategies.

  8. The effects of atmosphere and additives of coal slag viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.M.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    The viscosities of a Powder River Basin slag were measured in air, air + 10% water vapor, and a reducing atmosphere. The temperature of critical viscosity (T), below which the viscosity increases dramatically, was approximately 1250{degrees}C in air and air + water vapor, but dropped to 1180{degrees}C when measured in the reducing atmosphere. Since the corrosivity of the slag is much higher when its viscosity is low, the slag will be highly corrosive at the substantially lower temperature in reducing gas. The addition of alumina increased viscosity and T{sub c} making the slag less corrosive, while magnesia additions dropped viscosity but increased T{sub c}. These changes imply that magnesia additions will make the slag slightly more corrosive in its liquid range, but that the slag will harden and become less corrosive at a higher temperature than without the magnesia addition. The changes in T{sub c} were more substantial when measured in the presence of water vapor in the case of alumina additions, but less substantial in the case of magnesia additions.

  9. Protective Effects of Arginine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Ethanol Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yanfei; Du, Zhaoli; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses in the process of industrial fermentation. As the currently main organism for bio-ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffers from ethanol stress. Some amino acids have been reported to be related to yeast tolerance to stresses. Here the relationship between arginine and yeast response to ethanol stress was investigated. Marked inhibitions of ethanol on cell growth, expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and intracellular accumulation of arginine were observed. Furthermore, extracellular addition of arginine can abate the ethanol damage largely. To further confirm the protective effects of arginine on yeast cells, yeast strains with different levels of arginine content were constructed by overexpression of ARG4 involved in arginine biosynthesis or CAR1 encoding arginase. Intracellular arginine was increased by 18.9% or 13.1% respectively by overexpression of ARG4 or disruption of CAR1, which enhanced yeast tolerance to ethanol stress. Moreover, a 41.1% decrease of intracellular arginine was observed in CAR1 overexpressing strain, which made yeast cells keenly sensitive to ethanol. Further investigations indicated that arginine protected yeast cells from ethanol damage by maintaining the integrity of cell wall and cytoplasma membrane, stabilizing the morphology and function of organellae due to low ROS generation. PMID:27507154

  10. Simulated Space Environment Effects on Tether Materials with Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) erodes most organic materials. and ultraviolet radiation embrittles polymers. A previous study indicated untreated polymers such as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are severely degraded when exposed to AO. This test series was performed to determine the effect of AO and UV on the mechanical integrity of tether materials that were treated with AO-protective coatings. Three coating systems were evaluated for their ability to protect the underlying material from AO erosion. The first coating system is the Photosil surface modification process which incorporates silicon-containing functional groups into the top micron of an organic material. The Photosil process has had favorable results with polyurethane- and epoxy-based thermal control coatings . The second coating system is metallization, in this case nickel. The third coating system is silsesquioxane. The Marshall Space Flight Center Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility (AOBF) was used to simulate low Earth orbit AO of 5 eV energy. In addition, some tether samples were exposed to ultraviolet radiation then evaluated for any changes in mechanical strength. Tether missions, such as a momentum-exchange/electrodynamic reboost (MXER) tether, may benefit from this research.

  11. Protective Effects of Arginine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Ethanol Stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yanfei; Du, Zhaoli; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses in the process of industrial fermentation. As the currently main organism for bio-ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffers from ethanol stress. Some amino acids have been reported to be related to yeast tolerance to stresses. Here the relationship between arginine and yeast response to ethanol stress was investigated. Marked inhibitions of ethanol on cell growth, expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and intracellular accumulation of arginine were observed. Furthermore, extracellular addition of arginine can abate the ethanol damage largely. To further confirm the protective effects of arginine on yeast cells, yeast strains with different levels of arginine content were constructed by overexpression of ARG4 involved in arginine biosynthesis or CAR1 encoding arginase. Intracellular arginine was increased by 18.9% or 13.1% respectively by overexpression of ARG4 or disruption of CAR1, which enhanced yeast tolerance to ethanol stress. Moreover, a 41.1% decrease of intracellular arginine was observed in CAR1 overexpressing strain, which made yeast cells keenly sensitive to ethanol. Further investigations indicated that arginine protected yeast cells from ethanol damage by maintaining the integrity of cell wall and cytoplasma membrane, stabilizing the morphology and function of organellae due to low ROS generation. PMID:27507154

  12. UV radiation effects over microorganisms and study of protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Grau Carles, Agustín; Vazquez, Luis; Amils, Ricardo

    2004-03-01

    An important subject of astrobiological interest is the study of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on microorganisms and their protection mechanisms against this damaging agent. UV radiation is considered highly mutagenic and sterilizing, especially during the period of origin of life on Earth when the absence of the ozone layer meant there was no effective protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Ferric iron, the product of iron metabolism, as a consequence of its spectral properties, has been suggested to provide protection against radiation making the study of its protective effect on acidophilic microorganisms from the Tinto ecosystem of interest in order to gain information about its possible implications in the development of life during the Archaean as well on planets lacking a protective atmosphere such as Mars. The studies described in this paper constitute preliminary experiments.

  13. Addition of Alarm Pheromone Components Improves the Effectiveness of Desiccant Dusts Against Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    BENOIT, JOSHUA B.; PHILLIPS, SETH A.; CROXALL, TRAVIS J.; CHRISTENSEN, BRADY S.; YODER, JAY A.; DENLINGER, DAVID L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss. PMID:19496429

  14. Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss.

  15. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  16. Effective immune protection of pigs against cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, E; Costa, J O; Guimarães, M P; Tavares, C A

    1995-03-01

    A scolex protein antigen (SPA) was prepared from cysticerci of Taenia solium obtained from naturally infected pigs. Yorkshire pigs were vaccinated with SPA plus incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) or with SPA plus Corynebacterium parvum (CP). Controls were given IFA plus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or CP plus PBS. All animals were given three subcutaneous injections at 20-day intervals. Ten days after the third injection, the pigs were fed with 10(4) viable eggs of T. solium. All pigs developed a delayed type hypersensitivity, and a transient eosinophilia after the first dose of vaccine. High titers of specific antibodies were detected in the sera of vaccinated animals and in infected controls. A protection level of 71.43% was recorded in animals vaccinated with SPA plus IFA and of 75.00% in those vaccinated with SPA plus CP.

  17. Effective immune protection of pigs against cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, E; Costa, J O; Guimarães, M P; Tavares, C A

    1995-03-01

    A scolex protein antigen (SPA) was prepared from cysticerci of Taenia solium obtained from naturally infected pigs. Yorkshire pigs were vaccinated with SPA plus incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) or with SPA plus Corynebacterium parvum (CP). Controls were given IFA plus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or CP plus PBS. All animals were given three subcutaneous injections at 20-day intervals. Ten days after the third injection, the pigs were fed with 10(4) viable eggs of T. solium. All pigs developed a delayed type hypersensitivity, and a transient eosinophilia after the first dose of vaccine. High titers of specific antibodies were detected in the sera of vaccinated animals and in infected controls. A protection level of 71.43% was recorded in animals vaccinated with SPA plus IFA and of 75.00% in those vaccinated with SPA plus CP. PMID:7604530

  18. UV protective effects of DNA repair enzymes and RNA lotion.

    PubMed

    Ke, Malcolm S; Camouse, Melissa M; Swain, Freddie R; Oshtory, Shaheen; Matsui, Mary; Mammone, Thomas; Maes, Daniel; Cooper, Kevin D; Stevens, Seth R; Baron, Elma D

    2008-01-01

    Solar UV radiation is known to cause immune suppression, believed to be a critical factor in cutaneous carcinogenesis. Although the mechanism is not entirely understood, DNA damage is clearly involved. Sunscreens function by attenuating the UV radiation that reaches the epidermis. However, once DNA damage ensues, repair mechanisms become essential for prevention of malignant transformation. DNA repair enzymes have shown efficacy in reducing cutaneous neoplasms among xeroderma pigmentosum patients. In vitro studies suggest that RNA fragments increase the resistance of human keratinocytes to UVB damage and enhance DNA repair but in vivo data are lacking. This study aimed to determine the effect of topical formulations containing either DNA repair enzymes (Micrococcus luteus) or RNA fragments (UVC-irradiated rabbit globin mRNA) on UV-induced local contact hypersensitivity (CHS) suppression in humans as measured in vivo using the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene. Immunohistochemistry was also employed in skin biopsies to evaluate the level of thymine dimers after UV. Eighty volunteers completed the CHS portion. A single 0.75 minimum erythema dose (MED) simulated solar radiation exposure resulted in 64% CHS suppression in unprotected subjects compared with unirradiated sensitized controls. In contrast, UV-induced CHS suppression was reduced to 19% with DNA repair enzymes, and 7% with RNA fragments. Sun protection factor (SPF) testing revealed an SPF of 1 for both formulations, indicating that the observed immune protection cannot be attributed to sunscreen effects. Biopsies from an additional nine volunteers showed an 18% decrease in thymine dimers by both DNA repair enzymes and RNA fragments, relative to unprotected UV-irradiated skin. These results suggest that RNA fragments may be useful as a photoprotective agent with in vivo effects comparable to DNA repair enzymes.

  19. Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

  20. Effects of palladium addition on properties of dental amalgams.

    PubMed

    Chung, K

    1992-05-01

    Palladium-containing amalgam alloys were developed utilizing the atomization method. Single-compositional type alloys were fabricated and palladium was substituted for silver in concentrations up to 5 w/o. Alloy powder with a particle size of less than 45 microns was collected and triturated with mercury. Creep, compressive strength and dimensional change tests were performed according to ADA Specification No. 1 along with controls of Tytin, Valiant and Valiant-Ph.D. Values for creep decreased and compressive strength increased markedly with additions of palladium. Current densities of the experimental amalgams containing palladium were determined to be an order of magnitude less than the original amalgams in the electrochemical test. A trend of positive relationships between properties and palladium additions was indicated.

  1. Effects of additives on thermal stability of Li ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Roth, E. Peter; Crafts, Chris C.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Henriksen, Gary; Amine, Khalil

    Li ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles, because these cells offer superior combination of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are proposed for battery systems in both internal combustion engine and fuel cell-powered hybrid electric vehicles. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial applications. The thermal-abuse response of Li ion cells has been improved by the incorporation of more stable anode carbons and electrolyte additives. Electrolyte solutions containing vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(trifluoroethyl)phosphate (TFP) as well as some proprietary flame-retardant additives were evaluated. Test cells in the 18,650 configuration were built at Sandia National Laboratories using new stable electrode materials and electrolyte additives. A special test fixture was designed to allow determination of self-generated cell heating during a thermal ramp profile. The flammability of vented gas and expelled electrolyte was studied using a novel arrangement of a spark generator placed near the cell to ignite vent gas if a flammable gas mixture was present. Flammability of vent gas was somewhat reduced by the presence of certain additives. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was also used to characterize 18,650-size test cell heat and gas generation. Gas composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and was found to consist of CO 2, H 2, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene and small amounts of C1-C4 organic molecules.

  2. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1992-03-06

    The objective of this research was to investigate the reaction mechanism of higher alcohol and aldehyde synthesis from syngas and the role of additives in the synthesis. An in situ IR reaction system and probe molecule technique were developed to study adsorbed species, active sites, and reaction pathway during reaction. The catalysts used for this study included silica-supported Rh, Ru, and Ni. (VC)

  3. Simulation of Foam Impact Effects on Components of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System. Chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahrenthold, Eric P.; Park, Young-Keun

    2004-01-01

    A series of three dimensional simulations has been performed to investigate analytically the effect of insulating foam impacts on ceramic tile and reinforced carbon-carbon components of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system. The simulations employed a hybrid particle-finite element method and a parallel code developed for use in spacecraft design applications. The conclusions suggested by the numerical study are in general consistent with experiment. The results emphasize the need for additional material testing work on the dynamic mechanical response of thermal protection system materials, and additional impact experiments for use in validating computational models of impact effects.

  4. [Effect of sequential biocatalyst addition on Anammox process].

    PubMed

    Tang, Chongjian; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jianwei

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is a high-rate nitrogen removal technology that has been applied in sludge dewatering effluents treatment with nitrogen removal rate as high as 9.5 kg/(m x d). However, due to the slow growth rate of the autotrophic Anammox bacteria and the susceptivity to environmental conditions, the start-up of Anammox process is very long; the operation is unstable; and the nitrogen removal from organic-containing and/or toxicant-containing ammonium-rich wastewaters using Anammox process becomes difficult. Thus, the application of this high-rate process is significantly limited. In this paper, a newly-developed Anammox process with sequential biocatalyst (Anammox biomass) addition was established based on the procedure in fermentation engineering. We introduced the Anammox process with sequential biocatalyst addition on start-up, stable operation and the treatment of organic-containing and toxicant-containing ammonium-rich wastewaters. Results show that supplementing high-activity Anammox biomass into reactors will increase the amount of as well as the ratio of Anammox bacteria. Thus, the innovative Anammox process with sequential biocatalyst addition not only accelerates the start-up course, but also enhances the stability of Anammox process. Furthermore, it overcomes the drawbacks of wastewaters containing high organic content and toxic substances. Therefore, the application of Anammox process may be further enlarged. PMID:21553484

  5. The Effect of Tungsten Additions on Disk Alloy CH98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2003-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickelbase superalloy disks with 1300 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, CH98, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines and is being studied in NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. For large disks, residual stresses generated during quenching from solution heat treatments are often reduced by a stabilization heat treatment, in which the disk is heated in the range of 1500 to 1600 F for several hours followed by a static air cool and age. The reduction in residual stress levels lessens distortion during machining of disks. Previous work on CH98 has indicated that stabilization treatments will decrease creep capability, however, tungsten additions appear to improve the creep capability of stabilized and aged CH98. In this study, a systematic variation of tungsten additions to CH98 was investigated. Specifically, the 1300 F tensile, creep, and fatigue crack growth properties of stabilized CH 98 were assessed with varying levels of tungsten additions.

  6. Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Flowers, Lamont; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research published in this journal found broad-based negative effects of Greek affiliation on standardized measures of cognitive development after 1 year of college. Following the same sample, and employing essentially the same research design and analytic model, the present study found that the negative effects of Greek affiliation were…

  7. Protective effects of celery juice in treatments with Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Mikov, Momir; Mitic, Radoslav; Gvozdenovic, Ljiljana

    2009-04-24

    The aim of this work was to investigate possible protective effect of celery juice in doxorubicin treatment. The following biochemical parameters were determined: content of reduced glutathione, activities of catalase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione peroxidase, peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation intensity in liver homogenate and blood hemolysate. We examined influence of diluted pure celery leaves and roots juices and their combinations with doxorubicine on analyzed biochemical parameters. Celery roots and leaves juices influenced the examined biochemical parameters and showed protective effects when applied with doxorubicine.

  8. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Allan Kardec

    2015-09-15

    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  9. Additive Effect of rPb27 Immunization and Chemotherapy in Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Viviane C.; Martins, Estefânia M. N.; Boeloni, Jankerle N.; Coitinho, Juliana B.; Serakides, Rogéria; Goes, Alfredo M.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, PCM, the major systemic mycosis in Latin America, is caused by the termally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and requires extended periods of chemotherapy with a significant frequency of relapsing disease. The search for new alternatives of treatment is necessary. rPb27 is an antigenic protein from P. brasiliensis that already showed a significant protective activity as a vaccine for PCM in experimental models. The cDNA of rPb27 was subcloned into a pET-DEST 42 plasmid, expressed in E. coli with a his-tag and purified by affinity chromatography. Immunization with this recombinant protein and chemotherapy were used together in an attempt to improve treatment of PCM. For this, BALB/c mice were challenged with pathogenic P. brasiliensis strain and after immunized with rPb27, in the presence of Corynebacterium parvum and Al(OH)3, some groups were also treated with fluconazole. After 40 days of treatment, the combined drug/rPb27 administration controlled PCM in the liver and spleen, with long lasting protection, and largely preserved tissues structures of these organs. Additionally, in the lungs after 40 days of treatment there was a significant reduction in the fungal load and size of lesions. At the same time, the levels of TNF-α were higher than infected-only mice. Moreover, significant levels of anti-rPb27 specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes were detected in the sera of mice immunized with rPb27 fluconazole treated or not. These results showed an additive protective effect of rPb27 immunization and chemotherapy, suggesting that an rPb27-based vaccine can be used to enhance PCM antifungal treatment. PMID:21423771

  10. Additive effect of rPb27 immunization and chemotherapy in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Viviane C; Martins, Estefânia M N; Boeloni, Jankerle N; Coitinho, Juliana B; Serakides, Rogéria; Goes, Alfredo M

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, PCM, the major systemic mycosis in Latin America, is caused by the termally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and requires extended periods of chemotherapy with a significant frequency of relapsing disease. The search for new alternatives of treatment is necessary. rPb27 is an antigenic protein from P. brasiliensis that already showed a significant protective activity as a vaccine for PCM in experimental models. The cDNA of rPb27 was subcloned into a pET-DEST 42 plasmid, expressed in E. coli with a his-tag and purified by affinity chromatography. Immunization with this recombinant protein and chemotherapy were used together in an attempt to improve treatment of PCM. For this, BALB/c mice were challenged with pathogenic P. brasiliensis strain and after immunized with rPb27, in the presence of Corynebacterium parvum and Al(OH)(3), some groups were also treated with fluconazole. After 40 days of treatment, the combined drug/rPb27 administration controlled PCM in the liver and spleen, with long lasting protection, and largely preserved tissues structures of these organs. Additionally, in the lungs after 40 days of treatment there was a significant reduction in the fungal load and size of lesions. At the same time, the levels of TNF-α were higher than infected-only mice. Moreover, significant levels of anti-rPb27 specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes were detected in the sera of mice immunized with rPb27 fluconazole treated or not. These results showed an additive protective effect of rPb27 immunization and chemotherapy, suggesting that an rPb27-based vaccine can be used to enhance PCM antifungal treatment. PMID:21423771

  11. [Effective prevention through nutritional and food additives: barriers and resistance].

    PubMed

    Lux, R; Walter, U

    2006-06-01

    The population-wide and individual preventive potentials of nutritional and food additives such as vitamins and trace elements are generally accepted in the international literature. Iodisation and fluoridation were and are a main focus of activity. The enrichment of food with folic acid is also partly population-related. Until now, however, the theoretical possibilities of nutritional supplementations have not been fully exploited. Various barriers and resistances arise in programme development and implementation. Interviews with key stakeholders and community groups can clarify decade-long discussions in the literature and the media. The study on hand is based on a structural analysis. It shows the various arguments as well as beneficial and impeding factors for a population-wide prevention programme, for specific target groups and individuals. The findings of this research could also be applied to other Public Health challenges.

  12. Effective face recognition using bag of features with additive kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shicai; Bebis, George; Chu, Yongjie; Zhao, Lindu

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, many techniques have been used to improve face recognition performance. The most common and well-studied ways are to use the whole face image to build a subspace based on the reduction of dimensionality. Differing from methods above, we consider face recognition as an image classification problem. The face images of the same person are considered to fall into the same category. Each category and each face image could be both represented by a simple pyramid histogram. Spatial dense scale-invariant feature transform features and bag of features method are used to build categories and face representations. In an effort to make the method more efficient, a linear support vector machine solver, Pegasos, is used for the classification in the kernel space with additive kernels instead of nonlinear SVMs. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve very high recognition accuracy on the ORL, YALE, and FERET databases.

  13. Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of Child Protection Teams

    PubMed Central

    Kistin, Caroline J.; Tien, Irene; Bauchner, Howard; Parker, Victoria; Leventhal, John M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES More than $55 million is spent on hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) annually, but there is no consensus on what makes CPTs effective. The objective of this study was to create expert consensus on tasks that CPTs should perform and factors that contribute to effectiveness. METHODS A modified Delphi approach was used to create expert consensus among professionals with experience working on or with hospital-based CPTs. Three initial rounds of surveys were conducted; a first round of open-ended questions generated topics related to CPT tasks and factors related to team effectiveness. A Likert scale (range: 1–7) determined rank. In the fourth round, participants ranked the top 5 variables associated with effectiveness. RESULTS Twenty-six (90%) of 29 participants completed the first 3 rounds, and 20 (67%) completed the final ranking. Experts believed that CPTs should provide communication of findings to appropriate agencies (mean Likert score: 7.0), court testimony (7.0), medical consultations (6.9), multidisciplinary case review (6.6), and forensic interviews (6.0). CPT success should be determined by professionals who use CPT services (6.6) and CPT members (6.5). Variables that were ranked most often as critical to effectiveness included interdisciplinary collaboration (95% of participants), provision of resources (80%), and team collegiality (75%). Variables that were ranked as most detrimental included inadequate staffing (85%) and lack of collegiality (80%). CONCLUSIONS A multidisciplinary team working in a collegial atmosphere seems to be the major key to CPT effectiveness. In addition to providing services, CPTs should focus on improving collegiality and interdisciplinary collaboration and should seek performance feedback from referring professionals and CPT members. PMID:20587674

  14. Induction of a protective antibody response to FMDV in mice following oral immunization with transgenic Stylosanthes spp. as a feedstuff additive.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong Mei; Zhu, Jian Bo; Peng, Ming; Zhou, Peng

    2008-12-01

    The expression of antigens in transgenic plants has increasingly been used as an alternative to the classical methodologies for the development of experimental vaccines, and it remains one of the real challenges in this field to use transgenic plant-based vaccines effectively as feedstuff additives. We report herein the development of a new oral immunization system for foot and mouth disease with the structural protein VP1 of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) produced in transgenic Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Reyan II. The transgenic plantlets were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, and northern blotting; and the production of VP1 protein in transgenic plants was confirmed and quantified by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Six transformed lines were obtained, and the level of the expressed protein was 0.1-0.5% total soluble protein (TSP). Mice that were orally immunized using studded feedstuff mixed with desiccated powder of the transgenic plants developed a virus-specific immune response to the structural VP1 and intact FMDV particles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic plants expressing the antigen protein of FMDV as feedstuff additives that has demonstrated the induction of a protective systemic antibody response in animals. These results support the feasibility of producing edible vaccines from transgenic forage plants, and provide proof of the possibility of using plant-based vaccines as feedstuff additives. PMID:18651235

  15. Protective effect of Asarum extract in rats with adjuvant arthritis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WENQIANG; ZHANG, JUAN; ZHANG, MING; NIE, LIN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Asarum extract on rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA) and to determine the underlying mechanism. An AA model was established by injecting Freund’s complete adjuvant into the rats. The degree of toe swelling, arthritis index, spleen index, and the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were measured. In addition, the underlying molecular mechanism was investigated using murine macrophage-derived RAW 264.7 cells. Asarum extract was found to significantly reduce the severity of arthritis by decreasing hind paw swelling, the arthritis index, the spleen index, and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 expression levels in plasma. In vitro, Asarum extract inhibited the nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results indicate that Asarum extract may be a therapeutic agent for AA and may exert an anti-inflammatory effect by mediating the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:25289073

  16. Protective Effect of Salep on Liver

    PubMed Central

    Pourahmad, Morteza; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salep is used for various purposes in food industries and traditional medicine. Therefore, evaluation of its effect on the liver seems to be necessary. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess salep effect on liver. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, various concentrations of Salep were intraperitoneally administered to five groups of Wistar rats (control, placebo and 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg salep). After one month, liver enzymes and liver tissue were evaluated and compared between different groups. Results: Significant decreased level of liver enzymes, MDA (Malondialdehyde) and TOC (Total Oxidation Capacity) were found in various concentrations of salep administration. On the other hand, a significant increase was found in TAC (Total Antioxidant Capacity) level with various doses of salep. Conclusions: Elevated level of total protein and albumin and decreased level of liver enzyme by salep extract were found in this study. Therefore, this plant may be a useful medicine for patients with liver diseases. PMID:26034505

  17. Protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Qian, Weidong; Xiong, Xingjiang; Fang, Zhuyuan; Lu, Haiting; Wang, Zhensheng

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) is a common pathological and physiological phenomenon. Tetramethylpyrazine is the extract of the traditional Chinese medicine Chuanxiong, which can exert protective effects on MIRI in multiple ways. This paper reviewed the current research progress and evidence about the cardiovascular effects of tetramethylpyrazine, which included protecting mitochondria and improving energy metabolism, scavenging oxygen free radicals (OFRs) to inhibit lipid peroxidation, attenuating calcium (Ca(2+)) overload and maintaining Ca(2+) homeostasis in cells, inhibiting apoptosis and protecting myocardial cells, interfering with the inflammatory reaction and mitigating cell injury, interfering with cell signaling pathways, and improving function of endothelial cells and protecting myocardial cells. However, further rigorously designed randomized controlled trials are warranted. PMID:25152756

  18. Protective effect of compound K on diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaotong; Li, Na; Zhan, Jinzhuo; Sun, Hui; An, Liping; Du, Peige

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Compound K (CK), the metabolic product of protopanaxadiol saponin in vivo, has many pharmacological activities. In this study, we discuss the preparation of CK, and its protective effect on kidneys of diabetic rats. CK was prepared from ginsenoside Rbt after transformation by 3-glucosidase, separation and purification by silica gel column chromatography. In the present study, we established a rat model of diabetes mellitus using high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ). After seven weeks of treatment, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), total glycerin (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), serum creatinine (Scr), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. Also, renal pathomorphism changes were observed by HE stain, and TGF-β1 protein expression in the renal tissue was measured by Western blot. The yield of CK was 14.55 mg/mL, which was higher than that of other methods. After seven weeks, CK could decrease FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, BUN, UA, Scr and MDA of diabetic rats, while CK also enhanced HDL-C and GSH, SOD and GSH-PX. Additionally, CK improved the pathological changes and decreased TGF-β1 protein expression in the renal tissue. CK improved the pathological changes in the renal tissue, enhanced the antioxidant capacity, reduced the damage of TGF-β1 to renal tissue, and protected the diabetic rats.

  19. The Effect of Manganese Additions on the Reactive Evaporation of Chromium in Ni-Cr Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Alman, David E.

    2004-10-20

    Chromium is used as an alloy addition in stainless steels and nickel-chromium alloys to form protective chromium oxide scales. Chromium oxide undergoes reactive evaporation in high temperature exposures in the presence of oxygen and/or water vapor. The deposition of gaseous chromium species onto solid oxide fuel cell electrodes can reduce the efficiency of the fuel cell. Manganese additions to the alloy can reduce the activity of chromium in the oxide, either from solid solution replacement of chromium with manganese (at low levels of manganese) or from the formation of manganese-chromium spinels (at high levels of manganese). This reduction in chromium activity leads to a predicted reduction in chromium evaporation by as much as a factor of 35 at 800 C and 55 at 700 C. The results of evaporation loss measurements on nickel-chromium-manganese alloys are compared with the predicted reduction. Quantifying the effects of manganese additions on chromium evaporation should aid alloy development of metallic interconnects and balance-of-plant alloys.

  20. Effects on Diagnostic Parameters After Removing Additional Synchronous Gear Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Harry J.

    2003-01-01

    Gear cracks are typically difficult to diagnose with sufficient time before catastrophic damage occurs. Significant damage must be present before algorithms appear to be able to detect the damage. Frequently there are multiple gear meshes on a single shaft. Since they are all synchronous with the shaft frequency, the commonly used synchronous averaging technique is ineffective in removing other gear mesh effects. Carefully applying a filter to these extraneous gear mesh frequencies can reduce the overall vibration signal and increase the accuracy of commonly used vibration metrics. The vibration signals from three seeded fault tests were analyzed using this filtering procedure. Both the filtered and unfiltered vibration signals were then analyzed using commonly used fault detection metrics and compared. The tests were conducted on aerospace quality spur gears in a test rig. The tests were conducted at speeds ranging from 2500 to 5000 revolutions per minute and torques from 184 to 228 percent of design load. The inability to detect these cracks with high confidence results from the high loading which is causing fast fracture as opposed to stable crack growth. The results indicate that these techniques do not currently produce an indication of damage that significantly exceeds experimental scatter.

  1. Effect of bovine lactoferrin addition to milk in yogurt manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Franco, I; Castillo, E; Pérez, M D; Calvo, M; Sánchez, L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of milk supplementation with lactoferrin of different iron saturation on the manufacturing and characteristics of yogurt. Bovine lactoferrin was added at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL in the holo (iron saturated) and apo (without iron) forms. Some physicochemical properties, such as pH, concentration of lactic acid, and texture of supplemented yogurts, were determined throughout the shelf-life period storage (28 d) at 4°C. We also evaluated the stability of lactoferrin in supplemented yogurt throughout the storage time. The supplementation of milk with bovine lactoferrin did not greatly affect the physical properties of the yogurt, though apo-lactoferrin slightly delayed the decrease of pH. This could be attributed to the partial inhibition observed on the growth of Streptococcus thermophilus. The integrity and immunoreactive concentration of lactoferrin, determined by Western blotting and noncompetitive ELISA, respectively, remained constant throughout the shelf life of yogurt.

  2. Additive effects of physical stress and herbivores on intertidal seaweed biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Bracken, Matthew E S; Jones, Emily

    2013-05-01

    Patterns in rocky intertidal seaweed biodiversity influence the resilience and functioning of these important primary producer communities. In turn, seaweed biodiversity patterns are the result of many ecological factors. We determined the influences of thermal and desiccation stress, herbivory, and nutrients on seaweed biodiversity on a northern California rocky shoreline. In a fully crossed design at two tidal heights at wave-protected and exposed sites, we deployed screens to reduce stress, removed herbivores, and added nutrients for 18 months. The treatments reduced temperature, increased relative humidity, decreased herbivore abundances, and increased nitrogen in both seawater and seaweeds. Seaweed abundance and biodiversity (cover, biomass, species richness, diversity, evenness, and community composition) were influenced by tidal height, physical stress, and herbivores. Wave exposure affected all response variables except biomass and evenness. Stress and herbivores had independent additive effects on seaweed abundance and diversity. Physical stress did not make the community as a whole more susceptible to herbivores, and screens had overarching positive effects on seaweed biodiversity even though they also had positive effects on herbivore abundance. Nutrients had virtually no effect on seaweed biodiversity, and we observed no bottom-up effects of nutrient addition on herbivore density or biomass. Small green algae and diatoms were important contributors to overall algal cover and to changes in composition across treatments, but larger macroalgae dominated the species richness response. The striking absence of interactions between stress and herbivory highlights how seaweed communities can respond independently to important drivers of biodiversity. Thus, nonadditive, potentially synergistic effects do not necessarily complicate the understanding of how seaweed biodiversity responds to environmental change.

  3. The effect of accelerated ageing on performance properties of addition type silicone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stathi, K; Tarantili, P A; Polyzois, G

    2010-05-01

    The UV-protection provided to addition type silicone elastomers by various colorants, such as conventional dry earth pigments, as well as the so called "functional or reactive" pigments, was investigated. Moreover, the effect of a UV light absorber and a silica filler was also explored. Under the experimental parameters of this work, the exposure of silicone to UV radiation resulted in some changes of the IR absorbance, thermal decomposition after 400 degrees C, T(g) and tensile properties, whereas the storage modulus of samples was not affected. The obtained spectroscopic data, as well as the results of TGA and storage modulus, were interpreted by assuming that chain scission takes place during aging, whereas the improvement of tensile strength allows the hypothesis of a post-curing process, initiated by UV radiation. Therefore, the increase of T(g) could partly be due to the above reason and, furthermore, to the contribution of a rearrangement of chain fragments within the free volume of the elastomeric material. Regarding the evaluation of various coloring agents used in this work, the obtained results show that dry pigments are more sensitive to accelerated ageing conditions in comparison with functional liquid pigments. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of silicone matrix is enhanced, with the addition of this type pigments because of the vinyl functional silanes groups present in their chemical structure. Finally, it should be noted that the incorporation of silica nanofiller did not seem to prevent the silicone elastomer from degradation upon UV irradiation, but showed a significant reinforcing effect.

  4. Internal additive noise effects in stochastic resonance using organic field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Matsubara, Kiyohiko; Asakawa, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon was observed in organic field effect transistor using poly(3-hexylthiophene), which enhances performance of signal transmission with application of noise. The enhancement of correlation coefficient between the input and output signals was low, and the variation of correlation coefficient was not remarkable with respect to the intensity of external noise, which was due to the existence of internal additive noise following the nonlinear threshold response. In other words, internal additive noise plays a positive role on the capability of approximately constant signal transmission regardless of noise intensity, which can be said "homeostatic" behavior or "noise robustness" against external noise. Furthermore, internal additive noise causes emergence of the stochastic resonance effect even on the threshold unit without internal additive noise on which the correlation coefficient usually decreases monotonically.

  5. Protective effects of dioscin against alcohol-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingting; Zheng, Lingli; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Qi, Yan; Xu, Youwei; Han, Xu; Peng, Jinyong

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies have shown that dioscin has protective effect against liver injury. However, the action of the compound against ethanol-induced liver injury is still unknown. In the present paper, ethanol-induced acute and chronic liver damage rat models were used, and the results showed that dioscin significantly alleviated liver steatosis, reduced the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol and malondialdehyde, and increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Transmission electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assays showed that dioscin prevented mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations and apoptosis caused by ethanol. In addition, dioscin significantly inhibited ethanol-induced cytochrome P450 2E1 activation, down-regulated the levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases phosphorylation, inhibited the expressions of nuclear factor kappa B, glucose regulated protein 78, activating transcription factor 6 and alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 to attenuate oxidative damage, decreased the expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6, and down-regulated the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins including p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase and cytokeratin-18. Further investigation indicated that dioscin markedly increased the expressions of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α and its target genes including medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase I and acyl-CoA oxidase to advance fatty acid β-oxidation, up-regulated the expressions of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5, alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase to promote fatty acid metabolism, and down-regulated the expressions of glycerol

  6. Effectiveness of protected areas in maintaining plant production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a "supporting" ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed.

  7. Effect of personal protective eyewear on postural stability.

    PubMed

    Wade, Lloyd R; Weimar, Wendi H; Davis, Jerry

    2004-12-01

    Vision is a significant factor in postural stability; this study is the first to report on the effect of OSHA regulated personal protective eyewear on physiological factors associated with postural stability. Twenty college students between the ages of 19 and 25 were randomly tested in each of three eyewear conditions (control, new, and artificially aged) using a NeuroCom Balance Master System and the mCTSIB protocol. Subjects were pre-tested with no eyewear (control) on each day followed by a 5-min assembly task with random eyewear assignment. Subjects were then post-tested following the same protocol while wearing the eyewear. Data were evaluated using a two (pre/post) x three (eyewear) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). There was a significant main effect for both the eyes open/firm flat surface, and eyes open/foam flat surface conditions (p protective eyewear may serve to protect an individual from eye injury, an individual's use of such personal protective eyewear may have deleterious effects on sensory input from the visual system and compensatory strategies to maintaining or regaining postural stability. Individuals who employ protective eyewear on a daily basis need to be aware of the effect of altered visual input resulting from eyewear on their postural stability, especially during sensory-challenging tasks, such as navigating ladders, scaffolding and elevated surfaces, typically found in construction environments.

  8. Protective Effect of Quercetin on Posttraumatic Cardiac Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Zehao; Wang, Zhuorun; Li, Xiujie; Li, Xintao; Cao, Tingting; Bi, Yue; Zhou, Jicheng; Chen, Xu; Yu, Deqin; Zhu, Liang; Li, Shuzhuang

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is an important dietary flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables and has attracted attention because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Inflammation and oxidative stress play important roles in posttraumatic cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which contributes to secondary cardiac dysfunction. This study investigates the protective effect of quercetin on trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury and the mechanisms involved. Widely accepted nonlethal mechanical trauma models were established. In vivo, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction in rats were assessed using TUNEL staining and a biological mechanic experiment system. In vitro, cell viability, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and [Ca2+]i of H9c2 cells were detected using an MTT assay, ELISA, and 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester assays respectively. Quercetin pretreatment (20 mg/kg i.p.; 0.5 h before trauma) significantly improved posttraumatic cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. Pretreatment with quercetin (20 μM; 24 h before trauma plasma addition) significantly attenuated trauma-induced viability decreases, TNF-α increases, ROS overproduction and [Ca2+]i overload in H9c2 cells. In conclusion, quercetin may reverse posttraumatic cardiac dysfunction by reducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis through the suppression of TNF-α increases, ROS overproduction and Ca2+ overload in cardiomyocytes, representing a potential preventive approach for the treatment of secondary cardiac injury after mechanical trauma. PMID:27470932

  9. Ecotoxicological effects of the antioxidant additive propyl gallate in five aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jorge L; Jos, Angeles; del Peso, Ana; Salguero, Manuel; López-Artíguez, Miguel; Repetto, Guillermo

    2007-06-01

    Propyl gallate is an antioxidant widely used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The occurrence and fate of additives in the aquatic environment is an emerging issue in environmental chemistry. To date, there is little available information about the adverse effects of propyl gallate on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the toxic effects were investigated, using five model systems from four trophic levels. The most sensitive system was the hepatoma fish cell line PLHC-1 according to total protein content, with an EC(50) of 10 microM and a NOAEL of 1 microM at 72 h, followed by the immobilization of Daphnia magna, the inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri, the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2 and the inhibition of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Although protein content, neutral red uptake, methylthiazol metabolization and acetylcholinesterase activity were reduced in PLHC-1 cells, stimulations were observed for lysosomal function, succinate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities. No changes were observed in metallothionein levels. The main morphological observations were the loss of cells and the induction of cell death mainly by necrosis but also by apoptosis. The protective and toxic effects of propyl gallate were evaluated. General antioxidants and calcium chelators did not modify the toxicity of propyl gallate, but an iron-dependent lipid peroxidation inhibitor gave 22% protection. The results also suggest that propyl gallate cytotoxicity is dependent on glutathione levels, which were modulated by malic acid diethyl ester and 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. According to the results, propyl gallate should be classified as toxic to aquatic organisms. PMID:17382989

  10. Protective effect of dietary chitosan on cadmium accumulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Young; Shon, Woo-Jeong; Park, Mi-Na; Lee, Yeon-Sook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cadmium is a toxic metal that is an occupational and environmental concern especially because of its human carcinogenicity; it induces serious adverse effects in various organs and tissues. Even low levels of exposure to cadmium could be harmful owing to its extremely long half-life in the body. Cadmium intoxication may be prevented by the consumption of dietary components that potentially reduce its accumulation in the body. Dietary chitosan is a polysaccharide derived from animal sources; it has been known for its ability to bind to divalent cations including cadmium, in addition to other beneficial effects including hypocholesterolemic and anticancer effects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of dietary chitosan in reducing cadmium accumulation using an in vivo system. MATERIALS/METHODS Cadmium was administered orally at 2 mg (three times per week) to three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: control, low-dose, and high-dose (0, 3, and 5%, respectively) chitosan diet groups for eight weeks. Cadmium accumulation, as well as tissue functional and histological changes, was determined. RESULTS Compared to the control group, rats fed the chitosan diet showed significantly lower levels of cadmium in blood and tissues including the kidneys, liver, and femur. Biochemical analysis of liver function including the determination of aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels showed that dietary chitosan reduced hepatic tissue damage caused by cadmium intoxication and prevented the associated bone disorder. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that dietary chitosan has the potential to reduce cadmium accumulation in the body as well as protect liver function and bone health against cadmium intoxication. PMID:26865912

  11. The effectiveness of hearing protection among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah

    2005-04-01

    Effective hearing conservation programs in the construction industry are rare. Where programs are present, they often rely on workers' use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) rather than on exposure controls to reduce noise exposure levels. Dependence on HPDs for protection from high noise is problematic, as the protection provided by the HPD depends on both the HPD's attenuation level and the time the HPD is used. This article presents an analysis of data on noise exposure and hearing protection among construction workers drawn from several large datasets covering nine construction trades. A unique combination of 1-min dosimetry noise exposure levels and simultaneous self-reported use of HPDs was evaluated, as were occupational and nonoccupational HPD use data collected by questionnaire as part of a longitudinal study of noise exposure and hearing loss among apprentices. Direct measurements of HPD attenuation were also made on workers at their work site. The workers assessed in this study were found to use hearing protection less than one-quarter of the time that they were exposed above 85 dBA. Workers who reported always using HPDs in high noise on questionnaires were found to wear them only one-third of the time their exposures exceeded 85 dBA. Workers' self-reported use of HPDs during most noisy nonoccupational activities was also found to be low. Direct attenuation measurements found that workers were able to achieve more than 50% of the rated attenuation of their HPD on average, but that the variability in achieved attenuation was large. When the measured HPD attenuation levels and use time data were combined, the effective protection afforded by HPDs was less than 3 dB, a negligible amount given the high exposure levels associated with construction work. However, there was substantial variation in effective protection among the different trades assessed. These results demonstrate the need for better hearing conservation programs and expanded noise control

  12. Effect of additive on electrochemical corrosion properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on CP Ti under different processing frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Mahdi; Dehghanian, Changiz; Vanaki, Mojtaba

    2015-12-01

    The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating containing zirconium oxide was fabricated on CP Ti at different processing frequencies viz., 100 Hz and 1000 Hz in a (Na2ZrO3, Na2SiO3)-additive containing NaH2PO4-based solution, and long-term electrochemical corrosion behavior of the coatings was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Electrochemical degradation behavior of two-layered coatings formed at different frequencies was turned out to be governed by concentration of electrolyte additive. With increasing additive concentration, the coating obtained at frequency of 1000 Hz exhibited enhanced corrosion resistance. However, corrosion resistance of the coating prepared at 100 Hz was found to decrease with increased additive, which was attributed to intensified microdischarges damaging the protective effect of inner layer. Nevertheless, the electrolyte additive was found to mitigate the long-term degradation of the coatings to a significant extent.

