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Sample records for additives alternative additiver

  1. 29 CFR 1911.4 - Additional or alternative procedural requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional or alternative procedural requirements. 1911.4 Section 1911.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES OF PROCEDURE FOR PROMULGATING, MODIFYING, OR...

  2. 9. Photocopy of 1940 architectural drawing titled: 'Alternations & Additions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of 1940 architectural drawing titled: 'Alternations & Additions to (4290) Hosital, Sections' includes section and elevation views. Dated 4-12-40. HABS film is a high-contrast 8x10' negative made from original drawing in the collection of Housing and Engineering Services, Fort Lewis, WA. - Fort Lewis, Post Hospital, Near Ninth Division Drive & Idaho Avenue, DuPont, Pierce County, WA

  3. EKylation: Addition of an Alternating-Charge Peptide Stabilizes Proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Erik J; Sinclair, Andrew; Keefe, Andrew J; Nannenga, Brent L; Coyle, Brandon L; Baneyx, François; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2015-10-12

    For nearly 40 years, therapeutic proteins have been stabilized by chemical conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG), but recently zwitterionic materials have proved to be a more effective substitute. In this work, we demonstrate that genetic fusion of alternating-charge extensions consisting of anionic glutamic acid (E) and cationic lysine (K) is an effective strategy for protein stabilization. This bioinspired "EKylation" method not only confers the stabilizing benefits of poly(zwitterions) but also allows for rapid biosynthesis of target constructs. Poly(EK) peptides of different predetermined lengths were appended to the C-terminus of a native β-lactamase and its destabilized TEM-19 mutant. The EK-modified enzymes retained biological activity and exhibited increased stability to environmental stressors such as high temperature and high-salt solutions. This one-step strategy provides a broadly applicable alternative to synthetic polymer conjugation that is biocompatible and degradable. PMID:26407134

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ALTERNATIVES: MTBE AND ETHANOL ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the U.S. is considering options for additives to reformulated gasoline. To inform this debate the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is conducting a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of three gasoline alternatives. These alternatives include gasoline w...

  5. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... segment must meet the following additional design requirements. Records for alternative MAOP must...

  6. 40 CFR 26.1507 - Actions alternative or additional to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions alternative or additional to disqualification. 26.1507 Section 26.1507 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... judicial proceedings (civil or criminal) and any other appropriate regulatory action, in addition to or...

  7. 40 CFR 26.1507 - Actions alternative or additional to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions alternative or additional to disqualification. 26.1507 Section 26.1507 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... judicial proceedings (civil or criminal) and any other appropriate regulatory action, in addition to or...

  8. 21 CFR 56.124 - Actions alternative or additional to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Actions alternative or additional to disqualification. 56.124 Section 56.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time, through the Department of Justice institute...

  9. 21 CFR 56.124 - Actions alternative or additional to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Actions alternative or additional to disqualification. 56.124 Section 56.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time, through the Department of Justice institute...

  10. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... proceedings or actions authorized by the act. The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time,...

  11. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... proceedings or actions authorized by the act. The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time,...

  12. 21 CFR 56.124 - Actions alternative or additional to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Actions alternative or additional to disqualification. 56.124 Section 56.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time, through the Department of Justice institute...

  13. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... proceedings or actions authorized by the act. The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time,...

  14. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  15. Alternative selection of processing additives to enhance the lifetime of OPVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, J.; Waters, H.; Horie, M.; Smith, G. C.

    2016-03-01

    The use of processing additives is known to accelerate the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and therefore, this paper studies the impact of selecting alternative processing additives for PCPDTBT:PC71BM solar cells in order to improve the stability. The use of naphthalene-based processing additives has been undertaken, which is shown to reduce the initial power conversion efficiency by 23%-42%, primarily due to a decrease in the short-circuit current density, but also fill factor. However, the stability is greatly enhanced by using such additives, with the long term stability (T 50%) enhanced by a factor of four. The results show that there is a trade-off between initial performance and stability to consider when selecting the initial process additives. XPS studies have provided some insight into the decreased degradation and show that using 1-chloronaphthalene (ClN) leads to reduced morphology changes and reduced oxidation of the thiophene-ring within the PCPDTBT backbone.

  16. Stereo- and Temporally Controlled Coordination Polymerization Triggered by Alternating Addition of a Lewis Acid and Base.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Cui, Dongmei; Tang, Tao

    2016-09-19

    Significant progress has been made with regard to temporally controlled radical and ring-opening polymerizations, for example, by means of chemical reagents, light, and voltage, whereas quantitative switch coordination polymerization is still challenging. Herein, we report the temporally and stereocontrolled 3,4-polymerization of isoprene through allosterically regulating the active metal center by alternating addition of Lewis basic pyridine to "poison" the Lewis acidic active metal species through acid-base interactions and Lewis acidic Al(i) Bu3 to release the original active species through pyridine abstraction. This process is quick, quantitative, and can be repeated multiple times while maintaining high 3,4-selectivity. Moreover, this strategy is also effective for the switch copolymerization of isoprene and styrene with dual 3,4- and syndiotactic selectivity. Tuning the switch cycles and intervals enables the isolation of various copolymers with different distributions of 3,4-polyisoprene and syndiotactic polystyrene sequences. PMID:27539866

  17. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  18. Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom(®) Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy

  19. Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn–soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom® Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Clean, agile alternative binders, additives and plasticizers for propellant and explosive formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Hawkins, T.W.; Lindsay, G.A.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) a clean, agile manufacturing of explosives, propellants and pyrotechniques (CANPEP) effort set about to identify new approaches to materials and processes for producing propellants, explosives and pyrotechniques (PEP). The RDX based explosive PBXN-109 and gun propellant M-43 were identified as candidates for which waste minimization and recycling modifications might be implemented in a short time frame. The binders, additives and plasticizers subgroup identified cast non-curable thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) formulations as possible replacement candidates for these formulations. Paste extrudable explosives were also suggested as viable alternatives to PBXN-109. Commercial inert and energetic TPEs are reviewed. Biodegradable and hydrolyzable binders are discussed. The applicability of various types of explosive formulations are reviewed and some issues associated with implementation of recyclable formulations are identified. It is clear that some processing and weaponization modifications will need to be made if any of these approaches are to be implemented. The major advantages of formulations suggested here over PBXN-109 and M-43 is their reuse/recyclability. Formulations using TPE or Paste could by recovered from a generic bomb or propellant and reused if they met specification or easily reprocessed and sold to the mining industry.

  2. A study of alternative metal particle structures and mixtures for dental amalgams based on mercury additions.

    PubMed

    Marquez, J A; Murr, L E; Agüero, V

    2000-08-01

    The perception that mercury in dental amalgam is toxic to the human organism has prompted worldwide efforts by the scientific community to develop alternative amalgam-like materials that utilize little or no mercury. In this investigation, an attempt is made to develop a new dental alloy system by adding liquid mercury to silver-coated Ag4Sn intermetallic particles in lesser amounts than are used in conventional amalgam alloys. An effort to precipitate the important eta-prime (Cu6Sn5) phase was made by adding pure Cu and Sn powders to the alloy formulation during trituration. Tytin a popular Ag-Sn-Cu single-composition, spray-atomized conventional dental alloy was used as the control to obtain baseline data for comparisons of microstructures and mechanical properties. Amalgamation of the coated particles with mercury, with or without the addition of Cu and Sn powders, mostly produced specimens with chemically non-coherent microstructures that were relatively weak in compression. These results were due, in part, to mercury's inability to chemically wet the Ag-coated particles and Cu and Sn powders because of naturally occurring surface oxide films. The strongest specimens tested had silver dendritic coatings, resulting in compression strength values up to 40% of the control's. Their higher strength is attributed to mechanical interlocking at the particle/matrix interfaces.

  3. Facilitated solubilization of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by the cosolvent effect of oxygenated fuel additives and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.S.; Delfino, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Oxygenated and alternative fuels become popular because three different alternative fuel programs have been mandated in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments to minimize combustion-related pollution. The alternative fuels have brought increased interest in the transport and fate of miscible organic liquids in the subsurface and the effect that these liquids have on the transport and fate of other contaminants. The addition of polar organic solvents that are completely miscible or highly soluble in water to a mixture of hydrocarbons and water has the potential of showing the cosolvent effect. Therefore, the use of oxygenated and alternative fuels leads to cosolvency becoming an important issue. The objective of this research is to investigate the redistribution and facilitated transport of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from contaminated sediment caused by cosolvent effects due to potential oxygenated/alternative fuel spills. Specifically, the phase redistribution of HOCs in aqueous and sediment systems upon the addition of oxygenated and alternative fuels is investigated. This study is expected to provide the basis to predict fate parameters (i.e., dissolution, sorption) for the facilitated transport of HOCs due to cosolvent effects of oxygenated additives and alternative fuels. These fate parameters will allow further assessment of the environmental and health effects of spills and leaks of oxygenated and alternative fuels.

  4. 76 FR 20998 - Additional Allocations and Waivers Granted to and Alternative Requirements for 2010 Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... FR 69097), includes specific reporting, written procedures, monitoring, and internal audit... * * * In a Federal Register Notice published November 10, 2010 (75 FR 69097), the Department allocated $50... section ``Applicable Rules, Statutes, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements; Pre-Grant Process'' (75...

  5. 75 FR 65368 - Additional Waivers Granted to and Alternative Requirements for the State of Illinois' CDBG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...' CDBG Disaster Recovery Grant Under Public Law 110-329 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION... waivers and alternative requirements applicable to the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) disaster... the consequences of the State's 2008 disasters. HUD previously published allocation and...

  6. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... rulemaking (Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558). \\2\\ See Air Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558-0002. \\3\\ 73 FR 74350, December 8, 2008. \\4\\ 73 FR 74403, December 8, 2008. \\5\\ See Air Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558-0005. \\6\\ 74 FR 6233, February 6, 2009. EPA is proposing to allow ASTM D6550-05 (SFC) as an alternative...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1734-99 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program... the Administrator within 10 working days of making an addition of a vehicle to a certified engine family or a change in a vehicle previously covered by certification. The manufacturer shall also...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1734-99 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program... the Administrator within 10 working days of making an addition of a vehicle to a certified engine family or a change in a vehicle previously covered by certification. The manufacturer shall also...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1734-99 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program... the Administrator within 10 working days of making an addition of a vehicle to a certified engine family or a change in a vehicle previously covered by certification. The manufacturer shall also...

  10. 78 FR 46999 - Additional Waivers and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy Grantees in Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... impacted and distressed areas declared a major disaster due to Hurricane Sandy (see 78 FR 14329, published... notice published March 5, 2013 (78 FR 14329), the Department allocated $5.4 billion after analyzing the impacts of Hurricane Sandy and identifying unmet needs. A subsequent notice, providing additional...

  11. Valuation of OSA process and folic acid addition as excess sludge minimization alternatives applied in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Martins, C L; Velho, V F; Ramos, S R A; Pires, A S C D; Duarte, E C N F A; Costa, R H R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA)-process and the folic acid addition applied in the activated sludge process to reduce the excess sludge production. The study was monitored during two distinct periods: activated sludge system with OSA-process, and activated sludge system with folic acid addition. The observed sludge yields (Yobs) were 0.30 and 0.08 kgTSS kg(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), control phase and OSA-process (period 1); 0.33 and 0.18 kgTSS kg(-1) COD, control phase and folic acid addition (period 2). The Yobs decreased by 73 and 45% in phases with the OSA-process and folic acid addition, respectively, compared with the control phases. The sludge minimization alternatives result in a decrease in excess sludge production, without negatively affecting the performance of the effluent treatment. PMID:26901714

  12. Investigation in the use of plasma arc welding and alternative feedstock delivery method in additive manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhuzaim, Abdullah F.

    The work conducted for this thesis was to investigate the use of plasma arc welding (PAW) and steel shot as a means of additive manufacturing. A robotic PAW system and automatic shot feeder were used to manufacture linear walls approximately 100 mm long by 7 mm wide and 20 mm tall. The walls were built, layer-by-layer, on plain carbon steel substrate by adding individual 2.5 mm diameter plain carbon steel shot. Each layer was built, shot-by-shot, using a pulse of arc current to form a molten pool on the deposit into which each shot was deposited and melted. The deposition rate, a measure of productivity, was approximately 50 g/hour. Three walls were built using the same conditions except for the deposit preheat temperature prior to adding each new layer. The deposit preheat temperature was controlled by allowing the deposit to cool after each layer for an amount of time called the inter-layer wait time. The walls were sectioned and grain size and hardness distribution were measured as a function of wall height. The results indicated that, for all specimens, deposit grain size increased and hardness decreased as wall height increased. Furthermore, average grain size decreased and hardness increased as interlayer wait time increased. An analytical heat flow model was developed to study the influence of interlayer wait time on deposit temperature and therefore grain size and hardness. The results of the model indicated that as wall height increased, the rate of deposit heat removal by conduction to the substrate decreased leading to a higher preheat temperature after a fixed interlayer wait time causing grain size to increase as wall height increased. However, the model results also show that as wall height increased, the deposit surface area from which heat energy is lost via convection and radiation increased. The model also demonstrated that the use of a means of forced convection to rapidly remove heat from the deposit could be an effective way to boost

  13. Life without post-transcriptional addition of G−1: two alternatives for tRNAHis identity in Eukarya

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Bhalchandra S.

    2015-01-01

    The identity of tRNAHis is strongly associated with the presence of an additional 5′-guanosine residue (G−1) in all three domains of life. The critical nature of the G−1 residue is underscored by the fact that two entirely distinct mechanisms for its acquisition are observed, with cotranscriptional incorporation observed in Bacteria, while post-transcriptional addition of G−1 occurs in Eukarya. Here, through our investigation of eukaryotes that lack obvious homologs of the post-transcriptional G−1-addition enzyme Thg1, we identify alternative pathways to tRNAHis identity that controvert these well-established rules. We demonstrate that Trypanosoma brucei, like Acanthamoeba castellanii, lacks the G−1 identity element on tRNAHis and utilizes a noncanonical G−1-independent histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS). Purified HisRS enzymes from A. castellanii and T. brucei exhibit a mechanism of tRNAHis recognition that is distinct from canonical G−1-dependent synthetases. Moreover, noncanonical HisRS enzymes genetically complement the loss of THG1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrating the biological relevance of the G−1-independent aminoacylation activity. In contrast, in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is another Thg1-independent eukaryote, the G−1 residue is maintained, but here its acquisition is noncanonical. In this case, the G−1 is encoded and apparently retained after 5′ end processing, which has so far only been observed in Bacteria and organelles. Collectively, these observations unearth a widespread and previously unappreciated diversity in eukaryotic tRNAHis identity mechanisms. PMID:25505023

  14. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and MS2 coliphage: effects of additives and alternative container materials.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael B; Iriarte, Mercedes; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-04-15

    The use of alternative container materials and added oxidants accelerated the inactivation of MS2 coliphage and Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. bacteria during solar water disinfection (SODIS) trials. Specifically, bottles made from polypropylene copolymer (PPCO), a partially UVB-transparent plastic, resulted in three-log inactivation of these organisms in approximately half the time required for disinfection in bottles made from PET, polycarbonate, or Tritan(®), which absorb most UVB light. Furthermore, the addition of 125 mg/L sodium percarbonate in combination with either citric acid or copper plus ascorbate tended to accelerate inactivation by factors of 1.4-19. Finally, it was observed that the inactivation of E. coli and enterococci derived from local wastewater was far slower than the inactivation of laboratory-cultured E. coli and Enterococcus spp., while the inactivation of MS2 was slowest of all. These results highlight the importance of UVB in SODIS under certain conditions, and also the greater sunlight resistance of some viruses and of bacteria of fecal origin, as compared to the laboratory-cultured bacteria commonly used to model their inactivation. Furthermore, this study illustrates promising new avenues for accelerating the inactivation of bacteria and viruses by solar disinfection.