  13. Protective effects of phyllanthus emblica leaf extract on sodium arsenite-mediated adverse effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Sadia; Ahsan, Nazmul; Kato, Masashi; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Rashid, Abdur; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater contamination of arsenic is the major cause of a serious health hazard in Bangladesh. No specific treatment is yet available to manage the large number of individuals exposed to arsenic. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry or Amla) leaf extract (PLE) on arsenic-mediated toxicity in experimental mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into three different groups (n=6/group). 'Control' mice received arsenic free water together with normal feed. Mice in the remaining two groups designated 'SA' and 'SA+PLE' were exposed to sodium arsenite (SA, 10 µg/g body weight/day) through drinking water in addition to receiving normal feed and PLE-supplemented feed, respectively. The weight gain of SA-exposed mice was decreased compared with the controls; however, this decrease in body weight gain was prevented when the feed was supplemented with PLE. A secondary effect of arsenic was enlargement of the liver, kidney and spleen of SA-group mice. Deposition of arsenic in those organs was demonstrated by ICP-MS. When PLE was supplemented in the feed the enlargement of the organs was minimized; however, the deposition of arsenic was not significantly reduced. These results indicated that PLE may not block arsenic deposition in tissue directly but rather may play a protective role to reduce arsenic-induced toxicity. Therefore, co-administration of PLE in arsenic-exposed animals might have a future therapeutic application for protecting against arsenic-mediated toxicity.

  14. Effects of Surface Modification Conditions on Hydrophobicity of Silica-based Coating Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Beth L; Pawel, Steven J; Hunter, Scott Robert; Haynes, James A; Hillesheim, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Superhydrophobic silica (SHS) powders are being evaluated as a potential additive to the polyurethane topcoats used in Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) systems, with the goal of improving water repellency and corrosion protection characteristics. The current generation of CARC topcoats is already highly loaded with solids, and thus there is a premium on minimization of the total SHS powder required to achieve the desired properties. Therefore, efficient surface modification of the silica and proper dispersion in the coating will be required. The effect of a dispersant on the surface modification of silica particles by chlorosilanes was addressed in this study. The properties of various SHS powders were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and mass spectroscopy. Correlations between powder modification conditions and the ultimate effects of the modified particles on hydrophobicity of CARC topcoats were assessed. The use of contact and rolling angle measurements along with scanning electron microscopy are discussed as they pertain to the ability to quantify the effects of modified silicas on corrosion prevention coatings. Furthermore, a systematic approach to modifying and testing both powders and top coats of corrosion prevention systems is presented.

  15. Radio-protective effect of some new curcumin analogues.

    PubMed

    El-Gazzar, Marwa G; Zaher, Nashwa H; El-Hossary, Ebaa M; Ismail, Amel F M

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, novel symmetrical curcumin analogues (2-7) have been synthesized by substituting the phenolic OH of curcumin with different linkers providing additional keto-enol tautomerism, very essential for radioprotective activity. The structures of the synthesized compounds (2-7) were elucidated by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and mass spectral data and were found consistent with the assigned structures. The curative effect of these new compounds, against the oxidative stress due to exposure of rats to the whole body γ-irradiation (7Gy) was investigated. Gamma-irradiated rats exhibited elevations of ALT, AST activities, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) levels. Contrariwise, the total protein, albumin, total calcium level, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST activities and GSH content were decreased. Treatment of gamma-irradiated rats with the new curcumin analogues (2-7) showed significant amelioration in the in-vivo antioxidant status, liver and kidney functions, as well as the anti-inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). Inhibition of NF-κB could be responsible for the improvement of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status in gamma-irradiated animals, by down-regulation of IL-1β and TNF-α level. In conclusion, the new curcumin analogues (2-7) exhibited post-protective effect on gamma-irradiation, by NF-κB inhibition. PMID:27505300

  16. Protective effects of dietary Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) on experimental coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary safflower leaf on protective immunity against coccidiosis, the most economically important parasitic disease in poultry. White Leghorn chicks were fed a standard diet with or without the safflower leaf, and were either uninfected or or...

  17. Protective effect of dextromethorphan against endotoxic shock in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Guorong; Liu, Yuxin; Tzeng, Nian-ssheng; Cui, Gang; Block, Michelle L; Wilson, Belinda; Qin, Liya; Wang, Tongguang; Liu, Bin; Liu, Jie; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2005-01-15

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a dextrorotatory morphinan and an over-the-counter non-opioid cough suppressant. We have previously shown that DM protects against LPS-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration through inhibition of microglia activation. Here, we investigated protective effects of DM against endotoxin shock induced by lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN) in mice and the mechanism underlying its protective effect. Mice were given multiple injections of DM (12.5 mg/kg, s.c.) 30 min before and 2, 4 h after an injection of LPS/GalN (20 microg/700 mg/kg). DM administration decreased LPS/GalN-induced mortality and hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by increased survival rate, decreased serum alanine aminotransferase activity and improved pathology. Furthermore, DM was also effective when it was given 30 min after LPS/GalN injection. The protection was likely associated with reduced serum and liver tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. DM also attenuated production of superoxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species in Kupffer cells and neutrophils. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that DM administration suppressed the expression of a variety of inflammation-related genes such as macrophage inflammatory protein-2, CXC chemokine, thrombospondin-1, intercellular adhesion molecular-1 and interleukin-6. DM also decreased the expression of genes related to cell-death pathways, such as the DNA damage protein genes GADD45 and GADD153. In summary, DM is effective in protecting mice against LPS/GalN-induced hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism is likely through a faster TNF-alpha clearance, and decrease of superoxide production and inflammation and cell-death related components. This study not only extends neuroprotective effect of DM, but also suggests that DM may be a novel compound for the therapeutic intervention for sepsis. PMID:15627475

  18. Protective effect of silymarin against chemical-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac disorders remain one of the most important causes of death in the world. Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the molecular mechanisms involved in drug-induced cardiac toxicity. Recently, several natural products have been utilized in different studies with the aim to protect the progression of oxidative stress-induced cardiac disorders. There is a large body of evidence that administration of antioxidants may be useful in ameliorating cardiac toxicity. Silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid has been shown to have utility in several cardiovascular disorders. In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the preventive effects of silymarin against cardiotoxicity induced by chemicals were introduced. Although there are many studies representing the valuable effects of silymarin in different diseases, the number of researches relating to the possible cardiac protective effects of silymarin against drugs induced toxicity is rather limited. Results of these studies show that silymarin has a broad spectrum of cardiac protective activity against toxicity induced by some chemicals including metals, environmental pollutants, oxidative agents and anticancer drugs. Further studies are needed to establish the utility of silymarin in protection against cardiac toxicity. PMID:27803777

  19. Protective effect of Pterostilbene against free radical mediated oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pterostilbene, a methoxylated analog of Resveratrol, is gradually gaining more importance as a therapeutic drug owing to its higher lipophilicity, bioavailability and biological activity than Resveratrol. This study was undertaken to characterize its ability to scavenge free radicals such as superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide and to protect bio-molecules within a cell against oxidative insult. Methods Anti-oxidant activity of Pterostilbene was evaluated extensively by employing several in vitro radical scavenging/inhibiting assays and pulse radiolysis study. In addition, its ability to protect rat liver mitochondria against tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) and hydroxyl radical generated oxidative damage was determined by measuring the damage markers such as protein carbonyls, protein sulphydryls, lipid hydroperoxides, lipid peroxides and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Pterostilbene was also evaluated for its ability to inhibit •OH radical induced single strand breaks in pBR322 DNA. Result Pterostilbene exhibited strong anti-oxidant activity against various free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. Pterostilbene conferred protection to proteins, lipids and DNA in isolated mitochondrial fractions against TBHP and hydroxyl radical induced oxidative damage. It also protected pBR322 DNA against oxidative assault. Conclusions Thus, present study provides an evidence for the strong anti-oxidant property of Pterostilbene, methoxylated analog of Resveratrol, thereby potentiating its role as an anti-oxidant. PMID:24070177

  20. Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwen, J.A. van Son, O. van; Piersma, A.H.; Jong, P.C. de; Berg, M. van den

    2008-08-01

    There is concern widely on the increase in human exposure to exogenous (anti)estrogenic compounds. Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are considered to undergo rapid metabolism, are present at low levels. In this in vitro research individual compounds and combinations of parabens and endogenous estradiol (E{sub 2}) were investigated in the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. The experimental design applied a concentration addition model (CA). Data were analyzed with the estrogen equivalency (EEQ) and method of isoboles approach. In addition, the catalytic inhibitory properties of parabens on an enzyme involved in a rate limiting step in steroid genesis (aromatase) were studied in human placental microsomes. Our results point to an additive estrogenic effect in a CA model for parabens. In addition, it was found that parabens inhibit aromatase. Noticeably, the effective levels in both our in vitro systems were far higher than the levels detected in human samples. However, estrogenic compounds may contribute in a cumulative way to the circulating estrogen burden. Our calculation for the extra estrogen burden due to exposure to parabens, phthalates and polycyclic musks indicates an insignificant estrogenic load relative to the endogenous or therapeutic estrogen burden.

  1. Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    van Meeuwen, J A; van Son, O; Piersma, A H; de Jong, P C; van den Berg, M

    2008-08-01

    There is concern widely on the increase in human exposure to exogenous (anti)estrogenic compounds. Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are considered to undergo rapid metabolism, are present at low levels. In this in vitro research individual compounds and combinations of parabens and endogenous estradiol (E(2)) were investigated in the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. The experimental design applied a concentration addition model (CA). Data were analyzed with the estrogen equivalency (EEQ) and method of isoboles approach. In addition, the catalytic inhibitory properties of parabens on an enzyme involved in a rate limiting step in steroid genesis (aromatase) were studied in human placental microsomes. Our results point to an additive estrogenic effect in a CA model for parabens. In addition, it was found that parabens inhibit aromatase. Noticeably, the effective levels in both our in vitro systems were far higher than the levels detected in human samples. However, estrogenic compounds may contribute in a cumulative way to the circulating estrogen burden. Our calculation for the extra estrogen burden due to exposure to parabens, phthalates and polycyclic musks indicates an insignificant estrogenic load relative to the endogenous or therapeutic estrogen burden.

  2. The effect of crop protection strategy on pest and beneficials incidence in protected crops.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, I; Rodrigues, S; Figueiredo, E; Godinho, M C; Marques, C; Amaro, F; Mexia, A

    2002-01-01

    This study took place in the Oeste region from 1996-1999 and it intended to analyse if the crop protection strategy followed by the farmer influenced the arthropod incidence and the natural control in protected vegetable crops under Mediterranean conditions. The observations were made fortnightly (Autumn/Winter) or weekly (Spring/Summer) in 30-60 plants/parcel (1 plant/35 m2) in order to evaluate incidences. Samples of pests and natural enemies were collected for systematic identification in two greenhouses for each protection strategy (traditional chemical control (TCC), integrated pest management (IPM) and pest control allowed in organic farming (OF)) in lettuce, tomato, green beans and cucumber. Data on incidence of mites, aphids, caterpillars, leafminers, whiteflies, thrips and respective natural enemies were registered as well as phytosanitary treatments performed (farmers' information and/or in loco traces). The leafminers were the pest whose incidence more often presented significant statistical differences between the studied protection strategies. In relation to this pest, the main results obtained were: a higher feeding punctures incidence in TCC than in IPM; higher incidence of adults, mines and feeding punctures in TCC than in OF; and a higher mines' incidence in IPM than in OF. Both in TCC and IPM high percentages of plants with mines were found although without an adult proportional presence. In the first case this was due to the repeatedly phytosanitary treatments applied; in the second case it was due to the natural control, since in IPM and OF greenhouses the collected larvae were mostly parasitized or dead. In spite of the fact these two strategies have as final result a similar mines and adults incidence, their production and environmental costs are quite different. Significant differences at the beneficials' population level between TCC greenhouses and IPM or OF greenhouses were found. As the farmers did no biological treatments these

  3. Non-additive and Additive Genetic Effects on Extraversion in 3314 Dutch Adolescent Twins and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in 1,689 Dutch twin pairs, 1,505 mothers and 1,637 fathers of the twins. The twins were on average 15.5 years (range 12–18 years). To increase statistical power to detect non-additive genetic influences, data on extraversion were also collected in parents and simultaneously analyzed. Genetic modeling procedures incorporating age as a potential modifier of heritability showed significant influences of additive (20–23%) and non-additive genetic factors (31–33%) in addition to unshared environment (46–48%) for adolescents and for their parents. The additive genetic component was slightly and positively related to age. No significant sex differences were found for either extraversion means or for the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences. There was no evidence of non-random mating for extraversion in the parental generation. Results show that in addition to additive genetic influences, extraversion in adolescents is influenced by non-additive genetic factors. PMID:18240014

  4. Change in cardio-protective medication and health-related quality of life after diagnosis of screen-detected diabetes: Results from the ADDITION-Cambridge cohort

    PubMed Central

    Black, J.A.; Long, G.H.; Sharp, S.J.; Kuznetsov, L.; Boothby, C.E.; Griffin, S.J.; Simmons, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Establishing a balance between the benefits and harms of treatment is important among individuals with screen-detected diabetes, for whom the burden of treatment might be higher than the burden of the disease. We described the association between cardio-protective medication and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among individuals with screen-detected diabetes. Methods 867 participants with screen-detected diabetes underwent clinical measurements at diagnosis, one and five years. General HRQoL (EQ5D) was measured at baseline, one- and five-years, and diabetes-specific HRQoL (ADDQoL-AWI) and health status (SF-36) at one and five years. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in HRQoL and change in cardio-protective medication. Results The median (IQR) number of prescribed cardio-protective agents was 2 (1 to 3) at diagnosis, 3 (2 to 4) at one year and 4 (3 to 5) at five years. Change in cardio-protective medication was not associated with change in HRQoL from diagnosis to one year. From one year to five years, change in cardio-protective agents was not associated with change in the SF-36 mental health score. One additional agent was associated with an increase in the SF-36 physical health score (2.1; 95%CI 0.4, 3.8) and an increase in the EQ-5D (0.05; 95%CI 0.02, 0.08). Conversely, one additional agent was associated with a decrease in the ADDQoL-AWI (−0.32; 95%CI −0.51, −0.13), compared to no change. Conclusions We found little evidence that increases in the number of cardio-protective medications impacted negatively on HRQoL among individuals with screen-detected diabetes over five years. PMID:25937542

  5. Spacecraft environments interactions: Protecting against the effects of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, J. L.; Mccollum, M. B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the natural space environments on spacecraft design, development, and operation are the topic of a series of NASA Reference Publications currently being developed by the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch, Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center. This primer, second in the series, describes the interactions between a spacecraft and the natural space plasma. Under certain environmental/spacecraft conditions, these interactions result in the phenomenon known as spacecraft charging. It is the focus of this publication to describe the phenomenon of spacecraft charging and its possible adverse effects on spacecraft and to present the key elements of a Spacecraft Charging Effects Protection Plan.

  6. Effect of Trolox addition to cryopreservation media on human sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Mohammad Baqer; Barbarestani, Mohammad; Nekoonam, Saeid; Abdolvahabi, Mir Abbas; Takzare, Nasrin; Asadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hedayatpour, Azim; Amidi, Fardin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sperm parameters and motion kinetics are affected by cryopreservation. Objective: The main purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of Trolox as an antioxidant to freezing-thawing procedure on human sperm kinematic parameter. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected from 20 normal donors and divided into five aliquots prior to cryopreservation. The first aliquot was analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Other aliquots were mixed with cryo-protective agent containing 0, 20, 40, and 80 µmol Trolox and treated samples were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. After two weeks samples were thawed and sperm motion kinematics was measured by CASA. Percent motility (Mot), curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) were compared before and after freeze. Results: Addition of 40µmol Trolox resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) post thaw VCL, VSL and VAP compared to other groups. Therefore the percentage of post thaw motile spermatozoa were significantly higher (p<0.01). Conclusion: The supplementation of Trolox significantly improved the post-thawed human semen quality, especially progressive motility and average path velocity. PMID:25242981

  7. Means of protecting cryogenic systems from the geyser effect

    SciTech Connect

    Filina, N.N.

    1986-03-01

    New means of protection, which permit a low fluid boil in the pipeline without proceeding into an avalanchelike process, have been developed on the basis of theoretical and experimental investigations of the geyser effect in cryogenic systems with an end thermal influx from a regulating fitting. An equation is presented for computing the time allowed for the low fluid boil. Pressure increase in the overhead reservoir is discussed and a cryogenic reservoir with concentric pipeline equipped with a hood for vapor elimination is illustrated. Vapor removal from a vertical pipeline is examined. A structural method of protecting cryogenic systems from the geyser effect is discussed; the value of this method consists in its high reliability.

  8. Additional Effects of Back-Shu Electroacupuncture and Moxibustion in Cardioprotection of Rat Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kathy Lee, Seung Min; Yoon, Kang Hyun; Park, Jimin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Woo, Jong Shin; Lee, So Ra; Lee, Kyung Hye; Jang, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Woo Shik; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Weon

    2015-01-01

    Many preclinical studies show that electroacupuncture (EA) on PC6 and ST36 can reduce infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Yet studies to enhance the treatment effect size are limited. The purpose of this study was to explore whether EA has additional myocardial protective effects on an ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury rat model when back-shu EA and moxibustion are added. SD rats were divided into several groups and treated with either EA only, EA + back-shu EA (B), or EA + B + moxibustion (M) for 5 consecutive days. Transthoracic echocardiography and molecular and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed. It was found that although myocardial infarct areas were significantly lower and cardiac function was also significantly preserved in the three treatment groups compared to the placebo group, there were no additional differences between the three treatment groups. In addition, HSP20 and HSP27 were expressed significantly more in the treatment groups. The results suggest that adding several treatments does not necessarily increase protection. Our study corroborates previous findings that more treatment, such as prolonging EA duration or increasing EA intensity, does not always lead to better results. Other methods of increasing treatment effect size should be explored. PMID:26881000

  9. Protective Effects of Extracts from Fructus rhodomyrti against Oxidative DNA Damage In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yuebin; Xu, Xinyun; Wu, Shuang; Huang, Juan; Misra, Hara; Li, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the potential protective effects of extracts from Fructus rhodomyrti (FR) against oxidative DNA damage using a cellular system and the antioxidant ability on potassium bromate- (KBrO3-) mediated oxidative stress in rats. Methods. The effects of FR on DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were evaluated by comet assay in primary spleen lymphocytes cultures. The effects of FR on the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx and the levels of GSH, hydroperoxides, and 8-OHdG were determined in the plasma and tissues of rats treated with KBrO3. Results. FR was shown to effectively protect against DNA damage induced by H2O2  in vitro, and the maximum protective effect was observed when FR was diluted 20 times. Endogenous antioxidant status, namely, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx and the levels of GSH were significantly decreased in the plasma, the liver, and the kidney of the KBrO3-treated rats, while the pretreatment of FR prevented the decreases of these parameters. In addition, the pretreatment of FR was also able to prevent KBrO3-induced increases in the levels of hydroperoxides and 8-OHdG in the plasma, the liver, and the kidney in rats. Conclusions. Our findings suggested that FR might act as a chemopreventive agent with antioxidant properties offering effective protection against oxidative DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24089629

  10. Multi-targeted mechanisms underlying the endothelial protective effects of the diabetic-safe sweetener erythritol.

    PubMed

    Boesten, Daniëlle M P H J; Berger, Alvin; de Cock, Peter; Dong, Hua; Hammock, Bruce D; den Hartog, Gertjan J M; Bast, Aalt

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia and development of vascular pathology. Endothelial cell dysfunction is a starting point for pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes. We previously showed the polyol erythritol to be a hydroxyl radical scavenger preventing endothelial cell dysfunction onset in diabetic rats. To unravel mechanisms, other than scavenging of radicals, by which erythritol mediates this protective effect, we evaluated effects of erythritol in endothelial cells exposed to normal (7 mM) and high glucose (30 mM) or diabetic stressors (e.g. SIN-1) using targeted and transcriptomic approaches. This study demonstrates that erythritol (i.e. under non-diabetic conditions) has minimal effects on endothelial cells. However, under hyperglycemic conditions erythritol protected endothelial cells against cell death induced by diabetic stressors (i.e. high glucose and peroxynitrite). Also a number of harmful effects caused by high glucose, e.g. increased nitric oxide release, are reversed. Additionally, total transcriptome analysis indicated that biological processes which are differentially regulated due to high glucose are corrected by erythritol. We conclude that erythritol protects endothelial cells during high glucose conditions via effects on multiple targets. Overall, these data indicate a therapeutically important endothelial protective effect of erythritol under hyperglycemic conditions.

  11. Effect of Addition of Natural Antioxidants on the Shelf-Life of "Chorizo", a Spanish Dry-Cured Sausage.

    PubMed

    Pateiro, Mirian; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The dose effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut, grape seed and beer extracts) on physicochemical, microbiological changes and on oxidative stability of dry-cured "chorizo", as well as their effect during the storage under vacuum conditions was evaluated. Color parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the addition of antioxidants so that samples that contained antioxidants were more effective in maintaining color. The improving effects were dose-dependent with highest values with the dose of 50 mg/kg during ripening and depend on the extract during vacuum packaging. Addition of antioxidants decreased (p < 0.05) the oxidation, showing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values below 0.4 mg MDA/kg. Natural antioxidants matched or even improved the results obtained for butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Regarding texture profile analysis (TPA) analysis, hardness values significantly (p < 0.001) decreased with the addition of antioxidants, obtaining the lower results with the dose of 200 mg/kg both during ripening and vacuum packaging. Antioxidants reduced the counts of total viable counts (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mold and yeast. Free fatty acid content during ripening and under vacuum conditions showed a gradual and significant (p < 0.05) release as a result of lipolysis. At the end of ripening, the addition of GRA1000 protected chorizos from oxidative degradation. PMID:26785337

  12. Protection against both lethal and behavioral effects of soman.

    PubMed

    Harris, L W; McDonough, J H; Stitcher, D L; Lennox, W J

    1984-01-01

    This work developed two drug mixtures which alone had no effect on performance of a criterion behavior but when given as a pretreatment would protect against organophosphate-induced lethality and incapacitation. Candidate drugs (alone and together) were given to rats trained to respond on a two-component Fixed Ratio 10 - Extinction (FR10-EXT) schedule. After generating dose response curves for each cholinolytic drug, mixtures of atropine (A) + mecamylamine (M) + pyridostigmine (Py) or physostigmine (Ph) were prepared and a combination of doses that produced no effects on operant performance was determined (Mix I:A = .78, M = .78, Py = .056 mg/kg; Mix II:A = .78, M = .78, Ph = .026 mg/kg). Both pretreatment mixtures provided equivalent protection against the lethal effects of the organophosphate soman; however only Mix II was capable of reversing soman-induced physical incapacitation (PI) as assessed by performance on an accelerating rotarod or FR10 responding. Pretreatment of animals with Mix II resulted in significantly higher levels of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) than Mix I pretreated subjects 4 hrs after 1.3 LD50 soman, although peripheral AChE levels were not different. The results indicate organophosphate-induced PI can be attenuated by pretreatment with tertiary carbamates which protect significant amounts of brain AChE from irreversible inhibition.

  13. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  14. MMOD Protection and Degradation Effects for Thermal Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment overview Hypervelocity impact effects & MMOD shielding MMOD risk assessment process Requirements & protection techniques - ISS - Shuttle - Orion/Commercial Crew Vehicles MMOD effects on spacecraft systems & improving MMOD protection - Radiators Coatings - Thermal protection system (TPS) for atmospheric entry vehicles Coatings - Windows - Solar arrays - Solar array masts - EVA Handrails - Thermal Blankets Orbital Debris provided by JSC & is the predominate threat in low Earth orbit - ORDEM 3.0 is latest model (released December 2013) - http://orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/ - Man-made objects in orbit about Earth impacting up to 16 km/s average 9-10 km/s for ISS orbit - High-density debris (steel) is major issue Meteoroid model provided by MSFC - MEM-R2 is latest release - http://www.nasa.gov/offices/meo/home/index.html - Natural particles in orbit about sun Mg-silicates, Ni-Fe, others - Meteoroid environment (MEM): 11-72 km/s Average 22-23 km/s.

  15. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Francesco; Liguori, Stefania A.; Fissore, Maria F.; Oggero, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity. PMID:20049153

  16. Protective Effects of Triphala on Dermal Fibroblasts and Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Sandeep R.; Sivaprakasam, Thiyagarajan O.; Mishra, Abheepsa; Kumar, L. M. Sharath; Prakash, N. S.; Prabhu, Sunil; Ramakrishnan, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Human skin is body’s vital organ constantly exposed to abiotic oxidative stress. This can have deleterious effects on skin such as darkening, skin damage, and aging. Plant-derived products having skin-protective effects are well-known traditionally. Triphala, a formulation of three fruit products, is one of the most important rasayana drugs used in Ayurveda. Several skin care products based on Triphala are available that claim its protective effects on facial skin. However, the skin protective effects of Triphala extract (TE) and its mechanistic action on skin cells have not been elucidated in vitro. Gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid were deduced by LC-MS as the major constituents of TE. The identified key compounds were docked with skin-related proteins to predict their binding affinity. The IC50 values for TE on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were 204.90 ± 7.6 and 239.13 ± 4.3 μg/mL respectively. The antioxidant capacity of TE was 481.33 ± 1.5 mM Trolox equivalents in HaCaT cells. Triphala extract inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced RBC haemolysis (IC50 64.95 μg/mL), nitric oxide production by 48.62 ± 2.2%, and showed high reducing power activity. TE also rescued HDF from H2O2-induced damage; inhibited H2O2 induced cellular senescence and protected HDF from DNA damage. TE increased collagen-I, involucrin and filaggrin synthesis by 70.72 ± 2.3%, 67.61 ± 2.1% and 51.91 ± 3.5% in HDF or HaCaT cells respectively. TE also exhibited anti-tyrosinase and melanin inhibition properties in a dose-dependent manner. TE increased the mRNA expression of collagen-I, elastin, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), aquaporin-3 (AQP-3), filaggrin, involucrin, transglutaminase in HDF or HaCaT cells, and decreased the mRNA levels of tyrosinase in B16F10 cells. Thus, Triphala exhibits protective benefits on skin cells in vitro and can be used as a potential ingredient in skin care formulations. PMID:26731545

  17. Protective Effects of Triphala on Dermal Fibroblasts and Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sivaprakasam, Thiyagarajan O; Mishra, Abheepsa; Kumar, L M Sharath; Prakash, N S; Prabhu, Sunil; Ramakrishnan, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Human skin is body's vital organ constantly exposed to abiotic oxidative stress. This can have deleterious effects on skin such as darkening, skin damage, and aging. Plant-derived products having skin-protective effects are well-known traditionally. Triphala, a formulation of three fruit products, is one of the most important rasayana drugs used in Ayurveda. Several skin care products based on Triphala are available that claim its protective effects on facial skin. However, the skin protective effects of Triphala extract (TE) and its mechanistic action on skin cells have not been elucidated in vitro. Gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid were deduced by LC-MS as the major constituents of TE. The identified key compounds were docked with skin-related proteins to predict their binding affinity. The IC50 values for TE on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were 204.90 ± 7.6 and 239.13 ± 4.3 μg/mL respectively. The antioxidant capacity of TE was 481.33 ± 1.5 mM Trolox equivalents in HaCaT cells. Triphala extract inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced RBC haemolysis (IC50 64.95 μg/mL), nitric oxide production by 48.62 ± 2.2%, and showed high reducing power activity. TE also rescued HDF from H2O2-induced damage; inhibited H2O2 induced cellular senescence and protected HDF from DNA damage. TE increased collagen-I, involucrin and filaggrin synthesis by 70.72 ± 2.3%, 67.61 ± 2.1% and 51.91 ± 3.5% in HDF or HaCaT cells respectively. TE also exhibited anti-tyrosinase and melanin inhibition properties in a dose-dependent manner. TE increased the mRNA expression of collagen-I, elastin, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), aquaporin-3 (AQP-3), filaggrin, involucrin, transglutaminase in HDF or HaCaT cells, and decreased the mRNA levels of tyrosinase in B16F10 cells. Thus, Triphala exhibits protective benefits on skin cells in vitro and can be used as a potential ingredient in skin care formulations. PMID:26731545

  18. Additive Effects of Word Frequency and Stimulus Quality: The Influence of Trial History and Data Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, David A.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Yap, Melvin J.

    2013-01-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear…

  19. Modulation of Additive and Interactive Effects in Lexical Decision by Trial History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model…

  20. The Additional-Mass Effect of Plates as Determined by Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William

    1941-01-01

    The apparent increase in the inertia properties of a body moving in a fluid medium has been called the additional-mass effect. This report presents a resume of test procedures and results of experimental determinations of the additional-mass effect of flat plates. In addition to data obtained from various foreign sources and from a NACA investigation in 1933, the results of tests recently conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are included.

  1. No additional protection against ventriculitis with prolonged systemic antibiotic prophylaxis for patients treated with antibiotic-coated external ventricular drains.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rory K J; Liu, Betty; Srinath, Abhinav; Reynolds, Matthew R; Liu, Jingxia; Craighead, Martha C; Camins, Bernard C; Dhar, Rajat; Kummer, Terrance T; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT External ventricular drains (EVDs) are commonly used for CSF diversion but pose a risk of ventriculitis, with rates varying in frequency from 2% to 45%. Results of studies examining the utility of prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy for the prevention of EVD-related infection have been contradictory, and no study to date has examined whether this approach confers additional benefit in preventing ventriculitis when used in conjunction with antibiotic-coated EVDs (ac-EVDs). METHODS A prospective performance analysis was conducted over 4 years to examine the impact of discontinuing systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after insertion of an ac-EVD on rates of catheter-related ventriculitis. Ventriculitis and other nosocomial infections were ascertained by a qualified infection disease nurse using definitions based on published standards from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, comparing the period when patients received systemic antibiotic therapy for the duration of EVD treatment (Period 1) compared with only for the peri-insertion period (Period 2). Costs were analyzed and compared across the 2 time periods. RESULTS Over the 4-year study period, 866 patients were treated with ac-EVDs for a total of 7016 catheter days. There were 8 cases of ventriculitis, for an overall incidence of 0.92%. Rates of ventriculitis did not differ significantly between Period 1 and Period 2 (1.1% vs 0.4%, p = 0.22). The rate of nosocomial infections, however, was significantly higher in Period 1 (2.0% vs 0.0% in Period 2, p = 0.026). Cost savings of $162,516 were realized in Period 2 due to decreased drug costs and savings associated with the reduction in nosocomial infections. CONCLUSIONS Prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy following placement of ac-EVDs does not seem to reduce the incidence of catheter-related ventriculitis and was associated with a higher rate of nosocomial infections and increased cost. PMID:25794343

  2. Prolonged systemic antibiotics confer no additional protection against ventriculitis in patients treated with antibiotic-coated external ventricular drains

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Rory K. J.; Liu, Betty; Srinath, Abhinav; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Liu, Jingxia; Craighead, Martha C.; Camins, Bernard C.; Dhar, Rajat; Kummer, Terrance T.; Zipfel, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Object External ventricular drains (EVDs) are commonly used for CSF diversion but pose a risk of ventriculitis, with rates varying in frequency from 2% to 45%. Results of studies examining the utility of prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy for the prevention of EVD-related infection have been contradictory, and no study to date has examined whether this approach confers additional benefit in preventing ventriculitis when used in conjunction with antibiotic-coated EVDs (ac-EVDs). Methods A prospective performance analysis was conducted over 4 years to examine the impact of discontinuing systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after insertion of an ac-EVD on rates of catheter-related ventriculitis. Ventriculitis and other nosocomial infections were ascertained by a qualified infection disease nurse using definitions based on published standards from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, comparing the period when patients received systemic antibiotic therapy for the duration of EVD treatment (Period 1) compared with only for the peri-insertion period (Period 2). Costs were analyzed and compared across the 2 time periods Results Over the 4-year study period, 866 patients were treated with ac-EVDs for a total of 7016 catheter days. There were 8 cases of ventriculitis, for an overall incidence of 0.92%. Rates of ventriculitis did not differ significantly between Period 1 and Period 2 (1.1% vs 0.4%, p = 0.22). The rate of nosocomial infections, however, was significantly higher in Period 1 (2.0% vs 0.0% in Period 2, p = 0.026). Cost savings of $162,516 were realized in Period 2 due to decreased drug costs and savings associated with the reduction in nosocomial infections. Conclusions Prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy following placement of ac-EVDs does not seem to reduce the incidence of catheter-related ventriculitis, and was associated with a higher rate of nosocomial infections and increased cost. PMID:25794343

  3. Additive Effects on Si3n4 Oxidation/Volatilization in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, R. Craig; Fox, Dennis S.; Wenglarz, Richard A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    2002-01-01

    Two commercially available additive-containing silicon nitride materials were exposed in four environments which range in severity from dry oxygen at 1 atm pressure, and low gas velocity to an actual turbine engine. Oxidation and volatilization kinetics were monitored at temperatures ranging from 1066 to 1400 C. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the surface oxide morphology resulting from the exposures. It was found that the material surface was enriched in rare earth silicate phases in combustion environments when compared to the oxides formed on materials exposed in dry oxygen. However, the in situ formation of rare earth disilicate phases offered little additional protection from the volatilization of silica observed in combustion environments. It was concluded that externally applied environmental barrier coatings are needed to protect additive-containing silicon nitride materials from volatilization reactions in combustion environments. Introduction Si3N4 is proposed for use as components, such as vanes, in turbine applications. Tens of thousands of hours of life are needed for both land-based turbines and aeropropulsion applications. Additive-containing SisN4 materials are

  4. Protective effects of retinoid x receptors on retina pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Peña, Victoria Belén; Pilotti, Fiorella; Volonté, Yanel; Rotstein, Nora P; Politi, Luis E; German, Olga Lorena

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is among the main pathologies leading to blindness in adults and has currently no cure or effective treatment. Selective apoptosis of retina pigment epithelial (RPE) cells results in the progressive loss of photoreceptor neurons, with the consequent gradual vision loss. Oxidative stress plays an important role in this process. We have previously determined that activation of RXRs protects rat photoreceptor neurons from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In this study we investigated whether RXR ligands prevented apoptosis in an RPE cell line, D407 cells, exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 induced apoptosis of D407 cells, promoting p65NFκB nuclear translocation, increasing Bax mRNA expression, activating caspase-3 and altering cell morphology. We show, for the first time, that HX630, a RXR pan-agonist, protected D407 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis, preventing p65NFκB nuclear translocation, increasing Bclxl and PPARγ mRNA levels and simultaneously decreasing Bax mRNA levels and caspase-3 activation. Pretreatment with a RXR antagonist blocked HX630 protection. LG100754, which binds RXRs but only activates heterodimers and is an antagonist of RXR homodimers, also had a protective effect. In addition, only agonists known to bind to RXR/PPARγ were protective. As a whole, our results suggest that RXR activation protects RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and this protection might involve signaling through a heterodimeric receptor, such as RXR/PPARγ. These data also imply that RXR agonists might provide potential pharmacological tools for treating retina degenerative diseases. PMID:26883505

  5. Protective effects of retinoid x receptors on retina pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Peña, Victoria Belén; Pilotti, Fiorella; Volonté, Yanel; Rotstein, Nora P; Politi, Luis E; German, Olga Lorena

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is among the main pathologies leading to blindness in adults and has currently no cure or effective treatment. Selective apoptosis of retina pigment epithelial (RPE) cells results in the progressive loss of photoreceptor neurons, with the consequent gradual vision loss. Oxidative stress plays an important role in this process. We have previously determined that activation of RXRs protects rat photoreceptor neurons from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In this study we investigated whether RXR ligands prevented apoptosis in an RPE cell line, D407 cells, exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 induced apoptosis of D407 cells, promoting p65NFκB nuclear translocation, increasing Bax mRNA expression, activating caspase-3 and altering cell morphology. We show, for the first time, that HX630, a RXR pan-agonist, protected D407 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis, preventing p65NFκB nuclear translocation, increasing Bclxl and PPARγ mRNA levels and simultaneously decreasing Bax mRNA levels and caspase-3 activation. Pretreatment with a RXR antagonist blocked HX630 protection. LG100754, which binds RXRs but only activates heterodimers and is an antagonist of RXR homodimers, also had a protective effect. In addition, only agonists known to bind to RXR/PPARγ were protective. As a whole, our results suggest that RXR activation protects RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and this protection might involve signaling through a heterodimeric receptor, such as RXR/PPARγ. These data also imply that RXR agonists might provide potential pharmacological tools for treating retina degenerative diseases.

  6. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  7. Protective effect of selenium on lung cancer in smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Gerhardsson, L; Brune, D; Nordberg, I G; Wester, P O

    1985-09-01

    A possible protective effect of selenium against lung cancer has been indicated in recent studies. Workers in copper smelters are exposed to a combination of airborne selenium and carcinogens. In this study lung tissue concentrations of selenium, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lanthanum, and lead from 76 dead copper smelter workers were compared with those of 15 controls from a rural area and 10 controls from an urban area. The mean exposure time for the dead workers was 31.2 years, and the mean retirement time after the end of exposure 7.2 years. Lung cancer appeared in the workers with the lowest selenium lung tissue levels (selenium median value 71 micrograms/kg wet weight), as compared with both the controls (rural group, median value 110; urban group, median value 136) and other causes of death among the workers (median value 158). The quotient between the metals and selenium was used for comparison: a high quotient indicating a low protective effect of selenium and vice versa. The median values of the quotients between antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lanthanum, lead, chromium, and cobalt versus selenium were all numerically higher among the cases of lung cancer, the first five significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in 28 of the 35 comparisons between the lung cancer group and all other groups of smelter workers and controls. The different lung metal concentrations for each person were weighted according to their carcinogenic potency (Crx4 + Asx3 + Cdx2 + Sbx1 + Cox1 + Lax1 + Pbx1) against their corresponding selenium concentrations. From these calculations the protective effect of selenium was even more pronounced. PMID:4041390

  8. Protective Effects of Fufang Xueshuantong on Diabetic Retinopathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Huihui; Huang, Jianmei; Li, Wei; Tang, Minke

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Fufang Xueshuantong (FXT) on diabetic retinopathy in rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. One week after STZ, FXT 0.525 g/kg or 1.05 g/kg was administrated to the rats by intragastric gavage (ig) once daily consecutively for 24 weeks. The control rats and untreated STZ rats received vehicle the same way. At the end of the experiment, the erythrocyte aggregation and blood viscosity were assayed. The retina vessel morphology was observed in retinal digestive preparations. Expression of occludin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in retina was measured by western blotting. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) in retina was detected by immunohistochemistry. The activity of aldose reductase in retina was investigated with a NADPH oxidation method. The results showed that, in STZ rats, there were distinct lesions in retinal vessel, including decrease of pericytes and increase of acellular capillaries, together with dilatation of retinal veins. The expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 increased, while the expression of PEDF and occludin decreased. The activity of aldose reductase elevated, and the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation also increased after STZ stimulation. FXT 0.525 g/kg and 1.05 g/kg demonstrated significant protective effects against STZ induced microvessel lesion in the retina with increased pericytes and reduced acellular capillaries. FXT also reduced the expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 and enhanced the expression of PEDF and occludin in STZ insulted rats. The activity of aldose reductase, the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation also decreased after FXT treatment. The results demonstrated that FXT has protective effect on STZ induced diabetic retinopathy in rats. PMID

  9. Effects of aluminum additions to gas atomized reaction synthesis produced oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicher, Alexander Lee

    The production of an aluminum containing ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy was investigated. The production method used in this study was gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). GARS was chosen over the previously commercial method of mechanical alloying (MA) process due to complications from this process. The alloy compositions was determined from three main components; corrosion resistance, dispersoid formation, and additional elements. A combination of Cr and Al were necessary in order to create a protective oxide in the steam atmosphere that the boiler tubing in the next generation of coal-fired power plants would be exposed to. Hf and Y were chosen as dispersoid forming elements due to their increased thermal stability and potential to avoid decreased strength caused by additions of Al to traditional ODS materials. W was used as an additive due to benefits as a strengthener as well as its benefits for creep rupture time. The final composition chosen for the alloy was Fe-16Cr-12Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.2Y at%. The aforementioned alloy, GA-1-198, was created through gas atomization with atomization gas of Ar-300ppm O2. The actual composition created was found to be Fe-15Cr-12.3Al-0.9W-0.24Hf-0.19Y at%. An additional alloy that was nominally the same without the inclusion of aluminum was created as a comparison for the effects on mechanical and corrosion properties. The actual composition of the comparison alloy, GA-1-204, was Fe-16Cr-0Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.24Y at%. An investigation on the processing parameters for these alloys was conducted on the GA-1-198 alloy. In order to predict the necessary amount of time for heat treatment, a diffusion study was used to find the diffusion rate of oxygen in cast alloys with similar composition. The diffusion rate was found to be similar to that of other GARS compositions that have been created without the inclusion of aluminum. The effect of heat treatment time was investigated with temperatures of 950°C, 1000

  10. Effects of extreme pressure additive chemistry on rolling element bearing surface durability

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Ryan D.; Nixon, H. P.; Darragh, Craig V.; Howe, Jane Y; Coffey, Dorothy W

    2007-01-01

    Lubricant additives have been known to affect rolling element bearing surface durability for many years. Tapered roller bearings were used in fatigue testing of lubricants formulated with gear oil type additive systems. These systems have sulfur- and phosphoruscontaining compounds used for gear protection as well as bearing lubrication. Several variations of a commercially available base additive formulation were tested having modified sulfur components. The variations represent a range of ''active'' extreme pressure (EP) chemistries. The bearing fatigue test results were compared with respect to EP formulation and test conditions. Inner ring near-surface material in selected test bearings was evaluated on two scales: the micrometer scale using optical metallography and the nanometer scale using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Focused-ion beam (FIB) techniques were used for TEM specimen preparation. Imaging and chemical analysis of the bearing samples revealed near-surface material and tribofilm characteristics. These results are discussed with respect to the relative fatigue lives.

  11. Protective Effects of Gastrodin Against Autophagy-Mediated Astrocyte Death.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-shang; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Nan; Han, Jing; Guo, Hong-liang; Zhao, Ming-gao; Liu, Shui-bing

    2016-03-01

    Gastrodin is an active ingredient derived from the rhizome of Gastrodia elata. This compound is usually used to treat convulsive illness, dizziness, vertigo, and headache. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gastrodin on the autophagy of glial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 1 µg/mL). Autophagy is a form of programmed cell death, although it also promotes cell survival. In cultured astrocytes, LPS exposure induced excessive autophagy and apoptosis, which were significantly prevented by the pretreatment cells with gastrodin (10 μM). The protective effects of gastrodin via autophagy inhibition were verified by the decreased levels of LC3-II, P62, and Beclin-1, which are classical markers for autophagy. Furthermore, gastrodin protected astrocytes from apoptosis through Bcl-2 and Bax signaling pathway. The treatment of astrocytes with rapamycin (500 nM), wortmannin (100 nM), and LY294002 (10 μM), which are inhibitors of mTOR and PI3K, respectively, eliminated the known effects of gastrodin on the inhibited Beclin-1 expression. Furthermore, gastrodin blocked the down-regulation of glutamine synthetase induced by LPS exposure in astrocytes. Our results suggest that gastrodin can be used as a preventive agent for the excessive autophagy induced by LPS. PMID:26643508

  12. Protective effect of crocin on liver toxicity induced by morphine.

    PubMed

    Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Khashiadeh, Mojtaba; Roshankhah, Shiva; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Jalili, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    Crocin, a bioactive molecule of saffron can be purely isolated from the saffron extract. It has different pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and anticancer activities. Morphine is an opioid analgesic drug. It is mainly metabolized in liver and causes devastating effects. It can increase the generation of free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of crocin against morphine-induced toxicity in the mouse liver. In this study, various doses of crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and crocin plus morphine were administered interaperitoneally once daily to 48 male mice for 20 consecutive days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 each. The liver weight and histology, aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum nitric oxide levels were studied. The results indicated that morphine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein diameters, liver enzyme levels, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared to saline group (P<0.05). However, crocin administration significantly boosted liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared to the group received morphine alone (P<0.05). It seems that crocin administration could protect the liver damage induced by morphine. The antioxidant effect of crocin may be a major reason for its positive impact on liver parameters. PMID:27168751

  13. Protective effect of crocin on liver toxicity induced by morphine

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; khashiadeh, Mojtaba; Roshankhah, Shiva; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Jalili, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    Crocin, a bioactive molecule of saffron can be purely isolated from the saffron extract. It has different pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and anticancer activities. Morphine is an opioid analgesic drug. It is mainly metabolized in liver and causes devastating effects. It can increase the generation of free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of crocin against morphine-induced toxicity in the mouse liver. In this study, various doses of crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and crocin plus morphine were administered interaperitoneally once daily to 48 male mice for 20 consecutive days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 each. The liver weight and histology, aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum nitric oxide levels were studied. The results indicated that morphine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein diameters, liver enzyme levels, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared to saline group (P<0.05). However, crocin administration significantly boosted liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared to the group received morphine alone (P<0.05). It seems that crocin administration could protect the liver damage induced by morphine. The antioxidant effect of crocin may be a major reason for its positive impact on liver parameters. PMID:27168751

  14. Protective effect of CV247 against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Máthé, C; Szénási, G; Sebestény, A; Blázovics, A; Szentmihályi, K; Hamar, P; Albert, M

    2014-08-01

    CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12 days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14 days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14 days (twice 3 ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect.

  15. Protective effect of poly (α- L-glutamate) against UV and γ-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Huy, Nguyen Quang; Tsuchiya, Akihito; Nakatsuka, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Toshio

    2004-09-01

    We occasionally found that poly (α- L-glutamate) showed a superior protective effect on enzymes against UV and 60Co-γ irradiation. We selected papain and α-amylase as a model enzyme and irradiated the aqueous solution (10 mg/ml) of each enzyme with UV and 60Co-γ rays in the presence of poly (α- L-glutamate) (α-PGA), poly (glucosyl oxyethyl methacrylate (GEMA)), and glucose (1.25% w/v each). The mixture of the three compounds has a significant protective effect on the activity of papain solution showing 40% of remaining activity twice as much as the control containing no additive at the dose of 15 kGy. Among them, α-PGA showed the highest protecting effect on the both papain and α-amylase even after 10-kGy irradiation at which 50% of the activity was retained. α-PGA also showed significant protective activity on α-amylase against UV both in solution and under dried state.

  16. Dose-dependent protective effects of apomorphine against methamphetamine-induced nigrostriatal damage.

    PubMed

    Fornai, F; Battaglia, G; Gesi, M; Orzi, F; Nicoletti, F; Ruggieri, S

    2001-04-13

    (R)-apomorphine is a non-selective dopamine (DA) agonist which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In addition to symptomatic effects, apomorphine exerts a neuroprotective activity in specific experimental models. For instance, apomorphine prevents experimental parkinsonism induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Neuroprotection obtained with apomorphine does not seem to be related to its dopamine (DA) agonist properties, instead it appears to be grounded on the antioxidant and the free radical scavenging effects of the compound. In this study, we sought to determine whether apomorphine protects against methamphetamine toxicity. We found that apomorphine (1; 5 and 10 mg/kg) dose-dependently protects against methamphetamine- (5 mg/kg X3, 2 h apart) induced striatal DA loss and reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity in the rat striatum. These protective effects are neither due to a decrease in the amount of striatal methamphetamine nor to hypothermia as indicated by measurement of striatal methamphetamine and body temperature at different time intervals after drug administration. The effects of apomorphine were neither opposite to, nor reversed by the DA antagonist haloperidol despite no decrease in body temperature was observed when apomorphine was given in combination with haloperidol. The present data are in line with recent studies suggesting a DA receptor-independent neuroprotective effect of apomorphine on DA neurons and call for further studies aimed at evaluating potential neuroprotective effects of apomorphine in Parkinson's disease.

  17. The protective effect and action mechanism of Vaccinium myrtillus L. on gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenjirou; Oyagi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junji; Kobayashi, Saori; Hara, Hideaki

    2011-08-01

    Vaccinium myrtillus L. anthocyanoside (VMA) is used as a folk medicine to treat diseases related to gastric ulcers in northern Europe. However, the effects of VMA and its detailed mechanism on gastric ulcer have not been investigated sufficiently. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of VMA on gastric mucosal damage in a murine gastric ulcer model. First the effects of VMA on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice were investigated. Then, the levels of lipid peroxide in murine stomach homogenates were measured to investigate the antioxidative effects of VMA. In addition, the free radical scavenging activity of VMA and its main anthocyanidins were evaluated by electron spin resonance measurement. Oral administration of VMA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) significantly protected gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Furthermore, VMA inhibited lipid peroxide levels in a concentration-dependent manner and showed high scavenging activity against the superoxide anion radical (·O(2) (-) ) and the hydroxyl radical (·OH). Anthocyanidins also showed scavenging activity against the ·O(2) (-) , while only delphinidin showed high scavenging activity against the ·OH. These findings indicate that the protective effects of VMA on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury may be partially due to the antiperoxidative effects of anthocyanidins.

  18. The protective effect and action mechanism of Vaccinium myrtillus L. on gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenjirou; Oyagi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junji; Kobayashi, Saori; Hara, Hideaki

    2011-08-01

    Vaccinium myrtillus L. anthocyanoside (VMA) is used as a folk medicine to treat diseases related to gastric ulcers in northern Europe. However, the effects of VMA and its detailed mechanism on gastric ulcer have not been investigated sufficiently. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of VMA on gastric mucosal damage in a murine gastric ulcer model. First the effects of VMA on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice were investigated. Then, the levels of lipid peroxide in murine stomach homogenates were measured to investigate the antioxidative effects of VMA. In addition, the free radical scavenging activity of VMA and its main anthocyanidins were evaluated by electron spin resonance measurement. Oral administration of VMA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) significantly protected gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Furthermore, VMA inhibited lipid peroxide levels in a concentration-dependent manner and showed high scavenging activity against the superoxide anion radical (·O(2) (-) ) and the hydroxyl radical (·OH). Anthocyanidins also showed scavenging activity against the ·O(2) (-) , while only delphinidin showed high scavenging activity against the ·OH. These findings indicate that the protective effects of VMA on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury may be partially due to the antiperoxidative effects of anthocyanidins. PMID:21290441

  19. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover.

  20. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover. PMID:26171762

  1. Effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and subsequent methane production by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Ge, Xumeng; Liew, Lo Niee; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yebo

    2015-09-01

    The effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and sequential anaerobic digestion (AD) of the ensiled giant reed was evaluated. The dry matter loss during ensilage (up to 90 days) with or without urea addition was about 1%. Addition of 2% urea enhanced production of lactic acid by about 4 times, and reduced production of propionic acid by 2-8 times. Besides, urea addition reduced degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and increased degradation of lignin in giant reed during ensilage. Ensilage with or without urea addition had no significant effects on the enzymatic digestibility of giant reed, but ensilage with urea addition achieved a cumulative methane yield of 173 L/kg VS, which was 18% higher than that of fresh giant reed. The improved methane yield of giant reed could be attributed to the production of organic acids and ethanol during ensilage.

  2. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  3. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition between two larval salamanders.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Thomas L; Whiteman, Howard H

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of the relative strengths of intra- and interspecific competition has increased in recent years and is critical to understanding the importance of competition. Yet, whether intra- and interspecific competition can have non-additive effects has rarely been tested. The resulting fitness consequences of such non-additive interactions are important to provide the context necessary to advance our understanding of competition theory. We compared the strength of additive and non-additive intra- and interspecific competition by manipulating densities of a pair of larval salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum) in experimental mesocosms within a response surface design. Intraspecific density had the strongest effect on the strength of competition for both species, and few observed comparisons indicated interspecific competition was an important factor in predicting body size, growth or larval period length of either species. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition influenced some response variables, including size and mass at metamorphosis in A. maculatum, but at a reduced strength compared to intraspecific effects alone. Intraspecific competition was thus the dominant biotic interaction, but non-additive effects also impact the outcome of competition in these species, validating the importance of testing for and incorporating non-additive density effects into competition models.

  4. Protective effects of boldine against free radical-induced erythrocyte lysis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, I; Garrido, A; Bannach, R; Gotteland, M; Speisky, H

    2000-08-01

    Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid extracted from the leaves and bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), has been shown to exhibit strong free-radical scavenger and antioxidant properties. Here, we report the in vitro ability of boldine to protect intact red cells against the haemolytic damage induced by the free radical initiator 2, 2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) (AAPH). Boldine concentration-dependently prevented the AAPH-induced leakage of haemoglobin into the extracellular medium. Substantial and similar cyto-protective effects of boldine were observed whether the antioxidant was added 1 h prior to, or simultaneously with, the azo-compound. The delayed addition of boldine, by 1 h relative to AAPH, diminished but did not abolish its cytoprotective effect. However, negligible effects of boldine were observed after its addition to erythrocytes previously incubated with AAPH for 2 h. The data presented demonstrate that, in addition to its well-established antioxidant effects, boldine also displays time-dependently strong cytoprotective properties against chemically induced haemolytic damage. PMID:10925398

  5. Protection of Quantum Correlation Through the Quantum Erasing Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui-Yun; Yang, Guo-Hui

    2016-05-01

    By taking into account the quantum erasing effect(QEE), the quantum discord (QD) behavior of a two-qubit system with different initial states are investigated in detail. We find that the quantum correlation can be saved under a scheme of two spatially separated atoms, each located in a leaky cavity through the quantum erasing method. It is shown that QEE can weaken the effects of decoherence, and preserve the maximum information of the coherent item. No matter whether the two atoms are in the mixted or pure state, one can robusty save their initial quantum correlation even the number of erasing events is finite. If one limit the erasing events N → ∞, the QEE can be used to protect the initial quantum correlation independently of the state in which it is stored, the values of QD is always nearly equal to the initial QD values, and it is nearly independent of the decoherence, which imply us more encourage strategy for protecting the quantum correlation properties in some quantum systems.

  6. Protective effect of cannabidiol against cadmium hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Gomaa, Wafaey

    2013-10-01

    The protective effect of cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against liver toxicity induced by a single dose of cadmium chloride (6.5 mgkg(-1) i.p.) was investigated in rats. Cannabidiol treatment (5 mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was applied for five days starting three days before cadmium administration. Cannabidiol significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase, and suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and nitric oxide, and catalase activity, and attenuated the elevation of cadmium level in the liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Histopathological examination showed that cadmium-induced liver tissue injury was ameliorated by cannabidiol treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in liver tissue. It was concluded that cannabidiol may represent a potential option to protect the liver tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium toxicity.

  7. Effectiveness of the Touch Math Technique in Teaching Basic Addition to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yikmis, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to reveal whether the touch math technique is effective in teaching basic addition to children with autism. The dependent variable of this study is the children's skills to solve addition problems correctly, whereas teaching with the touch math technique is the independent variable. Among the single-subject research models, a…

  8. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examination of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents…

  9. Effects of biological pit additives on microbial ecology of stored pig manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of biological pit additives on microbial ecology in stored pig manure were investigated using a dynamic manure storage system, which allowed for continual addition of swine feces and urine. After 13 weeks of manure collection and storage, four treatments were added to tanks (900 L capaci...

  10. 75 FR 34360 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... (75 FR 14491), FDA amended the color additive regulations in Sec. 73.2110 (21 CFR 73.2110) by...: The effective date for the final rule published in the Federal Register of March 26, 2010 (75 FR 14491... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt...

  11. The effect of poverty and social protection on national homicide rates: Direct and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Meghan L; Pridemore, William Alex

    2013-05-01

    Social protection is the ability of a government to insulate its citizens from the problems associated with poverty and market forces that negatively affect their quality of life. Prior research shows that government policies that provide social protection moderate the influence of inequality on national homicide rates. Recent research, however, reveals a strong association between poverty and national homicide rates. Further, theory and evidence suggest that social protection policies are meant to aid in providing a subsistence level of living, and thus to alleviate the vagaries of poverty not inequality. To this point, however, no studies have examined the potentially moderating effect of social protection on the strength of the association between poverty and homicide rates cross-nationally. We do so in the present study. Employing data for the year 2004 from a sample of 30 nations, we estimate a series of weighted least squares regression models to test three hypotheses: the association between poverty and homicide will remain significant and positive when controlling for social protection, social protection will have a significant negative direct effect on national homicide rates, and social protection will diminish the strength of the poverty-homicide association. The results provided evidence supporting all three hypotheses. We situate our findings in the cross-national empirical literature on social structure and homicide and discuss our results in the theoretical context of social protection.

  12. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  13. Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide) and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases.

  14. The effect of adding PDMS-OH and silica nanoparticles on sol-gel properties and effectiveness in stone protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Xu, Feigao; Liu, Zhenghua; Zhu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qingjian; Shao, Li

    2013-02-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid crack-free xerogels were obtained using di-n-butyltin dilaurate (DBTL) as a catalyst containing tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) and hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-OH) as an additive. We studied the effect of gelling time and sol pH on DBTL concentration. The xerogels' structure was studied by FTIR, TGA-DTA and SEM techniques. The results showed that the catalyst (DBTL) would substantially shorten the gelling time of the sol. With the addition of PDMS-OH, the viscosity of the sol increased while the gel time decreased. In addition, we noticed an improvement in the cracking of the xerogel with the addition of PDMS-OH. However, the xerogels were opaque when mole ratio of PDMS/TEOS is higher than 0.153. Addition of silica nanoparticles at 0.1% (w/v) in sol could increase xerogels' surface roughness and hydrophobicity and did not change color of the xerogels. The protective performance evaluated by its ability to resist acid rain revealed that the protective effects were satisfying.

  15. Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Ozturk, Mustafa; Gultekin, Fatih

    2013-08-01

    Artificial food colourings and additives (AFCAs) have long been suggested to adversely affect the learning and behaviour in children. In this study, we aimed to provide additional data to clarify the possible side effects of colouring additives on behaviour and memory. We administered acceptable daily intake values of AFCAs as a mixture (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation and then tested their effects on behaviour and on spatial working memory in their offspring. Effects on spatial learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze, behavioural effects were evaluated by open-field test and forced swim test. Our results showed that commonly used artificial food colourings have no adverse effects on spatial working memory and did not create a depressive behaviour in offspring. But they showed a few significant effects on locomotor activity as AFCAs increased some parameters of locomotor activity. PMID:22323474

  16. 49 CFR 236.304 - Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical locking or same protection effected by..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.304 Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits. Mechanical locking, or the same protection effected by means of circuits, shall be provided....

  17. 49 CFR 236.304 - Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical locking or same protection effected by..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.304 Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits. Mechanical locking, or the same protection effected by means of circuits, shall be provided....

  18. 49 CFR 236.304 - Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical locking or same protection effected by..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.304 Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits. Mechanical locking, or the same protection effected by means of circuits, shall be provided....

  19. 49 CFR 236.304 - Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical locking or same protection effected by..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.304 Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits. Mechanical locking, or the same protection effected by means of circuits, shall be provided....

  20. 49 CFR 236.304 - Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical locking or same protection effected by..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.304 Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits. Mechanical locking, or the same protection effected by means of circuits, shall be provided....

  1. Protective effects of diltiazem against vascular endothelial cell injury induced by angiotensin-II and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Minggao; Li, Jing; Meng, Guo; Liu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    To provide pharmacological data for future clinical studies, this study investigated the protective effects of diltiazem on vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury induced by angiotensin-II (AngII), hypoxia, and a combination of both treatments. The concentration of intracellular free calcium and the mitochondrial membrane potential in VEC were assessed as indicators of cell injury. An in vivo hypoxic animal model was used to test the protective effect of diltiazem on vascular endothelial tissues. Our study showed that AngII and hypoxia decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in VEC, which was significantly inhibited by diltiazem. Diltiazem protected against VEC injury induced by the increased concentration of intracellular free calcium, which was associated with AngII and hypoxia. Diltiazem reduced the apoptosis of rat VEC under a sustained hypoxic condition. In addition, it reduced AngII and endothelin I levels in rat vascular endothelial tissues. Our study confirmed that AngII and hypoxia induced VEC injury by regulating the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular free calcium. Diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, protected VEC from AngII- and hypoxia-induced injury. PMID:25661249

  2. Protective Effects of D-Penicillamine on Catecholamine-Induced Myocardial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Říha, Michal; Hašková, Pavlína; Martin, Jan; Filipský, Tomáš; Váňová, Kateřina; Vávrová, Jaroslava; Holečková, Magdalena; Homola, Pavel; Vítek, Libor; Palicka, Vladimír; Šimůnek, Tomáš; Mladěnka, Přemysl

    2016-01-01

    Iron and copper release participates in the myocardial injury under ischemic conditions and hence protection might be achieved by iron chelators. Data on copper chelation are, however, sparse. The effect of the clinically used copper chelator D-penicillamine in the catecholamine model of acute myocardial injury was tested in cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 and in Wistar Han rats. D-Penicillamine had a protective effect against catecholamine-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. It protected H9c2 cells against the catecholamine-induced viability loss in a dose-dependent manner. In animals, both intravenous D-penicillamine doses of 11 (low) and 44 mg/kg (high) decreased the mortality caused by s.c. isoprenaline (100 mg/kg) from 36% to 14% and 22%, respectively. However, whereas the low D-penicillamine dose decreased the release of cardiac troponin T (specific marker of myocardial injury), the high dose resulted in an increase. Interestingly, the high dose led to a marked elevation in plasma vitamin C. This might be related to potentiation of oxidative stress, as suggested by additional in vitro experiments with D-penicillamine (iron reduction and the Fenton reaction). In conclusion, D-penicillamine has protective potential against catecholamine-induced cardiotoxicity; however the optimal dose selection seems to be crucial for further application. PMID:26788248

  3. Effects of Roundup formulations, nutrient addition, and Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) on aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Rebecca L; Smith, Geoffrey R; Rettig, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Aquatic communities can be affected by herbicides, nutrient addition, and non-native fish species. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to examine the direct and interactive effects of three stressors: (1) Roundup formulations (Roundup Weed and Grass Killer(®) and Roundup Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer Plus(®)), (2) nutrient addition, and (3) the presence of the non-native Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), on experimental pond communities. Roundup formulations had the most widespread effects on the zooplankton community, but effects varied between formulations and among taxa. The only significant effect of nutrient addition was a lowering of Daphnia abundance in the nutrient addition treatments. The abundances of Daphnia, mid-sized cladocerans, and total zooplankton were lowered by mosquitofish, but no other taxa showed significant mosquitofish effects. We found several two-way and three-way interactions among the stressors, but these varied among zooplankton taxa. Chlorophyll a levels were higher with nutrient addition but were not significantly affected by Roundup formulation or mosquitofish. Our results suggest toxicity of Roundup formulations varies among taxa, and Roundup formulations differ in their toxicity to zooplankton, but with no cascading effects on primary producers. In addition, interactions among stressors affected the zooplankton community.

  4. Effects of Roundup formulations, nutrient addition, and Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) on aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Rebecca L; Smith, Geoffrey R; Rettig, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Aquatic communities can be affected by herbicides, nutrient addition, and non-native fish species. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to examine the direct and interactive effects of three stressors: (1) Roundup formulations (Roundup Weed and Grass Killer(®) and Roundup Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer Plus(®)), (2) nutrient addition, and (3) the presence of the non-native Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), on experimental pond communities. Roundup formulations had the most widespread effects on the zooplankton community, but effects varied between formulations and among taxa. The only significant effect of nutrient addition was a lowering of Daphnia abundance in the nutrient addition treatments. The abundances of Daphnia, mid-sized cladocerans, and total zooplankton were lowered by mosquitofish, but no other taxa showed significant mosquitofish effects. We found several two-way and three-way interactions among the stressors, but these varied among zooplankton taxa. Chlorophyll a levels were higher with nutrient addition but were not significantly affected by Roundup formulation or mosquitofish. Our results suggest toxicity of Roundup formulations varies among taxa, and Roundup formulations differ in their toxicity to zooplankton, but with no cascading effects on primary producers. In addition, interactions among stressors affected the zooplankton community. PMID:26944427

  5. An atomic view of additive mutational effects in a protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, M.M.; Terwilliger, T.C.

    1996-04-01

    Substitution of a single amino acid in a protein will often lead to substantial changes in properties. If these properties could be altered in a rational way then proteins could be readily generated with functions tailored to specific uses. When amino acid substitutions are made at well-separated locations in a single protein, their effects are generally additive. Additivity of effects of amino acid substitutions is very useful because the properties of proteins with any combination of substitutions can be inferred directly from those of the proteins with single changes. It would therefore be of considerable interest to have a means of knowing whether substitutions at a particular pair of sites in a protein are likely to lead to additive effects. The structural basis for additivity of effects of mutations on protein function was examined by determining crystal structures of single and double mutants in the hydrophobic core of gene V protein. Structural effects of mutations were found to be cumulative when two mutations were made in a single protein. Additivity occurs in this case because the regions structurally affected by mutations at the two sites do not overlap even though the sites are separated by only 9 {angstrom}. Structural distortions induced by mutations in gene V protein decrease rapidly, but not isotropically, with distance from the site of mutation. It is anticipated that cases where structural and functional effects of mutations will be additive could be identified simply by examining whether the regions structurally affected by each component mutation overlap.

  6. Protective Pleiotropic Effect of Flavonoids on NAD+ Levels in Endothelial Cells Exposed to High Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Boesten, Daniëlle M. P. H. J.; von Ungern-Sternberg, Saskia N. I.; den Hartog, Gertjan J. M.; Bast, Aalt

    2015-01-01

    NAD+ is important for oxidative metabolism by serving as an electron transporter. Hyperglycemia decreases NAD+ levels by activation of the polyol pathway and by overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP). We examined the protective role of three structurally related flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, and flavone) during high glucose conditions in an in vitro model using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally we assessed the ability of these flavonoids to inhibit aldose reductase enzyme activity. We have previously shown that flavonoids can inhibit PARP activation. Extending these studies, we here provide evidence that flavonoids are also able to protect endothelial cells against a high glucose induced decrease in NAD+. In addition, we established that flavonoids are able to inhibit aldose reductase, the key enzyme in the polyol pathway. We conclude that this protective effect of flavonoids on NAD+ levels is a combination of the flavonoids ability to inhibit both PARP activation and aldose reductase enzyme activity. This study shows that flavonoids, by a combination of effects, maintain the redox state of the cell during hyperglycemia. This mode of action enables flavonoids to ameliorate diabetic complications. PMID:26180598

  7. Effect of a chromium-containing fuel additive on hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Four superalloys were tested at 900 C in high velocity combustion gases containing synthetic sea salt and, in some cases, a chromium containing fuel additive. While the additive reduced hot corrosion of the alloys over the 100 hour test period, the attack was not eliminated nor was the mode of attack changed. Reduction of the number of thermal cycles had as large a beneficial effect as the Cr additive. Intermittent washing during testing had either small beneficial or adverse effects depending on the alloy.

  8. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  9. Doping Effect of Nano-Ybco Additive on MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, X. F.; Sun, X. F.; Xu, X. L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, H.

    The effect of YBCO nanoparticles added into MgB2 on Tc, Jc, and flux pinning was studied for MgB2(YBCO)x with x=0, 5, 10, 15 wt%. Phase analysis shows that none of elements are doped into the MgB2 lattice in the samples with YBCO addition. For the samples with YBCO addition, the Jc-H characteristics behave poorly in comparison with the pure sample. Our experimental results show that the nanoscale size of addition dosen't comprise the only condition for its effectiveness as pinning centers.

  10. Protective effects of asiaticoside on septic lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-na; Zheng, Jia-jia; Zhang, Li; Gong, Xia; Huang, Hai; Wang, Chang-dong; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meng-jiao; Li, Xiao-hui; Sun, Wen-juan; Liu, Ying-ju; Wan, Jing-yuan

    2011-09-01

    Asiaticoside (AS), a major triterpenoid saponin component isolated from Centella asiatica, has been described to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of AS on septic lung injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Mice were pretreated with the AS (45 mg/kg) or AS as well as GW9662 at 1h before CLP, the survival, lung injury, inflammatory mediators and signaling molecules, and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were determined 24 h after CLP. The results showed that AS significantly decreased CLP-induced the mortality, lung pathological damage, the infiltration of mononuclear, polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes and total proteins. Moreover, AS inhibited CLP-induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein in lung tissues, and the production of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Interestingly, the expression of PPAR-γ protein in lung tissue was up-regulated by AS. Furthermore, GW9662 (the inhibitor of PPAR-γ) significantly reversed these beneficial effects of AS in septic mice. These findings suggest that AS could effectively protect from septic lung injury induced by CLP and the underlying mechanisms might be related to up-regulation of PPAR-γ expression to some extent, which inhibits MAPKs and NF-κB pathway.

  11. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  12. Protective Effects of Guava Pulp on Cholestatic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jian; Yue, Chunyan; Qiu, Kai; Chen, Jie; Aller, Maria-Angeles; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cholestatic liver injury is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases involved with oxidative stress changes and inflammation; thus, antioxidant and anti-inflammation compound-rich guava may play a pivotal role in protecting against the cholestatic liver damages. Our aims for this study are to determine whether guava pulp (GP) has protective effects on cholestatic liver injury-induced mouse model and on interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated proliferation of QBC939 cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Methods. Mice were induced to cholestatic liver damage by left and median bile duct ligation (LMBDL) surgery and then treated with GP. Plasma and liver samples were collected for biochemical and pathological assays. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and Western blots were used to detect proliferation and gene expression in QBC939 cells, respectively. Results. Compared with LMBDL only group, in GP-treated mice, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin decreased, biliary epithelial cell proliferation and liver fibrogenesis were suppressed, Src/MEK/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway and expressions of transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases TIMP), and procollagen 1α1(COL1α1) were downregulated significantly. Moreover, the GP extract reduced IL-6-enhanced QBC939 cell proliferation, p-ERK, and c-Myc expression as well. Conclusions. GP may provide a new perspective for the treatment of cholestatic liver injury. PMID:27335829

  13. Protective effects of fulvotomentosides on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y P; Liu, J; Jia, X S; Mao, Q; Madhu, C; Klaassen, C D

    1992-05-01

    Fulvotomentosides (Ful) is the total saponins of Lonicera fulvotomentosa. In the present study, we examined the effect of Ful on acetaminophen (AA)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Ful pretreatment (75-225 mg.kg-1, sc x 3 d) significantly decreased AA (500 mg.kg-1, ip)-induced liver damage as indicated by serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase. Ful pretreatment (225 mg.kg-1, sc x 3 d) decreased hepatic cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5, and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase by approximately 15-20%. Microsomes from Ful-pretreated mice, incubated in vitro with AA, produced less AA-glutathione. A 28% increase in urinary excretion of AA-glucuronide was observed in Ful (150 mg.kg-1, sc x 3 d) pretreated mice. Ful pretreatment had no influence on liver UDP-glucuronic acid concentration, but increased hepatic glucuronyltransferase activity towards AA. In summary, Ful pretreatment protects against AA-induced hepatotoxicity. One of the mechanisms for this protection appears to be the decreased AA toxic activation via P-450, as well as increased detoxication via glucuronidation of AA.

  14. [Effects of nitrogen addition on red soil microbes in the Cinnamomum camphora plantation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Pei-Yi; Zhu, Fan; Su, Shao-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Wen-De

    2013-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen addition on the red soil microbial communities in Cinnamomum camphora plantation, three treatments of nitrogen addition were designated as control (N0: 0 g x m(-2)), low nitrogen (N1: 5 g x m(-2)) and high nitrogen (N2 :15 g x m(-2)). Soil microbial numbers, microbial biomass carbon (C), biomass N and microbial community functional diversity were analyzed using the methods of plate counting, chloroform fumigation and BIOLOG system, respectively. The results showed that the numbers of bacteria in N1 and N2 were significantly higher than the control 1 month after nitrogen addition, but significantly lower than the control 13 months after nitrogen addition, and the number of fungi and actinomycetes were not significantly changed after nitrogen addition. The soil microbial biomass C, N increased with the increase of nitrogen at 1 month, but the soil microbial biomass C increased significantly 13 months after nitrogen addition when compared with 1 month after nitrogen addition. The soil microbial biomass N was lower 13 months after nitrogen addition when compared with 1 month after nitrogen addition, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The variation of the carbon utilization efficiency of soil microbial communities was resulted from the nitrogen addition. The indices of Shannon index, Simpson index and McIntosh index were calculated to show the differences in nitrogen treatments and in times, which turned out to be insignificant.

  15. Protective effect of hemin against cadmium-induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Qureshi, Habib A; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T; Ali, Abdellah Abusrie

    2009-03-29

    The protective effect of hemin, the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, was investigated in rats with cadmium induced-testicular injury, in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role. Testicular damage was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2mg/kg). Hemin was given for three consecutive days (40 micromol/kg/day, s.c.), starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Hemin treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by cadmium. Hemin compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities), and suppressed lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, hemin attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in testicular tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide levels, and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, hemin ameliorated cadmium-induced testicular tissue damage observed by light and electron microscopic examinations. The protective effect afforded by hemin was abolished by prior administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, the heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor. It was concluded that hemin, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium. PMID:19150641

  16. Electrochemical storage cell containing a substituted anisole or di-anisole redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection and suitable for use in liquid organic and solid polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kerr, John B.; Tian, Minmin

    2000-01-01

    A electrochemical cell is described comprising an anode, a cathode, a solid polymer electrolyte, and a redox shuttle additive to protect the cell against overcharging and a redox shuttle additive to protect the cell against overcharging selected from the group consisting of: (a) a substituted anisole having the general formula (in an uncharged state): ##STR1## where R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of H, OCH.sub.3, OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, and OCH.sub.2 phenyl, and R.sub.2 is selected from the group consisting of OCH.sub.3, OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, OCH.sub.2 phenyl, and O.sup.- Li.sup.+ ; and (b) a di-anisole compound having the general formula (in an uncharged state): ##STR2## where R is selected from the group consisting of -OCH.sub.3 and -CH.sub.3, m is either 1 or 0, n is either 1 or 0, and X is selected from the group consisting of -OCH.sub.3 (methoxy) or its lithium salt --O.sup.- Li.sup.+. The lithium salt of the di-anisole is the preferred form of the redox shuttle additive because the shuttle anion will then initially have a single negative charge, it loses two electrons when it is oxidized at the cathode, and then moves toward the anode as a single positively charged species where it is then reduced to a single negatively charged species by gaining back two electrons.

  17. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against Chronic Cadmium Toxicity in Mice Indicate Routes of Protection besides Intestinal Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Yong Q.; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study confirmed the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 to protect against acute cadmium (Cd) toxicity in mice. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of CCFM8610 against chronic Cd toxicity in mice and to gain insights into the protection mode of this strain. Experimental mice were divided into two groups and exposed to Cd for 8 weeks via drinking water or intraperitoneal injection. Both groups were further divided into four subgroups, control, Cd only, CCFM8610 only, and Cd plus CCFM8610. Levels of Cd were measured in the feces, liver, and kidneys, and alterations of several biomarkers of Cd toxicity were noted. The results showed that when Cd was introduced orally, cotreatment with Cd and CCFM8610 effectively decreased intestinal Cd absorption, reduced Cd accumulation in tissue, alleviated tissue oxidative stress, reversed hepatic and renal damage, and ameliorated the corresponding histopathological changes. When Cd was introduced intraperitoneally, administration of CCFM8610 did not have an impact on tissue Cd accumulation or reverse the activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, CCFM8610 still offered protection against oxidative stress and reversed the alterations of Cd toxicity biomarkers and tissue histopathology. These results suggest that CCFM8610 is effective against chronic cadmium toxicity in mice. Besides intestinal Cd sequestration, CCFM8610 treatment offers direct protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. We also provide evidence that the latter is unlikely to be mediated via protection against Cd-induced alteration of antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:24771031

  18. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Youngmin; Bae, Jinhyun; Bang, Yu-mi; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Hyejung; Beom-Joon, Lee; Hyun, Yoo Hye

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ) is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE) at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40), IL-12 (P70), IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40) but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70). In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics. PMID:24948848

  19. Effects of Aflatoxin on Liver and Protective Effectiveness of Esterified Glucomannan in Merino Rams

    PubMed Central

    Colakoglu, Fatma; Donmez, Hasan Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    The effects of total aflatoxin (AF) given orally on liver in Merino rams were studied. In addition, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of an esterified glucomannan (EG) for protection against aflatoxicosis. One-year-old 32 Merino rams were divided into four equal groups. The control group (C) was fed with the commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/day of total AF. The EG group was fed with commercial feed plus 2 g/day of EG. The AF + EG group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/day of total AF and 2 g/day of EG. After feeding period, tissue samples were taken from the liver in order to perform histological analyses. Vacuolar degeneration with small and large droplets and hydropic degeneration in hepatocytes were observed in the AF group. The ceroid pigmentation was observed in macrophages in groups or one by one. It was observed that the fat rate in hepatocytes was 2.6% in the C group, 35.5% in the AF group, 2.9% in the EG group, and 9.6% in the AF + EG group. In conclusion, the adverse effects caused by aflatoxicosis on the liver could be ameliorated by adding EG to the ration. PMID:23304087

  20. Protected values: no omission bias and no framing effects.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Carmen; Medin, Douglas L

    2004-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that people holding protected values (PVs) show a bias against harmful acts, as opposed to harmful omissions (omission bias). In the present study, we (1) investigated the relationship between PVs and acts versus omissions in risky choices, using a paradigm in which act and omission biases were presented in a symmetrical manner, and (2) examined whether people holding PVs respond differently to framing manipulations. Participants were given environmental scenarios and were asked to make choices between actions and omissions. Both the framing of the outcomes (positive vs. negative) and the outcome certainty (risky vs. certain) were manipulated. In contrast to previous studies, PVs were linked to preferences for acts, rather than for omissions. PVs were more likely to be associated with moral obligations to act than with moral prohibitions against action. Strikingly, people with strong PVs were immune to framing; participants with few PVs showed robust framing effects.

  1. Nitrogen Addition Altered the Effect of Belowground C Allocation on Soil Respiration in a Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    He, Tongxin; Wang, Qingkui; Wang, Silong; Zhang, Fangyue

    2016-01-01

    The availabilities of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil play an important role in soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. However, the variation in the soil respiration (Rs) and response of microbial community to the combined changes in belowground C and N inputs in forest ecosystems are not yet fully understood. Stem girdling and N addition were performed in this study to evaluate the effects of C supply and N availability on Rs and soil microbial community in a subtropical forest. The trees were girdled on 1 July 2012. Rs was monitored from July 2012 to November 2013, and soil microbial community composition was also examined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) 1 year after girdling. Results showed that Rs decreased by 40.5% with girdling alone, but N addition only did not change Rs. Interestingly, Rs decreased by 62.7% under the girdling with N addition treatment. The reducing effect of girdling and N addition on Rs differed between dormant and growing seasons. Girdling alone reduced Rs by 33.9% in the dormant season and 54.8% in the growing season compared with the control. By contrast, girdling with N addition decreased Rs by 59.5% in the dormant season and 65.4% in the growing season. Girdling and N addition significantly decreased the total and bacterial PLFAs. Moreover, the effect of N addition was greater than girdling. Both girdling and N addition treatments separated the microbial groups on the basis of the first principal component through principal component analysis compared with control. This indicated that girdling and N addition changed the soil microbial community composition. However, the effect of girdling with N addition treatment separated the microbial groups on the basis of the second principal component compared to N addition treatment, which suggested N addition altered the effect of girdling on soil microbial community composition. These results suggest that the increase in soil N availability by N deposition alters the effect of

  2. Effect of HLB of additives on the properties and drug release from the glyceryl monooleate matrices.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manish H; Paradkar, Anant

    2007-08-01

    Glyceryl monooleate (GMO) is an amphiphilic surfactant, which as such can solubilize hydrophilic, lipophilic and amphiphilic drug molecules in its different polarity regions. Addition of additives with different polarities in GMO leads to change in phase behavior and related properties of GMO. Effect of the additives with different hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB; 1.5, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 11) in GMO matrices on its phase transformation, rheological properties, mechanical properties, wetting and release behavior was investigated. Polarizing light microscopy showed that the GMO matrices incorporated with lower HLB additive (1.5, 3, 4 and 5) form cubic phase at higher rate while lamellar phase was prominent for matrices with additive of HLB 7, 10 and 11. The diametrical crushing strength and viscosity was decreased with increased HLB of additive. Lower HLB additives enhanced contact angle as compared to plain matrices and high HLB additives induced change in solid-liquid interface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic leading to decline in contact angle. Percent swelling of matrices was increased linearly with increase in HLB of additives. Tensiometric method was used for determination of bioadhesive strength of hydrated matrices and it was observed that matrices with additives of HLB 10 presented highest bioadhesion due to higher rate of hydration and formation of lamellar phase. As the HLB of additives in matrix increased, release was shifted from anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion and/or partially erosion-controlled release to Fickian diffusion. Initial lag was observed for drug released from matrices with additive of HLB 1.5, 3, 4 and 5. Thus incorporation of the additives of different HLB changed molecular packing, which significantly affected drug release pattern.