  15. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD. PMID:27043380

  16. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD.

  17. Urea as a long-term stable alternative to guanidium thiocyanate additive in dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2012-09-01

    Photovoltaic performance of 0.05 M urea-contained redox electrolyte is compared to that of 0.05 M guanidinium thiocyanate (GSCN)-contained one in dye-sensitized solar cell. No significant difference in the initial photovoltaic performance is observed, which means that the role of urea additive is similar to that of GSCN. Initial solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the device containing GSCN shows 7% that is diminished to 5.8% after 40 days, whereas the device containing urea exhibits stable photovoltaic performance showing that initial efficiency of 7.2% is almost remained unchanged after 40 days (7.1%). The lowered efficiency of the GSCN-contained device is mainly due to the decreased photocurrent density, which is ascribed to the formation of needle-shaped crystals on TiO2 layer. Infrared spectroscopic study confirms that the crystals are dye analogue, which is indicative of dye desorption in the presence of GSCN. On the other hand, no crystals are formed in the urea-contained electrolyte, which implies that dye desorption is negligible. Urea additive is thus found to be less reactive in dye desorption than GSCN, leading to long-term stability.

  18. A new natural hGH variant--17.5 kd--produced by alternative splicing. An additional consensus sequence which might play a role in branchpoint selection.

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, C M; Renard, A; Martial, J A

    1987-01-01

    From a human pituitary cDNA library, we have cloned 3 distinct human growth hormone (hGH) cDNAs, coding respectively for the 22 K hGH, the 20 K variant, and a yet unknown 17.5 K variant. S1 mapping analysis using human pituitary RNA confirms the existence of at least four distinct hGH mRNAs originating from alternative acceptor sites at the second intron of the primary transcript. We have analysed the hGH gene sequence to explain the high frequency of alternative splicings which occur only at this location. In this study we propose CTTGNNPyPyPy as an additional consensus sequence guiding the selection of the branched nucleotide. Images PMID:3627992

  19. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails.

    PubMed

    Manafi, M; Hedayati, M; Khalaji, S

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  20. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails

    PubMed Central

    Manafi, M.; Hedayati, M.; Khalaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  1. Evaluation of food additives as alternative or complementary chemicals to conventional fungicides for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit.

    PubMed

    Palou, Lluis; Smilanick, Joseph L; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate potential alternatives to conventional fungicides to control decay, more than 20 food additives and generally regarded as safe compounds were tested at three concentrations in in vivo primary screenings with several cultivars of California peaches, nectarines, and plums that had been artificially inoculated with seven major postharvest pathogens: Monilinia fructicola, Botrytis cinerea, Geotrichum candidum, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium expansum, Mucor piriformis, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Overall, the best compounds were 200 mM potassium sorbate (PS), 200 mM sodium benzoate (SB), 200 mM sodium sorbate, 100 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose, 400 mM sodium carbonate, and 250 mM potassium carbonate. Sodium and ammonium molybdates, acid lactic, and hydrogen peroxide were somewhat effective but were phytotoxic to fruit skin tissues. However, the best compounds lacked effectiveness and persistence when tested against brown rot in small-scale trials of 60-s dips in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures; PS and SB reduced brown rot incidence by less than 40%. Rinsing treated fruit with tap water reduced the efficacy of the compounds by up to 30%. In contrast, heating the solutions to 55 or 60 degrees C significantly increased treatment efficacy. Brown rot incidence and severity were reduced by 35 and 25%, respectively, on PS-treated peaches after 7 days of incubation at 20 degrees C. However, treatment efficacy was not superior to that with water alone at these temperatures. In semicommercial trials, mixtures of fludioxonil with PS, SB, or 2-deoxy-D-glucose applied as fruit coatings on a packing line were not synergistic in their effect on brown rot, gray mold, and sour rot.

  2. The long terminal repeat of an endogenous retrovirus induces alternative splicing and encodes an additional carboxy-terminal sequence in the human leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Kapitonov, V V; Jurka, J

    1999-02-01

    The evolution of mammalian protein structure and regulation, specifically transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, may include among its tools the use of abundant retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs). In particular, LTRs may be turned into switches for alternative splicing. This type of regulatory pathway is illustrated by the alternative splicing in the human leptin receptor (OBR). The human leptin receptor is involved in the control of important biological processes including energy expenditure, production of sex hormones, and activation of hemopoietic cells. OBRa and OBRb are the two major, alternatively spliced forms of the leptin receptor, called the "short form" and the "long form," respectively. We report that the OBRa short form is the result of a double splicing event which occurs within the LTR of the endogenous retrovirus HERV-K. Working as a switch of alternative splicing, this LTR also encodes the terminal 67 amino acid residues in OBRa. We suggest the possibility of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of OBR expression by steroids that bind the LTR.

  3. Use of the 2-μm cw laser as addition and/or alternative for the Nd:YAG in urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Lock, Tycho; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Klaessens, John

    2007-02-01

    Recently, 2 μm cw laser systems have been introduced for surgery. The 2 μm wavelength is predominantly absorbed by water and enables effective cutting and ablation of tissue similar to the cw CO II laser. In contrast to the CO II laser, the 2 μm wavelength is delivered through fiber optics and available for endoscopic procedures. After many years of experience with the 1.06 μm Nd:YAG laser, we started to use the 2 μm cw laser as alternative for various urological treatments. The treatments strategies and optimal settings were examined in the lab comparing the two 1.06 and 2 μm wavelengths performing thermal measurements. Consequently, the laser was applied for various urological cases. Penile tumors were resected with haemostatic effects and good aesthetic healing comparable with the Nd:YAG laser. Although the Nd:YAG has initially a deeper penetration, the blackening of the fiber during tissue cutting, provides a more superficial effect like the 2 μm laser. Bladder (pre)malignancies were ablated after biopsy. Only with higher stage tumors, coagulation depth of the Nd:YAG might be preferable for adequate treatment. Strictures in the urethra were incised and stents were effectively desobstructed: one patient with a stent implanted after a pelvic trauma, and one patient with catheterizable apedico stoma stenoses. The thermal damage during incision to deeper layers is minimal so recurrence due to scarring is not expected. Also hair grow in patients who underwent urethroplasty was effectively treated and scrotal atheromata cysts were effectively resected without recurrence. Laparoscopic nefrectomies are being considered using the 2 μm cw laser. The 2 μm cw laser has shown to be a versatile instrument for effective treatment of various urological indications. More patients and long term results are needed to prove the clinical significance compared to other treatment modalities

  4. Addition of fumaric acid and sodium benzoate as an alternative method to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Comes, Justin E; Beelman, Robert B

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preservative treatment capable of the Food and Drug Administration-mandated 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider. Unpreserved apple cider was treated with generally recognized as safe acidulants and preservatives before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 in test tubes and subjected to mild heat treatments (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) followed by refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). Fumaric acid had significant (P < 0.05) bactericidal effect when added to cider at 0.10% (wt/vol) and adjusted to pH 3.3, but citric and malic acid had no effect. Strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.96) between increasing undissociated fumaric acid concentrations and increasing log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider indicated the undissociated acid to be the bactericidal form. The treatment that achieved the 5-log reduction in three commercial ciders was the addition of fumaric acid (0.15%, wt/vol) and sodium benzoate (0.05%, wt/vol) followed by holding at 25 degrees C for 6 h before 24 h of refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Subsequent experiments revealed that the same preservatives added to cider in flasks resulted in a more than 5-log reduction in less than 5 and 2 h when held at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The treatment also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced total aerobic counts in commercial ciders to populations less than those of pasteurized and raw ciders from the same source (after 5 and 21 days of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C, respectively). Sensory evaluation of the same ciders revealed that consumers found the preservative-treated cider to be acceptable. PMID:11899046

  5. Biofunctionalized self-propelled micromotors as an alternative on-chip concentrating system† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supporting videos S1, S2 and S3. See DOI: 10.1039/c4lc00439f Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Pérez, Laura; Soler, Lluís; Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    Sample pre-concentration is crucial to achieve high sensitivity and low detection limits in lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we present a system in which self-propelled catalytic micromotors are biofunctionalized and trapped acting as an alternative concentrating mechanism. This system requires no external energy source, which facilitates integration and miniaturization. PMID:24935730

  6. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  7. Alternate Alternates: A Medley of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula J.; Olsen, Ken

    This paper highlights eight states that have implemented alternate assessments for children with disabilities who cannot participate in their state and district-wide assessment programs. The alternate assessment systems in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia are briefly described, along with their…

  8. Piston engine configuration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a technological assessment of alternate engine component configuration and material alternatives. It includes a comparative analysis of key characteristics of Gasoline, Diesel and Gas Turbine engines built by Daihatsu, Honda, Isuzu, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suburu, Suzuki and Toyota. The piston engines range from two to ten cylinders with inline, vee and opposed configurations. Furthermore, additional special features and alternative choices include variable compression ratio, ceramic structural components, supercharger, turbocharger, twin turbocharger, supercharger-turbocharger combined and the regenerative gas turbine.

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. Main-Chain and Side-Chain Sequence-Regulated Vinyl Copolymers by Iterative Atom Transfer Radical Additions and 1:1 or 2:1 Alternating Radical Copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takamasa; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami

    2016-01-27

    Main- and side-chain sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers were prepared by a combination of iterative atom transfer radical additions (ATRAs) of vinyl monomers for side-chain control and 1:1 or 2:1 alternating radical copolymerization of the obtained side-chain sequenced "oligomonomers" and vinyl comonomers for main-chain control. A complete set of sequence-regulated trimeric vinyl oligomers of styrene (S) and/or methyl acrylate (A) were first synthesized via iterative ATRAs of these monomers to a halide of monomeric S or A unit (X-S or X-A) under optimized conditions with appropriate ruthenium or copper catalysts, which were selected depending on the monomers and halides. The obtained halogen-capped oligomers were then converted into a series of maleimide (M)-ended oligomonomers with different monomer compositions and sequences (M-SSS, M-ASS, M-SAS, M-AAS, M-SSA, M-ASA, M-SAA, M-AAA) by a substitution reaction of the halide with furan-protected maleimide anion followed by deprotection of the furan units. These maleimide-ended oligomonomers were then radically copolymerized with styrene or limonene to enable the 1:1 or 2:1 monomer-sequence regulation in the main chain and finally result in the main- and side-chain sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers with high molecular weights in high yield. The properties of the sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers depended on not only the monomer compositions but also the monomer sequences. The solubility was highly affected by the outer monomer units in the side chains whereas the glass transition temperatures were primarily affected by the two successive monomer sequences. PMID:26761148

  11. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  12. Alternative strategies: a better alternative.

    PubMed

    Doody, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    Alternatives can be defined as being any financial asset other than traditional stocks and bonds. They include marketable alternatives, private capital, and equity real estate. There are two primary reasons for investing in alternatives: the potential for greater return and the opportunity to diversify a portfolio. Although alternatives were challenged in the highly volatile environment that existed in 2008 and early 2009, they generally lived up to expectations.

  13. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  14. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  15. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  16. Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    1998-01-01

    Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

  17. [Alternative medicine].

    PubMed

    Mitello, L

    2001-01-01

    In a critical situation of world official medicine, we can find different alternatives therapies: natural therapy traditional and complementary, survival sometimes, of antique stiles and conditions of life. New sciences presented for them empiricism to the margin of official science. Doctors and sorcerer do the best to defeat the horrible virus that contribute to build symbols categories of sick. The alternatives put dangerously in game the scientific myth of experiment and exhume, if they got lost, antique remedy, almost preserved like cultural wreck very efficient where the medicine is impotent. Besides alternatives and complementary therapies, that are remedies not recognized conventional from official medicine, there are the homeopathic, phytotherapy, pranotherapy, nutritional therapy, the ayurveda, the yoga, ecc. Italians and internationals research show a composite picture of persons that apply that therapies. Object of this work is to understand and know the way that sick lighten their sufferings and role that have o that can assume the nurses to assist this sick. PMID:12146072

  18. Cosmic alternatives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  19. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

  20. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  1. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  2. Evaluation of food additives as alternative or complementary chemicals to conventional fungicides for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among more than twenty food additives and GRAS (generally regarded as safe) compounds that were tested at three concentrations in in vivo primary screenings with several cultivars of California peaches, nectarines, and plums that had been artificially inoculated with seven major postharvest pathogen...

  3. Making room for alternatives.

    PubMed

    Edelberg, D

    1994-07-01

    Alternative healing is an idea whose time has come, and 1993 was the critical year for that recognition. So believes internist David Edelberg, founder of the Chicago Holistic Center. There patients can see one of four allopathic physicians as well as practitioners in 37 additional therapies, including acupuncture, infant massage, homeopathy, nutrition counseling, and Ayurvedic medicine. PMID:10136509

  4. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  5. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  6. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  7. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  8. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation.

  9. Alternate Realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Two identical learners, observing different example input, or the same examples, but in different order, can form different categories and so judge newer/later input differently. (Machine Learning, T. Mitchell, McGraw Hill, 1997 and Asa H., R. Jones, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol 109, # 3/4, pg 159, 2006) It seems certain that each of us experiences a somewhat different reality, the question is just how widely these realities can vary one from another. Perhaps 4% of people exhibit synesthesia, perceiving letters or numbers as colored, numbers and dates as having personalities or occupying locations in space. (Synesthesia, R. Cytowic, MIT Press, 2002) The Sapir- Whorf hypothesis claims that a speakers language influences his category structure and the way he thinks. (Language, thought, and reality, B. Whorf, MIT Press, 1956) Those who are skillful at mathematics may know an additional language and be able to think thoughts that the layman can not. The philosophers Plato and Descartes claimed to have had, at certain moments in their lives, a new view of the world, its basic constituents, and its rules which were totally different from our conventional view of reality. (Reflections on Kurt Godel, H. Wang, MIT Press, 1987, pg. 46) Fairly large scale differences are experienced by those who believe in (make use of) concepts like spirit(s), soul(s), god(s), life after death, platonism or Everett's many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics (The Physics of Immortality, F. Tipler, Doubleday, 1994, pg. 176) )

  10. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  11. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Ali E; Mayo, Nathanael K; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Robles, Raquel O; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yongsheng; Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-05-26

    Thermophones are highly promising for applications such as high-power SONAR arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets provide the most attractive performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large-size freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets and other even more exotic materials recently investigated hampers the field. We describe alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high-energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanostructured materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. We demonstrate that the heat capacity of aerogel-like nanostructures can be extracted by a thorough analysis of the sound pressure spectra. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high-power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  12. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  14. 21 CFR 640.120 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative procedures. 640.120 Section 640.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Alternative Procedures §...