  3. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tobias L; Deutsch, Aaron J; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W J; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P; Nöthen, Markus M; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E; Tsoi, Lam C; van Heel, David A; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T; Gregersen, Peter K; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-09-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer substantial risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen-binding repertoires between a heterozygote's two expressed HLA variants might result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested the non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (ncases = 5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D; ncases = 5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (ncases = 3,089), idiopathic achalasia (ncases = 727) and celiac disease (ncases = 11,115). In four of the five diseases, we observed highly significant, non-additive dominance effects (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 2.5 × 10(-12); T1D, P = 2.4 × 10(-10); psoriasis, P = 5.9 × 10(-6); celiac disease, P = 1.2 × 10(-87)). In three of these diseases, the non-additive dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 1.8 × 10(-3); T1D, P = 8.6 × 10(-27); celiac disease, P = 6.0 × 10(-100)). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (rheumatoid arthritis, 1.4%; T1D, 4.0%; celiac disease, 4.1%) beyond a simple additive model. PMID:26258845

  4. Effects of soil warming and nitrogen addition on soil respiration in a New Zealand tussock grassland.

    PubMed

    Graham, Scott L; Hunt, John E; Millard, Peter; McSeveny, Tony; Tylianakis, Jason M; Whitehead, David

    2014-01-01

    Soil respiration (RS) represents a large terrestrial source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Global change drivers such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition are expected to alter the terrestrial carbon cycle with likely consequences for RS and its components, autotrophic (RA) and heterotrophic respiration (RH). Here we investigate the impacts of a 3°C soil warming treatment and a 50 kg ha(-1) y(-1) nitrogen addition treatment on RS, RH and their respective seasonal temperature responses in an experimental tussock grassland. Average respiration in untreated soils was 0.96±0.09 μmol m(-2) s(-1) over the course of the experiment. Soil warming and nitrogen addition increased RS by 41% and 12% respectively. These treatment effects were additive under combined warming and nitrogen addition. Warming increased RH by 37% while nitrogen addition had no effect. Warming and nitrogen addition affected the seasonal temperature response of RS by increasing the basal rate of respiration (R10) by 14% and 20% respectively. There was no significant interaction between treatments for R10. The treatments had no impact on activation energy (E0). The seasonal temperature response of RH was not affected by either warming or nitrogen addition. These results suggest that the additional CO2 emissions from New Zealand tussock grassland soils as a result of warming-enhanced RS constitute a potential positive feedback to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  5. Effect of bank protection measures, Stehekin River, Chelan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the lower Stehekin River was conducted to study the effects on flood elevations and velocities from four bank protection and flood prevention measures that are being contemplated as a means of reducing erosional losses of river bank property. These measures are: bank armoring, armored revetment levees, spur dikes, and redevelopment of old cutoff channels. The banks at seven study sites could be armored without adverse effect on the flood velocities and elevations. The largest increases due to armoring--up to 1.6 ft/sec in velocity and 1 ft in elevation--occurred in the vicinity of sites 5, 6, and 7 where the gradient of the river channel is about 50 ft/mi and the velocities are high to begin with (about 6 to 13 ft/sec). The use of a levee in conjunction with armoring on the northeast bank from sites 5 to 7 would increase the velocities as much as 2.8 ft/sec and increase the elevation as much as 1 ft, but it would also provide some flood protection to the east bank, which is frequently inundated. Spur dikes were considered a practical alternative only at site 3, where reduced bank erosion may occur without aggravating flood inundation or erosion elsewhere. The rerouting of flood flow through an old cutoff channel near site 1 increased the velocity by 3.2 ft/sec and the elevation by 1 ft for the 100-year flood; however, it would move floodwater away from residential property where bank erosion is a problem. The few other old channels that shortcut river bends where much erosion occurs are apparently already part of the channel during floods. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Protective effect of Syzygium cumini against pesticide-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Atale, Neha; Gupta, Khushboo; Rani, Vibha

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide-induced toxicity is a serious issue which has resulted in plethora of diseases all over the world. The organophosphate pesticide malathion has caused many incidents of poisoning such as cardiac manifestations. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Syzygium cumini on malathion-induced cardiotoxicity. Dose optimization of malathion and polyphenols such as curcumin, (−)-epicatechin, gallic acid, butylated hydroxyl toluene, etc. was done by MTT cell proliferation assay. Nuclear deformities, ROS production, and integrity of extra cellular matrix components were analyzed by different techniques. S. cumini methanolic pulp extract (MPE), a naturally derived gallic acid-enriched antioxidant was taken to study its effect on malathion-induced toxicity. Nuclear deformities, ROS production, and integrity of extra cellular matrix components were also analyzed. Twenty micrograms per milliliter LD50 dose of malathion was found to cause stress-mediated responses in H9C2 cell line. Among all the polyphenols, gallic acid showed the most significant protection against stress. Gallic acid-enriched methanolic S. cumini pulp extract (MPE) showed 59.76 % ± 0.05, 81.61 % ± 1.37, 73.33 % ± 1.33, 77.19 % ± 2.38 and 64.19 % ± 1.43 maximum inhibition for DPPH, ABTS, NO, H2O2 and superoxide ion, respectively, as compared to ethanolic pulp extract and aqueous pulp extract. Our study suggests that S. cumini MPE has the ability to protect against the malathion-mediated oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes. PMID:24659402

  7. Additive and Interactive Effects on Response Time Distributions in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Across 3 different word recognition tasks, distributional analyses were used to examine the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency on underlying response time distributions. Consistent with the extant literature, stimulus quality and word frequency produced additive effects in lexical decision, not only in the means but also in the…

  8. Global change and biological soil crusts: Effects of ultraviolet augmentation under altered precipitation regimes and nitrogen additions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.; Flint, S.; Money, J.; Caldwell, M.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs), a consortium of cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses, are essential in most dryland ecosystems. As these organisms are relatively immobile and occur on the soil surface, they are exposed to high levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, rising temperatures, and alterations in precipitation patterns. In this study, we applied treatments to three types of BSCs (early, medium, and late successional) over three time periods (spring, summer, and spring-fall). In the first year, we augmented UV and altered precipitation patterns, and in the second year, we augmented UV and N. In the first year, with average air temperatures, we saw little response to our treatments except quantum yield, which was reduced in dark BSCs during one of three sample times and in Collema BSCs two of three sample times. There was more response to UV augmentation the second year when air temperatures were above average. Declines were seen in 21% of the measured variables, including quantum yield, chlorophyll a, UV-protective pigments, nitrogenase activity, and extracellular polysaccharides. N additions had some negative effects on light and dark BSCs, including the reduction of quantum yield, ??-carotene, nitrogenase activity, scytonemin, and xanthophylls. N addition had no effects on the Collema BSCs. When N was added to samples that had received augmented UV, there were only limited effects relative to samples that received UV without N. These results indicate that the negative effect of UV and altered precipitation on BSCs will be heightened as global temperatures increase, and that as their ability to produce UV-protective pigments is compromised, physiological functioning will be impaired. N deposition will only ameliorate UV impacts in a limited number of cases. Overall, increases in UV will likely lead to lowered productivity and increased mortality in BSCs through time, which, in turn, will reduce their ability to contribute

  9. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

  10. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

  11. Interactive effects between N addition and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Annika; Strengbom, Joachim; From, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    In management of boreal forests, nitrogen (N) enrichment from atmospheric deposition or from forest fertilization can appear in combination with land-use related disturbances, i.e. tree harvesting by clear-felling. Long-term interactive effects between N enrichment and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function are, however, poorly known. We investigated effects of N enrichment by forest fertilization done > 25 years ago on forest understory species composition in old-growth (undisturbed) forests, and in forests clear-felled 10 years ago (disturbed). In clear-felled forests we also investigated effects of the previous N addition on growth of tree saplings. The results show that the N enrichment effect on the understory species composition was strongly dependent on the disturbance caused by clear-felling. In undisturbed forests, there were small or no effects on understory species composition from N addition. In contrast, effects were large in forests first exposed to N addition and subsequently disturbed by clear-felling. Effects of N addition differed among functional groups of plants. Abundance of graminoids increased (+232%) and abundance of dwarf shrubs decreased (-44%) following disturbance in N fertilized forests. For vascular plants, the two perturbations had contrasting effects on α-(within forests) and β-diversity (among forests): in disturbed forests, N addition reduced, or had no effect on α-diversity, while β-diversity increased. For bryophytes, negative effects of disturbance on α-diversity were smaller in N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized, while neither N addition nor disturbance had any effects on β-diversity. Moreover, sapling growth in forests clear-felled 10 years ago was significantly higher in previously N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized. Our study show that effects of N addition on plant communities may appear small, short-lived, or even absent until exposed to a disturbance. This

  12. Oenanthe Javanica Extract Protects Against Experimentally Induced Ischemic Neuronal Damage via its Antioxidant Effects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Ha; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hong, SeongKweon; Kang, Il Jun; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Jong-Dai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) as a popular traditional medicine in Asia shows various biological properties including antioxidant activity. In this study, we firstly examined the neuroprotective effect of Oenanthe javanica extract (OJE) in the hippocampal cornus ammonis 1 region (CA1 region) of the gerbil subjected to transient cerebral ischemia. Methods: Gerbils were established by the occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. The neuroprotective effect of OJE was estimated by cresyl violet staining. In addition, 4 antioxidants (copper, zinc superoxide dismutase [SOD], manganese SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) immunoreactivities were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region showed neuronal death at 5 days postischemia; at this point in time, all antioxidants immunoreactivities disappeared in CA1 pyramidal neurons and showed in many nonpyramidal cells. Treatment with 200 mg/kg, not 100 mg/kg, OJE protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage. In addition, 200 mg/kg OJE treatment increased or maintained antioxidants immunoreactivities. Especially, among the antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase immunoreactivity was effectively increased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the OJE-treated sham-operated and ischemia-operated groups. Conclusion: Our present results indicate that treatment with OJE can protect neurons from transient ischemic damage and that the neuroprotective effect may be closely associated with increased or maintained intracellular antioxidant enzymes by OJE. PMID:26521793

  13. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  14. [Effects of nitrogen addition on grassland species diversity and productivity in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Jun; Zeng, De-Hui; Yu, Zhan-Yuan; Ai, Gui-Yan; Yang, Dan; Mao, Rong

    2009-08-01

    Species diversity and productivity are the important indices of the structure and functioning of ecosystems. With Keerqin sandy grassland as test object, this paper studied its species composition, species diversity, and productivity under effects of different level nitrogen (N) addition. Nitrogen addition altered the species composition and the dominant species in the community, increased the vegetation height and coverage, and decreased vegetation light penetration. With the increase of N addition, both the species richness and the diversity decreased. Nitrogen addition increased the aboveground biomass significantly (P<0.01). There was a significant positive relationship between species richness and vegetation light penetration (P<0.01), and a significant negative relationship between species richness and vegetation coverage (P<0.01). It was suggested that nitrogen deposition and artificial nitrogen addition would affect the species composition, species diversity, and productivity of sandy grassland ecosystem.

  15. Effects of additives on volume change on melting, surface tension, and viscosity of liquid aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. L.; Rasmussen, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of various oxide additives on the volume change on melting, the surface tension, and the viscosity of liquid Al2O3 were studied. Additives of Sm2O3, MgO, and Y2O3 which form solid solutions, compounds, and multiphase solids with Al2O3 were studied. A review of the property data for Al2O3 and Al2O3 containing oxide additives is presented. Oxide additives to Al2O3 reduce the volume change on melting and with the exception of SiO2 lower the viscosity; surface tensions change with oxide additives, but changes vary with different container material. Viscosity and volume change on melting appeared to be significantly more important for studying the properties of liquid oxides than surface tension. Supercooling of 270 K of yttrium aluminum garnet was observed.

  16. Lovastatin exerts protective effects on endothelial cells via upregulation of PTK2B

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Weiwei; Guan, Lili; Huang, Dihua; Ren, Yuezhong; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Statins are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors that are used to decrease the blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In addition, they have been shown to exert pleiotropic protective effects in the absence of LDL-lowering activity. The present study investigated the effects of lovastatin on global gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), in order to further explore its ability to protect against oxidized (ox)-LDL-induced cytotoxicity. HUVECs were treated with lovastatin for 2–24 h, and gene expression patterns were analyzed using cDNA microarrays. The results suggested that numerous genes were regulated by lovastatin, including certain genes associated with cell survival, such as PTK2B, BCL2 and MAP3K3. In particular, PTK2B, which has been shown to exert anti-apoptotic effects against ox-LDL-induced cell injury, was upregulated by lovastatin. Knockdown of PTK2B was able to attenuate ox-LDL-induced cell injury, and this was associated with decreased levels of phosphorylated-AKT and eNOS, and inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that lovastatin protects against ox-LDL-induced cell injury, potentially via the upregulation of PTK2B, which regulates the anti-apoptosis signaling pathway. PMID:27602089

  17. Lovastatin exerts protective effects on endothelial cells via upregulation of PTK2B

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Weiwei; Guan, Lili; Huang, Dihua; Ren, Yuezhong; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Statins are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors that are used to decrease the blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In addition, they have been shown to exert pleiotropic protective effects in the absence of LDL-lowering activity. The present study investigated the effects of lovastatin on global gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), in order to further explore its ability to protect against oxidized (ox)-LDL-induced cytotoxicity. HUVECs were treated with lovastatin for 2–24 h, and gene expression patterns were analyzed using cDNA microarrays. The results suggested that numerous genes were regulated by lovastatin, including certain genes associated with cell survival, such as PTK2B, BCL2 and MAP3K3. In particular, PTK2B, which has been shown to exert anti-apoptotic effects against ox-LDL-induced cell injury, was upregulated by lovastatin. Knockdown of PTK2B was able to attenuate ox-LDL-induced cell injury, and this was associated with decreased levels of phosphorylated-AKT and eNOS, and inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that lovastatin protects against ox-LDL-induced cell injury, potentially via the upregulation of PTK2B, which regulates the anti-apoptosis signaling pathway.

  18. Protective effects of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiming; Liao, Huijun; Liu, Yuhong; Zheng, Yifeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Su, Zuqing; Zhang, Xie; Lai, Zhengquan; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Su, Ziren

    2015-01-01

    We examined the protective effect of pogostone (PO), a chemical constituent isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Administration of PO at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion effectively protected the stomach from ulceration. The gastric lesions were significantly ameliorated by all doses of PO as compared to the vehicle group. Pre-treatment with PO prevented the oxidative damage and the decrease of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content. In addition, PO pretreatment markedly increased the mucosa levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), relative to the vehicle group. In the mechanistic study, significant elevation of non-protein-sulfhydryl (NP-SH) was observed in the gastric mucosa pretreated by PO. Analysis of serum cytokines indicated that PO pretreatment obviously elevated the decrease of interleukin-10 (IL-10) level, while markedly mitigated the increment of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretions in ethanol-induced rats. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that PO could exert a gastro-protective effect against gastric ulceration, and the underlying mechanism might be associated with the stimulation of PGE2, improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status, as well as preservation of NP-SH.

  19. Effect of different feed ingredients and additives on IPEC-J2 cells challenged with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, F; Speiser, S; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2016-08-01

    The intestinal porcine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 was used as an in vitro model to assess effects of additives on the adhesion and cell toxic effects of a F4-positive (ETEC) and a F4-negative Escherichia coli (DSM 2840) strain. Bacterial adhesion was examined using flow cytometry in IPEC-J2 cells infected with bacteria stained with 5,6-carboxymethyl fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. Measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was performed to characterize the impact on IPEC-J2 monolayer integrity. The feed additives were prepared as aqueous extract and tested in different dilutions and incubation times. The F4-positive ETEC strain had a high adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells and reduced TEER shortly after the in vitro infection. The nonpathogenic E. coli strain DSM 2840 showed only low adhesion capacity and no TEER impairment. Infection with ETEC with added test extracts showed a reduction of bacterial adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells by an autolyzed yeast product (p < 0.05). Bovine colostrum, an additive containing thyme extract and an organic acid mix did not interfere with the ETEC adherence. The TEER decrease of the IPEC-J2 monolayer after ETEC infection was not affected by the added substances. In conclusion, interference with epithelial adhesion might be a protective mechanism of the tested yeast extract, indicating that the cell culture model might be suitable as screening tool to complement in vivo challenge trials with piglets. PMID:26275434

  20. Independent effects of warming and nitrogen addition on plant phenology in the Inner Mongolian steppe

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Phenology is one of most sensitive traits of plants in response to regional climate warming. Better understanding of the interactive effects between warming and other environmental change factors, such as increasing atmosphere nitrogen (N) deposition, is critical for projection of future plant phenology. Methods A 4-year field experiment manipulating temperature and N has been conducted in a temperate steppe in northern China. Phenology, including flowering and fruiting date as well as reproductive duration, of eight plant species was monitored and calculated from 2006 to 2009. Key Results Across all the species and years, warming significantly advanced flowering and fruiting time by 0·64 and 0·72 d per season, respectively, which were mainly driven by the earliest species (Potentilla acaulis). Although N addition showed no impact on phenological times across the eight species, it significantly delayed flowering time of Heteropappus altaicus and fruiting time of Agropyron cristatum. The responses of flowering and fruiting times to warming or N addition are coupled, leading to no response of reproductive duration to warming or N addition for most species. Warming shortened reproductive duration of Potentilla bifurca but extended that of Allium bidentatum, whereas N addition shortened that of A. bidentatum. No interactive effect between warming and N addition was found on any phenological event. Such additive effects could be ascribed to the species-specific responses of plant phenology to warming and N addition. Conclusions The results suggest that the warming response of plant phenology is larger in earlier than later flowering species in temperate grassland systems. The effects of warming and N addition on plant phenology are independent of each other. These findings can help to better understand and predict the response of plant phenology to climate warming concurrent with other global change driving factors. PMID:23585496

  1. Probabilistic Basis and Assessment Methodology for Effectiveness of Protecting Nuclear Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Felicia Angleica

    Safeguards and security (S&S) systems for nuclear facilities include material control and accounting (MC&A) and a physical protection system (PPS) to protect nuclear materials from theft, sabotage and other malevolent human acts. The PPS for a facility is evaluated using probabilistic analysis of adversary paths on the basis of detection, delay, and response timelines to determine timely detection. The path analysis methodology focuses on systematic, quantitative evaluation of the physical protection component for potential external threats, and often calculates the probability that the PPS is effective (PE) in defeating an adversary who uses that attack path. By monitoring and tracking critical materials, MC&A activities provide additional protection against inside adversaries, but have been difficult to characterize in ways that are compatible with the existing path analysis methods that are used to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of a site's protection system. This research describes and demonstrates a new method to incorporate MC&A protection elements explicitly within the existing probabilistic path analysis methodology. MC&A activities, from monitoring to inventory measurements, provide many, often recurring opportunities to determine the status of critical items, including detection of missing materials. Human reliability analysis methods are applied to determine human error probabilities to characterize the detection capabilities of MC&A activities. An object-based state machine paradigm was developed to characterize the path elements of an insider theft scenario as a race against MC&A activities that can move a facility from a normal state to a heightened alert state having additional detection opportunities. This paradigm is coupled with nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment techniques to incorporate the evaluation of MC&A activities in the existing path analysis methodology. Event sequence diagrams describe insider paths through the

  2. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide addition on ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakage, Kaho; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Naya, Masakazu; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shimada, Yuichiro; Otake, Katsuto; Shono, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue was carried out in the absence and presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a radical scavenger for various frequencies, and the effects of DMSO addition on the degradation rate constant estimated by assuming first-order kinetics were investigated. The degradation reaction rate decreased with DMSO addition, and hydroxyl radicals were observed to play important roles in the degradation of methylene blue. However, the degradation reaction did not stop with DMSO addition, and the degradation rate constant in the presence of DMSO was not affected by ultrasonic frequency.

  3. Effect of ionic additive on pool boiling critical heat flux of titania/water nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jung-Yeul; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2013-01-01

    TiO2/water nanofluids were prepared and tested to investigate the effects of an ionic additive (i.e., nitric acid in this study) on the critical heat flux (CHF) behavior in pool boiling. Experimental results showed that the ionic additive improved the dispersion stability but reduced the CHF increase in the nanofluid. The additive affected the self-assembled nanoparticle structures formed on the heater surfaces by creating a more uniform and smoother structure, thus diminishing the CHF enhancement in nanofluids.

  4. Effects of additional food in a delayed predator-prey model.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effects of supplying additional food to predator in a gestation delay induced predator-prey system with habitat complexity. Additional food works in favor of predator growth in our model. Presence of additional food reduces the predatory attack rate to prey in the model. Supplying additional food we can control predator population. Taking time delay as bifurcation parameter the stability of the coexisting equilibrium point is analyzed. Hopf bifurcation analysis is done with respect to time delay in presence of additional food. The direction of Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the model is simulated using experimental parameter values. It is observed that fluctuations of the population size can be controlled either by supplying additional food suitably or by increasing the degree of habitat complexity. It is pointed out that Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system when the delay crosses some critical value. This critical value of delay strongly depends on quality and quantity of supplied additional food. Therefore, the variation of predator population significantly effects the dynamics of the model. Model results are compared with experimental results and biological implications of the analytical findings are discussed in the conclusion section.

  5. Effect of additives on isothermal crystallization kinetics and physical characteristics of coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Chaleepa, Kesarin; Szepes, Anikó; Ulrich, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The effect of lauric acid and low-HLB sucrose esters (L-195, S170) on the isothermal crystallization of coconut oil was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The fundamental crystallization parameters, such as induction time of nucleation and crystallization rate, were obtained by using the Gompertz equation. The Gibb's free energy of nucleation was calculated via the Fisher-Turnbull equation based on the equilibrium melting temperature. All additives, investigated in this work, proved to have an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of coconut oil. Our results revealed that the inhibition effect is related to the dissimilarity of the molecular characteristics between coconut oil and the additives. The equilibrium melting temperature (T(m) degrees ) of the coconut oil-additive mixtures estimated by the Hoffman-Weeks method was decreased with the addition of lauric acid and increased by using sucrose esters as additives. Micrographs showing simultaneous crystallization of coconut oil and lauric acid indicated that strong molecular interaction led to the increase in lamellar thickness resulting in the T(m) degrees depression of coconut oil. The addition of L-195 modified the crystal morphology of coconut oil into large, dense, non-porous crystals without altering the polymorphic occurrence of coconut oil. The enhancement in lamellar thickness and crystal perfection supported the T(m) degrees elevation of coconut oil.

  6. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  7. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer. PMID:25985667

  8. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  9. Effect of exogenous phosphorus addition on soil respiration in Calamagrostis angustifolia freshwater marshes of Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changchun; Liu, Deyan; Song, Yanyu; Yang, Guisheng; Wan, Zhongmei; Li, Yingchen; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2011-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to wetland ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration in these ecosystems. To understand the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration, we conducted a field experiment in Calamagrostis angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes, the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. We investigated soil respiration in the first growing season after P addition at four rates (0, 1.2, 4.8 and 9.6 g P m-2 year-1). In addition, we also examined aboveground biomass, soil labile C fractions (dissolved organic C, DOC; microbial biomass C, MBC; easily oxidizable C, EOC) and enzyme activities (invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities) following one year of P addition. P addition decreased soil respiration during the growing season. Dissolved organic C in soil pore water increased after P addition at both 5 and 15 cm depths. Moreover, increased P input generally inhibited soil MBC and enzyme activities, and had no effects on aboveground biomass and soil EOC. Our results suggest that, in the short-term, soil respiration declines under P enrichment in C. angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes of Northeast China, and its extent varies with P addition levels.

  10. The effects of Na/K additives and flyash on NO reduction in a SNCR process.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiangtao; Yu, Wei; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Yufei; Zhu, Xiuming

    2015-03-01

    An experimental study of Na/K additives and flyash on NO reduction during the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process were carried out in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The effects of reaction temperature (Tr), water vapor, Na/K additives (NaCl, KCl, Na2CO3) and flyash characteristics on NO reduction were analyzed. The results indicated that NO removal efficiency shows a pattern of increasing first and decreasing later with the increase of the temperature at Tr=850-1150°C. Water vapor can improve the performance of NO reduction, and the NO reduction of 70.5% was obtained while the flue gas containing 4% water vapor at 950°C. Na/K additives have a significant promoting effect on NO reduction and widen the SNCR temperature window, the promoting effect of the test additives is ordered as Na2CO3>KCl>NaCl. NO removal efficiency with 125ppm Na2CO3 and 4% water vapor can reach up to 84.9% at the optimal reaction temperature. The additive concentration has no significant effects on NO reduction while its concentration is above 50ppm. Addition of circulating fluidized combustion (CFB) flyash deteriorates NO reduction significantly. However, CFB flyash and Na/K additives will get a coupling effect on NO reduction during the SNCR process, and the best NO reduction can reach 72.3% while feeding Na2CO3-impregnated CFB flyash at 125ppm Na2CO3 and Tr=950°C.

  11. CO hydrogenation on nickel-based catalysts: Effects of copper addition

    SciTech Connect

    Agnelli, M.; Mirodatos, C.

    2000-05-15

    The effect of copper addition on the catalytic properties of silica-supported nickel catalysts for the reaction of CO hydrogenation in the temperature range of 200--500 C has been investigated. Different effects, positive or negative, depending on the temperature and the copper content, are described and explained. At low temperature (230 C), the addition of low copper content prevents the loss of the active surface by sintering without inhibiting the rate of CO hydrogenation too much. At high temperatures (450 C), high copper content is necessary to limit the accumulation of poisonous carbon products, but at the expense of CO conversion. On the basis of the various kinetic and morphologic effects of copper addition, an advanced description of the CO hydrogenation mechanism is also provided, assuming an active site formed by 2--3 adjacent Ni atoms, whatever the temperature or the copper content may be.

  12. Mechanisms and modeling of the effects of additives on the nitrogen oxides emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Krishna P.; Nguyen, H. Lee; Kang, M. Paul

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical study on the emission of the oxides of nitrogen in the combustion of hydrocarbons is presented. The current understanding of the mechanisms and the rate parameters for gas phase reactions were used to calculate the NO(x) emission. The possible effects of different chemical species on thermal NO(x), on a long time scale were discussed. The mixing of these additives at various stages of combustion were considered and NO(x) concentrations were calculated; effects of temperatures were also considered. The chemicals such as hydrocarbons, H2, CH3OH, NH3, and other nitrogen species were chosen as additives in this discussion. Results of these calculations can be used to evaluate the effects of these additives on the NO(x) emission in the industrial combustion system.

  13. [Effects of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and the need for regulation].

    PubMed

    Kahnert, S; Nair, U; Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2012-03-01

    Menthol is the most widely used and the most prominent tobacco additive in tobacco products advertised and marketed by the tobacco industry. Besides its characteristic flavor, it possesses a variety of pharmacological properties facilitating tobacco smoke inhalation and potentiating dependence. These properties of menthol not only favor tobacco initiation and consumption but can also prevent smoking cessation. This article summarizes the effect of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and its effect on tobacco consumption that causes a number of chronic diseases and premature death and, therefore, counteracts tobacco control measures. Currently, there is no legislative regulation in Germany that considers the health hazard, addiction-enhancing and attractiveness-increasing properties of additives permitted in tobacco products. Effective regulation or even a ban could contribute to a reduction of tobacco consumption and, hence, save many people from a long-lasting tobacco dependence. PMID:22373857

  14. Bioremediation of high organic load lagoon sediments: compost addition and priming effects.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, G; Giovannelli, D; Montano, C; Milanovic, V; Ciani, M; Manini, E

    2013-03-01

    Lagoons are often affected by eutrophication phenomena, due to their shallow nature, high productivity, weak hydrodynamism and anthropic exploitation. Bioremediation techniques have been widely used in the treatment of chemical pollution; however, no information is available on the use of bioremediation of organic-rich sediments. In the present study, we investigated the priming effects following compost addition to organic-rich lagoon sediments, and the effects of this compost addition on degradation and cycling of organic detritus, transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels, and in situ prokaryotic community structure. There was a positive response to treatment, particularly during the first days after compost addition. The compost had a stimulating effect on degradation activity of the prokaryotic community. This occurred despite an increase in available organic matter, as the community was more efficient at removing it. These data are supported by the prokaryotic community structure analysis, which revealed no changes in the in situ community following compost addition. This priming effect enhancement through compost addition represents an efficient method to treat organic-rich sediments. PMID:23273326

  15. The effect of material hardship on child protective service involvement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi-Youn

    2015-03-01

    This study employs four waves of survey data on 1,135 families from the Illinois Families Study, a longitudinal panel study of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families in Illinois. This study explores the following issues within this low-income population: (1) whether material hardships are associated with child protective services (CPS) investigations, (2) whether the effect of material hardship on CPS differs by the type of child maltreatment investigated, and (3) whether psychological distress mediates the association between material hardship and CPS involvement. Results from pooled and fixed effects logistic regressions suggest that caregivers who experience material hardship are more likely to become involved in CPS. In general, investigated neglect reports are responsive to particular types of hardship such as housing and food, while investigated physical abuse reports are responsive to levels of hardship regardless of specific types. The association between material hardship and CPS involvement is not fully explained by depressive symptoms or parenting stress. The study results suggest that in order to prevent child maltreatment, it may be necessary to address a family's unmet material needs through economic support interventions.

  16. Protection and Restoration: Are We Having an Effect?

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, Katherine A.; Thom, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    The impetus for this special theme grew out of discussions that began several years ago in the NOAA Restoration Center (a division within the Office of Habitat Conservation, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and resulted in a panel session titled "Protection and Restoration: Are We Having an Effect?" at the 2007 meeting of the Estuarine Research Federation (November 4-8, 2007, in Providence RI). The session was developed with the intent to publish a special journal issue with the same theme. The all-day session was divided into three parts: reflections on estuarine restoration by veteran practitioners; regional perspectives from those actively engaged in habitat restoration on different U.S. coasts; and new kinds of technologies and tools. Twenty invited speakers addressed the question "Are we having an effect?" with our habitat restoration efforts in coastal and riverine areas. A subsequent call for papers for the special volume resulted in over a dozen manuscript submissions, most of which were selected for peer review by experts on the various topics covered.

  17. Protective Effects of HDL Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gomaraschi, Monica; Calabresi, Laura; Franceschini, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that, besides being a strong independent predictor of the occurrence of primary coronary events, a low plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level is also associated with short- and long-term unfavorable prognosis in patients, who have recovered from a myocardial infarction, suggesting a direct detrimental effect of low HDL on post-ischemic myocardial function. Experiments performed in ex vivo and in vivo models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have clearly shown that HDL are able to preserve cardiac function when given before ischemia or at reperfusion; the protective effects of HDL against I/R injury have been also confirmed in other tissues and organs, as brain and hind limb. HDL were shown to act on coronary endothelial cells, by limiting the increase of endothelium permeability and promoting vasodilation and neoangiogenesis, on white blood cells, by reducing their infiltration into the ischemic tissue and the release of pro-inflammatory and matrix-degrading molecules, and on cardiomyocytes, by preventing the activation of the apoptotic cascade. Synthetic HDL retains the cardioprotective activity of plasma-derived HDL and may become a useful adjunctive therapy to improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes or undergoing coronary procedures. PMID:26834639

  18. The potential protective effects of taurine on coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Oktawia P; Koenig, Karen L; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2010-01-01

    In humans, taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is mainly obtained from diet. Despite the fact that the health effects of taurine are largely unknown, taurine has become a popular supplement and ingredient in energy drinks in recent years. Evidence from mechanistic and animal studies has shown that the main biological actions of taurine include its ability to conjugate bile acids, regulate blood pressure (BP), and act as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. These actions suggest that high levels of taurine may be protective against coronary heart disease (CHD). However, data from epidemiologic and intervention studies in humans are limited. We review what is known about taurine's metabolism, its transportation in the body, its food sources, and evidence of its effect on cardiovascular health from in vitro, animal, and epidemiologic studies. We also discuss shortcomings of the human studies that need to be addressed in the future. The identification of taurine as a preventive factor for CHD may be of great public health importance. PMID:19592001

  19. Effectiveness of Thermal-Pneumatic Airfoil-Ice-Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowan, William H., Jr.; Mulholland, Donald R.

    1951-01-01

    Icing and drag investigations were conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel employing a combination thermal-pneumatic de-icer mounted on a 42-inch-chord NACA 0018 airfoil. The de-icer consisted of a 3-inch-wide electrically heated strip symmetrically located about the leading edge with inflatable tubes on the upper and lower airfoil surfaces aft of the heated area. The entire de-icer extended to approximately 25 percent of chord. A maximum power density of 9.25 watts per square inch was required for marginal ice protection on the airfoil leading edge at an air temperature of 00 F and an airspeed of 300 miles per hour. Drag measurements indicated, that without icing, the de-icer installation increased the section drag to approximately 140 percent of that of the bare airfoil; with the tubes inflated, this value increased to a maximum of approximately 620 percent. A 2-minute tube-inflation cycle prevented excessive ice formation on the inflatable area although small scattered residual Ice formations remained after inflation and were removed intermittently during later cycles. Effects of the time lag of heater temperatures after initial application of power and the insulating effect of ice formations on heater temperatures were also determined.

  20. Protective Effect of Isorhamnetin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Ping; Ni, Yun-Feng; Du, Hong-Yin; Wang, Rong; Li, Ming-Jiang; Wang, Wen-Chen; Li, Ming-Ming; Wang, Xu-Hui; Li, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Jiang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Isorhamnetin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-proliferative effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of isorhamnetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice by inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The effects of isorhamnetin on LPS-induced lung pathological damage, wet/dry ratios and the total protein level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammatory cytokine release, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were examined. In addition, the COX-2 activation in lung tissues was detected by Western blot. Isorhamnetin pretreatment improved the mice survival rates. Moreover, isorhamnetin pretreatment significantly attenuated edema and the pathological changes in the lung and inhibited protein extravasation in BALF. Isorhamnetin also significantly decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in BALF. In addition, isorhamnetin markedly prevented LPS-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, isorhamnetin pretreatment significantly suppressed LPS-induced activation of COX-2. Isorhamnetin has been demonstrated to protect mice from LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting the expression of COX-2. PMID:26276127

  1. The positive effects of waste leachate addition on methane fermentation from food waste in batch trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanli; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of waste leachate (WL) addition on batch anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW), and to examine the influence of mixture ratio on the co-digestion process. The results showed that anaerobic digestion of FW was greatly enhanced by WL addition, as indicated by the higher methane yield, higher methane content, more volatile solids (VS) destruction, and higher stability. Although WL was rich in volatile fatty acids (VFA), its addition did not cause VFA inhibition. It was found that WL addition was beneficial to accelerate the start-up and shorten the long reaction time of the batch anaerobic process. The time to reach the peak methane yield was reduced by 1, 2, and 4 days with WL addition. The optimum FW to WL ratio was 77.9:22.1 with the highest methane yield (416 mL/g VS), the highest methane content (64.3%), the greatest VS removal (77.6%), and stable performance. These results confirmed the positive effects of WL addition on methane fermentation from FW.

  2. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials. PMID:26429595

  3. Effectiveness of iron-based fuel additives for diesel soot control

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, H.W.; Westphal, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluated the effects of two iron-based fuel additives on diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions. The 5.6-L, six-cylinder test engine is typical of engines used in underground mines. One additive, ferrous picrate, did not measurably affect exhaust emissions. This report is mainly about a ferrocene-based additive that reduced DPM between 4 and 45 pct, depending on engine operating conditions. The report concludes that the DPM reductions were caused by the catalytic oxidation properties of a ferric oxide coating that developed inside the engine's combustion chamber. The ferric oxide coating also decreased gas-phase hydrocarbons and O[sub 2], but it increased CO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. The increase in NO[sub x], of about 12 pct, is considered the only adverse effect of the ferrocene-based fuel additive. The results suggest that the effectiveness of ferrocene was partially offset by increased sulfates because of the high-sulfur fuel used. Recommendations for continuing fuel additive research are presented.

  4. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials.

  5. Effects of cultivar, pelleting and enzyme addition on nutritive value of barley in poultry diets.

    PubMed

    Francesch, M; Perez-Vendrell, A M; Esteve-Garcia, E; Brufau, J

    1994-05-01

    1. The effect of pelleting process and Trichoderma viride enzymes (TVE) addition on apparent metabolisable energy, corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) and on productive value of practical diets containing 40 and 45% of three different barley cultivars and one wheat were studied in poultry. 2. The effect of the pelleting process on AMEn was inconsistent and was dependent on the cereal included and the addition of enzyme. 3. The growth trial showed a significant effect of enzyme addition to pelleted diets over the whole growth period (0 to 42 d). Addition of TVE improved weight gain and food efficiency by 1.3% and 2.9%, respectively and decreased food intake by 1.6% between 0 and 22 d. In the finisher period (23 to 42 d) TVE improved efficiency by 2.8% and reduced food intake by 2.9%. 4. The incidence of sticky droppings was related to the viscosity of barley used, and enzyme supplementation reduced it. Both pelleting and enzyme addition increased dry matter content of excreta. 5. At the end of the experiment, 14 animals per treatment were slaughtered and carcass yield, viscera weight and abdominal fat were determined.

  6. Effect of additives on the digestibility of corn stover solids following pretreatment by leading technologies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-04-15

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), Tween-20, and polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) were added to washed corn stover solids produced by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), lime, controlled pH, and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) pretreatments and to untreated corn stover (UT) and pure Avicel glucan prior to adding cellulase supplemented with beta-glucosidase at an activity ratio of 1:2/g and a moderate enzyme loading of 16.1 mg/g glucan in the raw corn stover. The additives were applied individually at 150, 300, and 600 mg/g glucan in the pretreated solids and in combinations of equal amounts of each that totaled 600 mg/g. The greatest increase in total sugar release was by Tween-20 with SO(2) pretreated solids followed by PEG6000 with ARP solids and Tween-20 with lime solids. The effectiveness of the additives was observed to depend on the type of sugars left in the solids, suggesting that it may be more beneficial to use the mixture of these additives to realize a high total sugar yield. In addition, little enhancement in sugar release was possible beyond a loading of 150 mg additives/g glucan for most pretreatments, and combinations did not improve sugar release much over use of additives alone for all except SO(2). Additives were also found to significantly increase concentrations of cellobiose and cellooligomers after 72 h of Avicel hydrolysis.

  7. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  8. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb.

  9. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. PMID:27451167

  10. Lightning: Understanding it and protecting systems from its effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, R.T.

    1989-04-10

    This tutorial will raise the reader's level of lightning consciousness by providing an overview of the atmospheric electrification process and by discussing the development and characteristics of a lightning discharge. Next, techniques and instrumentation for lightning threat warning, detection and tracking will be presented. Finally, the principles of protection will be discussed, along with several methods for testing that protection. 15 refs., 16 figs.

  11. Protective effects of ectoine on heat-stressed Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Adam, Bownik; Zofia, Stępniewska; Tadeusz, Skowroński

    2014-12-01

    Ectoine (ECT) is an amino acid produced and accumulated by halophilic bacteria in stressful conditions in order to prevent the loss of water from the cell. There is a lack of knowledge on the effects of ECT in heat-stressed aquatic animals. The purpose of our study was to determine the influence of ECT on Daphnia magna subjected to heat stress with two temperature gradients: 1 and 0.1 °C/min in the range of 23-42 °C. Time to immobilisation, survival during recovery, swimming performance, heart rate, thoracic limb movement and the levels of heat shock protein 70 kDa 1A (HSP70 1A), catalase (CAT) and nitric oxide species (NOx) were determined in ECT-exposed and unexposed daphnids; we showed protective effects of ECT on Daphnia magna subjected to heat stress. Time to immobilisation of daphnids exposed to ECT was longer when compared to the unexposed animals. Also, survival rate during the recovery of daphnids previously treated with ECT was higher. ECT significantly attenuated a rapid increase of mean swimming velocity which was elevated in the unexposed daphnids. Moreover, we observed elevation of thoracic limb movement and modulation of heart rate in ECT-exposed animals. HSP70 1A and CAT levels were reduced in the presence of ECT. On the other hand, NOx level was slightly elevated in both ECT-treated and unexposed daphnids, however slightly higher NOx level was found in ECT-treated animals. We conclude that the exposure to ectoine has thermoprotective effects on Daphnia magna, however their mechanisms are not associated with the induction of HSP70 1A.

  12. Protective effects of ectoine on heat-stressed Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Adam, Bownik; Zofia, Stępniewska; Tadeusz, Skowroński

    2014-12-01

    Ectoine (ECT) is an amino acid produced and accumulated by halophilic bacteria in stressful conditions in order to prevent the loss of water from the cell. There is a lack of knowledge on the effects of ECT in heat-stressed aquatic animals. The purpose of our study was to determine the influence of ECT on Daphnia magna subjected to heat stress with two temperature gradients: 1 and 0.1 °C/min in the range of 23-42 °C. Time to immobilisation, survival during recovery, swimming performance, heart rate, thoracic limb movement and the levels of heat shock protein 70 kDa 1A (HSP70 1A), catalase (CAT) and nitric oxide species (NOx) were determined in ECT-exposed and unexposed daphnids; we showed protective effects of ECT on Daphnia magna subjected to heat stress. Time to immobilisation of daphnids exposed to ECT was longer when compared to the unexposed animals. Also, survival rate during the recovery of daphnids previously treated with ECT was higher. ECT significantly attenuated a rapid increase of mean swimming velocity which was elevated in the unexposed daphnids. Moreover, we observed elevation of thoracic limb movement and modulation of heart rate in ECT-exposed animals. HSP70 1A and CAT levels were reduced in the presence of ECT. On the other hand, NOx level was slightly elevated in both ECT-treated and unexposed daphnids, however slightly higher NOx level was found in ECT-treated animals. We conclude that the exposure to ectoine has thermoprotective effects on Daphnia magna, however their mechanisms are not associated with the induction of HSP70 1A. PMID:25223383

  13. Protective effect of long-term angiotensin II inhibition.

    PubMed

    Basso, Nidia; Cini, Rosa; Pietrelli, Adriana; Ferder, León; Terragno, Norberto A; Inserra, Felipe

    2007-09-01

    Experimental studies indicate that angiotensin II (ANG II) through its type 1 receptor (AT(1)) promotes cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze whether chronic long-term inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can prevent most of the deleterious effects due to aging in the cardiovascular system of the normal rat. The main objective was to compare two strategies of ANG II blockade: a converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI) and an AT(1) receptor blocker (AT(1)RB). A control group remained untreated; treatment was initiated 2 wk after weaning. A CEI, enalapril (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)), or an AT(1)RB, losartan (30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)), was used to inhibit the RAS. Systolic blood pressure, body weight, and water and food intake were recorded over the whole experimental period. Heart, aorta, and mesenteric artery weight as well as histological analysis of cardiovascular structure were performed at 6 and 18 mo. Twenty animals in each of the three experimental groups were allowed to die spontaneously. The results demonstrated a significant protective effect on the function and structure of the cardiovascular system in all treated animals. Changes observed at 18 mo of age in the hearts and aortas were quite significant, but each treatment completely abolished this deterioration. The similarity between the results detected with either enalapril or losartan treatment clearly indicates that most of the effects are exerted through AT(1) receptors. An outstanding finding was the significant and similar prolongation of life span in both groups of treated animals compared with untreated control animals. PMID:17557916

  14. Effects of Ga Addition on Interfacial Reactions Between Sn-Based Solders and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-Hong; Li, Kuan-Ting

    2016-07-01

    The use of Ga as a micro-alloying element in Sn-based solders can change the microstructure of solder joints to improve the mechanical properties, and even suppress the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) growth. This research investigated the effects of Ga addition (0.2-1 wt.%Ga) on the IMC formation and morphological evolution in the Sn-based solder joints with Ni substrate. In the soldering reaction at 250°C and with less than 0.2 wt.%Ga addition, the formed phase was Ni3Sn4. When the Ga addition increased to 0.5 wt.%, it changed to a thin Ni2Ga3 layer of ˜1 μm thick, which stably existed at the interface in the initial 1-h reaction. Subsequently, the whole Ni2Ga3 layer detached from the Ni substrate and drifted into the molten solder. The Ni3Sn4 phase became dominant in the later stage. Notably, the Ga addition significantly reduced the grain size of Ni3Sn4, resulting in the massive spalling of Ni3Sn4 grains. With 1 wt.%Ga addition, the Ni2Ga3 layer remained very thin with no significant growth, and it stably existed at the interface for more than 10 h. In addition, the solid-state reactions were examined at temperatures of 160°C to 200°C. With addition of 0.5 wt.%Ga, the Ni3Sn4 phase dominated the whole reaction. By contrast, with increasing to 1 wt.%Ga, only a thin Ni2Ga3 layer was found even after aging at 160°C for more than 1200 h. The 1 wt.%Ga addition in solder can effectively inhibit the Ni3Sn4 formation in soldering and the long-term aging process.

  15. Additive and synergistic effects on plant growth from polymers and organic matter applied to soil simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of applying to soil combinations of organic sources was tested and an anionic polyacrylamide and both singly on emergence and growth of tomato and wheat plants. The interactions were generally additive and synergistic. The organic sources and polyacrylamide often had a sparing effect on the need for the other. In one test with an organic source high in N (6%), there was a negative interaction on growth of tomato plants between the polyacrylamide and the organic source. In a test in which the polyacrylamide was applied to soil in solution with a high application of composted manure, the interaction on growth of tomato seedlings was additive. Maximum response for tomatoes for soils low in soil organic matter to polyacrylamide was obtained for low 224 kg ha/sup -1/) rather than high (448 and 1120 kg ha/sup -1/) application levels with or without addition of other organics. Interaction between polyacrylamide and organics on plant growth varied with soil characteristics.

  16. Quantification of Treatment Effect Modification on Both an Additive and Multiplicative Scale

    PubMed Central

    Girerd, Nicolas; Rabilloud, Muriel; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Roy, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background In both observational and randomized studies, associations with overall survival are by and large assessed on a multiplicative scale using the Cox model. However, clinicians and clinical researchers have an ardent interest in assessing absolute benefit associated with treatments. In older patients, some studies have reported lower relative treatment effect, which might translate into similar or even greater absolute treatment effect given their high baseline hazard for clinical events. Methods The effect of treatment and the effect modification of treatment were respectively assessed using a multiplicative and an additive hazard model in an analysis adjusted for propensity score in the context of coronary surgery. Results The multiplicative model yielded a lower relative hazard reduction with bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in older patients (Hazard ratio for interaction/year = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.05) whereas the additive model reported a similar absolute hazard reduction with increasing age (Delta for interaction/year = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.46, p = 0.61). The number needed to treat derived from the propensity score-adjusted multiplicative model was remarkably similar at the end of the follow-up in patients aged < = 60 and in patients >70. Conclusions The present example demonstrates that a lower treatment effect in older patients on a relative scale can conversely translate into a similar treatment effect on an additive scale due to large baseline hazard differences. Importantly, absolute risk reduction, either crude or adjusted, can be calculated from multiplicative survival models. We advocate for a wider use of the absolute scale, especially using additive hazard models, to assess treatment effect and treatment effect modification. PMID:27045168

  17. Protective effects of vitamin E against atrazine-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohan; Kaur, Pushpindar; Sandhir, Rajat; Kiran, Ravi

    2008-07-31

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) is one of the most commonly used herbicides to control grasses and weeds. The widespread contamination and persistence of atrazine residues in the environment has resulted in human exposure. Vitamin E is a primary antioxidant that plays an important role in protecting cells against toxicity by inactivating free radicals generated following pesticides exposure. The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of vitamin E against atrazine-induced genotoxicity. Three different methods: gel electrophoresis, comet assay and micronucleus test were used to assess the atrazine-induced genotoxicity and to evaluate the protective effects of vitamin E. Atrazine was administered to male rats at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days. There was a significant increase (P<0.001) in tail length of comets from blood and liver cells treated with atrazine as compared to controls. Co-administration of vitamin E (100 mg/kg body weight) along with atrazine resulted in decrease in tail length of comets as compared to the group treated with atrazine alone. Micronucleus assay revealed a significant increase (P<0.001) in the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNCs) following atrazine administration. In the animals administrated vitamin E along with atrazine there was a significant decrease in percentage of micronuclei as compared to atrazine treated rats. The increase in frequency of micronuclei in liver cells and tail length of comets confirm genotoxicity induced by atrazine in blood and liver cells. In addition, the findings clearly demonstrate protective effect of vitamin E in attenuating atrazine-induced DNA damage. PMID:18582598

  18. EFFECT OF A WHOLE-CATCHMENT N ADDITION ON STREAM DETRITUS PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired catchment study investigating ecosystem effects of N and S deposition. Because of the decade long (NH4)2SO4 addition, the treatment catchment has higher stream NO3 and enriched foliar N concentrations compared to the reference ...

  19. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  20. 75 FR 66752 - ILP Effectiveness Evaluation 2010; Additional Notice of Multi-Stakeholder Technical Conference on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ILP Effectiveness Evaluation 2010; Additional Notice of Multi- Stakeholder....m. (EST) to 3 p.m. (EST) in the Commission Meeting Room at the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  1. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  2. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  3. Additive Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency on Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pingping; Li, Xingshan; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were recorded for sentences in which high- and low-frequency target words were presented normally or with reduced stimulus quality in two experiments. We found stimulus quality and word frequency produced strong additive effects on fixation durations for target words. The results demonstrate that stimulus quality…

  4. 20 CFR 725.309 - Additional claims; effect of a prior denial of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional claims; effect of a prior denial..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Filing of Claims §...

  5. Protective Effects of Cardamom in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sameer N.; Sharma, Charu; Mahajan, Umesh B.; Patil, Chandragouda R.; Agrawal, Yogeeta O.; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Ojha, Shreesh

    2015-01-01

    Cardamom is a popular spice that has been commonly used in cuisines for flavor since ancient times. It has copious health benefits such as improving digestion, stimulating metabolism, and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The current study investigated the effect of cardamom on hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural changes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction. Wistar male albino rats were randomly divided and treated with extract of cardamom (100 and 200 mg/kg per oral) or normal saline for 30 days with concomitant administration of ISO (85 mg/kg, subcutaneous) on 29th and 30th days, at 24 h interval. ISO injections to rats caused cardiac dysfunction evidenced by declined arterial pressure indices, heart rate, contractility and relaxation along with increased preload. ISO also caused a significant decrease in endogenous antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, depletion of cardiomyocytes enzymes, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and increase in lipid peroxidation. All these changes in cardiac and left ventricular function as well as endogenous antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and myocyte enzymes were ameliorated when the rats were pretreated with cardamom. Additionally, the protective effects were strengthened by improved histopathology and ultrastructural changes, which specifies the salvage of cardiomyocytes from the deleterious effects of ISO. The present study findings demonstrate that cardamom significantly protects the myocardium and exerts cardioprotective effects by free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PMID:26593900

  6. Protective Effects of Cardamom in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sameer N; Sharma, Charu; Mahajan, Umesh B; Patil, Chandragouda R; Agrawal, Yogeeta O; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Ojha, Shreesh

    2015-01-01

    Cardamom is a popular spice that has been commonly used in cuisines for flavor since ancient times. It has copious health benefits such as improving digestion, stimulating metabolism, and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The current study investigated the effect of cardamom on hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural changes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction. Wistar male albino rats were randomly divided and treated with extract of cardamom (100 and 200 mg/kg per oral) or normal saline for 30 days with concomitant administration of ISO (85 mg/kg, subcutaneous) on 29th and 30th days, at 24 h interval. ISO injections to rats caused cardiac dysfunction evidenced by declined arterial pressure indices, heart rate, contractility and relaxation along with increased preload. ISO also caused a significant decrease in endogenous antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, depletion of cardiomyocytes enzymes, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and increase in lipid peroxidation. All these changes in cardiac and left ventricular function as well as endogenous antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and myocyte enzymes were ameliorated when the rats were pretreated with cardamom. Additionally, the protective effects were strengthened by improved histopathology and ultrastructural changes, which specifies the salvage of cardiomyocytes from the deleterious effects of ISO. The present study findings demonstrate that cardamom significantly protects the myocardium and exerts cardioprotective effects by free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PMID:26593900

  7. Protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guoxi; Tian, Yinggang; Wang, Haiyu; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of melatonin on LPS-induced mastitis both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, our results showed that melatonin attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Melatonin also inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in mammary tissues. In vitro, melatonin was found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Melatonin also suppressed LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, melatonin was found to up-regulate the expression of PPAR-γ. Inhibition of PPAR-γ by GW9662 reduced the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin. In conclusion, we found that melatonin, for the first time, had protective effects on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of melatonin was through activating PPAR-γ which subsequently inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses.

  8. Protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guoxi; Tian, Yinggang; Wang, Haiyu; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of melatonin on LPS-induced mastitis both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, our results showed that melatonin attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Melatonin also inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in mammary tissues. In vitro, melatonin was found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Melatonin also suppressed LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, melatonin was found to up-regulate the expression of PPAR-γ. Inhibition of PPAR-γ by GW9662 reduced the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin. In conclusion, we found that melatonin, for the first time, had protective effects on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of melatonin was through activating PPAR-γ which subsequently inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses. PMID:26590117

  9. Protective Effects of Cardamom in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sameer N; Sharma, Charu; Mahajan, Umesh B; Patil, Chandragouda R; Agrawal, Yogeeta O; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Ojha, Shreesh

    2015-11-17

    Cardamom is a popular spice that has been commonly used in cuisines for flavor since ancient times. It has copious health benefits such as improving digestion, stimulating metabolism, and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The current study investigated the effect of cardamom on hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural changes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction. Wistar male albino rats were randomly divided and treated with extract of cardamom (100 and 200 mg/kg per oral) or normal saline for 30 days with concomitant administration of ISO (85 mg/kg, subcutaneous) on 29th and 30th days, at 24 h interval. ISO injections to rats caused cardiac dysfunction evidenced by declined arterial pressure indices, heart rate, contractility and relaxation along with increased preload. ISO also caused a significant decrease in endogenous antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, depletion of cardiomyocytes enzymes, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and increase in lipid peroxidation. All these changes in cardiac and left ventricular function as well as endogenous antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and myocyte enzymes were ameliorated when the rats were pretreated with cardamom. Additionally, the protective effects were strengthened by improved histopathology and ultrastructural changes, which specifies the salvage of cardiomyocytes from the deleterious effects of ISO. The present study findings demonstrate that cardamom significantly protects the myocardium and exerts cardioprotective effects by free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities.

  10. Effect of psychotropic drugs on gastric ulcers induced by immobilization: Increased protective effect of amitriptyline caused by chlordiazepoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, J. E.; Huerlimann, A.

    1980-01-01

    Amitriptyline, but not chlordiazepoxide, protects rats from the occurrence of gastric erosions and ulcers following immobilization. When, however, chlordiazepoxide is given together with amitriptyline the protective effect of the latter is markedly increased.

  11. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA ON DENTIN EROSION AND ABRASION

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Melissa Thiemi; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Rios, Daniela; Hannas, Angélica Reis; Attin, Thomas; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This in situ study evaluated the protective effect of green tea on dentin erosion (ERO) and erosion-abrasion (ABR). Material and methods: Ten volunteers wore intraoral palatal appliances with bovine dentin specimens subjected to ERO or ERO + toothbrushing abrasion performed immediately (ERO+I-ABR) or 30 min after erosion (ERO+30-min-ABR). During 2 experimental 5-day crossover phases, the volunteers rinsed with green tea or water (control, 1 min) between each erosive (5 min, cola drink) and abrasive challenge (30 s, toothbrushing), 4x/day. Dentin wear was measured by profilometry. Results: The green tea reduced the dentin wear significantly for all conditions compared to control. ERO+I-ABR led to significantly higher wear than ERO, but it was not significantly different from ERO+30-min-ABR. ERO+30-min-ABR provoked significant higher wear than ERO, only for the placebo treatment. Conclusions: From the results of the present study, it may be concluded that green tea reduces the dentin wear under erosive/abrasive conditions. PMID:20027426

  12. Protective effect of mesoporous silica particles on encapsulated folates.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rico, María; Daubenschüz, Hanna; Pérez-Esteve, Édgar; Marcos, María D; Amorós, Pedro; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Barat, José M

    2016-08-01

    Mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) are considered suitable supports to design gated materials for the encapsulation of bioactive molecules. Folates are essential micronutrients which are sensitive to external agents that provoke nutritional deficiencies. Folates encapsulation in MSPs to prevent degradation and to allow their controlled delivery is a promising strategy. Nevertheless, no information exists about the protective effect of MSPs encapsulation to prevent their degradation. In this work, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (FO) and folic acid (FA) were entrapped in MSPs functionalized with polyamines, which acted as pH-dependent molecular gates. The stability of free and entrapped vitamins after acidic pH, high temperature and light exposure was studied. The results showed the degradation of FO after high temperature and acidic pH, whereas entrapped FO displayed enhanced stability. Free FA was degraded by light, but MSPs stabilized the vitamin. The obtained results point toward the potential use of MSPs as candidates to enhance stability and to improve the bioavailability of functional biomolecules. PMID:27235728

  13. Protective effect of mesoporous silica particles on encapsulated folates.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rico, María; Daubenschüz, Hanna; Pérez-Esteve, Édgar; Marcos, María D; Amorós, Pedro; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Barat, José M

    2016-08-01

    Mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) are considered suitable supports to design gated materials for the encapsulation of bioactive molecules. Folates are essential micronutrients which are sensitive to external agents that provoke nutritional deficiencies. Folates encapsulation in MSPs to prevent degradation and to allow their controlled delivery is a promising strategy. Nevertheless, no information exists about the protective effect of MSPs encapsulation to prevent their degradation. In this work, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (FO) and folic acid (FA) were entrapped in MSPs functionalized with polyamines, which acted as pH-dependent molecular gates. The stability of free and entrapped vitamins after acidic pH, high temperature and light exposure was studied. The results showed the degradation of FO after high temperature and acidic pH, whereas entrapped FO displayed enhanced stability. Free FA was degraded by light, but MSPs stabilized the vitamin. The obtained results point toward the potential use of MSPs as candidates to enhance stability and to improve the bioavailability of functional biomolecules.

  14. Protective effects of matrix metalloproteinase-12 following corneal injury.

    PubMed

    Chan, Matilda F; Li, Jing; Bertrand, Anthony; Casbon, Amy-Jo; Lin, Jeffrey H; Maltseva, Inna; Werb, Zena

    2013-09-01

    Corneal scarring due to injury is a leading cause of blindness worldwide and results from dysregulated inflammation and angiogenesis during wound healing. Here we demonstrate that the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase MMP12 (macrophage metalloelastase) is an important regulator of these repair processes. Chemical injury resulted in higher expression of the fibrotic markers α-smooth muscle actin and type I collagen, and increased levels of angiogenesis in corneas of Mmp12(-/-) mice compared with corneas of wild-type mice. In vivo, we observed altered immune cell dynamics in Mmp12(-/-) corneas by confocal imaging. We determined that the altered dynamics were the result of an altered inflammatory response, with delayed neutrophil infiltration during the first day and excessive macrophage infiltration 6 days later, mediated by altered expression levels of chemokines CXCL1 and CCL2, respectively. Corneal repair returned to normal upon inhibition of these chemokines. Taken together, these data show that MMP12 has a protective effect on corneal fibrosis during wound repair through regulation of immune cell infiltration and angiogenesis.

  15. Curcumin protects against ischemic spinal cord injury: The pathway effect

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhua; Wei, Hao; Lin, Meimei; Chen, Chunmei; Wang, Chunhua; Liu, Maobai

    2013-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors have been shown to participate in nerve cell injury during spinal cord ischemia. This study observed a protective effect of curcumin on ischemic spinal cord injury. Models of spinal cord ischemia were established by ligating the lumbar artery from the left renal artery to the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. At 24 hours after model establishment, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with curcumin. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical results demonstrated that after spinal cord ischemia, inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mRNA and protein expression significantly increased. However, curcumin significantly decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mRNA and protein expression in the ischemic spinal cord. Tarlov scale results showed that curcumin significantly improved motor function of the rat hind limb after spinal cord ischemia. The results demonstrate that curcumin exerts a neuroprotective fect against ischemic spinal cord injury by decreasing inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression. PMID:25206661

  16. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P < 0.01) when supplemented with 50 mg/kg tryptophol, indicating that virus replication was inhibited by tryptophol. Consequently, tryptophol represents an effective antiviral dietary supplement for shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture.

  17. A novel liquid multi-phytonutrient supplement demonstrates DNA-protective effects.

    PubMed

    Baechler, Benjamin J; Nita, Florina; Jones, Lon; Frestedt, Joy L

    2009-06-01

    This study explored the DNA protective (anti-mutagenic) effects of an oral, liquid, multi-phytonutrient dietary supplement containing a proprietary blend of fruits, vegetables and aloe vera concentrated components in addition to a proprietary catechin complex from green tea (VIBE Cardiac & Life, Eniva Nutraceuticals, Anoka, MN; herein described as "VIBE"). This study tested the hypothesis that VIBE would reduce DNA damage in skin cells exposed to UVR. Human epidermal cells, from the cell line A431NS, were treated with 0% (control), 0.125%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% VIBE, and then exposed to 240 J/m(2) UVR. The amount of DNA damage was assessed using the COMET assay. At each concentration tested, a significantly smaller amount of DNA damage was measured by the COMET assay for the VIBE treated cells compared to the control cells exposed to UVR without VIBE. The dose response curves showed a maximal response at 0.5% VIBE with a threefold reduction in COMET tail density compared to the control samples without VIBE (p < 0.001). Additional research is warranted in human clinical trials to further explore the results of this study which demonstrated the DNA protective and anti-mutagenic effects of VIBE for human skin cells exposed to UVR-induced DNA damage.

  18. Towards understanding the effects of additives on the vermicomposting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xing, Meiyan; Lv, Baoyi; Zhao, Chunhui; Yang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    This work evaluated the effects of additives on the chemical properties of the final products (vermicompost) from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and the adaptable characteristics of Eisenia fetida during the process. An experimental design with different ratios of sewage sludge and the additives (cattle dung or pig manure) was conducted. The results showed that the vermicomposting reduced total organic carbon and the quotient of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N ratio) of the initial mixtures and enhanced the stability and agronomical value of the final products. Notably, principal component analysis indicated that the additives had significant effects on the characteristics of the vermicomposts. Moreover, the vermibeds containing cattle dung displayed a better earthworm growth and reproduction than those with pig manure. Additionally, redundancy analysis demonstrated that electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N ratio played crucial roles on earthworm growth and reproduction. In all, the additives with high C/N ratio, pH buffering capacity, and low EC are recommended to be used for vermicomposting of sewage sludge. PMID:25328094

  19. Effects of water addition on soil arthropods and soil characteristics in a precipitation-limited environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikoski, Jennifer M.; Ferguson, Steven H.; Meyer, Lense

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the effect of water addition and season on soil arthropod abundance and soil characteristics (%C, %N, C:N, moisture, pH). The experimental design consisted of 24 groups of five boxes distributed within a small aspen stand in Saskatchewan, Canada. The boxes depressed the soil to create a habitat with suitable microclimate for soil arthropods, and by overturning boxes we counted soil arthropods during weekly surveys from April to September 1999. Soil samples were collected at two-month intervals and water was added once per week to half of the plots. Of the eleven recognizable taxonomic units identified, only mites (Acari) and springtails (Collembola) responded to water addition by increasing abundance, whereas ants decreased in abundance with water addition. During summer, springtail numbers increased with water addition, whereas pH was a stronger determinant of mite abundance. In autumn, springtails were positively correlated with water and negatively correlated with mites, whereas mite abundance was negatively correlated with increasing C:N ratio, positively correlated to water addition, and negatively correlated with springtail abundance. Although both mite and springtail numbers decreased in autumn with a decrease in soil moisture, mites became more abundant than springtails suggesting a predator-prey (mite-springtail) relationship. Water had a significant effect on both springtails and mites in summer and autumn supporting the assertion that prairie soil communities are water limited.

  20. Biochar mitigates negative effects of salt additions on two herbaceous plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sean C; Frye, Susan; Gale, Nigel; Garmon, Matthew; Launchbury, Rebecca; Machado, Natasha; Melamed, Sarah; Murray, Jessica; Petroff, Alexandre; Winsborough, Carolyn

    2013-11-15

    Addition of pyrolyzed biomass ("biochar") to soils has commonly been shown to increase crop yields and alleviate plant stresses associated with drought and exposure to toxic materials. Here we investigate the ability of biochar (at two dosages: 5 and 50 t ha(-1)) to mitigate salt-induced stress, simulating road salt additions in a factorial glasshouse experiment involving the broadleaved herbaceous plants Abutilon theophrasti and Prunella vulgaris. Salt additions of 30 g m(-2) NaCl to unamended soils resulted in high mortality rates for both species. Biochar (Fagus grandifolia sawdust pyrolyzed at 378 °C), when applied at 50 t ha(-1) as a top dressing, completely alleviated salt-induced mortality in A. theophrasti and prolonged survival of P. vulgaris. Surviving A. theophrasti plants that received both 50 t ha(-1) biochar and salt addition treatments showed growth rates and physiological performance similar to plants without salt addition. Biochar treatments alone also substantially increased biomass of P. vulgaris, with a ∼50% increase relative to untreated controls at both biochar dosages. Biochar did not significantly affect photosynthetic carbon gain (Amax), water use efficiency, or chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) in either species. Our results indicate that biochar can ameliorate salt stress effects on plants through salt sorption, suggesting novel applications of biochar to mitigate effects of salinization in agricultural, urban, and contaminated soils.

  1. Risk assessment of combined photogenotoxic effects of sunlight and food additives.

    PubMed

    Salih, Fadhil M

    2006-06-01

    The presence of flavored colorants (peach and raspberry), flavors (caramel, citric acid and vanilla) and food preservatives (sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium benzoate, benzoic acid, potassium sorbate and sodium chloride) in Escherichia coli suspension during exposure to sunlight did not change the extent of cell survival. No effect on viability and mutation induction (kanamycin resistant) was also seen when cells were kept in contact with any of the additives for 80 min in the dark. However, when the relevant additive was present in cell suspension during sunlight exposure the number of induced mutations was increased to varying extents over that seen with sunlight alone. Raspberry and peach increased the number of mutations in a dose dependent manner, while vanilla produced mutations in an additive fashion. Nitrite, nitrate, benzoate, sorbate and benzoic acid increased mutation somewhat additively over that of sunlight. Sodium chloride and citric acid were not effective. The impact of this investigation reflects the significance of combination of sunlight and chemical food additives as potential risk, which requires special attention and necessitates further investigations to evaluate the risk.

  2. Protective Effects of Resveratrol against Chronic Immobilization Stress on Testis

    PubMed Central

    Bitgul, Gulsah; Tekmen, Isil; Keles, Didem; Oktay, Gulgun

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate protective effects of resveratrol, a strong antioxidant, against possible negative effects of chronic immobilization stress on testes of male rats histochemically, immunohistochemically, ultrastructurally, and biochemically. Material and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 7). Group I, control group (C), was not exposed to stress. Group II, stress group (S), was exposed to chronic immobilization stress. In Group III, low dose resveratrol + stress group (LRS), rats were given 10 mg/kg/day resveratrol just before the stress application. In Group IV, high dose resveratrol + stress group (HRS), rats were given 20 mg/kg/day resveratrol just before the stress application. For chronic immobilization stress application animals were put in the plastic tubes (6 cm in diameter, 15 cm in length) during 32 days for 6 hours. All animals were sacrificed 18 hours after the last stress application. Results. Histochemical and ultrastructural investigations showed that in stress group there was germ cell deprivation in seminiferous tubules and increase of connective tissue on interstitial area. No significant changes were seen in low and high dose resveratrol groups. After immunohistochemical investigations, TUNEL (+) and Active Caspase-3 (+) cells were increased in seminiferous tubules of stress group compared with those control group, but they were decreased in low and high dose resveratrol groups. According to biochemically results, MDA, GSH, and testosterone levels in stress group showed no significant difference when compared with those of the other groups. Conclusion. The chronic immobilization stress increases oxidative stress and apoptosis and causes histological tissue damages; resveratrol can minimize the histological damage in testes significantly. PMID:24307953

  3. Effect of rosuvastatin on hyperuricemic rats and the protective effect on endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Xilifu, Dilidaer; Abudula, Abulizi; Rehemu, Nijiati; Zhao, Long; Zhou, Xinrong; Zhang, Xiangyang

    2014-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, renal injuries and hypertension induced by hyperuricemia. Therapies targeting uric acid (UA) may be beneficial in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the effect of rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, was investigated to determine whether rosuvastatin improves endothelial dysfunction via the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) pathway and delays the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. A total of 72 Sprague-Dawley rats (age, 8 weeks) were randomly divided into six groups (12 rats per group), including the control, model, 2.5 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin, 5 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin, 10 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin and 53.57 mg/kg/day allopurinol groups. The model, rosuvastatin and allopurinol rats were subjected to hyperuricemia, induced by the administration of yeast extract powder (21 g/kg/day) and oxonic acid potassium salt (200 mg/kg/day). The hyperuricemic rats were treated with 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin orally for six weeks, while rats treated with allopurinol (53.57 mg/kg/day) were used as a positive control. The serum levels of NO and the gene expression levels of endothelial NO synthase in the aortic tissue increased, whereas the serum levels of UA, endothelin-1 and angiotensin II decreased in the hyperuricemic rats treated with rosuvastatin, particularly at a high rosuvastatin dose (10 mg/kg/day). In addition, the curative effect of the 10 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin group was evidently higher compared with the allopurinol group. Therefore, rosuvastatin may be a novel drug candidate for the treatment of hyperuricemia due to its endothelial protective properties.

  4. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Park, J H

    2013-12-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a(*) values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages.

  5. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  6. The Effect of the Diesel Cetane Number on Exhaust Emissions Characteristics by Various Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yunsung; Seo, Choongyeol; Lee, Jongtae; Kang, Daeil; Kim, Jeong Soo; Kim, Hyung Jun

    This paper described the effect of the diesel cetane number on exhaust emissions characteristics according to various additives. In addition, the emission characteristics of test fuels blended with three additives (GTL, biodiesel and additive for improving CN) were analyzed and the potential for uses of these additives were evaluated in this study. To achieve this purpose, the test diesel vehicle with a two-thousand cubic centimeter displacement was used to analyze the emission characteristics according to the CN. Also, the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) was applied as the test mode which is widely used as the test method for environmental certification of diesel vehicles. To analyze the characteristics of HAPs, the VOCs and PAHs were analyzed from the BTEX and the particulate matter, respectively. The analysis results revealed that the CO emissions show the largest reduction rate while the NOx+THC emissions are reduced at a low as the CN got higher. In the NEDC mode, the PM emissions in the EUDC mode were found to be at a lower level than those in the UDC mode. As for the VOCs and PAHs characteristics, the VOCs of the CN 58 show the lowest amounts. Also, the PAHs of diesel blended with GTL show the highest level, followed by those of diesel blended with biodiesel and diesel blended with cetane additive.

  7. Evidence for dose-additive effects of a type II pyrethroid mixture. In vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Ares, I; Ramos, E; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides that led to common exposure in the population, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess dose-additive effects of pyrethroids using a funcional measure involved in the common toxic mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency and efficacy of 6 Type II pyretroids (α-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, cyphenothrin and esfenvalerate) to evoke induction of both nitric oxide and lipid peroxides levels measured as malondialdehyde in three in vitro models (SH-SY5Y, HepG2 and Caco-2 human cells) as well as to test the hypothesis of dose additivity for mixtures of these same 6 pyrethroids. Concentration-responses for 6 pyrethroids were determined as well as the response to mixtures of all 6 pyrethroids. Additivity was tested assuming a dose-additive model. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was the most sensitive in vitro model. The rank order of potency for cell SH-SY5Y viability MTT assay was deltamethrin>cyphenothrin>λ-cyhalothrin>cyfluthrin>esfenvalerate>α-cypermethrin. When 6 pyrethroids were present in the mixture at an equitoxic mixing ratio, the action on nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) production was consistent with a dose-additive model. The results of the present study are consistent with previous reports of additivity of pyrethroids in vivo e in vitro.

  8. Effect of additives on the structure, nanomorphology and efficiency of PCPDTBT: PC71BM solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Shogo; Palanisamy, Kumar; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Ochiai, Shizuyasu

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effect of additives on the morphology of a poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT):(6,6)-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blended onto a surface of poly (3, 4-ethylendioxythiophene): poly(styrensulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) to form photoactive films. Films of PCPDTBT: PC71-BM bulk heterojunctions were prepared by spin-coating from a solution in chlorobenzene (CB) and were processed with and without the addition of 2%, 4%, and 6 vol% 1-chloro naphthalene (CN) or 1, 8-octanedithiol (ODT) as additives. For all samples, the PCPDTBT:PC71BM molar ratio was 1:2 (wt%), and the additives in 1 ml were prepared with a concentration of 30 mg of PCPDTBT:PC71BM. Optical absorption spectroscopy measurements of the films indicated shifts in the absorption peaks in the range from 500-800 nm which was attributed to PCPDTBT. XRay diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the nature of the molecular stacking in the polymer thin films. Topographic images which were obtained by using an atomic force microscope, of the PCPDTBT:PC71BM layers with 2 vol% ODT additive, were found to have the highest surface roughness. The best performing device shows a power conversion efficiency of 2.15% for a 2-vol% ODT additive.

  9. [Effect of magnesium salt addition on nutrients conservation during swine manure composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Wei, Yuan-song; Liu, Jun-xin

    2008-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of magnesium chloride addition on nutrients conservation in the thermophilic stage of swine manure composting. The results indicated that in the end of thermophilic stage of composting, the ammonia nitrogen loss of the pile with Mg-salt addition was 24.25 g, reduced by 58%, compared with 56.60 g of the control. And the total nitrogen (TN) concentration of the pile with magnesium chloride addition was higher by 18% than that of the control pile. Sequential extraction phosphorus results showed that the total phosphorus (TP) in both piles were similar (14.2 g/kg TP of the pile with Mg-salt addition and 12.0 g/kg TP of the control). However, the addition of Mg-salt is helpful for conserving phosphorus in swine compost because the percentage of the easily dissolved phosphorous forms such as H2O-P and NaHCO3-P in the control was increased from 30% of TP to 60% of TP, compared with that maintained at 30% of TP in the pile with Mg-salt addition. Crystal mixture which includes magnesium phosphate were found in the pile of adding magnesium chloride.

  10. The Effect of Silicon and Aluminum Additions on the Oxidation Resistance of Lean Chromium Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, J.S.; Alman, D.E.; Rawers, J.C.

    2001-09-01

    The effect of Si and Al additions on the oxidation of lean chromium austenitic stainless steels has been studied. A baseline composition of Fe-16Cr-16Ni-2Mn-1Mo was selected to allow combined Si and Al additions of up to 5 wt. pct. in a fully austenitic alloy. The baseline composition was selected using a net Cr equivalent equation to predict the onset of G-ferrite formation in austenite. Cyclic oxidation tests in air for 1000 hours were carried out on alloys with Si only or combined Si and Al additions in the temperature range 700 C to 800 C. Oxidation resistance of alloys with Si only additions were outstanding, particularly at 800 C. It was evident that different rate controlling mechanisms for oxidation were operative at 700 C and 800 C in the Si alloys. In addition, Si alloys pre-oxidized at 800 C, showed a zero weight gain in subsequent testing for 1000 hours at 700 C. The rate controlling mechanism in alloys with combined Si and Al addition for oxidation at 800 C was also different than alloys with Si only. SEM and ESCA analysis of the oxide films and base material at the oxide/base metal interface were conducted to study potential rate controlling mechanisms.

  11. Effective Mechanical Properties of Lattice Material Fabricated by Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-kyum; Rosen, David W; Duty, Chad E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step homogenization method is proposed and implemented for evaluating effective mechanical properties of lattice structured material fabricated by the material extrusion additive manufacturing process. In order to consider the characteristics of the additive manufacturing process in estimation procedures, the levels of scale for homogenization are divided into three stages the levels of layer deposition, structural element, and lattice structure. The method consists of two transformations among stages. In the first step, the transformation between layer deposition and structural element levels is proposed to find the geometrical and material effective properties of structural elements in the lattice structure. In the second step, the method to estimate effective mechanical properties of lattice material is presented, which uses a unit cell and is based on the discretized homogenization method for periodic structure. The method is implemented for cubic lattice structure and compared to experimental results for validation purposes.

  12. The effect of diamic acid additives on the dielectric constant of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of six selected diamic acids additives (including 2,2-prime bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride-aniline (An); 4,4-prime-oxydiphthalic anhydride-An, 3,3-prime diaminodiphenyl sulfone-phthalic anhydride (PA); 4,4-prime-oxydianiline-PA; 2,2-bis 4(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl hexafluoropropane-PA; and 2,2-bis 4(3-aminophenoxy)phenyl hexafluoropropane-PA) on the dielectric constants of low-dielectric-constant polyimide resins was evaluated. It was found that the effect of the incorporation of the diamic acids on reducing the dielectric constant of polyimides may be limited as the dielectric constant of the base resin itself becomes very low. The additives were found to lower the resin's values of glass transition temperature, with no effect on thermooxidative stability.

  13. Effects of water and nitrogen addition on species turnover in temperate grasslands in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change.

  14. Effect of oxygenated liquid additives on the urea based SNCR process.

    PubMed

    Tayyeb Javed, M; Nimmo, W; Mahmood, Asif; Irfan, Naseem

    2009-08-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of oxygenated liquid additives, H(2)O(2), C(2)H(5)OH, C(2)H(4)(OH)(2) and C(3)H(5)(OH)(3) on NO(x) removal from flue gases by the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process using urea as a reducing agent. Experiments were performed with a 150kW pilot scale reactor in which a simulated flue gas was generated by the combustion of methane operating with 6% excess oxygen in flue gases. The desired levels of initial NO(x) (500ppm) were achieved by doping the fuel gas with ammonia. Experiments were performed throughout the temperature range of interest, i.e. from 800 to 1200 degrees C for the investigation of the effects of the process additives on the performance of aqueous urea DeNO(x). With H(2)O(2) addition a downward shift of 150 degrees C in the peak reduction temperature from 1130 to 980 degrees C was observed during the experimentation, however, the peak reduction efficiency was reduced from 81 to 63% when no additive was used. The gradual addition of C(2)H(5)OH up to a molar ratio of 2.0 further impairs the peak NO(x) reduction efficiency by reducing it to 50% but this is accompanied by a downward shift of 180 degrees C in the peak reduction temperature. Further exploration using C(2)H(4)(OH)(2) suggested that a 50% reduction could be attained for all the temperatures higher than 940 degrees C. The use of C(3)H(5)(OH)(3) as a secondary additive has a significant effect on the peak reduction efficiency that decreased to 40% the reductions were achievable at a much lower temperature of 800 degrees C showing a downward shift of 330 degrees C.

  15. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Species Turnover in Temperate Grasslands in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change. PMID:22768119

  16. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    PubMed

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups.

  17. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    PubMed

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups. PMID:26995021

  18. Investigation of the effects of short chain processing additives on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Stclair, T. L.; Pratt, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of low level concentrations of several short chain processing additives on the properties of the 4,4'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy) diphenylsulfide dianhydride (BDSDA)/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA)/1,3'-diaminobenzene (m-phenylene diamine) (MPA) (422) copolyimide were investigated. It was noted that 5 percent MPD/phthalic anhydride (PA) is more effective than 5 percent ODA/PA and BDSDA/aniline (AN) in strengthening the host material. However, the introduction of 10 percent BDSDA/AN produces disproportionately high effects on free volume and free electron density in the host copolyimide.

  19. Effect of stabilizing additives on the structure and hydration of proteins: a study involving monoclinic lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, N T; Sankaranarayanan, R; Vijayan, M

    2002-07-01

    In pursuance of a long-range programme on the hydration, mobility and action of proteins, the structural basis of the stabilizing effect of sugars and polyols is being investigated. With two crystallographically independent molecules with slightly different packing environments in the crystal, monoclinic lysozyme constitutes an ideal system for exploring the problem. The differences in the structure and hydration of the two molecules provide a framework for examining the changes caused by stabilizing additives. Monoclinic crystals were grown under native conditions and also in the presence of 10% sucrose, 15% trehalose, 10% trehalose, 10% sorbitol and 5% glycerol. The crystal structures were refined at resolutions ranging from 1.8 to 2.1 A. The average B values, and hence the mobility of the structure, are lower in the presence of additives than in the native crystals. However, a comparison of the structures indicates that the effect of the additives on the structure and the hydration shell around the protein molecule is considerably less than that caused by differences in packing. It is also less than that caused by the replacement of NaNO(3) by NaCl as the precipitant in the crystallization experiments. This result is not in conformity with the commonly held belief that additives exert their stabilizing effect through the reorganization of the hydration shell, at least as far as the ordered water molecules are concerned.