  15. Assessment "Honest Alternatives".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Susan Glazer

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the challenge of finding or creating alternatives to tests and traditional grading systems. Reflects on and describes the experience of creating an assessment tool and cautions against choosing alternatives that merely camouflage the grades. Encourages educators to find authentic alternatives to describe children's growth. (BAC)

  16. Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies are increasingly used by many pregnant women in the United States; however, limited research is available on many therapies. The number of studies should increase with the establishment of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine by the National Institutes of Health. This column reviews recent studies of both herbal medicines and alternative therapies used in pregnancy. PMID:17273285

  17. Alternative Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Carol; Thomas, Kay

    This paper examines issues related to alternative teacher certification, discussing teacher certification in Texas and noting that most researchers agree that both traditional and alternative routes to teacher preparation need improvement. For over a decade, alternative certification has become increasingly available in Texas. This paper…

  18. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 7, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-11-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on recent additions to the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Station Locator database, biodiesel buying co-ops, and developing the CNG infrastructure in Bangladesh. Also a memo from CIVITAS 2003.

  19. Cyclic Polymer with Alternating Monomer Sequence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Zi; Zhao, Youliang; Zhang, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Cyclic polymers with alternating monomer sequence are synthesized for the first time based on the ring-closure strategy. Well-defined telechelic alternating polymers are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization by copolymerizing the electron acceptor monomer of N-benzylmaleimide and donor monomer of styrene with a feed ratio of 1 between them. The corresponding cyclic alternating polymers are then produced by the UV-induced Diels-Alder click reaction to ring-close the linear alternating polymer precursors under highly diluted reaction solution.

  20. Treatment alternatives for non-fuel-bearing hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Clark, L.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    This evaluation compared four alternatives for the treatment or processing of non-fuel bearing hardware (NFBH) to reduce its volume and prepare it for disposal. These treatment alternatives are: shredding; shredding and low pressure compaction; shredding and supercompaction; and melting. These alternatives are compared on the basis of system costs, waste form characteristics, and process considerations. The study recommends that melting and supercompaction alternatives be further considered and that additional testing be conducted for these two alternatives.

  1. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  2. Tricalcium aluminate hydration in additivated systems. A crystallographic study by SR-XRPD

    SciTech Connect

    Merlini, Marco Artioli, Gilberto; Cerulli, Tiziano; Cella, Fiorenza; Bravo, Anna

    2008-04-15

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction has been used to monitor the evolution of ettringite in C3A-gypsum synthetic mixture and in commercial cement systems during the first hours of the hydration process. The hydration of the paste was achieved using a remote controlled system, in order to collect data as soon as water is added to the system. The use of full-profile Rietveld method during the analysis of the diffractograms collected allowed us to monitor the evolution of phases weight fraction. The rigorous measurement of the lattice parameters and of the diffraction peak shape proved to be very useful to obtain information on the structural evolution of ettringite and on the mean grain size of the crystal phases. Depending on the admixture added to the system, the precipitation of well crystalline ettringite takes some hours. During this 'induction' period we observe a significant variation of a and c lattice parameter values for ettringite. In particular a increases from 11.8 A to 11.24 A, the value for pure ettringite. The c parameter decreases from 22 A to 21.48 A. The lattice parameter variation could be related to small crystallite size effect, but the large variation more likely reflects also crystallographic changes, such as defect re-organization during the nucleation and growth process or also changes in the SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O content in the ettringite channel. Not surprisingly the amount and the grain dimensions of crystalline ettringite are affected by the chemistry of the system. We observed the same evolution trend during ettringite formation also in shrinkage-compensating commercial cements (composed by mixture of Ca-Al cements, Portland cement and bassanite), in which ettringite is the main hydrous phase present.

  3. Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Jacobs, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    While nearly all states now have something on their books labeled "alternate route to certification," these programs defy standard definition due to their enormous variability. States differ in the types of candidates allowed to apply (e.g., career changers or recent college graduates) and in the academic backgrounds these individuals must…

  4. Alternative Solar Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  5. Alternative solar indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, L. J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  6. Alternate drop pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

  7. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  8. Diverse alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing landscape of circular RNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ou; Dong, Rui; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Lin; Luo, Zheng; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ling-Ling; Yang, Li

    2016-09-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) derived from back-spliced exons have been widely identified as being co-expressed with their linear counterparts. A single gene locus can produce multiple circRNAs through alternative back-splice site selection and/or alternative splice site selection; however, a detailed map of alternative back-splicing/splicing in circRNAs is lacking. Here, with the upgraded CIRCexplorer2 pipeline, we systematically annotated different types of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing events in circRNAs from various cell lines. Compared with their linear cognate RNAs, circRNAs exhibited distinct patterns of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing. Alternative back-splice site selection was correlated with the competition of putative RNA pairs across introns that bracket alternative back-splice sites. In addition, all four basic types of alternative splicing that have been identified in the (linear) mRNA process were found within circRNAs, and many exons were predominantly spliced in circRNAs. Unexpectedly, thousands of previously unannotated exons were detected in circRNAs from the examined cell lines. Although these novel exons had similar splice site strength, they were much less conserved than known exons in sequences. Finally, both alternative back-splicing and circRNA-predominant alternative splicing were highly diverse among the examined cell lines. All of the identified alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing in circRNAs are available in the CIRCpedia database (http://www.picb.ac.cn/rnomics/circpedia). Collectively, the annotation of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing in circRNAs provides a valuable resource for depicting the complexity of circRNA biogenesis and for studying the potential functions of circRNAs in different cells. PMID:27365365

  9. Diverse alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing landscape of circular RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Ou; Dong, Rui; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Lin; Luo, Zheng; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ling-Ling; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) derived from back-spliced exons have been widely identified as being co-expressed with their linear counterparts. A single gene locus can produce multiple circRNAs through alternative back-splice site selection and/or alternative splice site selection; however, a detailed map of alternative back-splicing/splicing in circRNAs is lacking. Here, with the upgraded CIRCexplorer2 pipeline, we systematically annotated different types of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing events in circRNAs from various cell lines. Compared with their linear cognate RNAs, circRNAs exhibited distinct patterns of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing. Alternative back-splice site selection was correlated with the competition of putative RNA pairs across introns that bracket alternative back-splice sites. In addition, all four basic types of alternative splicing that have been identified in the (linear) mRNA process were found within circRNAs, and many exons were predominantly spliced in circRNAs. Unexpectedly, thousands of previously unannotated exons were detected in circRNAs from the examined cell lines. Although these novel exons had similar splice site strength, they were much less conserved than known exons in sequences. Finally, both alternative back-splicing and circRNA-predominant alternative splicing were highly diverse among the examined cell lines. All of the identified alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing in circRNAs are available in the CIRCpedia database (http://www.picb.ac.cn/rnomics/circpedia). Collectively, the annotation of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing in circRNAs provides a valuable resource for depicting the complexity of circRNA biogenesis and for studying the potential functions of circRNAs in different cells. PMID:27365365

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. System Alternatives Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrait, James A.

    1977-01-01

    The Systems Alternatives Project is an attempt to develop open classroom alternatives within a modular scheduling system. Biology students are given both action and test objectives that emphasize individualization. Structure of the project is detailed and an attempt to analyze the project evaluation data statistically is included. (MA)

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  14. Alternative Schools, Mainstream Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jan; Conner, Evguenia

    2007-01-01

    Alternative education has its own history. Having emerged in the sixties as a response to the social crisis, its goal was primarily to fight increasing bureaucracy and the depersonalization of public education by giving students more freedom and minimal adult supervision. In the eighties, the understanding of "alternative education" narrowed to…

  15. Alternatives: Project Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brier, Norman

    Alternatives is a project designed for youngsters, ages 11-15, who display serious conduct problems and severe learning deficiencies. The primary goal of the project is to prevent the development of a chronic antisocial orientation among youngsters who are at high risk for such an outcome. The interventions employed at Alternatives are based on…

  16. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  17. Alternative Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Kerri L.

    2004-01-01

    Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and…

  18. 48 CFR 633.214-70 - Alternative dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... process in which a neutral and impartial third party assists the Government and the contractor in conflict..., evaluate performance, and promote cooperation. Additional information on alternative dispute resolution...

  19. Alternative fuel information: Alternative fuel vehicle outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Major automobile manufacturers continue to examine a variety of alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) options in an effort to provide vehicles that meet the fleet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The current generation of AFVs available to consumers is somewhat limited as the auto industry attempts to respond to the presently uncertain market. At the same time, however, the automobile industry must anticipate future demand and is therefore engaged in research, development, and production programs on a wide range of alternative fuels. The ultimate composition of the AFV fleet may be determined by state and local regulations which will have the effect of determining demand. Many state and regional groups may require vehicles to meet emission standards more stringent than those required by the federal government. Therefore, a significant impact on the market could occur if emission classifications begin serving as the benchmark for vehicles, rather than simply certifying a vehicle as capable of operating on an ``alternative`` to gasoline. Vehicles classified as Zero-Emissions, or even Inherently Low-Emissions, could most likely be met only by electricity or natural gas, thereby dictating that multi-fuel vehicles would be unable to participate in some clean air markets. In the near-term, the Clinton Administration desires to accelerate the use of alternative fuels as evidenced by an executive order directing the federal government to increase the rate of conversion of the federal fleet beyond that called for in EPACT. The Administration has expressed particular interest in using more compressed natural gas (CNG) as a motor fuel, which has resulted in the auto industry`s strong response of concentrating short-term efforts on CNG vehicles. For the 1994 model year, a number of CNG cars and trucks will be available from major automobile manufacturers.

  20. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  1. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  2. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  3. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  4. Alternative Splicing in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Zhu, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) occurs widely in plants and can provide the main source of transcriptome and proteome diversity in an organism. AS functions in a range of physiological processes, including plant disease resistance, but its biological roles and functional mechanisms remain poorly understood. Many plant disease resistance (R) genes undergo AS, and several R genes require alternatively spliced transcripts to produce R proteins that can specifically recognize pathogen invasion. In the finely-tuned process of R protein activation, the truncated isoforms generated by AS may participate in plant disease resistance either by suppressing the negative regulation of initiation of immunity, or by directly engaging in effector-triggered signaling. Although emerging research has shown the functional significance of AS in plant biotic stress responses, many aspects of this topic remain to be understood. Several interesting issues surrounding the AS of R genes, especially regarding its functional roles and regulation, will require innovative techniques and additional research to unravel. PMID:24918296

  5. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  6. 24 CFR 3282.14 - Alternative construction of manufactured homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 3282.14 Alternative construction of manufactured homes. (a) Policy. In order to promote the purposes of... submit a request for alternative construction of a manufactured home. The request should be sent to the U...) in which the homes are to be located, if known. (3) Alternative construction in additional models....

  7. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  8. Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Sandra M; Briscoe, Jessica; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex, chronic, multifactorial inflammatory disorder of the digestive tract. Standard therapies include immunosuppressive and biological treatments, but there is increasing interest in the potential benefit of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Given the high prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine among inflammatory bowel disease patients, gastroenterologists must remain knowledgeable regarding the risks and benefits of these treatment options. This article reviews the updated scientific data on the use of biologically based complementary and alternative therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  10. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  11. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  12. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  13. Evaluation of Expenditure Alternates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlein, Gary W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Illustrates a system of calculating dollar expenditures over periods of time in terms of present value. The system enables planners, school boards, and administrators to compare expenditure alternatives as a decisionmaking factor. (Author)

  14. GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

  15. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  16. Alternative and Complementary Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... always designed to treat a particular illness: Some alternative therapies treat the whole person, not an illness. They might restore harmony, balance, or normal energy flow. Acupuncturists, for example, use the pulse to ...

  17. SOLVENT WASTE REDUCTION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication contains edited versions of presentations on this subject made at five Technology Transfer seminars in 1988. Chapters are included on land disposal regulations and requirements; waste solvent disposal alternatives from various industries such as process equipment...

  18. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  19. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  20. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  1. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  2. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  3. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  4. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  5. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  6. Alternative models in developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-yul; Inselman, Amy L; Kanungo, Jyotshnabala; Hansen, Deborah K

    2012-02-01

    In light of various pressures, toxicologists have been searching for alternative methods for safety testing of chemicals. According to a recent policy in the European Union (Regulation, Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, REACH), it has been estimated that over the next twelve to fifteen years, approximately 30,000 chemicals may need to be tested for safety, and under current guidelines such testing would require the use of approximately 7.2 million laboratory animals [ Hofer et al. 2004 ]. It has also been estimated that over 80% of all animals used for safety testing under REACH legislation would be used for examining reproductive and developmental toxicity [Hofer et al., 2004]. In addition to REACH initiatives, it has been estimated that out of 5,000 to 10,000 new drug entities that a pharmaceutical company may start with, only one is finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration at a cost of over one billion dollars [ Garg et al. 2011 ]. A large portion of this cost is due to animal testing. Therefore, both the pharmaceutical and chemical industries are interested in using alternative models and in vitro tests for safety testing. This review will examine the current state of three alternative models - whole embryo culture (WEC), the mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST), and zebrafish. Each of these alternatives will be reviewed, and advantages and disadvantages of each model will be discussed. These models were chosen because they are the models most commonly used and would appear to have the greatest potential for future applications in developmental toxicity screening and testing.

  7. Testing Nested Additive, Multiplicative, and General Multitrait-Multimethod Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coenders, Germa; Saris, Willem E.

    2000-01-01

    Provides alternatives to the definitions of additive and multiplicative method effects in multitrait-multimethod data given by D. Campbell and E. O'Connell (1967). The alternative definitions can be formulated by means of constraints in the parameters of the correlated uniqueness model (H. Marsh, 1989). (SLD)

  8. Chromatin and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Alló, M; Schor, I E; Muñoz, M J; de la Mata, M; Agirre, E; Valcárcel, J; Eyras, E; Kornblihtt, A R

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing affects more than 90% of human genes. Coupling between transcription and splicing has become crucial in the complex network underlying alternative splicing regulation. Because chromatin is the real template for nuclear transcription, changes in its structure, but also in the "reading" and "writing" of the histone code, could modulate splicing choices. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting these ideas, from the first proposal of chromatin affecting alternative splicing, performed 20 years ago, to the latest findings including genome-wide evidence that nucleosomes are preferentially positioned in exons. We focus on two recent reports from our laboratories that add new evidence to this field. The first report shows that a physiological stimulus such as neuron depolarization promotes intragenic histone acetylation (H3K9ac) and chromatin relaxation, causing the skipping of exon 18 of the neural cell adhesion molecule gene. In the second report, we show how specific histone modifications can be created at targeted gene regions as a way to affect alternative splicing: Using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), we increased the levels of H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 in the proximity of alternative exon 33 of the human fibronectin gene, favoring its inclusion into mature messenger RNA (mRNA) through a mechanism that recalls RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing.