  20. Effects of bulking agent addition on odorous compounds emissions during composting of OFMSW.

    PubMed

    Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Wu, Duo; Lü, Fan; Li, Tian-Shui; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-08-01

    The effects of rice straw addition level on odorous compounds emissions in a pilot-scale organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) composting plant were investigated. The cumulative odorous compounds emissions occurred in a descending order of 40.22, 28.71 and 27.83 mg/dry kg of OFMSW for piles with rice straw addition level at ratio of 1:10, 2:10 and 3:10 (mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW on a wet basis), respectively. The mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW had a statistically significant effect on the reduction of malodorous sulfur compounds emissions, which had no statistically significant effect on the reduction of VFAs, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, aromatics and ammonia emissions during composting, respectively. The cumulative emissions of malodorous sulfur compounds from piles with the increasing rice straw addition level were 1.17, 1.08 and 0.88 mg/dry kg of OFMSW, respectively. The optimal mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW was 1:5. Using this addition level, the cumulative malodorous sulfur compounds emissions based on the organic matter degradation were the lowest during composting of OFMSW. PMID:24820662

  1. Effects of Ce additions on the age hardening response of Mg–Zn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Langelier, Brian Esmaeili, Shahrzad

    2015-03-15

    The effects of Ce additions on the precipitation hardening behaviour of Mg–Zn are examined for a series of alloys, with Ce additions at both alloying and microalloying levels. The alloys are artificially aged, and studied using hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction, as well as optical and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the age-hardening effect is driven by the formation of fine precipitates, the number density of which is related to the Zn content of the alloy. Conversely, the Ce content is found to slightly reduce hardening. When the alloy content of Ce is high, large secondary phase particles containing both Ce and Zn are present, and remain stable during solutionizing. These particles effectively reduce the amount of Zn available as solute for precipitation, and thereby reduce hardening. Combining hardness results with thermodynamic analysis of alloy solute levels also suggests that Ce can have a negative effect on hardening when present as solutes at the onset of ageing. This effect is confirmed by designing a pre-ageing heat treatment to preferentially remove Ce solutes, which is found to restore the hardening capability of an Mg–Zn–Ce alloy to the level of the Ce-free alloy. - Highlights: • The effects of Ce additions on precipitation in Mg–Zn alloys are examined. • Additions of Ce to Mg–Zn slightly reduce the age-hardening response. • Ce-rich secondary phase particles deplete the matrix of Zn solute. • Hardening is also decreased when Ce is present in solution. • Pre-ageing to preferentially precipitate out Ce restores hardening capabilities.

  2. The Effect of Gaseous Additives on Dynamic Pressure Output and Ignition Sensitivity of Nanothermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puszynski, Jan; Doorenbos, Zac; Walters, Ian; Redner, Paul; Kapoor, Deepak; Swiatkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    This contribution addresses important combustion characteristics of nanothermite systems. In this research the following nanothermites were investigated: a) Al-Bi2O3, b)Al-Fe2O3 and c)Al-Bi2O3-Fe2O3. The effect of various gasifying additives (such as nitrocellulose (NC) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)) as well as reactant stoichiometry, reactant particle size and shape on processability, ignition delay time and dynamic pressure outputs at different locations in a combustion chamber will be presented. In addition, this contribution will report electrostatic and friction sensitivities of standard and modified nanothermites.

  3. Effect of Organic Additive on Surface Roughness of Polycrystalline Silicon Film after Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hee-Sub; Park, Jin-Hyung; Yi, Sok-Ho; Paik, Ungyu; Park, Jea-Gun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of an organic additive on the surface roughness of a polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) film was investigated by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). The surface roughness of the polished poly-Si film was markedly reduced by adding 0.001 wt % hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and then decreased slightly with further addition of HEC. We concluded that the reduction of surface roughness was attributed to the formation of a hydroplane layer on the poly-Si surface. Evidence of the hydroplane layer was verified by contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements.

  4. Effect of GdL Addition on Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) addition on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Five batches of sausages were produced under ripening conditions: without GdL and with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% of GdL addition. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25th day of ripening. Chemical analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content of sausages with increasing amounts of GdL added (p<0.05). The moisture contents decreased, whereas the fat, protein and ash contents increased throughout ripening (p<0.05). Increasing levels of GdL caused a decrease in the pH values (p<0.05), which can have an inhibitory effect against microflora. Water holding capacity content of samples decreased with increasing GdL concentration (p<0.05). The shear force values of fermented sausages showed the highest in T4 (p<0.05). During ripening, the shear force values of sausages were increased on the 25th day compared to day 0 (p<0.05). The higher GdL level produced lighter and more yellow sausages. The addition of 0.75% GdL was effective in controlling bacteria counts. Addition of GdL in sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than no addition of GdL without any harmful effect. PMID:26761846

  5. Explanation of non-additive effects in mixtures of similar mode of action chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Masashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Many models have been developed to predict the combined effect of drugs and chemicals. Most models are classified into two additive models: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). It is generally considered if the modes of action of chemicals are similar then the combined effect obeys CA; however, many empirical studies report nonlinear effects deviating from the predictions by CA. Such deviations are termed synergism and antagonism. Synergism, which leads to a stronger toxicity, requires more careful management, and hence it is important to understand how and which combinations of chemicals lead to synergism. In this paper, three types of chemical reactions are mathematically modeled and the cause of the nonlinear effects among chemicals with similar modes of action was investigated. Our results show that combined effects obey CA only when the modes of action are exactly the same. Contrary to existing knowledge, combined effects are generally nonlinear even if the modes of action of the chemicals are similar. Our results further show that the nonlinear effects vanish out when the chemical concentrations are low, suggesting that the current management procedure of assuming CA is rarely inappropriate because environmental concentrations of chemicals are generally low.

  6. Protective effect of quercetin on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity on germ cells in male mice.

    PubMed

    Bu, Tongliang; Mi, Yuling; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2011-03-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that is widely distributed in the environment. As a critical process, oxidative toxicity mediates the morphological and functional damages in germ cells after cadmium exposure. In this study, the protective effect of quercetin on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity was investigated in mouse testicular germ cells. After oral administration of cadmium chloride at 4 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks, damages in spermatozoa occurred in the early stage of spermatogenesis. Cadmium treatment significantly decreased the testicular antioxidant system, including decreases in the glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. Moreover, exposure to cadmium resulted in an increase of hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation in testes. In addition, cadmium provoked germ cell apoptosis by upregulating expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 and downregulating expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL. However, combined administration of a common flavonoid quercetin at 75 mg/kg body weight significantly attenuated cadmium-induced germ cell apoptosis by suppressing the hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue. Simultaneous supplementation of quercetin markedly restored the decrease in GSH level and SOD and GSH-Px activities elicited by cadmium treatment. Additionally, quercetin protected germ cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis by downregulating the expression of Bax and caspase-3 and upregulating Bcl-XL expression. These results indicate that quercetin, due to its antioxidative and antiapoptotic characters, may manifest effective protective action against cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in mouse testicular germ cells. PMID:21337715

  7. Effects of lipids on thermophilic anaerobic digestion and reduction of lipid inhibition upon addition of bentonite.

    PubMed

    Angelidaki, I; Petersen, S P; Ahring, B K

    1990-07-01

    The effect of bentonite-bound oil on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure was investigated. In digestor experiments, addition of oil was found to be inhibitory during start-up and the inhibitory effect was less pronounced when the oil was added in the form of bentonite-bound oil compared to when the oil was added alone. After adaptation of the digestors, very rapid degradation of oil was observed and more than 80% of the oil was degraded within a few hours after daily feeding. In batch experiments, glyceride trioleate was found to be inhibitory to thermophilic anaerobic digestion when the concentrations were higher than 2.0 g/l. However, addition of bentonite (a clay mineral) at concentrations of 0.15% and 0.45% was found to partly overcome this inhibition. Addition of calcium chloride in concentration of 3 mM (0.033% w/v) showed a similar positive effect on the utilization of oil, but the effect was lower than with bentonite. PMID:1366749

  8. Effect of some promoting additives on the electrosynthesis of potassium peroxydiphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Tyurikova, O.G.; Kasatkin, E.V.; Miller, N.B.; Chemodanov, A.N.

    1986-10-20

    The authors have demonstrated the expediency of using some other additives (potassium chloride, potassium thiocyanate, sodium sulfite, urea, thiourea) instead of KF as promoters in the electrosynthesis of K/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 8/ at a Pt anode in K/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ solution. They act by retarding the side reaction of O/sub 2/ evolution and accelerating the desired reaction. The advantage of these additives over KF is the significantly lower level of effective concentration, which facilitates the subsequent separation of peroxydiphosphate from anolyte. Moreover the replacement of KF by other additives enables corrosion losses of platinum to be substantially reduced under certain conditions.

  9. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  10. Effect of additives in the shelflife extension of chilled and frozen stored Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus).

    PubMed

    Manimaran, Uthaman; Shakila, Robinson Jeya; Shalini, Rajendran; Sivaraman, Balasubramanian; Sumathi, Ganesan; Selvaganapathi, Rajendran; Jeyasekaran, Geevarathnam

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of commercial additives viz. cafodos and altesa employed to treat Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus) was examined during chilled and frozen storage. Shelf lives of treated and untreated octopus in ice were 6 and 8 days, respectively in ice. Treated and untreated frozen octopus had a shelf life of 40 days. Autolytic and microbiological changes were not controlled by the additives, as evidenced through rapid reduction in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and α-amino nitrogen (α-AN) compounds; as well as accumulation of water soluble ammoniacal nitrogen and total volatile base- nitrogen (TVB-N) compounds. Loss of texture and colour were the major quality defects noticed in treated octopus as a result of enhanced protein solubility. Therefore, the additives approved for use in octopus neither enhanced the shelf life nor improved the sensory quality. PMID:27162416

  11. Effect of hot pressing additives on the leachability of hot pressed sodium hydrous titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.M.; Sambell, R.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium hydrous titanium oxide is an ion exchange resin which can be used for immobilizing medium level waste (MLW) liquors. When hot pressed, it undergoes conversion to a ceramic. Three low melting point materials (borax, bismuth trioxide, and a mixture of PbO/CuO) were added to the (Na)HTiO and the effect that each of these had on aiding densification was assessed. Hot pressing temperature, applied pressure, and percentage addition of hot pressing aid were varied. Percentage open porosity, flexural strength, and leachability were measured. There was a linear relationship between the percentage open porosity and the logarithm of the leach rate for a constant percentage addition of each additive.

  12. Effect of multiplicative and additive noise on genetic transcriptional regulatory mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Mei; Xie, Hui-Zhang; Liu, Liang-Gang; Li, Zhi-Bing

    2009-02-01

    A multiplicative noise and an additive noise are introduced in the kinetic model of Smolen-Baxter-Byrne [P. Smolen, D.A. Baxter, J.H. Byrne, Amer. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 274 (1998) 531], in which the expression of gene is controlled by protein concentration of transcriptional activator. The Fokker-Planck equation is solved and the steady-state probability distribution is obtained numerically. It is found that the multiplicative noise converts the bistability to monostability that can be regarded as a noise-induced transition. The additive noise reduces the transcription efficiency. The correlation between the multiplicative noise and the additive noise works as a genetic switch and regulates the gene transcription effectively.

  13. Vector Addition: Effect of the Context and Position of the Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2010-10-01

    In this article we investigate the effect of: 1) the context, and 2) the position of the vectors, on 2D vector addition tasks. We administered a test to 512 students completing introductory physics courses at a private Mexican university. In the first part, we analyze students' responses in three isomorphic problems: displacements, forces, and no physical context. Students were asked to draw two vectors and the vector sum. We analyzed students' procedures detecting the difficulties when drawing the vector addition and proved that the context matters, not only compared to the context-free case but also between the contexts. In the second part, we analyze students' responses with three different arrangements of the sum of two vectors: tail-to-tail, head-to-tail and separated vectors. We compared the frequencies of the errors in the three different positions to deduce students' conceptions in the addition of vectors.

  14. Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. ); Mitchell, K. . Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. )

    1995-02-01

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

  15. Effect of rhenium addition on tungsten fuzz formation in helium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Aneeqa; De Temmerman, Gregory; Morgan, Thomas W.; Ward, Michael B.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the addition of rhenium to tungsten on the formation of a nanostructure referred to as 'fuzz' when exposed to helium plasmas at fusion relevant ion fluxes was investigated in the Magnum and Pilot PSI devices at the FOM Institute DIFFER. The effect rhenium had on fuzz growth was seen to be dependent on time, temperature and flux. Initial fuzz growth was seen to be highly dependent on grain orientation, with rhenium having little effect. Once the fuzz was fully developed, the effect of grain orientation disappeared and the rhenium had an inhibiting effect on growth. This could be beneficial for inhibiting fuzz growth in a future fusion reactor, where transmutation of tungsten to rhenium is expected. It also appears that erosion or annealing of the fuzz is limiting growth of fuzz at higher temperatures in the range of ∼1340 °C.

  16. TonEBP modulates the protective effect of taurine in ischemia-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y J; Han, Y Y; Chen, K; Zhang, Y; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, K Q; Ge, J B; Liu, W; Zuo, J

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, which is found at high concentration in the heart, exerts several protective actions on myocardium. Physically, the high level of taurine in heart is maintained by a taurine transporter (TauT), the expression of which is suppressed under ischemic insult. Although taurine supplementation upregulates TauT expression, elevates the intracellular taurine content and ameliorates the ischemic injury of cardiomyocytes (CMs), little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of taurine governing TauT expression under ischemia. In this study, we describe the TonE (tonicity-responsive element)/TonEBP (TonE-binding protein) pathway involved in the taurine-regulated TauT expression in ischemic CMs. Taurine inhibited the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of TonEBP, promoted the translocation of TonEBP into the nucleus, enhanced TauT promoter activity and finally upregulated TauT expression in CMs. In addition, we observed that TonEBP had an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative role in CMs under ischemia. Moreover, the protective effects of taurine on myocardial ischemia were TonEBP dependent. Collectively, our findings suggest that TonEBP is a core molecule in the protective mechanism of taurine in CMs under ischemic insult. PMID:26673669

  17. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions on Carbon Cycling of Tropical Mountain Rainforests in Hainan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) deposition is projected to increase significantly in tropical regions in the coming decades, which has changed and will change the structure and function of ecosystems, and affects on ecosystem Carbon (C) cycle. As an important part in global C cycle, how the C cycle of tropical rainforests will be influenced by the N and P deposition should be focused on. This study simulated N and P deposition in a primary and secondary forest of tropical mountain rainforest in Jianfengling, Hainan, China, during five-year field experiment to evaluate the effects of N and P deposition on C cycling processes and relate characteristics. Six levels of N and P treatments were treated: Control, Low-N, Medium-N, High-N, P and N+P. The relative growth rates (RGR) of tree layer in treatment plots were different from that in control plots after years of N and P addition. Simulated N and P deposition also increased ANPP in primary forest. N and P addition changed the growth of trees by altering soil nutrient and microbial activities. N and P addition increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N (TN) content, and significantly increased soil total P (TP) content, not changing soil pH. During the whole process of N and P addition, as net nitrification rate and net N mineralization rate were promoted by N and P addition, and effective N content (nitrate) of soil increased in the plot treated with N treatments compared to the control treatment. The microbial P content was increased by N and P addition, and microbial N was not changed. The increasing N deposition may enhance soil nutrient and stimulate growth of trees, which will lead to an increase of the C sequestration.

  18. The effect of an additional reflection in a precedence effect experiment

    PubMed Central

    Goupell, Matthew J.; Yu, Gongqiang; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the precedence effect typically utilize a two-source paradigm, which is not realistic relative to real world situations where multiple reflections exist. A step closer to multiple-reflection situations was studied using a three-source paradigm. Discrimination of interaural time differences (ITDs) was measured for one-, two-, and three-source stimuli, using clicks presented over headphones. The ITD was varied in either the first, second, or the third source. The inter-source intervals ranged from 0–130 ms. A perceptual weighting model was extendedto incorporate the three-source stimuli and used to interpret the data. The effect of adding a third source could mostly, but not entirely, be understood by the interaction of effects observed in the precedence effect with two sources. Specifically, for delays between 1 and 8 ms, the ITD information of prior sources was typically weighted more heavily than subsequent sources. For delays greater than 8 ms, subsequent sources were typically weighted slightly more heavily than prior sources. However, there were specific conditions that showed a more complex interaction between the sources. These findings suggest that the two-source paradigm provides a strong basis for understanding how the auditory system processes reflections in spatial hearing tasks. PMID:22501073

  19. Coexposure to phytoestrogens and bisphenol a mimics estrogenic effects in an additive manner.

    PubMed

    Katchy, Anne; Pinto, Caroline; Jonsson, Philip; Nguyen-Vu, Trang; Pandelova, Marchela; Riu, Anne; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Samarov, Daniel; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Bondesson, Maria; Williams, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are abundant in our environment. A number of EDCs, including bisphenol A (BPA) can bind to the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases such as breast cancer. Early exposure is of particular concern; many EDCs cross the placenta and infants have measurable levels of, eg, BPA. In addition, infants are frequently fed soy-based formula (SF) that contains phytoestrogens. Effects of combined exposure to xeno- and phytoestrogens are poorly studied. Here, we extensively compared to what extent BPA, genistein, and an extract of infant SF mimic estrogen-induced gene transcription and cell proliferation. We investigated ligand-specific effects on ER activation in HeLa-ERα and ERβ reporter cells; on proliferation, genome-wide gene regulation and non-ER-mediated effects in MCF7 breast cancer cells; and how coexposure influenced these effects. The biological relevance was explored using enrichment analyses of differentially regulated genes and clustering with clinical breast cancer profiles. We demonstrate that coexposure to BPA and genistein, or SF, results in increased functional and transcriptional estrogenic effects. Using statistical modeling, we determine that BPA and phytoestrogens act in an additive manner. The proliferative and transcriptional effects of the tested compounds mimic those of 17β-estradiol, and are abolished by cotreatment with an ER antagonist. Gene expression profiles induced by each compound clustered with poor prognosis breast cancer, indicating that exposure may adversely affect breast cancer prognosis. This study accentuates that coexposure to BPA and soy-based phytoestrogens results in additive estrogenic effects, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases, including breast cancer.

  20. Protective effect of the long pentraxin PTX3 against histone-mediated endothelial cell cytotoxicity in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Daigo, Kenji; Nakakido, Makoto; Ohashi, Riuko; Fukuda, Rie; Matsubara, Koichi; Minami, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Naotaka; Inoue, Kenji; Jiang, Shuying; Naito, Makoto; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a member of the long pentraxin subfamily within the family of pentraxins, is a soluble pattern recognition molecule that functions in the innate immune system. Innate immunity affords the infected host protection against sepsis, a potentially life-threatening inflammatory response to infection. Extracellular histones are considered to be the main cause of septic death because of their cytotoxic effect on endothelial cells, which makes them a potential therapeutic target. We found that PTX3 interacted with histones to form coaggregates, which depended on polyvalent interactions and disorder in the secondary structure of PTX3. PTX3 exerted a protective effect, both in vitro and in vivo, against histone-mediated cytotoxicity toward endothelial cells. Additionally, the intraperitoneal administration of PTX3 reduced mortality in mouse models of sepsis. The amino-terminal domain of PTX3, which was required for coaggregation with histones, was sufficient to protect against cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that the host-protective effects of PTX3 in sepsis are a result of its coaggregation with histones rather than its ability to mediate pattern recognition. This long pentraxin-specific effect provides a potential basis for the treatment of sepsis directed at protecting cells from the toxic effects of extracellular histones.

  1. Effects of nitrogen addition and fire on plant nitrogen use in a temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Wei; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Lü, Fu-Mei; Han, Xing-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Plant nitrogen (N) use strategies have great implications for primary production and ecosystem nutrient cycling. Given the increasing atmospheric N deposition received by most of the terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the responses of plant N use would facilitate the projection of plant-mediated N cycling under global change scenarios. The effects of N deposition on plant N use would be affected by both natural and anthropogenic disturbances, such as prescribed fire in the grassland. We examined the effects of N addition (5.25 g N m(-2) yr(-1)) and prescribed fire (annual burning) on plant N concentrations and N use characters at both species and community levels in a temperate steppe of northern China. We found that N addition and fire independently affected soil N availability and plant N use traits. Nitrogen addition increased aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), inorganic N, and N uptake, decreased N response efficiency (NRE), but did not affect biomass-weighed N concentrations at community level. Prescribed fire did not change the community level N concentrations, but largely decreased N uptake efficiency and NRE. At the species level, the effects of N addition and fire on plant N use were species-specific. The divergent responses of plant N use at community and species levels to N addition and fire highlight the importance of the hierarchical responses of plant N use at diverse biological organization levels to the alteration of soil N availability. This study will improve our understanding of the responses of plant-mediated N cycling to global change factors and ecosystem management strategies in the semiarid grasslands. PMID:24594654

  2. Effects of molecular architectures and solvophobic additives on the aggregative properties of polymeric surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Lung; Wu, Ming-Zher; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2012-03-01

    The aggregative behavior of the polymeric surfactants with various molecular architectures in dilute solutions is studied by dissipative particle dynamics. The effects of the solvophobic/solvophilic length, polymeric architecture (linear, star, dendritic, and cyclic type), chain rigidity, and solvophobic additives on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the aggregative patterns are systematically investigated. It is found that molecular architectures have a noteworthy impact on the aggregative properties. For linear diblock copolymers, the CMC declines with increasing solvophobic length but rises with increasing solvophilic length. Nonetheless, the solvophobic group has comparatively greater influence on the CMC. Imposition of the star, dendritic, or cyclic structures onto the solvophobic or solvophilic parts of the polymeric surfactant leads to an increase in the CMC. On the contrary, polymers imposed with the greater degree of the rigidity on the solvophobic or solvophilic block have lower CMC. The addition of solvophobic additives results in a decrease of CMC as well. The effects of the concentration and length of the additives on the aggregative behaviors of polymer surfactants were investigated. Interesting supramolecular structures such as caterpillar and worm-like micelles were observed.

  3. Effect of boron addition on the structure and magnetic properties of CoPt nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khemjeen, Yutthaya; Pinitsoontorn, Supree Chompoosor, Apiwat

    2015-05-07

    The effect of B addition on CoPt nanoparticles was investigated. The CoPt-B nanoparticles were synthesized by means of the polyol process. Transmission electron microscopy has shown that the as-synthesized particles have a spherical morphology with average size about 2–3 nm. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy and the X-ray diffraction technique showed the effect of B concentration on phase transformation. The addition of B at up to 60% promoted the formation of the L1{sub 0} phase when the nanoparticles were subjected to annealing at 600 °C. If the B content is higher than 60%, the phase transition is suppressed. The evidence of B addition on the structure of CoPt nanoparticles was further supported by the magnetic measurements. The results show that the coercivity of the annealed CoPt-B nanoparticles was enhanced by the B additions from 20% to 60%, with the maximum coercivity of 12 000 Oe for the CoPt-40%B sample.

  4. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    PubMed

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield.

  5. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition. PMID:26059183

  6. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-06-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition.

  7. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  8. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-06-10

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition.

  9. The effects of scaffold architecture and fibrin gel addition on tendon cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pawelec, K M; Wardale, R J; Best, S M; Cameron, R E

    2015-01-01

    Development of tissue engineering scaffolds relies on careful selection of pore architecture and chemistry of the cellular environment. Repair of skeletal soft tissue, such as tendon, is particularly challenging, since these tissues have a relatively poor healing response. When removed from their native environment, tendon cells (tenocytes) lose their characteristic morphology and the expression of phenotypic markers. To stimulate tendon cells to recreate a healthy extracellular matrix, both architectural cues and fibrin gels have been used in the past, however, their relative effects have not been studied systematically. Within this study, a combination of collagen scaffold architecture, axial and isotropic, and fibrin gel addition was assessed, using ovine tendon-derived cells to determine the optimal strategy for controlling the proliferation and protein expression. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gel addition influenced tendon cell behavior independently in vitro. Addition of fibrin gel within a scaffold doubled cell number and increased matrix production for all architectures studied. However, scaffold architecture dictated the type of matrix produced by cells, regardless of fibrin addition. Axial scaffolds, mimicking native tendon, promoted a mature matrix, with increased tenomodulin, a marker for mature tendon cells, and decreased scleraxis, an early transcription factor for connective tissue. This study demonstrated that both architectural cues and fibrin gel addition alter cell behavior and that the combination of these signals could improve clinical performance of current tissue engineering constructs.

  10. The effect of additional high dose carbon implantation on the tribological properties of titanium implanted steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Sasaki, Jun; Ichiko, Osami; Hashiguchi, Yoshihiro

    1996-08-01

    The tribological properties and the structural changes of hardened steel implanted with titanium followed by carbon were investigated as a function of additional carbon dose. The dose of Ti was 5×10 17 Ti cm -2 and the additional C doses were 0, 4×10 17, 8×10 17 and 1.2×10 18 C cm -2. After Ti implantation, the steel surface transformed to a FeTiC ternary amorphous phase. Additional implantation of carbon to a dose of 4×10 17 C cm -2 produced fine TiC precipitates dispersed in the ternary amorphous matrix. When the additional C dose exceeded 8×10 17 C cm -2, very fine graphite precipitates appeared in the ternary amorphous phase. The steel surface with very fine graphite precipitates exhibited superior tribological properties. The benefits provided by additional high dose carbon implantation are considered as follows: strengthening of the amorphous phase, thickening of the modified layer, dispersion strengthening of the implanted layer by very fine graphite precipitates and lubrication effect by graphite particles. Comparing the friction properties of Ti+C implanted steel with that of C implanted steel, the role of Ti implantation is to reduce the friction of the surface during sliding and the role of C implantation is to increase the lifetime of the surface against wear.

  11. Effects of the addition of dimer acid alkyl esters on the properties of ethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjun; Ko, Kwang-Hwan; Shin, Jihoon; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Kim, Young-Wun; Kim, Joon-Seop

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we synthesized dimer acid (DA) esters, having short to long alkyl chains, (DA-Cn) by the Diels-Alder reaction and subsequent esterification reaction of fatty acids that were prepared by the hydrolysis of waste vegetable oil. It was found that the DA-Cn were thermally more stable than common petroleum-based plasticizer DOP. When the DOP, DA, or DA-Cn with short alkyl chains were added to ethyl cellulose (EC), the optical clarity and SEM images of the samples showed their good miscibility with those additives in a micro-scale. It was also found that the rubbery modulus of the EC decreased with increasing amount of additives; the type of the additives did not affect the rates of the decrease in the rubbery modulus. The main transition temperatures of the EC containing either DA or DA-C1 or DA-C4 decreased with increasing amounts of those additives and were comparable to that of the DOP-containing EC. The above findings suggested that the DA and its esters with short alkyl chains could act as effective plasticizer and, thus, could be used instead of the DOP. In addition, the results obtained from tensile testing and leaching experiments implied that the DA might be better plasticizer than the DA-C1 and DA-C4, at least in some cases, because of hydrogen-bonding with the EC.

  12. Effect of Dysprosia Additive on the Consolidation of CeO2 by Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect

    K. Choi; R. E. Reavis; D. D. Osterberg; B. J. Jacques; D. P. Butt; R. D. Mariani; D. E. Burkes; Z. A. Munir

    2012-05-01

    The influence of dysprosia addition on the sintering and resulting microstructure of nano-grained CeO2 ceramics was investigated as functions of the spark plasma sintering (SPS) parameters. The addition of Dy2O3 (forming a solid solution) resulted in an increase in relative density and a decrease in grain size. The relative density of samples with Dy2O3 content of 6 and 10 mol% was over 95% when sintered at 1050 C under 500 MPa for holding times as short as 5 minutes. The application of high pressure facilitated the consolidation to relatively high densities with minimal grain growth. Heating rate and holding time, however, had insignificant effect on density but a measurable effect on grain size.

  13. Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Clarice M A; Honorato, Talita L; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Maia, Geraldo A; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2007-05-01

    Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools. Both phosphate and yeast extract addition were significant factors for biomass growth, but had no significant effect on maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme activities found in cashew apple juice assays were at least 3.5 times higher than the activity found in the synthetic medium. Assays with pH control (pH = 6.5) were also carried out. The pH-controlled fermentation enhanced biomass growth, but decreased the enzyme activity. Crude enzyme free of cells produced using cashew apple juice was stable for 16 h at 30 degrees C at a pH of 5.0.

  14. Is the additional greenhouse effect already evident in the current climate?

    PubMed

    Raschke, E

    2001-11-01

    Several greenhouse gases, which are in part or entirely produced by human activities, have accumulated in the atmosphere since approximately the middle of the 19th century. They are assumed to have an additional greenhouse effect causing a further increase of atmospheric temperatures near the ground and a decrease in the layers above approximately 15 km altitude. The currently observed near-surface warming over nearly the entire globe is already considered by a large fraction of our society to be result of this additional greenhouse effect. Complete justification of this assumption is, however, not yet possible, because there are still too many unknowns in our knowledge of participating processes and in our modeling capabilities.

  15. Ring Substituent Effects on the Thiol Addition and Hydrolysis Reactions of N-Arylmaleimides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingche; Tsao, Kelvin; De Francesco, Élise; Keillor, Jeffrey W

    2015-12-18

    Maleimide groups are used extensively in bioconjugation reactions, but limited kinetic information is available regarding their thiol addition and hydrolysis reactions. We prepared a series of fluorogenic coumarin maleimide derivatives that differ by the substituent on their maleimide C═C bond. Fluorescence-based kinetic studies of the reaction with β-mercaptoethanol (BME) yielded the second-order rate constants (k2), while pH-rate studies from pH 7 to 9 gave base-catalyzed hydrolysis rate constants (kOH). Linear free-energy relationships were studied through the correlation of log k2 and log kOH to both electronic (σ(+)) and steric (Es(norm)) parameters of the C═C substituent. These correlations revealed the thiol addition reaction is primarily sensitive to the electronic effects, while steric effects dominate the hydrolysis reaction. These mechanistic studies provide the basis for the design of novel bioconjugation reactants or fluorogenic labeling agents.

  16. Additive Effects of Repetition and Predictability during Comprehension: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Shannon; Parker, Dan; Morini, Giovanna; Lau, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that neural responses to words during sentence comprehension are sensitive to both lexical repetition and a word’s predictability in context. While previous research has often contrasted the effects of these variables (e.g. by looking at cases in which word repetition violates sentence-level constraints), little is known about how they work in tandem. In the current study we examine how recent exposure to a word and its predictability in context combine to impact lexical semantic processing. We devise a novel paradigm that combines reading comprehension with a recognition memory task, allowing for an orthogonal manipulation of a word’s predictability and its repetition status. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we show that word repetition and predictability have qualitatively similar and additive effects on the N400 amplitude. We propose that prior exposure to a word and predictability impact lexical semantic processing in an additive and independent fashion. PMID:24905459

  17. The additive effects of minoxidil and retinol on human hair growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyeon Gyeong; Chang, In-Young; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Seung Ho; Kwon, Oh Sang; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil enhances hair growth by prolonging the anagen phase and induces new hair growth in androgenetic alopecia (AGA), whereas retinol significantly improves scalp skin condition and promotes hair growth. We investigated the combined effects of minoxidil and retinol on human hair growth in vitro and on cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The combination of minoxidil and retinol additively promoted hair growth in hair follicle organ cultures. In addition, minoxidil plus retinol more effectively elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt levels, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio than minoxidil alone in DPCs and HaCaT. We found that the significant hair shaft elongation demonstrated after minoxidil plus retinol treatment would depend on the dual kinetics associated with the activations of Erk- and Akt-dependent pathways and the prevention of apoptosis by increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. PMID:17202653

  18. Effect of biodiesel addition on microbial community structure in a simulated fuel storage system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan-Manuel; Bassi, Amarjeet; Rehmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Understanding changes in microbial structure due to biodiesel storage is important both for protecting integrity of storage systems and fuel quality management. In this work a simulated storage system was used to study the effect of biodiesel (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on a microbial population, which was followed by community level physiological profiling (CLPP), 16s rDNA analysis and plating in selective media. Results proved that structure and functionality were affected by biodiesel. CLPP showed at least three populations: one corresponding to diesel, one to biodiesel and one to blends of diesel and biodiesel. Analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that microbial composition was different for populations growing in diesel and biodiesel. Genera identified are known for degradation of hydrocarbons and emulsifier production. Maximum growth was obtained in biodiesel; however, microbial counts in standard media were lower for this samples. Acidification of culture media was observed at high biodiesel concentration.

  19. Effects of reactive element additions and sulfur removal on the oxidation behavior of FECRAL alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stasik, M.C.; Pettit, F.S.; Meier, G.H. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Ashary, A. ); Smialek, J.L. )

    1994-12-15

    The results of this study have shown that desulfurization of FeCrAl alloys by hydrogen annealing can result in improvements in cyclic oxidation comparable to that achieved by doping with reactive elements. Moreover, specimens of substantial thicknesses can be effectively desulfurized because of the high diffusivity of sulfur in bcc iron alloys. The results have also shown that there is less stress generation during the cyclic oxidation of Y-doped FeCrAl compared to Ti-doped or desulfurized FeCrAl. This indicates that the growth mechanism, as well as the strength of the oxide/alloy interface, influences the ultimate oxidation morphology and stress state which will certainly affect the length of time the alumina remains protective.

  20. Racism and Illicit Drug Use Among African American Women: The Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity, Affirmation, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Harp, Kathi L; Oser, Carrie B

    2012-11-01

    Though recent evidence indicates that rates of illicit drug use among African American women are now higher than the national average, little is known about the etiology of substance use in this population. In addition, the effects of racism and other cultural factors are understudied and may be unique amongst African American women. This cross-sectional study explores risk and protective factors for drug use among 204 African American women. More specifically, associations between racism experiences and drug use are investigated in the context of potential moderating influences (i.e., psychosocial resources, social safety net variables, and cultural identity and practices). Findings suggest that racism is associated with drug use, but that its effects diminish with age. In addition, results suggest that psychosocial resources, social safety net factors and culturally specific factors like ethnic community membership and engagement in cultural practices afford African American women some protection against the detrimental effects of racism.

  1. Hypoxic preconditioning increases the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhilin; Fang, Bo; Tan, Zhibin; Zhang, Dong; Ma, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) protect against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury (SCIRI). However, a large number of transplanted BMSCs often undergo apoptosis, which severely affects the treatment outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning effectively increases the survival rate of BMSCs following transplantation, and increases their protective effect on injured tissues. However, there have been few reports regarding roles of hypoxic preconditioning in SCIRI. The present study isolated rat BMSCs and separately transplanted hypoxia‑ and non‑hypoxia‑preconditioned BMSCs into the spinal cord tissues of rats with SCIRI. The role of hypoxic preconditioning in the promotion of the protective effect of BMSCs on SCIRI was investigated using neurological function scores, Evans blue staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. In addition, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of hypoxia‑inducible factor 1α (HIF‑1α), and to investigate its possible underlying mechanism of action. The results indicated that hypoxic preconditioning effectively increased the protective effects of BMSCs on neurological function, blood spinal cord barrier and tissue damage following SCIRI, and inhibited apoptosis. Furthermore, hypoxic preconditioned BMSCs upregulated the expression of HIF‑1α in spinal cord tissues. Therefore, hypoxic preconditioning effectively increased the protective effect of BMSCs on SCIRI and may be associated with upregulation of the expression of HIF‑1α. Hypoxic preconditioning may serve as an effective means of increasing the protective effect of BMSCs on SCIRI.

  2. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  3. Oxidative addition of hydrogen halides and dihalogens to Pd. Trends in reactivity and relativistic effects.

    PubMed

    de Jong, G Theodoor; Kovacs, Attila; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2006-06-29

    We have theoretically studied the oxidative addition of HX and X(2) to palladium for X = F, Cl, Br, I and At, using both nonrelativistic and ZORA-relativistic density functional theory at BLYP/QZ4P. The purpose is 3-fold: (i) to obtain a set of consistent potential energy surfaces (PESs) to infer accurate trends in reactivity for simple, archetypal oxidative addition reactions; (ii) to assess how relativistic effects modify these trends along X = F, Cl, Br, I and At; and (iii) to rationalize the trends in reactivity in terms of the reactants' molecular-orbital (MO) electronic structure and the H-X and X-X bond strengths. For the latter, we provide full Dirac-Coulomb CCSD(T) benchmarks. All oxidative additions to Pd are exothermic and have a negative overall barrier, except that of HF which is approximately thermoneutral and has a positive overall barrier. The activation barriers of the HX oxidative additions decrease systematically as X descends in group 17 of the periodic table; those of X(2) first increase, from F to Cl, but then also decrease further down group 17. On the other hand, HX and X(2) show clearly opposite trends regarding the heat of reaction: that of HX becomes more exothermic and that of X(2) less exothermic as X descends in group 17. Relativistic effects can be as large as 15-20 kcal/mol but they do not change the qualitative trends. Interestingly, the influence of relativistic effects on activation barriers and heats of reaction decreases for the heavier halogens due to counteracting relativistic effects in palladium and the halogens. PMID:16789784

  4. Synergistic Effects Between Phosphonium-Alkylphosphate Ionic Liquids and Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as Lubricant Additives

    DOE PAGES

    Qu, Jun; Barnhill, William C.; Luo, Huimin; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Landauer, Alexander K.; Kheireddin, Bassem; Gao, Hong; Papke, Brian L; Dai, Sheng

    2015-07-14

    Unique synergistic effects between phosphonium-alkylphosphate ionic liquids and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) are discovered when used together as lubricant additives, resulting in significant friction and wear reduction along with distinct tribofilm composition and mechanical properties. The synergism is attributed to the 30-70× higher-than-nominal concentrations of hypothetical new compounds (via anion exchange between IL and ZDDP) on the fluid surface/interface.

  5. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT ADDITION ON RHEOLOGY USING LASER SCANNING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    White, T

    2007-05-08

    The effectiveness of three dispersants to modify rheology was examined using rheology measurements and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) in simulated waste solutions. All of the dispersants lowered the yield stress of the slurries below the baseline samples. The rheology curves were fitted reasonably to a Bingham Plastic model. The three-dimensional LSCM images of simulants showed distinct aggregates were greatly reduced after the addition of dispersants leading to a lowering of the yield stress of the simulated waste slurry solutions.

  6. Liraglutide, leptin, and their combined effects on feeding: additive intake reduction through common intracellular signaling mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kanoski, Scott E.; Ong, Zhi Yi; Fortin, Samantha M.; Schlessinger, Elizabeth S.; Grill, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and leptin each exert anorexigenic effects. In combination, the intake inhibitory and weight loss effects are greater than either treatment alone, however the mechanisms unclear. Materials and methods Effects of liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1 analogue) and leptin co-treatment, delivered in low or moderate doses subcutaneously (SC) or to the 3rd ventricle respectively, on cumulative intake, meal patterns, and hypothalamic expression of intracellular signaling proteins [phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B)] were examined in lean rats. Results A low-dose combination of liraglutide (25μg/kg) and leptin (0.75μg) additively reduced cumulative food intake and body weight, a result mediated predominantly through a significant reduction in meal frequency that was not present with either drug alone. Liraglutide treatment alone also reduced meal size; an effect not enhanced with leptin co-administration. Moderate doses of liraglutide (75μg/kg) and leptin (4μg) examined separately each reduced meal frequency, cumulative food intake, and body weight; only liraglutide reduced meal size. In combination these doses did not further enhance the anorexigenic effects of either treatment alone. Ex vivo immunoblot showed elevated pSTAT3 in hypothalamic tissue following liraglutide-leptin co-treatment, an effect greater than leptin treatment alone. In addition, SC liraglutide reduced expression of PTP1B (a negative regulator of leptin receptor signaling), revealing a potential mechanism for the enhanced pSTAT3 response following liraglutide-leptin co-administration. Conclusions Collectively, these results provide novel behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying the additive reduction in food intake and body weight following liraglutide-leptin combination treatment. PMID:25475828

  7. Protective effect of oxymatrine on chronic rat heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu-Ting; Tang, Ying; Shen, Ya-Feng; Ao, Hai-Hang; Bai, Jie; Wang, Yong-Liang; Yang, Yong-Ji

    2011-09-01

    Oxymatrine is one of the alkaloids extracted from the Chinese herb Sophora japonica (Sophora flavescens Ait.) with anti-inflammatory, immune reaction inhibiting, antiviral, and hepatocyte and antihepatic fibrosis protective activities. However, the effect of oxymatrine on heart failure is not yet known. In this study, the effect of oxymatrine on heart failure was investigated using a Sprague-Dawley rat model of chronic heart failure. Morphological findings showed that in the group treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg of oxymatrine; intermyofibrillar lysis disappeared, myofilaments were orderly, closely and evenly arranged; and mitochondria contained tightly packed cristae compared with the heart failure group. We investigated the cytosolic Ca(2+) transients and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content, and assessed the expression of ryanodine receptor (RyR2), SR-Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2a), and L-type Ca(2+) channel (dihydropyridine receptor, DHPR). We found that the cytosolic Ca(2+) transients were markedly increased in amplitude in the medium- (ΔF/F (0) = 26.22 ± 2.01) and high-dose groups (ΔF/F (0) = 29.49 ± 1.17) compared to the heart failure group (ΔF/F (0) = 12.12 ± 1.35, P < 0.01), with changes paralleled by a significant increase in the SR Ca(2+) content (medium-dose group: ΔF/F (0) = 32.20 ± 1.67, high-dose group: ΔF/F (0) = 32.57 ± 1.29, HF: ΔF/F (0) = 17.26 ± 1.05, P < 0.01). Moreover, we demonstrated that the expression of SERCA2a and cardiac DHPR was significantly increased in the medium- and high-dose group compared with the heart failure rats. These findings suggest that oxymatrine could improve heart failure by improving the cardiac function and that this amelioration is associated with upregulation of SERCA2a and DHPR. PMID:21691940

  8. The effects of ternary alloying additions on solute-drag creep in aluminum-magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jun

    Effects of ternary additions of Zn, Fe, and Cu on solute-drag creep and ductility in Al-Mg alloys are studied. The materials studied are, in wt. pct. Al-2Mg-5Zn, Al-3Mg-5Zn, Al-4Mg-5Zn, Al-3Mg-0.11Fe, Al-3Mg-0.27Fe, Al-3Mg-0.40Fe, Al-3Mg-0.50Cu, Al-3Mg-1.02Cu, Al-3Mg-1.52Cu, and Al-3Mg-2.15Cu. Experimental data show that ternary Zn additions do not have an adverse effect on solute-drag creep in Al-Mg alloys, but increase the sensitivity of stress exponent, n, to Mg content. Transitions to power-law breakdown in the Al-xMg-5Zn materials are discussed. Ternary Fe and Cu additions increases n during solute-drag creep. Ductilities of over 100% are consistently achieved in the Al-xMg-5Zn and Al-3Mg-xFe materials. Age hardenability during natural aging and simulated paint-bake cycle are studied for the Al-xMg-5Zn Chid Al-3Mg-xCu materials. Zn creates a significant paint-bake response, while the effect of Cu is small for a simulated paint-bake cycle.