  9. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  10. Biodiesel: an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Manzanera, Maximino; Molina-Muñoz, Maria L; González-López, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and could be a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Most of the sources, methods and apparatus to produce biodiesel are reviewed here. Some of the patents propose the use of oils and fats of animal or vegetal origin and other kind of sources. Many others focus on the methods for the production or oxidation stability of the biofuel in order to make its production economically competitive. Several apparatus comprising reactors and refineries are also presented. This review article summarizes recent and important patents relating to the production of biodiesel to make its production a viable alternative.

  11. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  12. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  13. Solvent alternatives guide

    SciTech Connect

    Elion, J.M.; Monroe, K.R.; Hill, E.A.

    1996-06-01

    It is no longer legal to manufacture or import chlorofluorocarbon 113 or methyl chloroform solvents, and companies that currently clean their parts with either material are now required to implement environmentally safe substitutes. To help find alternative methods, Research Triangle Institute`s Surface Cleaning Technology Program has designed a Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), an online tool that enables access to practical information and recommendations for acceptable solvents. Developed in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency, SAGE is available free of charge on the Internet`s World Wide Web.

  14. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  17. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  18. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically. PMID:27659065

  19. Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

    Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

  20. PEAT: an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Schora, F. C.; Punwani, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    Even though peat is a low-heating value and low-bulk density fossil fuel which in its natural state contains over 80 percent moisture, it can be an economical alternative to coal, and fuel oil, as is the case in Iceland and Finland for direct combustion applications. This is because of the relative ease with which peat can be harvested, and the generally low sulfur and ash content of peat. Recent studies show that peat also has very favorable characteristics for conversion to synthetic fuels. Tests show that on the basis of chemistry and kinetics, peat is a better raw material than coal for production of synthetic fuels. Recent estimates also show that conversion of peat to high-Btu gas (>950 Btu/scf) is competitive with other alternatives of synthetic high-Btu gas. Therefore, peat can be an economical energy alternative depending upon location of peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation and cost of other energy alternatives.

  1. Alternative Energy Busing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  2. Publishing: Alternatives and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penchansky, Mimi; And Others

    The Library Association of the City University of New York presents an annotated bibliography on the subject of small and alternative publishing. In the first section directories, indexes, catalogs, and reviews are briefly described. Book distributors for small publishers are listed next. The major portion of the bibliography is a listing of books…

  3. Alternatives to Traditional Notation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaare, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Provides a introduction and overview to alternative music notation systems. Describes guitar tablature, accordion tablature, klavarskribo (a keyboard notational system developed by Cornelius Pot, a Dutch engineer), and the digital piano roll. Briefly discusses the history of notation reform and current efforts. Includes examples from scores. (MJP)

  4. Alternative Approaches to Negotiating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramming, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    The wait-and-react and laundry-list approaches to combating teachers' collective-bargaining demands are ineffective. An alternative goals-setting approach requires management and the district negotiations team to identify important needs and objectives. West Seneca Central School District ended contentious negotiations by presenting unions with…

  5. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  6. Finding alternatives to antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. The availability of new antibiotics has severely declined, and so alternatives to antibiotics need to be considered in both animal agriculture and human medicine. Products for disease prevention are different than products for d...

  7. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  8. Alternatives in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Bruce, Ed.

    These six lectures explore alternative approaches to education both within and outside the educational system. The contributions and their authors include: "Telling It Like It Ain't: An Examination of the Language of Education," by Neil Postman; "The Psychology of J. Piaget and Its Relevance to Education," by Vinh Bang (presented also in French);…

  9. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  10. Alternatives for Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBlois, Robert; Place, Patti

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about two alternative schools that have adapted to be a better fit for at-risk students than a comprehensive middle or high school might be. It is easy to suggest that an increase in the dropout rate is merely a natural result of the recent preoccupation with test scores. Whatever truth there may be to this, educators must still…

  11. Alternatives to Traditional Lecturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Alternatives to traditional, large-class lecturing are discussed. They include using canned lectures, demonstrations and lecture experiments, computer simulations, problem-solving strategies, breaks during lectures, and movies. Moving out of large classrooms to laboratories and resource rooms (or giving an examination) is also suggested. (JN)

  12. Compensated pulsed alternator

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.; Driga, Mircea D.; Woodson, Herbert H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

  13. Alternative Break Service Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Even as educators understand how their millennial students learn in such different ways than previous generations (watching how-to videos downloaded from YouTube or engaging in experiential learning adventures), colleges still rely heavily on in-the-classroom learning. The author can't offer an alternative to this classroom format, but she…

  14. Alternative Education Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

  15. The SOLAR Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)

  16. Alternatives to Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  17. Alternatives to Evolutionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses alternative theories to evolutionism. Five theories are mentioned, but most attention is given to the steady state theory of species which the author considers the most suitable partner for Darwinism in O- and A-level biology courses in the United Kingdom. (HM)

  18. Alternatives; A Filmography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert, Nadine, Comp.; And Others

    Over 120 films are listed which deal with alternatives in education, lifestyles, work, religion, crafts, and politics. Among topics covered are open classrooms, communes, changing family structures, day care, and racial problems. Each film is summarized; length, copyrights, date, producer, and distributor are listed. A brief bibliography, subject…

  19. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  20. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  1. Examination of Alternative Models of Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldag, Ramon J.; Brief, Arthur P.

    1978-01-01

    Researchers have generally assumed overall job satisfaction to be an additive function of weighted job satisfaction facet scores. This paper considers the linear compensatory model as well as two nonlinear alternatives. Available from: Ramon J. Aldag, University of Wisconsin, 1155 Observatory Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. (Author)

  2. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  3. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    PubMed

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  4. Alternative population futures.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    Alternative population scenarios to the year 2000 are presented and policy implications of the various scenarios are discussed. Population models are described. Projections are made based on different sets of assumptions regarding changes in birth, death, marriage and migration rates. A "high" series, "medium" series and "low" series of projections are made for total population. Projections are also made regarding urban and rural population, families and households, and the labor force.

  5. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gushee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  7. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  8. MANOVA versus alternative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah

    2014-12-01

    Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a powerful tool in analysing multivariate data of multi-factorial experiments. However one of the assumptions in MANOVA requires the data to be normally distributed. This study concerned with the violation of this assumption, particularly when the data are either moderately non-normal or extremely non-normal. Possible alternative methods of handling such data are (i) permutational MANOVA (PMANOVA) or (ii) analysis of distance (AoD). Both of these alternative methods were compared with MANOVA via Monte Carlo experiments using the power of tests. The experiments focussed on testing interaction effects by incorporating different data types (i.e. having multivariate normal distribution, moderately non-normal and extremely non-normal), three level of inter-variable correlations (low: 0.25, medium: 0.5 and high: 0.75), two designs (small: 3×3 and large: 7×7) and two sample sizes (2 and 5 replicates). Overall, the results revealed that irrespective of the data types and the level of inter-variable correlations MANOVA performed satisfactorily in situations having larger sample size (5 replicates). In these situations, no alternative method is necessary. However, in small design with high inter-variable correlations PMANOVA performed slightly better. In small samples (2 replicates), AoD outperformed both MANOVA and PMANOVA. This is especially true in situation having small sample (2 replicates), large design and highly correlated inter-variables.

  9. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Three additions to the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package: Alternative storage for the uppermost active cells, Flows in hydrogeologic units, and the Hydraulic-coductivity depth-dependence (KDEP) capability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary C.

    2003-01-01

    The Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package is an internal flow package for MODFLOW-2000 that allows the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology to be defined differently than the definition of model layers. Effective hydraulic properties for the model layers are calculated using the hydraulic properties of the hydrogeologic units. The HUF Package can be used instead of the Block-Centered Flow (BCF) or the Layer Property Flow (LPF) Packages. This report documents three additions to the HUF Package.

  10. Are there acceptable alternatives to amalgam?

    PubMed

    Mackert, J Rodway; Wahl, Michael J

    2004-07-01

    Amalgam has been the material of choice for restoring posterior teeth for more than 100 years. The past 25 years have witnessed significant advances in restorative materials themselves and in the bonding systems for retaining a restoration in the prepared tooth. As a result, there has been a shift toward resin composite materials during this same period because of concerns about the esthetics and biocompatibility of dental amalgam. In addition, other materials such as glass ionomer cements, ceramic inlays and onlays, and gold alloys have been used as alternatives to amalgam. This article will review recent studies on the longevity and biocompatibility of these alternatives to dental amalgam.

  11. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached.

  12. Potential alternate life biochemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

  13. THE ALTERNATIVE FOR SURVIVAL*

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The need of the time is to develop the traditional health care systems as a people oriented health care system. The factors that dominated the health care structure of our nation has been systematically pushing the traditional systems of medicine away from the people. In this background, an attempt has been made to reflect upon one's own experience, to understand the pattern of domination and to probe and suggest further on what could be the possible alternative development strategy and suggest specific tasks that would help define the development problematique in a meaningful manner in order to progress further in a self-determined manner PMID:22557469

  14. Alternate transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  15. When Should We Teach Regrouping in Addition and Subtraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Jon M.; Usnick, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Presented are the results of two pilot studies about multidigit addition and subtraction. The results are discussed in relation to possible alternative sequences in the teaching of addition and subtraction and the relationship between basic fact mastery and numeration concept attainment. (CW)

  16. Guide to alternative fuel vehicle incentives and laws: September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, C.; O'Connor, K.

    1998-12-22

    This guide provides information in support of the National Clean Cities Program, which will assist one in becoming better informed about the choices and options surrounding the use of alternative fuels and the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles. The information printed in this guide is current as of September 15, 1998. For recent additions or more up-to-date information, check the Alternative Fuels Data Center Web site at http://www.afdc.doe.gov

  17. 78 FR 48397 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Transportation (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    .... In addition, the proposed rule would include the full text of each provision and/or clause alternate... as well as each alternate. In addition, the proposed rule would include the full text of each... applicability of the provisions/ clauses or their alternates. The inclusion of the full text of each...

  18. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  19. Alternative Splicing in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Love, Julia E.; Hayden, Eric J.; Rohn, Troy T.

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases have a variety of different genes contributing to their underlying pathology. Unfortunately, for many of these diseases it is not clear how changes in gene expression affect pathology. Transcriptome analysis of neurodegenerative diseases using ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA Seq) and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) provides for a platform to allow investigators to determine the contribution of various genes to the disease phenotype. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) there are several candidate genes reported that may be associated with the underlying pathology and are, in addition, alternatively spliced. Thus, AD is an ideal disease to examine how alternative splicing may affect pathology. In this context, genes of particular interest to AD pathology include the amyloid precursor protein (APP), TAU, and apolipoprotein E (APOE). Here, we review the evidence of alternative splicing of these genes in normal and AD patients, and recent therapeutic approaches to control splicing. PMID:26942228

  20. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  1. Alternatives for Jet Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, R. J.; Sain, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Approaches are developed as alternatives to current design methods which rely heavily on linear quadratic and Riccati equation methods. The main alternatives are discussed in two broad categories, local multivariable frequency domain methods and global nonlinear optimal methods.

  2. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  3. Alternative Schools. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This article examines so-called "alternative schools," taking care to define precisely what is meant by this designation. There are many types of alternative education available to the public, including those programs intended for special-education students, advanced-placement students, and home-schooled children. The first alternative schools…

  4. Alternative calcination development status report

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  5. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  6. Alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

  7. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  8. Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Nakley, Leah M.; Yen, Chia H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn has invested over $1.5 million in engineering, and infrastructure upgrades to renovate an existing test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), which is now being used as an Alternative Fuels Laboratory. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and thermal stability testing. This effort is supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing project. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale F-T catalyst screening experiments. These experiments require the use of a synthesis gas feedstock, which will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics, product yields and hydrocarbon distributions. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor for catalyst activation studies. Product gas composition and performance data can be continuously obtained with an automated gas sampling system, which directly connects the reactors to a micro-gas chromatograph (micro GC). Liquid and molten product samples are collected intermittently and are analyzed by injecting as a diluted sample into designated gas chromatograph units. The test facility also has the capability of performing thermal stability experiments of alternative aviation fuels with the use of a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) (Ref. 1) in accordance to ASTM D 3241 "Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels" (JFTOT method) (Ref. 2). An Ellipsometer will be used to study fuel fouling thicknesses on heated tubes from the HLPS experiments. A detailed overview of the test facility systems and capabilities are described in this paper.

  9. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  10. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  11. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed.

  12. 76 FR 31513 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 extended coverage of the EPAct 92 to hydrogen fuel cell motor vehicles... Alternative Fuels Rule already covers hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, additional labeling requirements for them..., such as electricity, compressed natural gas, and hydrogen.\\5\\ The labels for electricity provide...

  13. Alternative Tsunami Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, A.; Lyatskaya, I.

    2009-01-01

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 "Eur. J. Phys." 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 "Eur. J. Phys." 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional,…

  14. Alternating phase focused linacs

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.

    1980-01-01

    A heavy particle linear accelerator employing rf fields for transverse and ongitudinal focusing as well as acceleration. Drift tube length and gap positions in a standing wave drift tube loaded structure are arranged so that particles are subject to acceleration and succession of focusing and defocusing forces which contain the beam without additional magnetic or electric focusing fields.

  15. Rhamnolipid surfactants: alternative substrates, new strategies.

    PubMed

    Benincasa, Maria; Marqués, AnaM; Pinazo, Aurora; Manresa, Angels

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on the various possibilities of using alternative substrates and new strategies. Such strategies include an integrated production system to reduce the environmental impact and an attempt to minimize residues, which reinforces socio-economic and region-structural development. Additionally, we offer an overview of the physicochemical and biological properties of rhamnolipid surfactants associated with the applications of these molecules in different circumstances.

  16. Embedding Sensors During Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sbriglia, Lexey Raylene

    2015-08-10

    This PowerPoint presentation had the following headings: Fused deposition modeling (FDM); Open source 3D printing; Objectives; Vibration analysis; Equipment; Design; Material choices; Failure causes, such as tension, bubbling; Potential solutions; Simulations; Embedding the sensors; LabView programming; Alternate data acquisition; Problem and proposed solution; and, Conclusions

  17. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  18. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival. PMID:3300300

  19. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  20. Alternative nuclear technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-10-01

    The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required and the times involved in developing each technology. The impact of the inevitable exhaustion of the low- or reasonable-cost uranium reserves in the United States on the desirability of completing the breeder reactor program, with its favorable long-term result on fission fuel supplies, is discussed. The long times projected to bring the most advanced alternative converter reactor technologies the heavy water reactor and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor into commercial deployment when compared to the time projected to bring the breeder reactor into equivalent status suggest that the country's best choice is to develop the breeder. The perceived diversion-proliferation problems with the uranium plutonium fuel cycle have workable solutions that can be developed which will enable the use of those materials at substantially reduced levels of diversion risk.