  9. [Effects of nitrogen and carbon addition and arbuscular mycorrhiza on alien invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong; Sang, Wei-guo; Zhu, Li; Song, Ying-ying; Wang, Jin-ping

    2010-12-01

    A greenhouse control experiment was conducted to explore the effects of nitrogen and carbon addition and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) on the growth of alien invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed). Nitrogen addition had no significant effects on the morphological indices, biomass and its allocation, and absolute growth rate of A. artemisiifolia, but increased the nitrogen content in the aboveground and underground parts of the plant significantly. Carbon addition increased the content of soil available nitrogen. In this case, the biomass allocation in root system for nutrient (nitrogen) absorption promoted, resulting in a remarkable decrease of branch number, total leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf mass ratio. As a result, the total biomass decreased significantly. The symbiosis of A. artemisiifolia and AM fungi had great influence on the common ragweed's soil nitrogen acclimation, which enhanced its resource-capture by the increase of SLA, and this effect was more significant when the soil nitrogen content was low. AM fungi played an important role in the growth of A. artemisiifolia in low-nitrogen environment.

  10. Effect of pretreatment and additives on boron release during pyrolysis and gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yuuki Mochizuki; Katsuyasu Sugawara; Yukio Enda

    2009-09-15

    Boron is one of the most toxic and highly volatile elements present in coal. As part of a series of studies carried out on coal cleaning to prevent environmental problems and to promote efficient coal utilization processes, the removal of boron by leaching with water and acetic acid has been investigated. The effects of the addition of ash components, that is, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CaO on the control of boron release during pyrolysis and gasification were investigated. Here, 20-70% of boron in coal was removed by leaching the coal with water and acetic acid. Boron leached by water and acetic acid was related to the volatiles released from coal in pyrolysis below 1173 K. The addition of ash components such as SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was found to be effective in suppressing the release of boron during pyrolysis at temperatures below and above 1173 K, respectively. The addition of CaO to coal was effective in suppressing the release of boron during gasification at 1173 K. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Effect of additives on gas-phase catalysis with immobilised Thermoanaerobacter species alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH T).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, A H; Spiess, A C; Daussmann, T; Büchs, J

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a strategy for preparing an efficient immobilised alcohol dehydrogenase preparation for a gas-phase reaction. The effects of additives such as buffers and sucrose on the immobilisation efficiency (residual activity and protein loading) and on the gas-phase reaction efficiency (initial reaction rate and half-life) of Thermoanaerobacter sp. alcohol dehydrogenase were studied. The reduction of acetophenone to 1-phenylethanol under in situ cofactor regeneration using isopropanol as co-substrate was used as a model reaction at fixed reaction conditions (temperature and thermodynamic activities). A strongly enhanced thermostability of the enzyme in the gas-phase reaction was achieved when the enzyme was immobilised with 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7) containing sucrose five times the protein amount (on weight/weight basis). This resulted in a remarkable productivity of 200 g L(-1) day(-1) even at non-optimised reaction conditions. The interaction of additives with the enzyme and water affects the immobilisation and gas-phase efficiencies of the enzyme. However, it was not possible to predict the effect of additives on the gas-phase reaction efficiency even after knowing their effect on the immobilisation efficiency.

  12. Protective effects of polysaccharides from Psidium guajava leaves against oxidative stresses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo-Young; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Young-Sun; Yu, Seok-Kyu; Choi, Changyong; Lee, Jung-Suk; Kim, Yong-Tae; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze antioxidant properties of a polysaccharide isolated from Psidium guajava leaves (PS-PGL) in vitro including its radical scavenging activities and protective effects against damage to cells as well as in vivo in zebrafish. The water extract of P. guajava leaves (WE-PGL) and PS-PGL showed strong radical scavenging effects in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical. Compared to WE-PGL, PS-PGL enhanced all scavenging activities and in particular strongly scavenged the hydroxyl radical (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.02mg/mL). In addition, PS-PGL exerted a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and against toxicity to Vero cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using zebrafish embryos indicated that treatment with hydrogen peroxide decreased the survival rate and heart-beating rate of zebrafish embryos, whereas these problems were reduced by PS-PGL treatment. Moreover, PS-PGL inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that PS-PGL may be useful as a beneficial antioxidant material in the food and cosmetic industries.

  13. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  14. Protective effects of polysaccharides from Psidium guajava leaves against oxidative stresses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo-Young; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Young-Sun; Yu, Seok-Kyu; Choi, Changyong; Lee, Jung-Suk; Kim, Yong-Tae; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze antioxidant properties of a polysaccharide isolated from Psidium guajava leaves (PS-PGL) in vitro including its radical scavenging activities and protective effects against damage to cells as well as in vivo in zebrafish. The water extract of P. guajava leaves (WE-PGL) and PS-PGL showed strong radical scavenging effects in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical. Compared to WE-PGL, PS-PGL enhanced all scavenging activities and in particular strongly scavenged the hydroxyl radical (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.02mg/mL). In addition, PS-PGL exerted a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and against toxicity to Vero cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using zebrafish embryos indicated that treatment with hydrogen peroxide decreased the survival rate and heart-beating rate of zebrafish embryos, whereas these problems were reduced by PS-PGL treatment. Moreover, PS-PGL inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that PS-PGL may be useful as a beneficial antioxidant material in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:27296444

  15. Examining the protective effects of brand equity in the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L

    2011-10-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using cross-sectional data (n = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding's effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, the keepin' it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes, including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus, it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations, and future directions are discussed.

  16. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  17. Examining the Protective Effects of Brand Equity in the keepin’ it REAL Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using a cross-sectional data (N = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding’s effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, keepin’ it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher-order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:21512924

  18. Protective effect of ischemic postconditioning against ischemia reperfusion-induced myocardium oxidative injury in IR rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Jiangwei; Liu, Huajin

    2012-03-27

    Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) employed during reperfusion after a prolonged ischemic insult may attenuate the total ischemia-reperfusion injury. This phenomenon has been termed ischemic postconditioning. In the present study, we studied the possible effect of ischemic postconditioning on an ischemic reperfusion (IR)-induced myocardium oxidative injury in rat model. Results showed that ischemic postconditioning could improve arrhythmia cordis, reduce myocardium infarction and serum creatin kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities in IR rats. In addition, ischemic postconditioning could still decrease myocardium malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and increased myocardium Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities. It can be concluded that ischemic postconditioning possesses strong protective effects against ischemia reperfusion-induced myocardium oxidative injury in IR rats.

  19. Protective Effects of N-Acetylcysteine in Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengfen; Xia, Yujing; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Li, Sainan; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Yin, Qin; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Junshan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to study the protective effects and mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice. In this study, pretreatment with NAC ameliorated the histopathological changes and suppressed inflammatory cytokines in ConA-induced hepatitis. The expression of IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was significantly reduced in the NAC-treated groups. NAC activated PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibited the activation of NF-κB. Additionally, NAC reduced autophagosome formation, as assessed by detecting the expression of LC3 and Beclin 1. Our results demonstrate that NAC can alleviate ConA-induced hepatitis by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and reducing the late stages of autophagy. Our results described a new pharmaceutical to provide more effective therapies for immune hepatitis. PMID:25821351

  20. Effects of V addition on recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloy after simulative hot deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jing; Shi, Cangji; Chen, X.-Grant

    2014-10-15

    The effects of different V contents (0.01 to 0.19 wt.%) on the recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloys during post-deformation heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural evolutions at as-cast, as-homogenized conditions and after post-deformation annealing were studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes and using the electron backscattered diffraction technique. The precipitation of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids was observed in alloys containing 0.11 to 0.19 wt.% V after homogenization. The dispersoids were mainly distributed in the dendrite cells, and the precipitate-free zones occurred in the interdendritic regions and near grain boundaries. V addition could significantly enhance the recrystallization resistance during post-deformation annealing, particularly in the presence of a great number of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids. Recrystallized grain growth was effectively restricted because of the dispersoid pinning effect. The alloy containing 0.15 wt.% V exhibited the highest recrystallization resistance amongst all V-containing alloys studied. - Highlights: • Investigated the effect of V level on microstructure and flow stress of 7150 alloys • Characterized microstructures using optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and EBSD • Described the precipitation behavior of V-dispersoids in the dendritic structure • Studied the V effect on recrystallization resistance during post heat treatment • V addition greatly enhanced the recrystallization resistance during annealing.

  1. Generalized Concentration Addition Modeling Predicts Mixture Effects of Environmental PPARγ Agonists.

    PubMed

    Watt, James; Webster, Thomas F; Schlezinger, Jennifer J

    2016-09-01

    The vast array of potential environmental toxicant combinations necessitates the development of efficient strategies for predicting toxic effects of mixtures. Current practices emphasize the use of concentration addition to predict joint effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in coexposures. Generalized concentration addition (GCA) is one such method for predicting joint effects of coexposures to chemicals and has the advantage of allowing for mixture components to have differences in efficacy (ie, dose-response curve maxima). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that plays a central role in regulating lipid homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and bone quality and is the target of an increasing number of environmental toxicants. Here, we tested the applicability of GCA in predicting mixture effects of therapeutic (rosiglitazone and nonthiazolidinedione partial agonist) and environmental PPARγ ligands (phthalate compounds identified using EPA's ToxCast database). Transcriptional activation of human PPARγ1 by individual compounds and mixtures was assessed using a peroxisome proliferator response element-driven luciferase reporter. Using individual dose-response parameters and GCA, we generated predictions of PPARγ activation by the mixtures, and we compared these predictions with the empirical data. At high concentrations, GCA provided a better estimation of the experimental response compared with 3 alternative models: toxic equivalency factor, effect summation and independent action. These alternatives provided reasonable fits to the data at low concentrations in this system. These experiments support the implementation of GCA in mixtures analysis with endocrine disrupting compounds and establish PPARγ as an important target for further studies of chemical mixtures.

  2. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    González-Maya, José F; Víquez-R, Luis R; Belant, Jerrold L; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  3. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  4. Protective Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Acetaldehyde-Treated Precision-Cut Rat Liver Slices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350 μM acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. α-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation. PMID:22404575

  5. Effects of the communities that care prevention system on youth reports of protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, B K Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2015-07-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across seven states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from grade 5 through grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain-specific results. This is consistent with CTC's theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems.

  6. Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System on Youth Reports of Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, B. K. Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across 7 states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4,407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from Grade 5 through Grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in Grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in Grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain specific results. This is consistent with CTC’s theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems. PMID:25366931

  7. Effects of the communities that care prevention system on youth reports of protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, B K Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2015-07-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across seven states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from grade 5 through grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain-specific results. This is consistent with CTC's theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems. PMID:25366931

  8. The Additive Effects of Core Muscle Strengthening and Trunk NMES on Trunk Balance in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun Jae; Kim, Dae Yul; Yi, Jin Hwa; Kim, Won; Hong, Jayoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate an additive effect of core muscle strengthening (CMS) and trunk neuromuscular electrical stimulation (tNEMS) on trunk balance in stroke patients. Methods Thirty patients with acute or subacute stroke who were unable to maintain static sitting balance for >5 minutes were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups, i.e., patients in the CMS (n=10) group received additional CMS program; the tNMES group (n=10) received additional tNMES over the posterior back muscles; and the combination (CMS and tNMES) group (n=10) received both treatments. Each additional treatment was performed 3 times per week for 20 minutes per day over 3 weeks. Korean version of Berg Balance Scale (K-BBS), total score of postural assessment scale for stroke patients (PASS), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of therapeutic intervention. Results All 3 groups showed improvements in K-BBS, PASS, TIS, and K-MBI after therapeutic interventions, with some differences. The combination group showed more improvements in K-BBS and the dynamic sitting balance of TIS, as compared to the CMS group; and more improvement in K-BBS, as compared to the tNMES group. Conclusion The results indicated an additive effect of CMS and tNMES on the recovery of trunk balance in patients with acute or subacute stroke who have poor sitting balance. Simultaneous application of CMS and tNMES should be considered when designing a rehabilitation program to improve trunk balance in stroke patients. PMID:26949681

  9. Effect of silver addition on the properties of nickel-titanium alloys for dental application.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Joo, Uk-Hyon; Park, Gee-Ho; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2006-02-01

    Equiatomic and near-equiatomic nickel-titanium alloys exhibit a shape-memory effect and superelasticity. However, the properties of such alloys are extremely sensitive to the precise nickel-titanium ratio and the addition of alloying elements. High corrosion resistance is necessary for biomedical applications, especially orthodontic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silver addition to nickel-titanium alloys for dental and medical application. Arc melting, homogenization, hot rolling, and solution heat treatment were performed to prepare the nickel-titanium-silver (NiTi-Ag) specimens. The properties of the ternary NiTi-Ag alloys such as phase-transformation temperature, microstructure, microhardness, corrosion resistance, and cytotoxicity were investigated. The NiTi-Ag alloys showed low silver recovery rate for the cast alloy, due to silver's low evaporation temperature, and low silver solubility in nickel-titanium. Silver addition to nickel-titanium increased the transition temperature range to 100 degrees C and stabilized the martensitic phase (monoclinic structure) at room temperature, because the martensitic transformation starting temperature (Ms) was above room temperature. Martensitic and austenitic phases existed in X-ray diffraction patterns of solution-annealed NiTi-Ag alloys. The silver addition was considered to improve the corrosion resistance and form a stable passive film. Significantly, the mechanical properties of the silver-added alloys were dependent upon the amount of alloying addition. There was no toxicity in the NiTi-Ag alloys, as the response index showed none or mild levels.

  10. Effect of Addition of Allium hookeri on the Quality of Fermented Sausage with Meat from Sulfur Fed Pigs during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki-Won

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the addition of Allium hookeri on the quality of fermented sausage made with meat from sulfur fed pigs was examined, throughout a 60 d ripening period. There were two treatments in animal management: normal feed fed pigs, and sulfur fed pigs given 0.3% sulfur mixed normal feed. Fermented sausage manufactured with meat from normal feed fed pigs, and with meat from sulfur fed pigs, and 1% A. hookeri-containing fermented sausage processed with meat from sulfur fed pigs, were determined at 1 d, 15 d, 30 d, and 60 d. The meat qualities in fermented sausage were measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ABTS+ radical scavenging activity (ABTS+), total phenolic acids, and total flavonoid contents. Fermented sausage made from pigs that had been fed with 0.3% sulfur was protected from oxidation by reduced free radical, as shown by the significant increase in DPPH and ABTS+ values, compared with fermented sausage made from normal feed fed pigs (p<0.05). A. hookeri-added fermented sausage with sulfur fed pork was shown to increase the values in DPPH, ABTS+, total phenolic acid, and total flavonoid contents, by comparison with both the control sausage, and sausage with sulfur fed pork, at 60 d. These results suggest that A. hookeri in meat from sulfur fed pigs could be a source of natural addition, to increase quality in the food industry. PMID:26761166

  11. Untangling the Effect of Fatty Acid Addition at Species Level Revealed Different Transcriptional Responses of the Biogas Microbial Community Members.

    PubMed

    Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zhu, Xinyu; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, RNA-sequencing was used to elucidate the change of anaerobic digestion metatranscriptome after long chain fatty acids (oleate) exposure. To explore the general transcriptional behavior of the microbiome, the analysis was first performed on shotgun reads without considering a reference metagenome. As a second step, RNA reads were aligned on the genes encoded by the microbial community, revealing the expression of more than 51 000 different transcripts. The present study is the first research which was able to dissect the transcriptional behavior at a single species level by considering the 106 microbial genomes previously identified. The exploration of the metabolic pathways confirmed the importance of Syntrophomonas species in fatty acids degradation, and also highlighted the presence of protective mechanisms toward the long chain fatty acid effects in bacteria belonging to Clostridiales, Rykenellaceae, and in species of the genera Halothermothrix and Anaerobaculum. Additionally, an interesting transcriptional activation of the chemotaxis genes was evidenced in seven species belonging to Clostridia, Halothermothrix, and Tepidanaerobacter. Surprisingly, methanogens revealed a very versatile behavior different from each other, even among similar species of the Methanoculleus genus, while a strong increase of the expression level in Methanosarcina sp. was evidenced after oleate addition.

  12. Effect of Addition of Allium hookeri on the Quality of Fermented Sausage with Meat from Sulfur Fed Pigs during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun-Yeong; Pyun, Chang-Won; Hong, Go-Eun; Lim, Ki-Won; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the addition of Allium hookeri on the quality of fermented sausage made with meat from sulfur fed pigs was examined, throughout a 60 d ripening period. There were two treatments in animal management: normal feed fed pigs, and sulfur fed pigs given 0.3% sulfur mixed normal feed. Fermented sausage manufactured with meat from normal feed fed pigs, and with meat from sulfur fed pigs, and 1% A. hookeri-containing fermented sausage processed with meat from sulfur fed pigs, were determined at 1 d, 15 d, 30 d, and 60 d. The meat qualities in fermented sausage were measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity (ABTS(+)), total phenolic acids, and total flavonoid contents. Fermented sausage made from pigs that had been fed with 0.3% sulfur was protected from oxidation by reduced free radical, as shown by the significant increase in DPPH and ABTS(+) values, compared with fermented sausage made from normal feed fed pigs (p<0.05). A. hookeri-added fermented sausage with sulfur fed pork was shown to increase the values in DPPH, ABTS(+), total phenolic acid, and total flavonoid contents, by comparison with both the control sausage, and sausage with sulfur fed pork, at 60 d. These results suggest that A. hookeri in meat from sulfur fed pigs could be a source of natural addition, to increase quality in the food industry.

  13. Roflumilast enhances the renal protective effects of retinoids in an HIV-1 transgenic mouse model of rapidly progressive renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Wu, Yingwei; Liu, Ruijie; Deng, Yueyi; Mallipattu, Sandeep; Klotman, Paul; Chuang, Peter; He, John Cijiang

    2011-01-01

    Retinoic acid decreases proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in several animal models of kidney disease by protecting podocytes from injury. Our recent in vitro studies suggest that all-trans retinoic acid induces podocyte differentiation by activating the retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα)/cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. When used in combination with all-trans retinoic acid, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 further enhanced podocyte differentiation by increasing intracellular cAMP. Additionally, we found that Am580, a specific RARα agonist, has similar renal protective effects as all-trans retinoic acid in a rederived colony of HIV-1 transgenic mice with rapidly progressive renal failure (HIV-Tg) that mimics human HIV-associated nephropathy. Treatment with either the inhibitor of phoshodiesterase 4, roflumilast, or Am580 significantly reduced proteinuria, attenuated kidney injury, and improved podocyte differentiation in these HIV-Tg mice. Additional renal protective effects were found when roflumilast was combined with Am580. Consistent with the in vitro data, glomeruli from HIV-Tg mice treated with both Am580 and roflumilast had more active phosphorylated CREB than with either agent alone. Thus, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors could be used in combination with RARα agonists to provide additional renal protection. PMID:22258322

  14. Roflumilast enhances the renal protective effects of retinoids in an HIV-1 transgenic mouse model of rapidly progressive renal failure.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yifei; Wu, Yingwei; Liu, Ruijie; Deng, Yueyi; Mallipattu, Sandeep K; Klotman, Paul E; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John C

    2012-05-01

    Retinoic acid decreases proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in several animal models of kidney disease by protecting podocytes from injury. Our recent in vitro studies suggest that all-trans retinoic acid induces podocyte differentiation by activating the retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα)/cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. When used in combination with all-trans retinoic acid, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 further enhanced podocyte differentiation by increasing intracellular cAMP. Additionally, we found that Am580, a specific RARα agonist, has similar renal protective effects as all-trans retinoic acid in a rederived colony of HIV-1 transgenic mice with rapidly progressive renal failure (HIV-Tg) that mimics human HIV-associated nephropathy. Treatment with either the inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, roflumilast, or Am580 significantly reduced proteinuria, attenuated kidney injury, and improved podocyte differentiation in these HIV-Tg mice. Additional renal protective effects were found when roflumilast was combined with Am580. Consistent with the in vitro data, glomeruli from HIV-Tg mice treated with both Am580 and roflumilast had more active phosphorylated CREB than with either agent alone. Thus, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors could be used in combination with RARα agonists to provide additional renal protection.

  15. Effect and interactions of commercial additives and chloride ion in copper electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wenyuan

    This thesis is to understand and compare the effects and interactions of modified polysaccharide (HydroStar), polyacrylamide (Cyquest N-900) and chloride ion on copper electrowinning. A study of the nucleation and growth was conducted in a synthetic electrolyte (40 g/L Cu, 160 g/L H2SO 4, 20 mg/L Cl-) with the addition of HydroStar or Cyquest N-900 using potential step measurements. The current responses generated were compared to theoretical models of nucleation and growth mechanisms. The nucleation and growth mechanism changed as function of potential and the presence of organic additives. The nucleation and growth mechanisms were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At low overpotentials, electrodeposition from the electrolyte without additives proceeded by progressive nucleation with three-dimensional (3-D) growth. The addition of HydroStar produced smaller nuclei and changed the mechanism to progressive nucleation and 2-D growth. Cyquest N-900 used there appeared to be progressive nucleation with 2-D growth and polarize the cathodes. In addition, instantaneous nucleation under diffusion control occurred at high overpotentials. Chloride ion and its interaction with HydroStar and Cyquest N-900 were further characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The trends observed from Nyquist plots and equivalent circuit models were consistent with the CV results. Chloride, on its own, depolarized copper electrodeposition, while chloride ion associated with Cyquest N-900 inhibited the reaction. It is proposed that Cl- acted as a bridging ligand between copper and Cyquest N-900. The addition of HydroStar depolarized copper deposition, but it did not interact with.

  16. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Dirk D.; Gormley, Robert J.; Baltrus, John P.; Anderson, Richard R.; Zandhuis, Paul H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic, fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350º C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol%) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  17. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.D.; Gormley, R.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Anderson, R.R.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350 °C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol %) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  18. The effect of dielectric properties of sintering additives on microwave sintered silicon nitride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Sreekumar; George, Jacob; Earl, David; Amarakoon, Vasantha R W

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nitride requires the use of susceptive additives for microwave liquid phase sintering due to the material's low dielectric loss. In this article, we report the effect of complex dielectric properties of two compositions of sintering aids on 2.45 GHz microwave sintered Si3N4 with respect to power absorption, temperature distribution and densification behavior. The temperature dependent dielectric properties were measured from 25 degrees C to 1400 degrees C using a conventional cavity perturbation technique. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulations coupled with a thermal solver was used to predict the microwave power absorption and the corresponding temperature evolution inside the samples. The additive with higher dielectric loss (4 wt% MgO, 6 wt% Y2O3 and 2.5 wt% ZrO2) produces a greater sintered density than the lower loss additive (4 wt% MgO and 6 wt% Y2O3) or pure Si3N4. Although microwave loss at temperatures below 600 degrees C is insignificant with or without the additives, the loss begins to increase at higher temperatures when the additives are present and has a strong upward trend above 1000 degrees C. Above 1200 degrees C the sample containing ZrO2 exhibited the greatest loss. Numerical simulations at the peak sintering temperature show greater microwave power absorption and higher temperature in the sample with the highest loss additive. The simulation results correlate to the difference in densification behavior observed. The simulation was also useful because the material temperature was not accurately provided by optical pyrometer measurements of the crucible sample holder.

  19. The effect of dielectric properties of sintering additives on microwave sintered silicon nitride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Sreekumar; George, Jacob; Earl, David; Amarakoon, Vasantha R W

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nitride requires the use of susceptive additives for microwave liquid phase sintering due to the material's low dielectric loss. In this article, we report the effect of complex dielectric properties of two compositions of sintering aids on 2.45 GHz microwave sintered Si3N4 with respect to power absorption, temperature distribution and densification behavior. The temperature dependent dielectric properties were measured from 25 degrees C to 1400 degrees C using a conventional cavity perturbation technique. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulations coupled with a thermal solver was used to predict the microwave power absorption and the corresponding temperature evolution inside the samples. The additive with higher dielectric loss (4 wt% MgO, 6 wt% Y2O3 and 2.5 wt% ZrO2) produces a greater sintered density than the lower loss additive (4 wt% MgO and 6 wt% Y2O3) or pure Si3N4. Although microwave loss at temperatures below 600 degrees C is insignificant with or without the additives, the loss begins to increase at higher temperatures when the additives are present and has a strong upward trend above 1000 degrees C. Above 1200 degrees C the sample containing ZrO2 exhibited the greatest loss. Numerical simulations at the peak sintering temperature show greater microwave power absorption and higher temperature in the sample with the highest loss additive. The simulation results correlate to the difference in densification behavior observed. The simulation was also useful because the material temperature was not accurately provided by optical pyrometer measurements of the crucible sample holder. PMID:19227072

  20. Additive effects of physical exercise and environmental enrichment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fabel, Klaus; Wolf, Susanne A; Ehninger, Dan; Babu, Harish; Leal-Galicia, Perla; Kempermann, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary physical exercise (wheel running, RUN) and environmental enrichment both stimulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis but do so by different mechanisms. RUN induces precursor cell proliferation, whereas ENR exerts a survival-promoting effect on newborn cells. In addition, continued RUN prevented the physiologically occurring age-related decline in precursor cell in the dentate gyrus but did not lead to a corresponding increase in net neurogenesis. We hypothesized that in the absence of appropriate cognitive stimuli the potential for neurogenesis could not be realized but that an increased potential by proliferating precursor cells due to RUN could actually lead to more adult neurogenesis if an appropriate survival-promoting stimulus follows the exercise. We thus asked whether a sequential combination of RUN and ENR (RUNENR) would show additive effects that are distinct from the application of either paradigm alone. We found that the effects of 10 days of RUN followed by 35 days of ENR were additive in that the combined stimulation yielded an approximately 30% greater increase in new neurons than either stimulus alone, which also increased neurogenesis. Surprisingly, this result indicates that although overall the amount of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus is poorly predictive of net adult neurogenesis, an increased neurogenic potential nevertheless provides the basis for a greater efficiency of the same survival-promoting stimulus. We thus propose that physical activity can "prime" the neurogenic region of the dentate gyrus for increased neurogenesis in the case the animal is exposed to an additional cognitive stimulus, here represented by the enrichment paradigm.

  1. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mossa, Abdel-Tawab H.; Ibrahim, Faten M.; Mohafrash, Samia M. M.; Abou Baker, Doha H.; El Gengaihi, Souad

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity. PMID:26265923

  2. Effects of beta-glucan addition to a probiotic containing yogurt.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, T; Kealy, T; Mishra, V K

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of addition of beta-glucan from 2 different cereal sources (oat and barley) on growth and metabolic activity of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (Bb-12) as determined by plating on a selective medium in yogurt during prolonged cold storage. These yogurt batches were compared to unsupplemented and inulin supplemented controls. All batches were also assessed for syneresis. Oat beta-glucan addition resulted in improved probiotic viability and stability comparable to that of inulin. It also enhanced lactic and propionic acid production. The barley beta-glucan addition suppressed proteolytic activity more than that from oat. These improvements were hindered by greater syneresis caused likely by thermodynamic incompatibility. Small amplitude oscillatory measurements of acidified model mixture of beta-glucan/skim milk solids showed formation of casein gel within the beta-glucan network. Binary mixtures of beta-glucan and skim milk solids had apparent pseudoplastic and non-Newtonian behavior governed mainly by beta-glucan contribution. Above critical concentrations, the mixtures underwent phase separation with the lower phase rich in protein. The phase diagram also showed that the addition of beta-glucan may be possible at or below 0.24 w/w%.

  3. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  4. Soluble organic additive effects on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate suspensions.

    PubMed

    Wedin, Pär; Lewis, Jennifer A; Bergström, Lennart

    2005-10-01

    The effect of polymer, plasticizer, and surfactant additives on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate particulate coatings was studied using a controlled-environment apparatus that simultaneously monitors drying stress, weight loss, and relative humidity. We found that the calcium carbonate coatings display a drying stress evolution typical of granular films, which is characterized by a sharp capillary-induced stress rise followed by a rapid stress relaxation. The addition of a soluble polymer to the CaCO3 suspension resulted in a two-stage stress evolution process. The initial stress rise stems from capillary-pressure-induced stresses within the film, while the second, larger stress rise occurs due to solidification and shrinkage of the polymeric species. Measurements on the corresponding pure polymer solutions established a clear correlation between the magnitude of residual stress in both the polymer and CaCO3-polymer films to the physical properties of the polymer phase, i.e. its glass transition temperature, T(g), and Young's modulus. The addition of small organic molecules can reduce the residual stress observed in the CaCO3-polymer films; e.g., glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer, reduces the drying stress by lowering T(g), while surfactant additions reduce the surface tension of the liquid phase, and, hence, the magnitude of the capillary pressure within the film.

  5. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat. PMID:24547939

  6. Effect of additives on the anisotropic etching of silicon by using a TMAH based solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Ki-Hwa; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the anisotropic etching properties of single crystal silicon were examined using a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The variations in the Si etching rate and surface morphology at different etching temperatures and TMAH concentrations were evaluated. The effects of different additives were also examined. As the THAM concentration (10-25 wt. %) decreased, the etching rate increased from 10 μm/h to 70 μm/h at temperatures between 70°C and 90°C. On the other hand, the etched surface roughness became degraded as the hillock density and corner undercut ratio increased. To solve these problems, four additives, pyrazine, ammonium persulfate (AP), ammonium hydrogen sulfate (AHS), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), were added to the TMAH solution. The experimental results showed that these additives play an important role in increasing the etching rate up to 10-20%. The etched surface was also improved significantly by the decreased hillock density on the surface. The addition of IPA to the TMAH solution showed excellent results in improving the etched surface flatness and the undercutting compensation. On the other hand, one of the characteristics of IPA is the decrease in etching rate with increasing amount of IPA. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Effect of Refiner Addition Level on Zirconium-Containing Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaradeh, M. M. R.; Carlberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al6(Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.

  8. Nitrogen-addition effects on leaf traits and photosynthetic carbon gain of boreal forest understory shrubs.

    PubMed

    Palmroth, Sari; Bach, Lisbet Holm; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boreal coniferous forests are characterized by fairly open canopies where understory vegetation is an important component of ecosystem C and N cycling. We used an ecophysiological approach to study the effects of N additions on uptake and partitioning of C and N in two dominant understory shrubs: deciduous Vaccinium myrtillus in a Picea abies stand and evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea in a Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. N was added to these stands for 16 and 8 years, respectively, at rates of 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). N addition at the highest rate increased foliar N and chlorophyll concentrations in both understory species. Canopy cover of P. abies also increased, decreasing light availability and leaf mass per area of V. myrtillus. Among leaves of either shrub, foliar N content did not explain variation in light-saturated CO2 exchange rates. Instead photosynthetic capacity varied with stomatal conductance possibly reflecting plant hydraulic properties and within-site variation in water availability. Moreover, likely due to increased shading under P. abies and due to water limitations in the sandy soil under P. sylvestris, individuals of the two shrubs did not increase their biomass or shift their allocation between above- and belowground parts in response to N additions. Altogether, our results indicate that the understory shrubs in these systems show little response to N additions in terms of photosynthetic physiology or growth and that changes in their performance are mostly associated with responses of the tree canopy.

  9. Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Gamoh, Keiji; Morris, David G; Duncan, Harry

    2002-03-01

    Groundwater contamination by fuel spills from aboveground and underground storage tanks has been of growing concern in recent years. This problem has been magnified by the addition of oxygenates, such as ethanol and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to fuels to reduce vehicular emissions to the atmosphere. These additives, although beneficial in reducing atmospheric pollution, may, however, increase groundwater contamination due to the co-solvency of petroleum hydrocarbons and by the provision of a preferential substrate for microbial utilisation. With the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel imminent and the move away from MTBE use in many states of the USA, the environmental implications associated with ethanol additive fuels must be thoroughly investigated. Diesel fuel movement was followed in a 1-m soil column and the effect of ethanol addition to diesel fuel on this movement determined. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel fuel was found to enhance the downward migration of the diesel fuel components, thus increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A novel method using soil packed HPLC columns allowed the influence of ethanol on individual aromatic hydrocarbon movement to be studied. The levels of ethanol addition investigated were at the current additive level (approx. 25%) for ethanol additive fuels in Brazil and values above (50%) and below (10%) this level. An aqueous ethanol concentration above 10% was required for any movement to occur. At 25% aqueous ethanol, the majority of hydrocarbons were mobilised and the retention behaviour of the soil column lessened. At 50% aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns. The retention behaviour of the soil was found to change significantly when both organic matter content and silt/clay content was reduced. Unexpectedly, sandy soil with low organic matter and low silt/clay was found to have a retentive behaviour similar to sandy subsoil with moderate silt

  10. Linking management effectiveness indicators to observed effects of protected areas on fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun

    2013-02-01

    Management-effectiveness scores are used widely by donors and implementers of conservation projects to prioritize, track, and evaluate investments in protected areas. However, there is little evidence that these scores actually reflect the capacity of protected areas to deliver conservation outcomes. We examined the relation between indicators of management effectiveness in protected areas and the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest. We used data collected with the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) scorecard, adopted by some of the world's largest conservation organizations to track management characteristics believed to be crucial for protected-area effectiveness. We used the occurrence of forest fires from 2000 through 2010 as a measure of the effect of protected areas on undesired land-cover change in the Amazon basin. We used matching to compare the estimated effect of protected areas with low versus high METT scores on fire occurrence. We also estimated effects of individual protected areas on fire occurrence and explored the relation between these effects and METT scores. The relations between METT scores and effects of protected areas on fire occurrence were weak. Protected areas with higher METT scores in 2005 did not seem to have performed better than protected areas with lower METT scores at reducing fire occurrence over the last 10 years. Further research into the relations between management-effectiveness indicators and conservation outcomes in protected areas seems necessary, and our results show that the careful application of matching methods can be a suitable method for that purpose. PMID:23009052

  11. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA-ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  12. Effect of organic residues addition on the technological properties of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the utilization potential of several organic residues in clay bricks. Sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass are widespread by-products of industrial and agricultural processes in Turkey. These residue materials have long cellulose fibres. Sawdust and tobacco residues generally are used as fuel, and the grass is utilized for agricultural purposes. The insulation capacity of brick increases with the increasing porosity of the clay body. Combustible, organic types of pore-forming additives are most frequently used for this purpose. For this reason, increasing amounts of organic residues (0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% in wt.) were mixed with raw brick-clay. All samples were fired at 900 degrees C. Effects on shaping, plasticity, density, and mechanical properties were investigated. The organic residue additions were found to be effective for pore-forming in the clay body with the clay maintaining acceptable mechanical properties. It was observed that the fibrous nature of the residues did not create extrusion problems. However, higher residue addition required a higher water content to ensure the right plasticity. As a result, sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass can be utilized in an environmentally safe way as organic pore-forming agents in brick-clay.

  13. Sequential bilateral striatal lesions have additive effects on single skilled limb use in rats.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Jamshid; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2007-02-27

    Unilateral dopamine depletion in rats induced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the nigrostriatal system causes permanent impairments in limb use. The disturbances in limb use, including impairments in skilled reaching, are most severe on the side contralateral to the lesion. A number of studies, however, have also described ipsilateral deficits in skilled reaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sequential bilateral striatal 6-OHDA lesions on skilled reaching movements in rats to compare the contribution of contra- versus ipsilateral motor control. Rats were trained in a reaching task to grasp food pellets with their preferred paw prior to receiving an intrastriatal 6-OHDA injection on the side contralateral to the preferred paw. The lesion significantly reduced reaching success along with qualitative impairments in limb use. In addition, animals displayed asymmetry in limb use and contraversive rotation bias after an apomorphine challenge. Three weeks later, animals received a second lesion induced by intrastriatal 6-OHDA injection into the hemisphere ipsilateral to the preferred paw. This lesion exaggerated the previous impairments in limb use and further reduced reaching success of the preferred paw. In the ladder rung walking task, additional impairments were found only in the forelimb ipsilateral to the first lesion. The findings of additive effects of sequential bilateral lesions suggest that both the contra- and ipsilateral striatum control single limb use. This supports the notion of bilateral control of skilled forelimb use by the mesostriatal dopaminergic system. PMID:17182115

  14. Effect of the La alloying addition on the antibacterial capability of 316L stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J P; Li, W; Wang, C

    2013-01-01

    316L stainless steel is widely used for fashion jewelry but it can carry a large number of bacteria and cause the potential risk of infection since it has no antimicrobial ability. In this paper, La is used as an alloying addition. The antibacterial capability, corrosion resistance and processability of the La-modified 316L are investigated by microscopic observation, thin-film adhering quantitative bacteriostasis, electrochemical measurement and mechanical test. The investigations reveal that the La-containing 316L exhibits the Hormesis effect against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli DH5α, 0.05 wt.% La stimulates their growth, as La increases, the modified 316L exhibits the improved antibacterial effect. The more amount of La is added, the better antibacterial ability is achieved, and 0.42 wt.% La shows excellent antibacterial efficacy. No more than 0.11 wt.% La addition improves slightly the corrosion resistance in artificial sweat and has no observable impact on the processability of 316L, while a larger La content degrades them. Therefore, the addition of La alone in 316L is difficult to obtain the optimal combination of corrosion resistance, antibacterial capability and processability. In spite of that, 0.15 wt.% La around is inferred to be the trade-off for the best overall performance.

  15. Developing effective rockfall protection barriers for low energy impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentani, Alessio; Giacomini, Anna; Buzzi, Olivier; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Fityus, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Recently, important progresses have been made towards the development of high capacity rockfall barriers (100 kJ - 8000 kJ). The interest of researchers and practitioners is now turning to the development of fences of minor capacity, whose use becomes essential in areas where rockfall events generally have low intensity and the use of high capacity barriers would be accompanied by excessive costs and high environmental impact. Low energy barriers can also provide a cost-effective solution even in areas where high energies events are expected. Results of full-scale tests are vital to any investigation on the behaviour of these structures. An experimental set-up has been developed at The University of Newcastle (AUS), to investigate the response of low energy rockfall barrier prototypes to low energy impacts. The Australian territory, and in particular New South Wales, is in fact characterised by rockfall events of low-to-medium intensity (50 kJ - 500 kJ) and the need of protection structures working within such energy range, is particularly felt [1]. The experiments involved the impact of a test block onto three spans, low energy barrier prototypes, made of steel structural posts, fully fixed at the base, side cables and a steel meshwork constituted by a double twist hexagonal wire net [2]. Test data enabled the development, calibration and assessment of FE models [3], on which non-linear and dynamic analyses have been performed addressing the effect of the block size. Results have shown that the response of the structure is strongly governed by the net. Data from tests conducted on the sole net and on the entire barrier showed in fact a similar trend, different to what typically observed for high capacity barriers, whose behaviour is also led by the presence of uphill cables and brakes. In particular, the numerical analyses have demonstrated a dependence of the net performance on the block size. In particular, a loss of capacity in the order of 50% occurred as the

  16. Protective Effect of Folic Acid on Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Cui, Huan; Zhang, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaoju; Zhang, Zheng; Jia, Chaonan; Wu, Jia; Yang, Hui; Qiu, Wenting; Zhang, Chuanwu; Yang, Zuopeng; Chen, Zhu; Mao, Guangyun

    2015-01-01

    < 0.001). Test of interaction between hypercholesterolemia and FA supplementation on urinary 8-OHdG reduction was significant (P = 0.001). The present study demonstrates that FA fortification is independently linked to the reduction of urinary 8-OHdG/Cr in a dose-related pattern, which suggests that FA is beneficial to protect against oxidative damage to DNA. This effect is apparently stronger in those with hypercholesterolemia. The authors provide a new insight into the prevention and reversal of oxidative DNA damage. PMID:26559255

  17. 39 CFR 3007.61 - Continued effectiveness of protective conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 3007.61 Section 3007.61 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL TREATMENT OF NON-PUBLIC... a court or other administrative agency issues a subpoena or orders production of non-public materials which a person has obtained under protective conditions ordered by the Commission, the target...