  1. A new quenching alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R.J.; Faulkner, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The quenching of ferrous alloys implies the controlled extraction of heat from a part at a rate sufficient to harden the part and still control the desired dimensional limitations. Quenchants in common use today are: molten metals, molten salts, petroleum oils, polymer solutions, water, and salt/water solutions. Each type of quenchant has its benefits and limitations. With current waste legislation and the trends toward environmentally friendlier industrial working fluids, many of these quenching products are coming under close scrutiny by the users and legislators. The most widely used quenchant is petroleum oil due to its favorable heat extraction characteristics. The dependence upon imports, price vulnerability, and contamination potential have caused suppliers and users to look into alternative products. Research into renewable resource, non-petroleum, vegetable oils has been going on globally for several years. The drawbacks encountered with many vegetable oils were widely known and only years of research enabled them to be overcome. The presently formulated product not only performs as well as petroleum oil but shows some characteristics better than those of the petroleum products, especially in the biodegradability and ecological aspects of the products. Stability and reproducible quenching properties have been proven with over two and one half years of field testing.

  2. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival.

  3. Detecting alternative graph clusterings.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network.

  4. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Sujay; Mikati, Mohamad A; Vigevano, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a very rare disease characterized by recurrent attacks of loss of muscular tone resulting in hypomobility of one side of the body. The etiology of the disease due to ATP1A3 gene mutations in the majority of patients. Few familial cases have been described. AHC has an onset in the first few months of life. Hemiplegic episodes are often accompanied by other paroxysmal manifestations, such as lateral eyes and head deviation toward the hemiplegic side and a very peculiar monocular nystagmus. As the attack progresses, hemiplegia can shift to the other side of the body. Sometimes the attack can provoke bilateral paralysis, and these patients may have severe clinical impairment, with difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Hemiplegic attacks may be triggered by different stimuli, like bath in warm water, motor activity, or emotion. The frequency of attacks is high, usually several in a month or in a week. The duration is variable from a few minutes to several hours or even days. Sleep can stop the attack. Movement disorders such as dystonia and abnormal movements are frequent. Cognitive delay of variable degree is a common feature. Epilepsy has been reported in 50% of the cases, but seizure onset is usually during the third or fourth year of life. Many drugs have been used in AHC with very few results. Flunarizine has the most supportive anecdotal evidence regarding efficacy. PMID:23622289

  5. Alternative Compression Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

  6. [Alternative oxidase in industrial fungi].

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Liu, Qiang; He, Hao; Li, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have been used in industrial fermentation extensively. Based on non-phosphorylating electron transport process, alternative respiration pathway (ARP) acts as an energy overflow, which can balance carbon metabolism and electron transport, allow the continuance of tricarboxylic acid cycle without the formation of ATP, and permit the turnover of carbon skeletons. Alternative respiration pathway also plays an important role in the stress response of fungi and the physiological function of conditioned pathogen. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase responsible for the activity of alternative respiration pathway, which exists widely in higher plants, parts of fungi and algae. Owing to the property that alternative oxidase (AOX) is sensitive to salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and insensitive to conventional inhibitors of cytochrome respiration, alternative respiration pathway by AOX is also named as cyanide-resistant respiration (CRR). In recent years, the study of the alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase has been a hot topic in the area involving cellular respiration metabolism. In this review we summarized the latest research advances about the functions of alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase in industrial fungi.

  7. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  8. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  9. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  10. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. PMID:16073407

  11. Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, B.D.; Barlett, P.; Basaran, A.; Colling, K.; Osis, I.; Smith, M.K.

    1986-11-01

    Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. In this laboratory, the authors have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats.

  12. Alternate capacitor dielectric film materials

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.C.

    1990-08-01

    New high-temperature, high-energy density, and high-radiation tolerant capacitor applications require the evaluation of alternate dielectric materials. Evaluation work was performed at GE Neutron Devices (GEND) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque. US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for capacitor function and environments are unique, and the representations included in this report do not constitute an endorsement of any material or manufacturer. This report presents data on polymeric dielectric films evaluated to support the design of new high-energy density capacitors. Materials which were evaluated include polycarbonate (two sources), polyphenylene sulfide, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyetherimide (three sources), polyimide (four sources), polyethersulfone, and polyetherether ketone. A polyester was evaluated as the control material since many prior designs utilized this dielectric. The film evaluations were based on dielectric constant and dissipation factor variation as a function of temperature ({minus}55{degree}C to 300{degree}C) as well as dielectric breakdown strength. Additionally, film/foil capacitors in a dry wrap-and-fill configuration were fabricated and tested to determine insulation resistance, breakdown voltage, and radiation hardness. Results are given for all evaluations. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  14. [Patch-testing methods: additional specialised or additional series].

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The tests in the European standard battery must occasionally be supplemented by specialised or additional batteries, particularly where the contact allergy is thought to be of occupational origin. These additional batteries cover all allergens associated with various professional activities (hairdressing, baking, dentistry, printing, etc.) and with different classes of materials and chemical products (glue, plastic, rubber...). These additional tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis such as cosmetics, shoes, plants, textiles and so on.

  15. Bacterial alternative nitrogen fixation systems.

    PubMed

    Joerger, R D; Bishop, P E

    1988-01-01

    The introduction briefly reviews some of the salient features of the well-characterized conventional molybdo-enzyme system for N2 fixation. This is followed by a brief account of the discovery of an alternative N2 fixation system that does not require molybdenum in the N2-fixing bacterum Azotobacter vinelandii. The next section cites observations from the early literature on N2 fixation suggesting may not always require molybdenum. Next, recent evidence for an alternative N2 fixation system in A. vinelandii is discussed. A brief description of our discovery of an alternative nitrogenase which is not a molybdenum or vanadium enzyme is presented, followed by a summary of recent papers describing an alternative vanadium-containing nitrogenase. Available information on the genetics and regulation of alternative N2 fixation systems is discussed. Finally, the possible/probable presence of alternative N2 fixation systems in bacteria other than Azotobacter species is covered.

  16. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  17. Helping Families Explore Parenthood Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Goodbody, Sandra Toll

    1979-01-01

    As many more couples are choosing childlessness as a lifestyle, physicians are more frequently being consulted about alternatives. Changing cultural values as well as changing attitudes to women have opened up these alternatives; the physician must ensure that he or she does not steer patients towards an alternative that may not be for them. Examples of six couples illustrate how childfree couples cope with the implications of their decision. PMID:21297712

  18. Alternative display and interaction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolas, M. T.; McDowall, I. E.; Mead, R. X.; Lorimer, E. R.; Hackbush, J. E.; Greuel, C.

    1995-01-01

    While virtual environment systems are typically thought to consist of a head mounted display and a flex-sensing glove, alternative peripheral devices are beginning to be developed in response to application requirements. Three such alternatives are discussed: fingertip sensing gloves, fixed stereoscopic viewers, and counterbalanced head mounted displays. A subset of commercial examples that highlight each alternative is presented as well as a brief discussion of interesting engineering and implementation issues.

  19. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  20. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  1. Business System Planning Project, Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-10-30

    The CHG Chief Information Officer (CIO) requested a study of alternatives to the current business system computing environment. This Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project Alternatives Analysis document presents an analysis of the current Project Controls, Work Management, and Business Management systems environment and alternative solutions that support the business functions. The project team has collected requirements and priorities from stakeholders in each business area and documented them in the BSP System Requirements Specification (SRS), RPP-6297. The alternatives analysis process identifies and measures possible solutions in each of the business process areas against the requirements as documented in the SRS. The team gathered input from both internal and external sources to identify and grade the possible solutions. This document captures the results of that activity and recommends a suite of software products. This study was to select the best product based on how well the product met the requirements, not to determine the platform or hardware environment that would be used. Additional analysis documentation can be found in BSP project files.

  2. Diabetes and alternative medicine: cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Gill, G V; Redmond, S; Garratt, F; Paisey, R

    1994-03-01

    'Alternative' medicines are becoming increasingly popular, and in this paper we describe our experience with alternative approaches to orthodox diabetes management. Four patients with insulin-dependent diabetes reduced or stopped their insulin in favour of therapeutic approaches including prayer, faith healing, unusual diets, and supplements of vitamins and trace elements. This resulted in ketoacidosis in three, in one case life-threatening; and weight loss and hyperglycaemia in the other. One patient developed serious retinopathy. Additionally, eight other types of alternative diabetic treatment are described, not as far as we know associated with such serious complications. These include homeopathy, reflexology, meditation, herbal treatment, 'cellular nutrition', 'subconscious healing', 'pearl therapy' (drinking milk in which pearls have been boiled) and 'astrotherapy' (typing pieces of coral around the arm). Diabetes is a chronic incurable disease, for which modern treatments remain somewhat unsatisfactory. It is therefore perhaps not surprising that some patients seek alternative treatments with more attractive claims. Diabetes health professionals need to be aware of the potential dangers associated with some of these treatments.

  3. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-07-01

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  4. Integrating alternative splicing detection into gene prediction

    PubMed Central

    Foissac, Sylvain; Schiex, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing (AS) is now considered as a major actor in transcriptome/proteome diversity and it cannot be neglected in the annotation process of a new genome. Despite considerable progresses in term of accuracy in computational gene prediction, the ability to reliably predict AS variants when there is local experimental evidence of it remains an open challenge for gene finders. Results We have used a new integrative approach that allows to incorporate AS detection into ab initio gene prediction. This method relies on the analysis of genomically aligned transcript sequences (ESTs and/or cDNAs), and has been implemented in the dynamic programming algorithm of the graph-based gene finder EuGÈNE. Given a genomic sequence and a set of aligned transcripts, this new version identifies the set of transcripts carrying evidence of alternative splicing events, and provides, in addition to the classical optimal gene prediction, alternative optimal predictions (among those which are consistent with the AS events detected). This allows for multiple annotations of a single gene in a way such that each predicted variant is supported by a transcript evidence (but not necessarily with a full-length coverage). Conclusions This automatic combination of experimental data analysis and ab initio gene finding offers an ideal integration of alternatively spliced gene prediction inside a single annotation pipeline. PMID:15705189

  5. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  6. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  7. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  8. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  9. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... expected penetration of the soil. (d) Initial strength testing (1) The pipeline segment must not have... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic...

  10. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... expected penetration of the soil. (d) Initial strength testing (1) The pipeline segment must not have... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic...

  11. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... expected penetration of the soil. (d) Initial strength testing (1) The pipeline segment must not have... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic...

  12. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... expected penetration of the soil. (d) Initial strength testing (1) The pipeline segment must not have... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic...

  13. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... expected penetration of the soil. (d) Initial strength testing (1) The pipeline segment must not have... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic...

  14. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Certification must address material properties such as chemistry, minimum yield strength and minimum wall...) of this section. (2) If research, testing and field monitoring tests demonstrate that the...

  15. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Certification must address material properties such as chemistry, minimum yield strength and minimum wall...) of this section. (2) If research, testing and field monitoring tests demonstrate that the...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1734-99 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., intercooler wastegate characteristics, and transmission or torque converter specifications. The manufacturer is required to update and submit to the Administrator the “supplemental data sheet” for all...

  17. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... formula) or 0.43 percent by weight, as calculated by the International Institute of Welding (IIW) formula... include (i) and either (ii) or (iii): (i) An ultrasonic test of the ends and at least 35 percent of the... from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line per day; and (ii) For each sample cross section,...

  18. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... formula) or 0.43 percent by weight, as calculated by the International Institute of Welding (IIW) formula... include (i) and either (ii) or (iii): (i) An ultrasonic test of the ends and at least 35 percent of the... from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line per day; and (ii) For each sample cross section,...

  19. 75 FR 26165 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Defense Requirements for Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel and Gasoline Benzene Technical Amendment AGENCY... gasoline benzene regulations to allow disqualified small refiners the same opportunity to generate gasoline benzene credits as that afforded to non-small refiners. DATES: Comments: Comments must be received on...

  20. 75 FR 26121 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review Under Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR... implications, as specified in Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000). This rule applies to... Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks EPA interprets EO 13045 (62 FR 19885, April...

  1. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  2. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... correlation would be consistent with that specific facility's olefin content range. \\1\\ 76 FR 5319, January 31... rule is not a ``significant regulatory action'' under the terms of Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR... 13132: Federalism Executive Order 13132, entitled ``Federalism'' (64 FR 43255, August 10,...

  3. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  4. Alternator-driven, magnetically switched modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihara, R.; Kirbie, H. C.

    The technique of magnetically switching high-power pulses was recently revitalized with the development of amorphous magnetic alloys and the new power conditioning requirements of pulsed lasers and high-brightness particle accelerators. The most common magnetic switching technique for generating high-repetition-rate pulses consists of a dc power supply, a triggered switch (thyratron or solid-state), and a repeated network of magnetic switches and capacitors. The life of this type of pulser is limited by the aging of liquid and solid dielectric materials and by the reliability of the triggered switch. An alternator-driven, magnetically switched modulator differs from the conventional magnetic modulator in the replacement of the dc power supply and triggered switch with a high-frequency motor-generator set and an all-magnetic circuit. The power conditioning network converts each cycle of the applied ac power into a single, compressed, unipolar pulse. Consequently, the modulator produces a train of pulses with an interpulse separation equal to the period of the alternator. Additional compression can be attained by the addition of successive stages of magnetic switching. The absence of active switches within the network improves the system reliability and extends the service life of the modulator to the limits of component insulation fatigue and alternator bearing wear. This style of magnetic pulse compression was first described by Melville and reproduced at LLNL in order to quantify the network efficiency, jitter and reliability when modern magnetic materials are employed.

  5. Alternate film dielectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.C. . Neutron Devices Dept.); Harris, J.O.; Martinez, J.I. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents data on polymeric dielectric films evaluated to support the design of high-energy-density capacitors. Evaluated materials include polycarbonate (two sources), polyphenylene sulfide, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyethermide (three sources), polyimide (four sources), polyethersulfone, and polyetherether ketone. A polyester was evaluated as the control material since many of our prior designs utilized this dielectric. The film evaluations were based on dielectric constant and dissipation factor variation as a function of temperature from {minus}55{degree}C to 300{degree}C, as well as dielectric breakdown strength. Additionally, film/foil capacitors in a dry, wrap-and-fill configuration were fabricated and tested to determine insulation resistance, breakdown voltage, and radiation hardness. Results will be presented for all the evaluations based on the several criteria. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Acceptability of Alternatives to Traditional Emergency Care: Patient Characteristics, Alternate Transport Modes, and Alternate Destinations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Shah, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    To determine the acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care, we assessed the proportion of subjects willing to consider alternative modes of transportation and alternative destinations. We further identified patient characteristics associated with willingness to consider these alternatives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study in the emergency department (ED) of an academic medical center. Research assistants screened all non-critically ill ED patients for eligibility and willingness to participate and administered an interview-based survey that included questions on demographic and clinical characteristics, perceived illness severity, and acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care for acute illness and injuries. We calculated the proportions and 95% confidence intervals for subjects who found alternative transport modes and destinations acceptable and developed a log-binomial regression model to identify patient characteristics associated with acceptability of alternative modes of transport and alternative destinations. Complete data were available on 1,058 subjects. Forty-two percent of the study sample arrived to the ED via emergency medical services (EMS). Over two-thirds of the study sample (68.2%) was willing to consider transport via either taxi or medical transport van and 69.0% was willing to consider either transportation to an urgent care center or their primary care physician's office. Other alternatives, including delayed EMS response time, were less frequently endorsed as acceptable alternatives. Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative modes of transportation included younger age, chief complaint, previous ED use, and place of residence (p < 0.05). Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative destinations included younger age, non-white race, lower patient acuity, and lower self-perceived illness severity (p < 0.05). In our ED, some patients found

  7. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  8. Alternate Semester 1972. An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Barry D.; And Others

    Five students from a Boston high school and 35 from Lincoln-Sudbury took part in an alternate semester consisting of 5 units: Outward Bound, environmental issues, urban, rural, and river/building. Students had to be juniors or seniors, have parental permission, and meet graduation requirements. The alternate semester began with Outward Bound, a…

  9. An Alternative in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rick L.

    1996-01-01

    To meet increased technical demands, alternative engineering and technical degree programs are needed, such as four-year programs in engineering technology. A technical college and university in Florence, SC, are collaborating on such a 1+2+1 alternative degree program. (SK)

  10. The Alternative Press in Microform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Daniel C.

    Presented is an analysis of what has been done regarding the preservation of alternative publications in microfilm. The alternative press was defined, for the purposes of this study, as "nonstandard, nonestablishment publications." Two projects undertaken to microfilm such publications, one by the Microphoto Division of Bell and Howell and the…

  11. Curricular Implications of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane; Flowers, Claudia; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Karvonen, Meagan; Spooner, Fred; Algozzine, Robert

    The 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) required that states provide alternate assessments for students unable to participate in the statewide assessment systems (e.g., those with severe disabilities). IDEA mandated that alternate assessments access the general curriculum. This study examined the curricular…

  12. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  13. How did alternative splicing evolve?

    PubMed

    Ast, Gil

    2004-10-01

    Alternative splicing creates transcriptome diversification, possibly leading to speciation. A large fraction of the protein-coding genes of multicellular organisms are alternatively spliced, although no regulated splicing has been detected in unicellular eukaryotes such as yeasts. A comparative analysis of unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic 5' splice sites has revealed important differences - the plasticity of the 5' splice sites of multicellular eukaryotes means that these sites can be used in both constitutive and alternative splicing, and for the regulation of the inclusion/skipping ratio in alternative splicing. So, alternative splicing might have originated as a result of relaxation of the 5' splice site recognition in organisms that originally could support only constitutive splicing. PMID:15510168

  14. Our favourite alternative splice site.

    PubMed

    Lerivray, Hubert; Méreau, Agnès; Osborne, H Beverley

    2006-05-01

    Alternative splicing is a widespread mechanism in mammals that generates several mRNAs from one gene, thereby creating genetic diversity of the genome. Variant splice patterns are often specific to different stages of development or particular tissues, and alternative splicing defects are being more frequently detected in genetic diseases and cancers. The increasingly important role of alternative splicing in the function and the regulation of cellular process makes it critical to have an easy-to-use data repository for the biological and medical research communities. We have compared web resources that give access to information on alternatively spliced genes, and the FAST DB (Friendly Alternative Splicing and Transcripts DataBase) site came out as our favourite.

  15. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  16. Denitrification with carbon addition--kinetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Dold, P; Takács, I; Mokhayeri, Y; Nichols, A; Hinojosa, J; Riffat, R; Bott, C; Bailey, W; Murthy, S

    2008-05-01

    The Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (Washington, D.C.) uses methanol as an external carbon source in a postdenitrification process, to achieve low effluent total nitrogen concentrations. This becomes more difficult in winter, at lower mixed liquor temperatures and higher flows, as a consequence of the kinetic behavior of the methanol-utilizing heterotrophs. The paper reports on an experimental batch test study conducted on Blue Plains postdenitrification sludge to investigate (1) the maximum specific growth rate of methanol-utilizing heterotrophs (Mu(METH)); (2) the temperature dependency of the growth rate; and (3) the efficacy of alternate substrates (ethanol, acetate, and sugar). A limited number of tests were conducted on sludge from two other treatment plants with methanol addition. PMID:18605381

  17. 48 CFR 235.072 - Additional contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....072 Additional contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.235-7002, Animal Welfare, or one... involving research on live vertebrate animals. (b) Use the basic or the alternate of the clause at 252.235..., testing, or operating a device requiring a frequency authorization. (1) Use the basic clause if...

  18. Water alternating gas injection maximizes recoverable reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Opdal, S.T.

    1995-10-01

    In the North Sea, water alternating gas injection (WAG) can be an alternative to water flooding. The Gullfaks field is located in Block 34/10 in the Norwegian North Sea. Different methods have been investigated to improve the recovery from Gullfaks, including polymers, surfactants, WAG, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal wells. Several of these methods have been laboratory and field tested. Both horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing are used on a regular basis. In addition, an area in the Lower Brent Formation was selected in 1991 as a pilot for the WAG method. WAG was initially proposed for gas-flooded fields as a method of controlling gas fingering and improving vertical sweep, particularly for miscible CO{sub 2} displacements. Effective at improving immiscible gas injection, WAG can also be beneficiary to fields that are being water flooded. This paper reviews the design problems associated with the WAG operation. It discusses the performance and sweep efficiency which resulted from the WAG.

  19. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

  20. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  1. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  2. 78 FR 48407 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Quality Assurance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... addition, the proposed rule would include the full text of each provision and/or clause alternate. DATES... of the full text of each clause alternate aims to make the terms of a clause alternate clearer to... paragraphs from the basic provision or clause. This proposed rule would include the full text of each...

  3. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  4. Teebi hypertelorism syndrome: additional cases.

    PubMed

    Machado-Paula, Ligiane Alves; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine

    2003-03-01

    We report on two unrelated Brazilian boys who have craniofacial and digital anomalies resembling those reported with Teebi hypertelorism syndrome. Additional features such as cleft lip and palate, large uvula, atypical chin and abnormal scapulae were observed.

  5. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  6. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  7. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Free Piston Linear Alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Janson Wu; Nicholas Paradiso; Peter Van Blarigan; Scott Goldsborough

    1998-11-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) free piston powered linear alternator has been conducted to determine if improvements can be made in the thermal and conversion efficiencies of modern electrical generator systems. Performance of a free piston engine was investigated using a rapid compression expansion machine and a full cycle thermodynamic model. Linear alternator performance was investigated with a computer model. In addition linear alternator testing and permanent magnet characterization hardware were developed. The development of the two-stroke cycle scavenging process has begun.

  8. Alternative medicine among college students.

    PubMed

    Gaedeke, R M; Tootelian, D H; Holst, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of "alternative" medicine has become increasingly popular in the United States. Books devoted to alternative medicine, e.g., Spontaneous Healing and 8 Weeks to Optimum Health, have become best sellers. Nevertheless, relatively few research studies have focused on the subject. This study examined the role of alternative medicine among college students. Issues addressed included students' familiarity with, use of, and perceptions regarding unconventional health therapies. The study substantiated a phenomenon health care providers across the country are discovering: a growing number of Americans with interest and financial resources support the development of "mainstream" alternative medicine programs. Results of the study also suggest that well-respected traditional health care organizations would not suffer reputation damage if they were to offer such programs.

  9. Alternative splicing and muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Pistoni, Mariaelena; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is a major contributor to proteomic diversity and to the control of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this reasons, alternative splicing is tightly regulated in different tissues and developmental stages and its disruption can lead to a wide range of human disorders. The aim of this review is to focus on the relevance of alternative splicing for muscle function and muscle disease. We begin by giving a brief overview of alternative splicing, muscle-specific gene expression and muscular dystrophy. Next, to illustrate these concepts we focus on two muscular dystrophy, myotonic muscular dystrophy and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, both associated to disruption of splicing regulation in muscle. PMID:20603608

  10. Peat as an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.

    1980-07-01

    The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

  11. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  12. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition.

    PubMed

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set.

  13. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  14. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition

    PubMed Central

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set. PMID:26844210

  15. Alternative bisphosphonate targets and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Jack F; Dascher, Christopher C; Das, Hiranmoy

    2005-03-18

    As the number of bisphosphonates continues to increase, they have found widespread use in an increasing number of clinical conditions. Ongoing examination of their targets and mechanisms of action has revealed that this surprisingly diverse class of drugs has effects beyond those first described for osteoclasts. These additional targets include osteoblasts, osteocytes, angiogenesis, and gammadelta T lymphocytes of the human immune system. The immune system effects are specifically targeted to gammadelta T cells and are reminiscent of the effects seen after ingestion of tea beverage. BP effects on such alternate targets may explain not only their antiresorptive effect, but also their effect on bone quality, tumors, and microbes.

  16. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

  17. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  19. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    PubMed

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  1. Postmarketing surveillance of food additives.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N

    1994-08-01

    Postmarketing surveillance of consumption and of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects has been recognized by a number of regulatory authorities as a potentially useful method to provide further assurance of the safety of new food additives. Surveillance of consumption is used to estimate more reliably actual consumption levels relative to the acceptable daily intake of a food additive. Surveillance of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects is used to determine the presence of infrequent idiosyncratic responses that may not be predictable from premarket evaluations. The high-intensity sweetner, aspartame, is a food additive that has been the subject of extensive evaluation during the postmarketing period and is thus used as an example to discuss postmarketing surveillance.

  2. Ethical exploration of the least restrictive alternative.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Yuan

    2003-06-01

    Although there have been critiques about the application of the "least restrictive alternative" to mental health policies in the past three decades, no critical analysis of the ethical logic of this principle has been put forward. The author explores three main ethical theories-liberalism, utilitarianism, and communitarianism-and explains how liberalism and subjective utilitarianism, which evidently uphold the least restrictive alternative in the name of individual rights and preference for liberty, effectively disenfranchise patients and members of their family. Contrarily, objective utilitarianism, with its highlight on cost-effectiveness analysis, would actually lay solid ground for mental health policies that attend not simply to ideological belief but rather to the question of which treatments can most cost-effectively meet the complex needs of patients. In addition, under communitarianism the evidence derived from cost-effectiveness analysis can be used to reinterpret the traditional value in mental health policies and thereby lead to the policy in favor of the most cost-effective alternative.

  3. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  4. Lubricating additive for drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Brois, S. J.; Brownawell, D. W.; Walker, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a minor amount of an additive composition featuring oxazolines of C/sub 1/-C/sub 30/ alkylthioglycolic acid. Such fluids are especially useful where reduced torque drilling fluids are needed. Another embodiment of this invention relates to a method of drilling utilizing the above-described fluids.

  5. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  6. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  7. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  8. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; et al

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  9. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  10. Additional Financial Resources for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Ben C.

    This paper discusses the continuing need for additional educational funds and suggests that the only way to gain these funds is through concerted and persistent political efforts by supporters of education at both the federal and state levels. The author first points out that for many reasons declining enrollment may not decrease operating costs…

  11. The Alternative Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Moore, Royce D.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2000-01-01

    A 106 bladed fan with a design takeoff tip speed of 1100 ft/sec was hypothesized as reducing perceived noise because of the shift of the blade passing harmonics to frequencies beyond the perceived noise rating range. A 22 in. model of this Alternative Low Noise Fan, ALNF, was tested in the NASA Glenn 9x 15 Wind Tunnel. 'Me fan was tested with a 7 vane long chord stator assembly and a 70 vane conventional stator assembly in both hard and acoustically treated configurations. In addition a partially treated 7 vane configuration was tested wherein the acoustic material between the 7 long chord stators was made inactive. The noise data from the 106 bladed fan with 7 long chord stators in a hard configuration was shown to be around 4 EPNdB quieter than a low tip speed Allison fan at takeoff and around 5 EPNdB quieter at approach. Although the tone noise behaved as hypothesized, the majority of this noise reduction was from reduced broadband noise related to the large number of rotor blades. This 106 bladed ALNF is a research fan designed to push the technology limits and as such is probably not a practical device with present materials technology. However, a low tip speed fan with around 50 blades would be a practical device and calculations indicate that it could be 2 to 3 EPNdB quieter at takeoff and 3 to 4 EPNdB quieter at approach than the Allison fan. 7 vane data compared with 70 vane data indicated that the tone noise was controlled by rotor wake-stator interaction but that the broadband noise is probably controlled by the interaction of the rotor with incoming flows. A possible multiple pure tone noise reduction technique for a fan/acoustic treatment system was identified. The data from the fully treated configuration showed significant noise reductions over a large frequency range thereby providing a real tribute to this bulk absorber treatment design. The tone noise data with the partially treated 7 vane configuration indicated that acoustic material in the

  12. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  13. Community assembly: alternative stable states or alternative transient states?

    PubMed Central

    Fukami, Tadashi; Nakajima, Mifuyu

    2011-01-01

    The concept of alternative stable states has long been a dominant framework for studying the influence of historical contingency in community assembly. This concept focuses on stable states, yet many real communities are kept in a transient state by disturbance, and the utility of predictions for stable states in explaining transient states remains unclear. Using a simple model of plant community assembly, we show that the conditions under which historical contingency affects community assembly can differ greatly for stable versus transient states. Differences arise because the contribution of such factors as mortality rate, environmental heterogeneity and plant-soil feedback to historical contingency changes as community assembly proceeds. We also show that transient states can last for a long time relative to immigration rate and generation time. These results argue for a conceptual shift of focus from alternative stable states to alternative transient states for understanding historical contingency in community assembly. PMID:21790934

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  16. The B2 aluminides as alternative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of the B2 aluminides as structural material alternatives for the strategic element containing superalloys currently used in gas turbine engines is being explored with emphasis on the equiatomic Fe and Ni aluminides. Although Co is a strategic material, the equiatomic Co aluminide is also being studied to gain a more complete understanding of these fourth period intermetallics. Research focuses on initial processing techniques such as ingot melting, power metallurgy, and rapid solidification with and without additional thermomechanical processing; high temperature deformation - primarily compressive creep; compositional effects within the binary B2 aluminides; third-element alloying addition effects on high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, and near room temperature ductility as influenced by processing, alloying, and grain size. Various programs now underway are reviewed and some highlights of research results are presented.