  18. Civil Protective Order Outcomes: Violations and Perceptions of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Walker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study examined protective order (PO) outcomes for a period of 12 months for 698 women from multiple jurisdictions. Overall, results indicate that 2 out of 5 women did not experience violence after the PO was issued; however, 3 out of 5 women did experience ongoing violence. Two key risk factors were associated with PO violations and are…

  19. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Pop, Anca; Drugan, Tudor; Gutleb, Arno C; Lupu, Diana; Cherfan, Julien; Loghin, Felicia; Kiss, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line. Exposing these cells to AR agonists results in the expression of the reporter gene (encoding for luciferase) and luminescence can be measured in order to monitor the activity of the reporter protein. In case of the evaluation of the anti-androgenic effect, the individual test compounds or binary mixtures were tested in the presence of a fixed concentration of a strong AR agonist (1000 pM 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; DHT). Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin based assay. For PG, this is the first report in the literature concerning its (anti)androgenic activity. In case of both individual and mixture testing none of the compounds or binary combinations showed androgenic activity. When tested in the presence of DHT, BuPB, BHA and BHT proved to be weak anti-androgens and this was confirmed during the evaluation of binary mixtures (BuPB+BHA, BuPB+BHT and BHA+BHT). Besides performing the in vitro testing of the binary combinations, two mathematical models (dose addition and response addition) were evaluated in terms of accuracy of prediction of the anti-androgenic effect of the selected binary mixtures. The dose addition model guaranteed a good correlation between the experimental and predicted data. However, no estimation was possible in case of mixtures containing PG, due to the lack of effect of the compound in case of the individual testing.

  20. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Pop, Anca; Drugan, Tudor; Gutleb, Arno C; Lupu, Diana; Cherfan, Julien; Loghin, Felicia; Kiss, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line. Exposing these cells to AR agonists results in the expression of the reporter gene (encoding for luciferase) and luminescence can be measured in order to monitor the activity of the reporter protein. In case of the evaluation of the anti-androgenic effect, the individual test compounds or binary mixtures were tested in the presence of a fixed concentration of a strong AR agonist (1000 pM 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; DHT). Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin based assay. For PG, this is the first report in the literature concerning its (anti)androgenic activity. In case of both individual and mixture testing none of the compounds or binary combinations showed androgenic activity. When tested in the presence of DHT, BuPB, BHA and BHT proved to be weak anti-androgens and this was confirmed during the evaluation of binary mixtures (BuPB+BHA, BuPB+BHT and BHA+BHT). Besides performing the in vitro testing of the binary combinations, two mathematical models (dose addition and response addition) were evaluated in terms of accuracy of prediction of the anti-androgenic effect of the selected binary mixtures. The dose addition model guaranteed a good correlation between the experimental and predicted data. However, no estimation was possible in case of mixtures containing PG, due to the lack of effect of the compound in case of the individual testing. PMID:26812027

  1. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (p<0.05) by 12% during the whole experimental period and 15% during the first 7days. The treatments had no significant effect on the pH and chemical oxygen demand value of the digesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  2. Tuning effect of silyl protecting groups on the glycosylation reactivity of arabinofuranosyl thioglycosides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xing-Yong; Bin, Hua-Chao; Yang, Jin-Song

    2013-06-01

    The tuning effect of silyl protecting groups on the glycosylation reactivity of arabinofuranosyl phenyl thioglycoside donors is presented. Silyl ethers on the 3-, 5-, and 3,5-positions of the arabinofuranose ring are found to have an arming effect on the donor reactivity, whereas the cyclic 3,5-acetal type protecting groups reduce the reactivity.

  3. Effects of maternally exposed food coloring additives on laryngeal histology in rats.

    PubMed

    Başak, Kayhan; Doguç, Duygu Kumbul; Aylak, Firdevs; Karadayi, Nimet; Gültekin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Experimental reports showed carcinogenic effects of artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) on many organs, including the head and neck region. We aimed to investigate the effect of AFCAs on laryngeal histomorphology and immunohistochemical expression in maternally exposed rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were evaluated in their offspring. Significant decreasing in goblet cell count and cilia loss were observed with AFCAs in maternally exposed rats (p<0.05). Immunohistochemically, the Ki67 index was significantly increased and villin expression was significantly reduced in laryngeal epithelium in the study group (p<0.05), whereas expression of cyclooxygenase type 2, Muc-2, Muc-5AC, p53, and epidermal growth factor receptors did not differ between the groups. This study demonstrated that maternal exposure of AFCAs plays a role in the mucosal defense system and possibly in carcinogenesis. PMID:24941295

  4. Effect of salt addition on the thermal behavior of proteins of bovine meat from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pighin, D G; Sancho, A M; Gonzalez, C B

    2008-07-01

    Research was undertaken to investigate how the addition of sodium chloride (NaCl) and/or sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to sous vide cooked meat pieces produces an increase in water holding capacity (WHC). Semitendinosus muscles were injected to obtain tissue final concentrations of 0.70% NaCl, 0.25% TPP, 0.70% NaCl+0.25% TPP, and 1.20% NaCl+0.25% TPP. SDS-PAGE analysis showed increased protein solubilization in those treatments which included NaCl. Thermal analysis of whole muscles and isolated myofibrils showed the destabilizing effect of NaCl and a global stabilizing effect of TPP. Both salts together induced a destabilizing global effect, where TPP assisted NaCl in breaking the meat structure. It is suggested that the WHC increments are related to conformational changes in myofibrillar proteins and to the weakening of myofibrillar structure by the removal of myofibrillar proteins. PMID:22062916

  5. The effect of gyrolite additive on the hydration properties of Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Eisinas, A. Baltakys, K.; Siauciunas, R.

    2012-01-15

    The influence of gyrolite additive on the hydration properties of ordinary Portland cement was examined. It was found that the additive of synthetic gyrolite accelerates the early stage of hydration of OPC. This compound binds alkaline ions and serves as a nucleation site for the formation of hydration products (stage I). Later on, the crystal lattice of gyrolite becomes unstable and turns into C-S-H, with higher basicity (C/S {approx} 0.8). This recrystallization process is associated with the consumption of energy (the heat of reaction) and with a decrease in the rate of heat evolution of the second exothermic reaction (stage II). The experimental data and theoretical hypothesis were also confirmed by thermodynamic and the apparent kinetic parameters of the reaction rate of C{sub 3}S hydration calculations. The changes occur in the early stage of hydration of OPC samples and do not have a significant effect on the properties of cement stone.

  6. Effect of manganese additions on the performance of aluminum air-battery anode alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.H.

    1982-05-05

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratories' (LLL) electrochemical evaluation of the experimental alloys previously cast indicated that the coulombic efficiency of an aluminum anode alloy with a nominal chemistry of 0.04% Fe, 0.04% Ga, and 0.8% Mg could be substantially improved by a 0.04% Mn addition. More recent elecrochemical testing of ingot sections performed by both Reynolds and LLL showed that the performance of an aluminum anode alloy, based on a nominal 0.04% Fe, could be improved by a high temperature homogenization. Based on these results, it was decided that the addition of manganese offered a very fruitful approach for providing improved anode performance. Thus the intent of the current work was to further investigate the effects of varying manganese/iron ratios and fabrication practices on the electro-chemical performance of an aluminum anode alloy containing a nominal 0.04% Fe. Results are presented and discussed.

  7. The effects of addition of citric acid on the morphologies of ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zao . E-mail: yangzao888@tom.com; Liu Quanhui; Yang Lei

    2007-02-15

    ZnO nanorods of 25-100 nm in diameter and 0.2-1 {mu}m in length were fabricated through citric acid assisted annealing process. The microstructure of ZnO nanorods was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. As a result, it was found that ZnO nanorods were single crystalline and pure. The effects of the growth conditions such as addition of citric acid, annealing temperature on the morphologies of ZnO nanostructures have also been investigated. At the given temperature the length decreased but the diameter increased with addition of the mass of citric acid. With the rising of the calcining heat, the shape of ZnO changed from rod to granule for a given amount of citric acid. Finally, the mechanism for citric acid assisted annealing synthesis of the ZnO nanostructure is discussed.

  8. SideRack: A Cost-Effective Addition to Commercial Zebrafish Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Gill, Ryan; Balciuniene, Jorune

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Commercially available aquatic housing systems provide excellent and relatively trouble-free hardware for rearing and housing juvenile as well as adult zebrafish. However, the cost of such systems is quite high and potentially prohibitive for smaller educational and research institutions. The need for tank space prompted us to experiment with various additions to our existing Aquaneering system. We also noted that high water exchange rates typical in commercial systems are suboptimal for quick growth of juvenile fish. We devised a housing system we call “SideRack,” which contains 20 large tanks with air supply and slow water circulation. It enables cost-effective expansion of existing fish facility, with a key additional benefit of increased growth and maturation rates of juvenile fish. PMID:24611601

  9. Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianlu; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Vijayakumar, M.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-01

    The stability of the electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow battery was investigated with ex-situ heating/cooling treatment and in-situ flow-battery testing methods. The effects of inorganic and organic additives have been studied. The additives containing the ions of potassium, phosphate, and polyphosphate are not suitable stabilizing agents because of their reactions with V(V) ions, forming precipitates of KVSO6 or VOPO4. Of the chemicals studied, polyacrylic acid and its mixture with CH3SO3H are the most promising stabilizing candidates which can stabilize all the four vanadium ions (V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+) in electrolyte solutions up to 1.8 M. However, further effort is needed to obtain a stable electrolyte solution with >1.8 M V5+ at temperatures higher than 40 °C.

  10. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  11. Inhaled diesel emissions generated with cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additive induce adverse pulmonary and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Samantha J; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C; Thomas, Ronald F; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E; Elmore, Susan A; Morrison, James P; Johnson, Crystal L; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-12-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe.

  12. Effect of Exogenous Phytase Addition on Soil Phosphatase Activities: a Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-zhu; Chen, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Yu-lan; Chen, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    The utilization of organic phosphorus (P) has directly or indirectly improved after exogenous phytase was added to soil. However, the mechanism by which exogenous phytase affected the soil phosphatases (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase) activities was not clear. The present work was aimed to study red soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil phosphomonoesterase (acid and alkaline) (AcP and AlP) and phosphodiesterase (PD) activities responding to the addition of exogenous phytase (1 g phytase/50 g air dry soil sample) based on the measurements performed via a fluorescence detection method combined with 96 microplates using a TECAN Infinite 200 Multi-Mode Microplate Reader. The results indicated that the acid phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in red soil (p≤0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in cinnamon soil; alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in cinnamon soil (p≤ 0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in red soil; phosphodiesterase activity was increased in three soils but it was significantly increased in brown soil (p≤0. 01) after the addition of exogenous phytase. The activities still remained strong after eight days in different soils, which indicated that exogenous phytase addition could be enhance soil phosphatases activities effectively. This effect was not only related to soil properties, such as pH and phosphorus forms, but might also be related to the excreted enzyme amount of the stimulating microorganism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to study exogenous phytase addition influence on soil phosphatase activities was the first time at home and abroad. Compared with the conventional spectrophotometric method, the fluorescence microplate method is an accurate, fast and simple to use method to determine the relationships among the soil phosphatases activities.

  13. Protective effect of drugs on bronchoconstriction induced by sulphur dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, W C; Cripps, E; Douglas, N; Sudlow, M F

    1982-01-01

    The response to inhaled sulphur dioxide in eight normal, seven atopic, and 22 asthmatic subjects was studied by measuring thoracic gas volume and airway resistance in a whole-body plethysmograph. The fall in specific airway conductance in relation to the concentration of sulphur dioxide inhaled (0-20 ppm) was determined in all three groups. The specific airway conductance fell significantly in the atopic and asthmatic subjects but not in the normal group. In a double-blind study prior inhalation of disodium cromoglycate caused a significant reduction in the response to sulphur dioxide inhalation in atopic and asthmatic subjects. Prior treatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide blocked the response in the atopic subjects, but the effect was variable in the patients with asthma. Previous treatment with inhaled clemastine also reduced the response in patients with asthma, without causing a change in baseline specific conductance. We conclude that non-allergic bronchial hyperreactivity was increased in the atopic and the asthmatic subjects and that mediator release, in addition to a vagal reflex, has a role in such bronchoconstriction. PMID:6218648

  14. Effects of temperature and chemical addition on the formation of bromoorganic DBPs during ozonation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangru; Echigo, Shinya; Lei, Hongxia; Smith, Michael E; Minear, Roger A; Talley, Jeffrey W

    2005-01-01

    The effects of temperature and addition of OH radical scavengers/enhancers or HOBr scavenger on the formation of bromoorganic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from ozonation of six raw waters were studied in true batch reactors. The formation of bromoorganic DBPs during ozonation generally increased with the increase of temperature, but might also decrease for the waters with somewhat higher values of specific UV absorbance (SUVA). The addition of hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or ammonium dramatically decreased the formation of bromoorganic DBPs; t-butanol addition significantly increased the formation of bromoorganic DBPs; bicarbonate addition might increase or decrease bromoorganic DBP formation depending on the water source. For all the waters treated with the chemical addition, the level of total organic bromine (TOBr) varied with the same pace as that of ozone exposure (CT), which suggests that TOBr formed during ozonation may be used to estimate the CT, a measure for the achieved degree of disinfection. The results demonstrate that for each water, the correlation between TOBr and CT was less affected by the change of chemical composition of the water than that between BrO(3)(-) and CT; for a given chemical composition and temperature of a water, there generally were well-defined relationships between TOBr and CT, and bromoform and CT just as that between BrO(3)(-) and CT. The possible mechanisms behind the linear functions of TOBr or BrO(3)(-) versus CT were given. Further study is needed to examine whether the trends found in this research can be applicable for the high SUVA waters.

  15. Thermodynamic Effect of Platinum Addition to beta-NiAl: An Initial Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    An initial investigation was conducted to determine the effect of platinum addition on the activities of aluminum and nickel in beta-NiAl(Pt) over the temperature range 1354 to 1692 K. These measurements were made with a multiple effusion-cell configured mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). The results of this study show that Pt additions act to decreased alpha(Al) and increased the alpha(Ni) in beta-NiAl(Pt) for constant X(sub Ni)/X(sub Al) approx. = 1.13, while at constant X(sub Al) the affect of Pt on Al is greatly reduced. The measured partial enthalpies of mixing indicate Al-atoms have a strong self interaction while Ni- and Pt-atoms in have similar interactions with Al-atoms. Conversely the binding of Ni-atoms in beta-NiAl decreases with Pt addition independent of Al concentration. These initial results prove the technique can be applied to the Ni-Al-Pt system but more activity measurements are required to fully understand the thermodynamics of this system and how Pt additions improved the scaling behavior of nickel-based superalloys. In addition, with the choice of a suitable oxide material for the effusion-cell, the "closed" isothermal nature of the effusion-cell allows the direct investigation of an alloy-oxide equilibrium which resembles the "local-equilibrium" description of the metal-scale interface observed during high temperature oxidation. It is proposed that with an Al(l) + Al2O3(s) experimental reference state together with the route measurement of the relative partial-pressures of Al(g) and Al2O(g) allows the activities of O and Al2O3 to be determined along with the activities of Ni and Al. These measurements provide a direct method of investigating the thermodynamics of the metal-scale interface of a TGO-scale.

  16. Radiation protection of in vitro mammalian cells: effects of hydroxyl radical scavengers on the slopes and shoulders of survival curves

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, D.; Walton, H.L. )

    1991-05-01

    We have tested several chemical compounds, characterized and widely used as hydroxyl radical (.OH) scavengers, for their effects on the radiation sensitivity of Chinese hamster V79 cells irradiated in air or nitrogen. Our purpose is to reexamine the proposed relationship between the level of protection and the rates at which the scavengers react with .OH. We found that the additives can have two apparently independent effects on the shape of survival curves: a reduction in sensitivity (i.e., 'protection,' a decrease in the value of k) and an increase in the size of the shoulder of the survival curve (an increase in the value of Dq). We measured intracellular scavenger concentrations, and, using these values in our analysis, we found that neither of the two effects is correlated with the rates at which the scavengers react with .OH. Although these results could mean that .OH do not cause lethal damage, the interpretation we believe most probably correct is that these scavengers protect in multiple ways. The protection would occur in addition to or instead of simple .OH removal.

  17. Protective effect of guggulsterone against cardiomyocyte injury induced by doxorubicin in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antineoplastic drug; however, clinical use of DOX is limited by its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. It is well known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a vital role in the pathological process of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. For this study, we evaluated the protective effects of guggulsterone (GS), a steroid obtained from myrrh, to determine its preliminary mechanisms in defending against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. Methods In this study, we used a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release measurements, and Hoechst 33258 staining to evaluate the protective effect of GS against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. In addition, we observed the immunofluorescence of intracellular ROS and measured lipid peroxidation, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis-related proteins by using Western blotting. Results The MTT assay and LDH release showed that treatment using GS (1–30 μM) did not cause cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GS inhibited DOX (1 μM)-induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Hoechst 33258 staining showed that GS significantly reduced DOX-induced apoptosis and cell death. Using GS at a dose of 10–30 μM significantly reduced intracellular ROS and the formation of MDA in the supernatant of DOX-treated H9C2 cells and suppressed caspase-3 activity to reference levels. In immunoblot analysis, pretreatment using GS significantly reversed DOX-induced decrease of PARP, caspase-3 and bcl-2, and increase of bax, cytochrome C release, cleaved-PARP and cleaved-caspase-3. In addition, the properties of DOX-induced cancer cell (DLD-1 cells) death did not interfere when combined GS and DOX. Conclusion These data provide considerable evidence that GS could serve as a novel cardioprotective agent against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:22920231

  18. Atomic level description of the protecting effect of osmolytes against thermal denaturation of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieraccini, Stefano; Burgi, Luigi; Genoni, Alessandro; Benedusi, Anna; Sironi, Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    The protecting effect of the osmolyte molecule taurine against thermal denaturation of the protein Chimotripsin Inhibitor 2 was modelled using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The protein was simulated in denaturing conditions at different taurine concentrations. Analysis of the molecular details of its behaviour shows that the protective effect of the osmolyte is concentration dependent. Moreover, the influence of taurine on the solvent structure was studied. A concentration dependent ordering effect of taurine on water molecules emerges from solvent structure analysis and is well correlated to the protecting effect observed. Based on these observations an interpretation of the osmoprotective effect is proposed.

  19. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND MAST CELL PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF FICUS RELIGIOSA

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, S.; Thirugnanasambantham, P.; Reddy, M. Kannappa; Narasimhan, S.; Subramaniam, G. Anantha

    1990-01-01

    The aqueous extract of bark of Ficus religiosa was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory effect and for its protective effect on mast cells against degranulation. A significant anti-inflammatory effect was observed in both acute and chronic models of inflammation. The extract also protected mast cells from degranulation induced by various degranulatiors. The observed anti-inflammatory and mast cell protective effect may be responsible for the beneficial effect of Ficus religiosa in kumkum dermatitis and other inflammatory conditions. PMID:22556521

  20. Anti-inflammatory and mast cell protective effect of ficus religiosa.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, S; Thirugnanasambantham, P; Reddy, M K; Narasimhan, S; Subramaniam, G A

    1990-10-01

    The aqueous extract of bark of Ficus religiosa was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory effect and for its protective effect on mast cells against degranulation. A significant anti-inflammatory effect was observed in both acute and chronic models of inflammation. The extract also protected mast cells from degranulation induced by various degranulatiors. The observed anti-inflammatory and mast cell protective effect may be responsible for the beneficial effect of Ficus religiosa in kumkum dermatitis and other inflammatory conditions. PMID:22556521

  1. The protective effect of astaxanthin on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Li, Yi; He, Lei; Tang, Yamei; Li, Xiangpen; Shen, Qingyu; Yin, Deling; Peng, Ying

    2014-09-01

    Astaxanthin is a strong antioxidant with the ability of reducing the markers of inflammation. To explore the protective effect of astaxanthin on maternal ethanol induced embryonic deficiency, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms, we detected the morphology, expression of neural marker genes, oxidative stress indexes, and inflammatory factors in mice model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder with or without astaxanthin pretreatment. Our results showed that astaxanthin blocked maternal ethanol induced retardation of embryonic growth, and the down-regulation of neural marker genes, Otx1 and Sox2. Moreover, astaxanthin also reversed the increases of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the decrease of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. In addition, maternal ethanol induced up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and the down-streaming myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-1β in embryos, and this was inhibited by astaxanthin pretreatment. These results demonstrated a protective effect of astaxanthin on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and suggested that oxidative stress and TLR4 signaling associated inflammatory reaction are involved in this process.

  2. Protective effects of parecoxib on rat primary astrocytes from oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide* #

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yun-zhi; Li, Xiao-hong; Yu, Li; Zhang, Ye; Liang, Qi-sheng; Yang, Xiao-di; Wang, Hong-tao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effects of parecoxib from oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rat astrocytes in vitro. Methods: All experiments included 4 groups: (1) negative control (NC) group, without any treatment; (2) H2O2 treatment group, 100 μmol/L H2O2 treatment for 24 h; (3) and (4) parecoxib pretreatment groups, 80 and 160 μmol/L parecoxib treatment for 24 h, respectively, and then treated with 100 μmol/L H2O2. Several indices were investigated, and the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were quantified. Results: Compared to the NC group, exposure to H2O2 resulted in significant morphological changes, which could be reversed by pretreatment of parecoxib. In addition, H2O2 treatment led to loss of viability (P=0.026) and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels (P<0.001), and induced apoptosis (P<0.01) in the primary astrocytes relative to the NC group. However, in the parecoxib pretreatment groups, all the above changes reversed significantly (P<0.05) as compared to the H2O2 treatment group, and were nearly unchanged when compared to the NC group. Mechanical investigation showed that dysregulated Bax, Bcl-2, and BDNF could be implicated in these changes. Conclusions: Our results indicated that parecoxib provided a protective effect from oxidative stress induced by exposure to H2O2. PMID:27604861

  3. Protective effect of crocin on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yarijani, Zeynab Mohamadi; Najafi, Houshang; Hamid Madani, Seyed

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Gentamicin is used for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, gentamicin administration is limited because of nephrotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of crocin against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty two male Wistar rats received gentamicin (100 mg/kg, IP), with or without crocin (100 mg/kg, IP) for seven consecutive days. Plasma creatinine and urea-nitrogen concentrations, oxidative stress and histopathological changes of kidney tissues were monitored. Results: Administration of gentamicin resulted in significant increases in plasma creatinine and urea-nitrogen concentrations and renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and a decrease in the renal tissue ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) level. Crocin decreased plasma creatinine and urea-nitrogen concentrations and tissue MDA level, but increased the level of tissue FRAP. In addition, gentamicin led to cellular damages including glomerular atrophy, cellular desquamation, tubular necrosis and fibrosis, epithelial oedema of proximal tubules, perivascular edema, vascular congestion and intra-tubular proteinaceous casts, all of which were partially recovered by crocin. Conclusion: Crocin has protective effects against functional disturbances, oxidative stress and tissue damages induced by gentamicin. PMID:27114805

  4. HPLC-pDA simultaneous determination and protective effect of Anemarrhena asphodeloides against acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Ha, Hyekyung; Kim, Young-Jung; Jungb, Ju-Young

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the protective effects against acute renal failure (ARF) of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA) and performed simultaneous analysis of three compounds, neomangiferin (1), mangiferin (2), and isomangiferin (3) in AA using a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array. To measure the protective effect of ARF, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione depletion were determined using a kit. HPLC analysis was performed using a Gemini Cia column at 40 degrees C. The mobile phase used gradient elution with 1.0% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid (A) and 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile (B). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. In our assay, AA extract inhibits cisplatin-induced production of intracellular ROS. Pre-incubation of AA extracts (10-200 microg/mL) markedly maintained cell viability compared with controls in the noncisplatin-treated cells. Calibration curves of all compounds showed good linearity (r2 > or = 0.9992). Recoveries of the three compounds were 98.9-103.4%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were 0.07-1.73% and 0.12-1.49%, respectively. The amounts of the three components were 1.22-20.63 mg/g. The AA extract has potential as a therapeutic agent for treatment of ARF. In addition, the established method will help to improve quality control of AA.

  5. Protective effects of a novel sea buckthorn wine on oxidative stress and hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Negi, Bharti; Kaur, Rajdeep; Dey, Gargi

    2013-02-01

    We developed a novel sea buckthorn wine containing significant in vitro free radical-scavenging activity. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the sea buckthorn wine revealed that it contains high rutin, myricetin and quercetin levels compared to Cabernet Shiraz wine. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of sea buckthorn wine against phorone-induced oxidative stress and high-cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolemia in male LACA mice. Oral administration of sea buckthorn wine increased the redox ratio accompanied by reduction of oxidized glutathione levels leading to attenuation of phorone-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, the sea buckthorn wine supplementation reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation and increased the superoxide dismutase activity indicating improved resistance to oxidative stress. In addition, high-cholesterol-fed mice administered with sea buckthorn wine exhibited a 197% increase in the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio compared to high-cholesterol diet treated mice. These studies provide important evidence that sea buckthorn wine exerts protective effects against oxidative stress and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:23096237

  6. Identification of the protective effects of traditional medicinal plants against SDS-induced Drosophila gut damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zonglin; Chen, Yuchen; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are widely used as immunomodulatory medicines that help improve health. A total of 50 different plants used for the treatment of toxicity were screened for their in vivo protective effects. Flies were fed a standard cornmeal-yeast medium (control group) or the standard medium containing medicinal plant extracts (experimental groups). Assessment of the survival rate was performed by feeding flies with toxic compounds. Gut epithelial cells were analyzed for cell proliferation and death by green fluorescent protein antibodies and 7-aminoactinomycin D staining under the microscope. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was evaluated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the results revealed that after feeding the flies with toxic compounds, aqueous extracts from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf (C. pilosula), Saussurea lappa (Decne.) C.B.Clarke (S. lappa), Imperata cylindrica Beauv.var.major (Nees) C.E. Hubb. (I. cylindrical var. major) and Melia toosendan Sied. Et Zucc. (M.toosendan) increased the fly survival rate, reduced epithelial cell death and improved gut morphology. In addition, C. pilosula extracts induced the antimicrobial peptide levels (Dpt and Mtk) following treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). However, these extracts were not observed to increase SDS-induced cell proliferation in vivo. These results indicate that there are strong protective effects in extracts of C. pilosula, S. lappa, I. cylindrical var. major and M. toosendan on Drosophila intestinal cells among 50 medicinal plants. PMID:27698771

  7. Protective Effect of Wheat Peptides against Indomethacin-Induced Oxidative Stress in IEC-6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hong; Pan, Xingchang; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Shaokang; Yang, Ligang; Sun, Guiju

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L) for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24481130

  8. Identification of the protective effects of traditional medicinal plants against SDS-induced Drosophila gut damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zonglin; Chen, Yuchen; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are widely used as immunomodulatory medicines that help improve health. A total of 50 different plants used for the treatment of toxicity were screened for their in vivo protective effects. Flies were fed a standard cornmeal-yeast medium (control group) or the standard medium containing medicinal plant extracts (experimental groups). Assessment of the survival rate was performed by feeding flies with toxic compounds. Gut epithelial cells were analyzed for cell proliferation and death by green fluorescent protein antibodies and 7-aminoactinomycin D staining under the microscope. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was evaluated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the results revealed that after feeding the flies with toxic compounds, aqueous extracts from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf (C. pilosula), Saussurea lappa (Decne.) C.B.Clarke (S. lappa), Imperata cylindrica Beauv.var.major (Nees) C.E. Hubb. (I. cylindrical var. major) and Melia toosendan Sied. Et Zucc. (M.toosendan) increased the fly survival rate, reduced epithelial cell death and improved gut morphology. In addition, C. pilosula extracts induced the antimicrobial peptide levels (Dpt and Mtk) following treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). However, these extracts were not observed to increase SDS-induced cell proliferation in vivo. These results indicate that there are strong protective effects in extracts of C. pilosula, S. lappa, I. cylindrical var. major and M. toosendan on Drosophila intestinal cells among 50 medicinal plants.

  9. Protective effect of hispidulin on kainic acid-induced seizures and neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu Yu; Lu, Cheng Wei; Wang, Su Jane; Huang, Shu Kuei

    2015-05-15

    Hispidulin is a flavonoid compound which is an active ingredient in a number of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, and it has been reported to inhibit glutamate release. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hispidulin protects against seizures induced by kainic acid, a glutamate analog with excitotoxic properties. The results indicated that intraperitoneally administering hispidulin (10 or 50mg/kg) to rats 30 min before intraperitoneally injecting kainic acid (15 mg/kg) increased seizure latency and decreased seizure score. In addition, hispidulin substantially attenuated kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death, and this protective effect was accompanied by the suppression of microglial activation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus. Moreover, hispidulin reduced kainic acid-induced c-Fos expression and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the hippocampus. These data suggest that hispidulin has considerable antiepileptic, neuroprotective, and antiinflammatory effects on kainic acid-induced seizures in rats. PMID:25746462

  10. Protective effects of ginger and marshmallow extracts on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaghlool, Sameh S.; Shehata, Basim A.; Abo-Seif, Ali A.; Abd El-Latif, Hekma A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases. Most classic treatment lines produce adverse drug reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of two natural extracts, namely ginger and marshmallow extracts, on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, and three treatment groups receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), and marshmallow (100 mg/kg). Treatments were given orally on a daily basis for 14 days prior to a single intra-peritoneal administration of indomethacin (20 mg/kg). Results: Indomethacin administration resulted in significant ulcerogenic effect evidenced by significant elevations in ulcer number, ulcer index, and blood superoxide dismutase activity accompanied by significant decreases in gastric mucosal nitric oxide and glutathione levels. In addition, elevations in gastric mucosal lipid peroxides and histamine content were observed. Alternatively, pretreatment with famotidine, ginger or marshmallow significantly corrected macroscopic and biochemical findings, supported microscopically by results of histopathological study. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that administration of either ginger or marshmallow extract could protect against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats presumably via their antioxidant properties and inhibition of histamine release. PMID:26283843

  11. Protective effect of linalool against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingyuan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Haiying

    2014-12-01

    Linalool, a natural compound of the essential oils, has been shown to have antinociceptive, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of linalool against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury in mice. Mice were administered with linalool 1h before receiving LPS (50 μg/kg) and GalN (800 mg/kg). The results demonstrated that linalool had a protective effect on LPS/GalN-induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by the attenuation of hepatic pathological damage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, MPO activity and serum ALT and AST levels. Linalool alleviated serum and hepatic TNF-α and IL-6 production, as well as hepatic iNOS and COX-2 expression by inhibiting NF-κB activation. Treatment of linalool increased bcl-2 expression and inhibited caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression. In addition, linalool increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression up-regulation by LPS/GalN. In conclusion, our results suggested that linalool was protected against LPS/GalN-induced liver injury through induction of antioxidant defense via Nrf2 activating and reduction inflammatory response via NF-κB inhibition.

  12. Protective Effects of Royal Jelly on Oxymetholone- Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Vahid; Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Babaei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was carried out to investigate the possible protective effects of royal jelly (RJ) on oxymetholone (OXM)-induced oxidative liver injuries in mice. Methods: In total, 32 adult male NMRI mice were divided into four groups of eight mice each. Mice in groups 1 and 2 were orally administered 5 mg/kg/day OXM for 30 days. At the same time, mice in group 3 received RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day. Saline control and RJ control groups were also included in this study. Results: Administration of 5 mg/kg OXM resulted in a significant decrease in total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity, as well as a significant increase in malondialdehyde (P<0.05). In addition, OXM-administrated mice showed a slight increase in liver enzymes, including alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Although OXM caused histopathological changes in the liver, RJ could significantly improve all of the above-mentioned parameters at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that RJ has a partially protective effect on OXM-induced liver toxicity in mice. PMID:27178489

  13. Is Coenzyme Q10 Effective in Protection against Ulcerative Colitis? An Experimental Study in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ewees, Mohamed Gamal; Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Abo-Saif, Ali Ahmed; Abd El-Latif, Hekma Abd El-Tawab

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) is a vitamin-like supplement which appears to be safe, with minimal side effects and low drug interaction potential. Co-Q10 is used in the treatment of a variety of disorders related primarily to suboptimal cellular energy metabolism and oxidative injury. Studies supporting the efficacy of Co-Q10 appear most promising for a variety of diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC). The present investigation aims to elucidate the possible protective effects of Co-Q10 against UC, as induced by the administration of iodoacetamide to adult male albino rats. In our study, Co-Q10 showed potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities through a significant increase in catalase activity and glutathione content. In addition, it significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde content and nitrate/nitrite production. These results suggest that Co-Q10 protects against UC in rats via anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials, and therefore seems promising for use in further clinical trials.

  14. Toward a mechanistic understanding of the effect of biochar addition on soil water retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Chang, N.; Guo, M.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich product produced by thermal degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment, whose application to sediment is said to improve water retention. However, BC produced from different feedstocks and pyrolyzed at different temperatures have distinct properties, which may alter water retention in ways difficult to predict a priori. Our goal is to develop a mechanistic understanding of BC addition on water retention by examining the impact of BC from two feedstocks, poultry litter (PL) and hardwood (HW), on the soil-water retention curves (SWRC) of a uniform sand and a sandy loam (SL). For experiments with sand, BC and sand were sieved to the same particle size (~ 0.547 mm) to minimize effects of BC addition on particle size distribution. Experiments with SL contained the same sieved BC. PL and HW bicohars were added at 2 and 7% (w/w), and water retention was measured from 0 to -4.38 × 106 cm-H2O. Both BCs increased porosities for sand and SL, up to 39 and 13% for sand and SL, respectively, with 7% HW BC addition. The primary cause for these increases was the internal porosity of BC particles. While the matric potential for air-entry was unchanged with BC addition, BC amendment increased water retention for sand and SL in the capillary region (0 to -15,000 cm-H2O) by an average of 26 and 33 % for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but only 7 and 14 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL. The most dramatic influence of BC amendment on water retention occurred in the adsorption region (< -15,000 cm-H2O), where water retention increased by a factor of 11 and 22 for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but by 140 and 190 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL, respectively. The impact of BC on water retention in these sediments is explained primarily by the additional surface area and internal porosity of PL and HW BC particles. van Genuchten (VG) models were fitted to the water retention data. For SL where the impact of BC addition on water retention was

  15. Additive effects of vertebrate predators on insects in a Puerto Rican coffee plantation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A variety of studies have established the value of shaded coffee plantations as habitat for birds. While the value of birds as biological controls in coffee has received some attention, the interactions between birds and other predators of insects have not been tested. We used exclosures to examine the effects of vertebrate predators on the arthropods associated with coffee, in particular the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera coffeella) and the flatid planthopper Petrusa epilepsis, in a shaded coffee plantation in Puerto Rico. We used a 2 x 2 factorial design with four treatments: exclusion of birds, lizards, birds and lizards, and control (no exclusion). Abundance of insects >5 mm increased when birds or both birds and lizards were removed. Birds and lizards had an additive effect for insects <5 mm and for all insects combined. Coffee leafminers showed a weak response to removal of predators while planthopper abundance increased significantly in the absence of avian predators. Arthropod predators and parasitoids did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings suggest that vertebrate insectivores have an additive effect on insects in coffee and may help control abundances of some coffee pests. Equally important, we present evidence suggesting that they do not interfere with other known natural enemies of coffee pests. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. The effect of the molecular weight of additive on the properties of antimisting fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hadermann, A.F.; Trippe, J.C.; Waters, P.F.

    1983-09-01

    Antimisting aircraft fuels, when ignited, do not produce the roaring fireball which often accompanies aircraft crashes. This result is attributable to the suppression of the aerosolization of the fuel by added macromolecules which alter the structure of the droplets of fuel emanating from rent fuel tanks after the crash. The first studies of the antimisting effect of macromolecules on aviation fuel were carried out in Great Britain in 1968. In that early work it was established that there was a qualitative relationship between the suppression of the atomization of the fuel and the molecular weight of the additive above a certain critical concentration; the latter being inverse to the molecular weight of the additive. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated a dependence of the antimisting effectiveness of polyisobutylene in diesel fuel on the viscosity average molecular weight to a power exceeding 2, and in jet-A fuel to the 2..cap alpha.. + 1 power, where ..cap alpha.. is the exponent in the Mark-Houwink equation. In their study Chao et al, were able to demonstrate a strong correlation between the extent of antimisting effectiveness and flammability reduction with the maximum ductless siphon height supported by the solution. They introduced the ductless siphon to the study of antimisting fuels as a measure of the elongational viscosity impaired by the macromolecules to the fuel.

  17. Effect of Crumb Rubber and Warm Mix Additives on Asphalt Aging, Rheological, and Failure Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prashant

    Asphalt-rubber mixtures have been shown to have useful properties with respect to distresses observed in asphalt concrete pavements. The most notable change in properties is a large increase in viscosity and improved low-temperature cracking resistance. Warm mix additives can lower production and compaction temperatures. Lower temperatures reduce harmful emissions and lower energy consumption, and thus provide environmental benefits and cut costs. In this study, the effects of crumb rubber modification on various asphalts such as California Valley, Boscan, Alaska North Slope, Laguna and Cold Lake were also studied. The materials used for warm mix modification were obtained from various commercial sources. The RAF binder was produced by Imperial Oil in their Nanticoke, Ontario, refinery on Lake Erie. A second commercial PG 52-34 (hereafter denoted as NER) was obtained/sampled during the construction of a northern Ontario MTO contract. Some regular tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) and some modified new protocols such as the extended BBR test (LS-308) and the Double-Edge Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) are used to study, the effect of warm mix and a host of other additives on rheological, aging and failure properties. A comparison in the properties of RAF and NER asphalts has also been made as RAF is good quality asphalt and NER is bad quality asphalt. From the studies the effect of additives on chemical and physical hardening tendencies was found to be significant. The asphalt samples tested in this study showed a range of tendencies for chemical and physical hardening.

  18. Cytotoxic Effects of Temozolomide and Radiation are Additive- and Schedule-Dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, Anthony J.; Ruff, Elliot M.; Martindale, Christine; Lovegrove, Nadia; Short, Susan C.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Despite aggressive therapy comprising radical radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains poor, particularly if tumors express O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT). The interactions between radiation and TMZ remain unclear and have important implications for scheduling and for developing strategies to improve outcomes. Methods and Materials: Factors determining the effects of combination therapy on clonogenic survival, cell-cycle checkpoint signaling and DNA repair were investigated in four human glioma cell lines (T98G, U373-MG, UVW, U87-MG). Results: Combining TMZ and radiation yielded additive cytotoxicity, but only when TMZ was delivered 72 h before radiation. Radiosensitization was not observed. TMZ induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest at 48-72 h, coincident with phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Additive G2/M arrest and Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation was only observed when TMZ preceded radiation by 72 h. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitor KU-55933 increased radiation sensitivity and delayed repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks, but did not influence TMZ effects. The multiple kinase inhibitor caffeine enhanced the cytotoxicity of chemoradiation and exacerbated DNA damage. Conclusions: TMZ is not a radiosensitizing agent but yields additive cytotoxicity in combination with radiation. Our data indicate that TMZ treatment should commence at least 3 days before radiation to achieve maximum benefit. Activation of G2/M checkpoint signaling by TMZ and radiation has a cytoprotective effect that can be overcome by dual inhibition of ATM and ATR. More specific inhibition of checkpoint signaling will be required to increase treatment efficacy without exacerbating toxicity.

  19. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages. PMID:26760939

  20. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles.

    PubMed

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives, the effect of various additives and steaming treatment on cooking quality, sensory attributes, textural properties and microstructure of noodles were studied. Dough prepared by addition of 40 ml water to 100 g flour resulted into formation of a soft dough, leading to production of noodles of improved surface smoothness and maximum yield. The use of additives (5 g oil, 0.2 g guar gum, 2 g gluten and 1 ml of 1 % kansui solution for 100 g of flour) and steaming treatment showed significant effect on noodles quality, with respect to cooking characteristics, sensory attributes and textural properties. The microstructure images justified the positive correlation between the effects of ingredients with steaming and quality parameters of noodles. Air dried noodles with reduced cooking loss (~50 % reduction) with marginal reduction in cooking time was developed, which were having similar characteristics to that of instant fried noodles. Compared to the instant fried noodle, the prepared air dried noodle was having substantially reduced fat content (~70 % reduction). Thus the present study will be useful for guiding extrusion processes for production of air dried noodles having less cooking time and low fat content. PMID:26604421