  17. Alternative fuels for maritime use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to review the potential fuels which may be available to the marine industry from the present to the year 2000 and to define the economic, technical, and environmental/social impacts of these alternative fuels on marine power plants. Thus, this study is aimed at the fuels/prime mover combination. This study should help to guide the industry in choosing the proper power plant for the future - recognizing that a new power plant installed in 1980 will still be in service in the 21st century. The importance of the marine transportation industry and the need to consider alternate fuels are examined. An overview of potential alternate fuels for marine applications is presented, and power plant/fuel interaction is discussed. An in-depth discussion is presented on the impact of the most likely alternate fuels from the viewpoint of maintenance, retrofit capability, safety, and air-quality impacts. Two nonfossil-fuel alternatives sailing ships and nuclear-powered vessels, are discussed. It is concluded that: there is a high probability of using synfuels from tar sands shale, or coal liquids in both existing and future ships; coal and coal/oil slurries have a high probability of use in future ships and medium probability in existing ships; nuclear and sail-power future ships have a medium probability of commercial development; and is a low probability of commercial maritime use of alcohol fuels, methane, or coal/methanol combinations. (LCL)

  18. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  19. Additive-free digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Freire, Sergio L S; Tanner, Brendan

    2013-07-16

    Digital microfluidics, a technique for manipulation of droplets, is becoming increasingly important for the development of miniaturized platforms for laboratory processes. Despite the enthusiasm, droplet motion is frequently hindered by the desorption of proteins or other analytes to surfaces. Current approaches to minimize this unwanted surface fouling involve the addition of extra species to the droplet or its surroundings, which might be problematic depending on the droplet content. Here, a new strategy is introduced to move droplets containing cells and other analytes on solid substrates, without extra moieties; in particular, droplets with bovine serum albumin could be moved at a concentration 2000 times higher than previously reported (without additives). This capability is achieved by using a soot-based superamphiphobic surface combined with a new device geometry, which favors droplet rolling. Contrasting with electrowetting, wetting forces are not required for droplet motion.

  20. Additive concentrates for distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, A.; Lewtas, K.

    1985-08-27

    An additive concentrate for incorporation into wax containing petroleum fuel oil compositions to improve low temperature flow properties comprising an oil solution containing: 3% to 90 wt. % of a C30-C300 oil-soluble nitrogen compound wax crystal growth inhibitor having at least one straight C8-C40 alkyl chain and partial esters, and at least one mole per mole of an organic acid capable of hydrogen bonding to improve the solubility in the oil.

  1. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  2. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    SciTech Connect

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-12-15

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  3. Alternative treatments for the menopause.

    PubMed

    Rees, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    Concerns about the safety of oestrogen-based hormone replacement therapy after publication of the Women's Health Initiative study and Million Women Study has led to women turning to alternative therapies, erroneously believing that they are safer and 'more natural'. Evidence from randomized trials that alternative and complementary therapies improve menopausal symptoms or have the same benefits as conventional pharmacopoeia is poor. There are no recognized international criteria for the design of clinical trials of alternative therapies as there are for standard medicines and medical devices for endpoints of treatment and safety evaluations. Studies may have limitations such as design, sample size and duration. There is a wide range of different preparations, making comparison difficult. The evidence regarding botanicals, homeopathy, steroids, vitamin supplements, dietary changes and functional foods, and physical interventions are discussed in this chapter. Standard pharmacopoeia such as clonidine, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and progestogens are also examined.

  4. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  5. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  6. Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

  7. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkiewicz, M.

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  8. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  10. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  11. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  12. Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard

    We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].

  13. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  14. Two alternative versions of strangeness

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Kazuhikoa

    2008-01-01

    The concept of strangeness emerged from the low energy phenomenology before the entry of quarks in particle physics. The connection between strangeness and isospin is rather accidental and loose and we recognize later that the definition of strangeness is model-dependent. Indeed, in Gell-Mann’s triplet quark model we realize that there is a simple alternative representation of strangeness. When the concept of generations is incorporated into the quark model we find that only the second alternative version of strangeness remains meaningful, whereas the original one does no longer keep its significance. PMID:18997448

  15. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Celine K.; Black, Douglas L.; Zheng, Sika

    2016-01-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that regulate splicing, both during development and in the adult brain. PMID:27094079

  16. Non-aqueous electrolytes for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-14

    An electrolyte electrochemical device includes an anodic material and an electrolyte, the electrolyte including an organosilicon solvent, a salt, and a hybrid additiving having a first and a second compound, the hybrid additive configured to form a solid electrolyte interphase film on the anodic material upon application of a potential to the electrochemical device.

  17. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  18. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  19. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  20. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, OH, Oct. 17 to 18, 2007 (ref. 1).

  1. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  2. Simulating the Use of Alternative Fuels in a Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Chin, Jeffrey Chevoor; Liu, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The interest in alternative fuels for aviation has created a need to evaluate their effect on engine performance. The use of dynamic turbofan engine simulations enables the comparative modeling of the performance of these fuels on a realistic test bed in terms of dynamic response and control compared to traditional fuels. The analysis of overall engine performance and response characteristics can lead to a determination of the practicality of using specific alternative fuels in commercial aircraft. This paper describes a procedure to model the use of alternative fuels in a large commercial turbofan engine, and quantifies their effects on engine and vehicle performance. In addition, the modeling effort notionally demonstrates that engine performance may be maintained by modifying engine control system software parameters to account for the alternative fuel.

  3. Modeling Reaction Time and Accuracy of Multiple-Alternative Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fábio P.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Several sequential sampling models using racing diffusion processes for multiple-alternative decisions were evaluated using data from two perceptual discrimination experiments. The structures of the models differed on a number of dimensions, including whether there was lateral inhibition between accumulators, whether there was decay in evidence, whether evidence could be negative, and whether there was variability in starting points. Data were collected from a letter discrimination task in which stimulus difficulty and probability of the response alternatives were varied along with number of response alternatives. Model fitting results ruled out a large number of model classes in favor of a smaller number of specific models, most of which showed a moderate to high degree of mimicking. The best-fitting models had zero to moderate values of decay, no inhibition, and assumed that the addition of alternatives either affected the subprocesses contributing to the nondecisional time, the degree of caution, or the quality of evidence extracted from stimuli. PMID:20045893

  4. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  5. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  6. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the...

  11. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  12. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  13. Transformation of Breast Reconstruction via Additive Biomanufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Chhaya, Mohit P.; Balmayor, Elizabeth R.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to current breast reconstruction options. However, the conventional approach of using a scaffold in combination with adipose-derived precursor cells poses several problems in terms of scalability and hence clinical feasibility. Following the body-as-a-bioreactor approach, this study proposes a unique concept of delayed fat injection into an additive biomanufactured and custom-made scaffold. Three study groups were evaluated: Empty scaffold, Scaffold containing 4 cm3 lipoaspirate and Empty scaffold +2-week prevascularisation period. In group 3, of prevascularisation, 4 cm3 of lipoaspirate was injected into scaffolds after 2 weeks. Using a well-characterised additive biomanufacturing technology platform, patient-specific scaffolds made of medical-grade-polycaprolactone were designed and fabricated. Scaffolds were implanted in subglandular pockets in immunocompetent minipigs (n = 4) for 24-weeks. Angiogenesis and adipose tissue regeneration were observed in all constructs. Histological evaluation showed that the prevascularisation + lipoaspirate group had the highest relative area of adipose tissue (47.32% ± 4.12) which was significantly higher than both lipoaspirate-only (39.67% ± 2.04) and empty control group (8.31% ± 8.94) and similar to native breast tissue (44.97% ± 14.12). This large preclinical animal study provides proof-of-principle that the clinically applicable prevascularisation and delayed fat-injection techniques can be used for regeneration of large volumes of adipose tissue. PMID:27301425

  14. Alternatives To Dissection. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill, Ed.; Winiarskyj, Lesia, Ed.

    This packet attempts to provide educationally sound alternatives to dissection in the classroom, thereby making it possible for teachers to eliminate dissection from the curriculum. This packet can also be used by educators who include dissection in their curricula but consider it important to respect the expression of students' ethical, moral, or…

  15. An Alternative to Process Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joan; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Some disadvantages in the use of process recordings as an assessment and teaching tool for evaluating the communication skills of the student in nurse-client interactions are discussed. A more useful alternative process requires actual observation and subsequent participation by the instructor during student-client interviews. (EC)

  16. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  17. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  18. Providers issue brief: alternative providers.

    PubMed

    Rothouse, M

    1999-06-29

    Access by managed care plan enrollees, scope of practice issues and fee reimbursement by Medicaid and third parties such as insurance carriers is the engine that drives legislation recognizing alternative health care providers--chiropractors, acupuncturists, physical therapists, naturopaths, massage therapists, homeopaths, and dietitians and nutritionists. PMID:11073386

  19. "Partial Vision" in Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ron

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the philosophies and pedagogies of Waldorf and Montessori schools points out that no single educational perspective can encompass all possibilities of human growth. Educators should attend to the "seed qualities" of alternative educational philosophies rather than their dogmas. A caring relationship between teachers and students is…

  20. The Alternate Route to Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1990-01-01

    Alternative certification programs are needed to address the projected teacher shortage by 2000. Only two-thirds of prepared graduates enter the profession, half who do enter leave after five years, and teacher salaries are 25 percent lower than the salaries of college graduates in other fields. Afternoon, evening, and weekend preparation programs…

  1. Alternative Models for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, John G.

    Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present…

  2. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control is reported. Extensive numerical testing is included. It is indicated that optimal inputs contribute significantly to the process of calculating tensor approximations for nonlinear systems, and that the resulting approximations may be order-reduced in a systematic way.

  3. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches Alternatives for Jet Engine Control is reported. A numerical study employing feedback tensors for optimal control of nonlinear systems was completed. It is believed that these studies are the first of their kind. State regulation, with a decrease in control power is demonstrated. A detailed treatment follows.

  4. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control, is reported. The principal new activities involved the initial testing of an input design method for choosing the inputs to a non-linear system to aid the approximation of its tensor parameters, and the beginning of order reduction studies designed to remove unnecessary monomials from tensor models.

  5. An Overview of Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    2006-01-01

    This publication represents the first in a series of papers on alternative education for the U.S. Department of Labor. The main focus of this review is community- or district-based programs that have as their primary focus the re-engagement of out-of-school youth in learning in order to better prepare these youth to successfully enter high growth…

  6. Student Loans: Alternatives for Reauthorization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The papers presented at the symposium include: Student Loans: Some Practical Radical Alternatives (D. Bruce Johnstone); Solving the Student Loan Problem by Supplementing Government Loan Policy--An Expanded Role for Institutional Aid Administrators in the 1980's (Kurt L. Kendis); Estimating Manageable Educational Loan Limits for Graduate and…

  7. Not Just Another Alternative School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we problematize the establishment of an Africentric Alternative School in Toronto, Canada. We argue that policy, and race and racializations cannot be understood outside of, or immune to, neoliberalism. We contend that policy is a form of racial biopolitics, and race is now produced through neoliberal markets, in conjunction with…

  8. The Centre for Alternative Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randle, Joan; Randle, Damian

    1983-01-01

    Describes operation and activities of The National Center for Alternative Technology (NCAT), built on the site of a former quarry. A major center function involves encouraging and assisting students toward a holistic approach to their environment. Also describes and includes a map of major center exhibits. (JN)

  9. Alternative Certification: Effectively Preparing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Christopher; Bishop, Carolyn A.; Hernandez, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses questions related to teacher preparation through online supported learning in an alternative certification program, CalStateTEACH. Specifically, this study analyzes and reports survey responses of 130 teachers and 84 supervisors related to preparedness of program completers to teach in a multiple subject classroom. The…

  10. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  11. Alternatives to Afrocentrism. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John J., Ed.

    The essays in this collection place the current Afrocentric movement in its historical context and offer alternative suggestions about how to teach African American students about their history. The first section deals with the roots of Afrocentrism, analyzes the content of Afrocentric books and curricula, and discusses the impact of Afrocentrism…

  12. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  13. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  14. Lecture Alternatives in Teaching English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judy, Stephen, Ed.

    The five sections of the document are: General Discussion; Classroom Experiences; Evaluation and Non-Lecture Teaching; A Closing Note; and Appendix. The ten papers presented are as follows: "Lecture Alternatives and the English Class" by Stephen Judy; "Let's See How it Goes: A View of the Teacher as Manager of Student-Initiated Activities" by…

  15. Science Literacy and Alternative Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, George T.

    Presented is an operational definition of science literacy including knowledge of science, the processes of science, the nature of science and the social implications of science. Future-oriented supplemental teaching materials are proposed as the most viable alternative available for achieving literacy in science within the present school…

  16. Alternative Careers in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Charlotte

    Several alternate definitions of "physical education" can be presented to illustrate the fact that changes in name or definition open the way to new opportunities and new ways of thinking of career options. Traditional definitions of physical education have limited it to a profession of teaching in the traditional school system normal children…

  17. Alternative Education: The Cutting Edge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jay

    2004-01-01

    Miami Valley Career Technology Youth Connections, an alternative high school located in Dayton, Ohio, has an enrollment of 160 students and was created as a joint venture among local politicians to address the high dropout rates in Montgomery County, Ohio. To achieve this, the Montgomery County commissioners created a task force to develop…

  18. An Alternative School Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lee A.

    This model is designed to serve as a conceptual framework for alternative programs with primary emphasis on provisioning (the way in which time, space, material, equipment, and activities are used in the learning environment). The model's concern is to assess concrete examples or tendencies of teachers, students, and the education program. The…

  19. Plain Talk about Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    Testing is a technology, a socially mediated, value-laden endeavor. Technologies embody trade-offs between what is desired and real-world constraints of cost, time, thought, and energy. Although alternative assessments offer exciting prospects for middle schools, these new forms must not be misused or naively accepted as defensible, consummate…

  20. An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).

  1. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  2. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  3. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  4. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  5. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  6. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  7. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  8. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  9. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate.

  10. Alternative Methods for Field Corrections in Helical Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.

    2015-05-01

    Helical cooling channels have been proposed for highly efficient 6D muon cooling. Helical solenoids produce solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical gradient field components. Previous studies explored the geometric tunability limits on these main field components. In this paper we present two alternative correction schemes, tilting the solenoids and the addition of helical lines, to reduce the required strength of the anti-solenoid and add an additional tuning knob.

  11. State and local government guide to environmental program funding alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The booklet provides an overview of traditional funding mechanisms and introduces state and local governments to innovative alternatives to traditional funding. The focus is on nonpoint source pollution, but funding sources and mechanisms can be applied to environmental programs in general. A list of contacts and references is included at the back of the booklet to answer questions and provide additional information.

  12. Visual preference and ecological assessments for designed alternative brownfield rehabilitations.

    PubMed

    Lafortezza, Raffaele; Corry, Robert C; Sanesi, Giovanni; Brown, Robert D

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes an integrative method for quantifying, analyzing, and comparing the effects of alternative rehabilitation approaches with visual preference. The method was applied to a portion of a major industrial area located in southern Italy. Four alternative approaches to rehabilitation (alternative designs) were developed and analyzed. The scenarios consisted of the cleanup of the brownfields plus: (1) the addition of ground cover species; (2) the addition of ground cover species and a few trees randomly distributed; (3) the addition of ground cover species and a few trees in small groups; and (4) the addition of ground cover species and several trees in large groups. The approaches were analyzed and compared to the baseline condition through the use of cost-surface modeling (CSM) and visual preference assessment (VPA). Statistical results showed that alternatives that were more ecologically functional for forest bird species dispersal were also more visually preferable. Some differences were identified based on user groups and location of residence. The results of the study are used to identify implications for enhancing both ecological attributes and visual preferences of rehabilitating landscapes through planning and design.

  13. 30 CFR 75.1600-3 - Communications facilities; refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... communications system that consists of— (1) A two-way communication facility that is a part of the mine communication system, which can be used from inside the refuge alternative; and (2) An additional communication system and other requirements as defined in the communications portion of the operator's...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1600-3 - Communications facilities; refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... communications system that consists of— (1) A two-way communication facility that is a part of the mine communication system, which can be used from inside the refuge alternative; and (2) An additional communication system and other requirements as defined in the communications portion of the operator's...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1600-3 - Communications facilities; refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... communications system that consists of— (1) A two-way communication facility that is a part of the mine communication system, which can be used from inside the refuge alternative; and (2) An additional communication system and other requirements as defined in the communications portion of the operator's...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1600-3 - Communications facilities; refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... communications system that consists of— (1) A two-way communication facility that is a part of the mine communication system, which can be used from inside the refuge alternative; and (2) An additional communication system and other requirements as defined in the communications portion of the operator's...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1600-3 - Communications facilities; refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... communications system that consists of— (1) A two-way communication facility that is a part of the mine communication system, which can be used from inside the refuge alternative; and (2) An additional communication system and other requirements as defined in the communications portion of the operator's...

  18. Organizing a Campus Activity: An Alternative Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bee, Mary Tracy; Montante, James; Lanigan, Kate; Andrzejak, Michelle; Grabowski, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Alternative teaching styles provide a unique and rewarding approach to reinforcing student knowledge and developing social skills. An approach that we implemented required students from the ecology class to organize and present information at the university-wide Earth Day celebration and exposition. In addition to the informational and research…

  19. Alternative Funding Sources. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, James L., Ed.; Arnold, Allen D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to identify and tap new sources of funds for community colleges, this monograph presents a series of descriptive articles on the most successful alternative funding ventures. In addition, the sourcebook provides a sense of where and how new ventures have aided two-year colleges and how other institutions might follow in this pursuit.…

  20. Specific migration testing with alternative fatty food simulants.

    PubMed

    Cooper, I; Goodson, A; O'Brien, A

    1998-01-01

    Many additives used in plastics materials and articles intended for food contact are expected to be assigned specific migration limits (SMLs) in a future amendment to EC Directive 90/128/EEC. In order to demonstrate compliance with these restrictions, specific migration tests will need to be performed on the finished plastics packaging using foods or the appropriate EC food simulants. Owing to the involatile and lipophilic nature of many of these additives, their analysis in the conventional fatty food simulant, olive oil, presents technical difficulties. One way of overcoming these difficulties would be to use a simple solvent alternative to olive oil as has been proposed for overall migration testing. The objective of this work is to compare specific migration data obtained using olive oil with alternative fat simulants iso-octane and 95% ethanol, to find out if similar results are obtained and identify the most appropriate alternative simulant to use for future testing. Good agreement with the olive oil migration data was obtained using 95% ethanol (equivalent exposure conditions) for both of the additives studied in polyolefins. For the polystyrene materials studied it is unlikely that the SMLs for the two additives would be exceeded, and in these cases iso-octane (1.5 h at 60 degrees C) could be used as a rapid 'alternative test'.

  1. Elephantine Psoriasis with Papillomatosis and Alternating Hypogranulosis and Hypergranulosis

    PubMed Central

    Koley, Sankha; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Hassan, Sk Masud; Pathak, Swapan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a disease of considerable clinical and histopathological diversity. We report a rare case of elephantine psoriasis responding very well to methotrexate. Histopathology revealed abnormal papillomatosis with finger-like projections in addition to alternating orthokeratosis with overlying hypergranulosis and parakeratosis with overlying hypogranulosis. We believe that this finding may represent an odd histopathologic type in elephantine psoriasis. PMID:26120152

  2. Academic Programs in Alternative Education: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzzi, Betsy Brown; Kraemer, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    This paper, second in a series of papers on alternative education, examines the academic programming in alternative education programs by reviewing the literature specifically focused on the academic programs in alternative education and summarizing a survey of fifteen alternative education programs. It suggests options for further research on…

  3. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M.; Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S.; Donaldson, T.L.; Dickerson, K. |

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  4. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  5. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  6. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  7. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  8. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  9. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  10. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Schafer, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Alternatives to linear quadratic regulator theory in the linear case are examined along with nonlinear modelling and optimization approaches for global control. Context for the studies has been set by the DYNGEN digital simulator and by models generated for various phases of the F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. With respect to the linear alternatives, the multivariable frequency domain is stressed. Progress is reported in both the direct algebraic approach to exact model matching, by means of stimulating work on the basic computational issues, and in the indirect generalized Nyquist approach. With respect to nonlinear modelling and optimization, the emphasis is twofold: the development of analytical nonlinear models of the jet engine and the use of these models in conjunction with techniques of mathematical programming in order to study global control over nonincremental portions of the flight envelope. The possibility of using tensor methods is explored.

  11. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation.

  12. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  13. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  14. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  15. Exploring alternative treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos Felipe; Romero, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a successful pathogen that can persist in the stomach of an infected person for their entire life. It provokes chronic gastric inflammation that leads to the development of serious gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. It is known that these ailments can be avoided if the infection by the bacteria can be prevented or eradicated. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available. However, these therapies have several inherent problems, including the appearance of resistance to the antibiotics used and associated adverse effects, the risk of re-infection and the high cost of antibiotic therapy. The delay in developing a vaccine to prevent or eradicate the infection has furthered research into new therapeutic approaches. This review summarises the most relevant recent studies on vaccine development and new treatments using natural resources such as plants, probiotics and nutraceuticals. In addition, novel alternatives based on microorganisms, peptides, polysaccharides, and intragastric violet light irradiation are presented. Alternative therapies have not been effective in eradicating the bacteria but have been shown to maintain low bacterial levels. Nevertheless, some of them are useful in preventing the adverse effects of antibiotics, modulating the immune response, gastroprotection, and the general promotion of health. Therefore, those agents can be used as adjuvants of allopathic anti-H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:24587621

  16. PSA and beyond: alternative prostate cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of biomarkers for prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and prognosis has the potential to improve the clinical management of the patients. Owing to inherent limitations of the biomarker prostate-specific antigen (PSA), intensive efforts are currently directed towards a search for alternative prostate cancer biomarkers, particularly those that can predict disease aggressiveness and drive better treatment decisions. Methods A literature search of Medline articles focused on recent and emerging advances in prostate cancer biomarkers was performed. The most promising biomarkers that have the potential to meet the unmet clinical needs in prostate cancer patient management and/or that are clinically implemented were selected. Conclusions With the advent of advanced genomic and proteomic technologies, we have in recent years seen an enormous spurt in prostate cancer biomarker research with several promising alternative biomarkers being discovered that show an improved sensitivity and specificity over PSA. The new generation of biomarkers can be tested via serum, urine, or tissue-based assays that have either received regulatory approval by the US Food and Drug Administration or are available as Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-based laboratory developed tests. Additional emerging novel biomarkers for prostate cancer, including circulating tumor cells, microRNAs and exosomes, are still in their infancy. Together, these biomarkers provide actionable guidance for prostate cancer risk assessment, and are expected to lead to an era of personalized medicine. PMID:26790878

  17. Ambitious Philippine alternative energy plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-07

    The Philippines is to spend $5.4 billion over the next ten years for the development of alternative sources of energy. These would include the development of fuel woods and other biomass, and the commercialization of a coconut/diesel-oil fuel. It is hoped that the Philippines' dependence on imported oil will be reduced from about 80% today to around 50% by the end of the decade.

  18. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  19. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  20. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  1. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  2. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  3. Pantex staging study near-term alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.S.; Adickes, M.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Nealey, S.M.; Smith, B.W.

    1992-12-01

    As the result of bilateral treaties to reduce the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile, the US Department of Energy must now address the requirements for additional storage of the plutonium components (pits) from the retired weapons at Pantex until the components` final disposition. Because of the critical need to take action, Pantex has initiated two related efforts: Project Stage Right and this Staging Study. While support of Project Stage Right is a key objective of this study, the scope covers a broader range of activities and aspects of the pit staging problem. This study provides estimates of worker radiation exposures under the current scenario as well as estimated radiation exposure for workers under four alternative staging scenarios. An important objective of this study also identifies and recommends for future study other activities related to staging where radiation safety and overall efficiency can be improved.

  4. Pantex staging study near-term alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.S.; Adickes, M.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Nealey, S.M.; Smith, B.W.

    1992-12-01

    As the result of bilateral treaties to reduce the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile, the US Department of Energy must now address the requirements for additional storage of the plutonium components (pits) from the retired weapons at Pantex until the components' final disposition. Because of the critical need to take action, Pantex has initiated two related efforts: Project Stage Right and this Staging Study. While support of Project Stage Right is a key objective of this study, the scope covers a broader range of activities and aspects of the pit staging problem. This study provides estimates of worker radiation exposures under the current scenario as well as estimated radiation exposure for workers under four alternative staging scenarios. An important objective of this study also identifies and recommends for future study other activities related to staging where radiation safety and overall efficiency can be improved.

  5. [Problem of alternative medicine in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Ken-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    I asked about the usage of alternative medicine to 300 outpatients with Parkinson's disease. 163 patients (54.3%) had experience with health appliance and 128 patients (42.7%) had experience with supplements. There is no health appliance or supplement whose efficacy for Parkinson's disease is approved publicly. Most of the patients understood it but some patients who purchased the goods believed to be effective in Parkinson's disease. In addition some patients feel affected because the purchase price is abnormally high. Continuous usage rate is generally high in supplements, relatively high in massage machine, but significantly low in equipment to move the body, such as muscle training equipment of various types or exercise bike. It seems important to inform this fact to Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:24291878

  6. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  7. Alternating copolymers and alternative device geometries for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometries for these flexible materials compensate for the optical absorption by light trapping, and allow tandem cells. PMID:22434441

  8. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigáč, Július

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I -SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  9. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  10. Estimation of adjusted rate differences using additive negative binomial regression.

    PubMed

    Donoghoe, Mark W; Marschner, Ian C

    2016-08-15

    Rate differences are an important effect measure in biostatistics and provide an alternative perspective to rate ratios. When the data are event counts observed during an exposure period, adjusted rate differences may be estimated using an identity-link Poisson generalised linear model, also known as additive Poisson regression. A problem with this approach is that the assumption of equality of mean and variance rarely holds in real data, which often show overdispersion. An additive negative binomial model is the natural alternative to account for this; however, standard model-fitting methods are often unable to cope with the constrained parameter space arising from the non-negativity restrictions of the additive model. In this paper, we propose a novel solution to this problem using a variant of the expectation-conditional maximisation-either algorithm. Our method provides a reliable way to fit an additive negative binomial regression model and also permits flexible generalisations using semi-parametric regression functions. We illustrate the method using a placebo-controlled clinical trial of fenofibrate treatment in patients with type II diabetes, where the outcome is the number of laser therapy courses administered to treat diabetic retinopathy. An R package is available that implements the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27073156

  11. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension. PMID:10907162

  12. Bacteriocins - exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D

    2010-07-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  13. Bulawayo water supplies: Sustainable alternatives for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkandla, Noel; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Sibanda, Peter

    Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabwe with a population of nearly one million people. It is located on the watershed of Umzingwane and Gwayi catchments. The former is part of the Limpopo basin, while the latter drains into the Zambezi basin. Bulawayo has a good potential of economic development but has been stymied by lack of sufficient water. The city currently relies on five surface sources in the Umzingwane catchment where it has to compete with evaporation. The well field from the Nyamandlovu aquifer in the Gwayi catchment, which was constructed as an emergency measure during the 1992 drought, is currently not operational. Alternative water supply sources are far and expensive. A multilinear regression model was developed to analyse and quantify the factors affecting water consumption. It was found that per capita water consumption is very low, indicating suppressed demand. Water rationing, tariffs, rainfall, population growth and gross domestic product are the main factors influencing water consumption in Bulawayo. Assuming that these factors will continue to be influential, future water consumption was projected for intensive, regular and slack water demand management. Future water consumption was then compared with the current water supply capacity in order to determine the date by which the next water supply source is required. With slack demand management, the Nyamandlovu well field should have been operational by 2003, while by the year 2007 an additional source of water is required. With intensive demand management and assuming low population growth, current capacities may suffice to satisfy the suppressed demand until the year 2015, by which time Nyamandlovu wells should be operational again. The additional water supply sources that are currently being considered for Bulawayo (namely the Zambezi water pipeline; Gwayi Shangani dam; Mtshabezi dam; Lower Tuli dam; and Glass block dam) were then compared with an alternative water source not yet

  14. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G.; Cantrell, K.J.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described.

  15. Bacteriocins – Exploring Alternatives to Antibiotics in Mastitis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:24031528

  16. The Interaction of Language-Specific and Universal Factors during the Acquisition of Morphophonemic Alternations with Exceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer-Henney, Dinah; Kügler, Frank; van de Vijver, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Using the artificial language paradigm, we studied the acquisition of morphophonemic alternations with exceptions by 160 German adult learners. We tested the acquisition of two types of alternations in two regularity conditions while additionally varying length of training. In the first alternation, a vowel harmony, backness of the stem vowel…

  17. Thermoelectric converters for alternating current standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Taschuk, D. D.

    2012-06-01

    Thermoelectric converters of alternating current remain priority instruments when creating standard equipment. This work presents the results of design and manufacture of alternating current converter for a military standard of alternating current in Ukraine. Results of simulation of temperature distribution in converter elements, ways of optimization to improve the accuracy of alternating current signal reproduction are presented. Results of metrological trials are given. The quality of thermoelectric material specially created for alternating current metrology is verified. The converter was used in alternating current standard for the frequency range from 10 Hz to 30 MHz. The efficiency of using thermoelectric signal converters in measuring instruments is confirmed.

  18. Bayesian Alternation during Tactile Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar M.; Planera, Serena; Finger, Holger; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well-described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study, we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC) task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition), rotation only (native condition), and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition). Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants' responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND). Then, we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67) than the Bayesian integration model (χred2 = 4.34). Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all (WTA) model (χred2 = 1.64), which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However, the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2 = 1.09) utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  19. Synergistic epistasis and alternative hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Trouve, S; Ding, A; Goudet, J

    2004-11-01

    Inbreeding generally results in deleterious shifts in mean fitness. If the fitness response to increasing inbreeding coefficient is non-linear, this suggests a contribution of epistasis to inbreeding depression. In a cross-breeding experiment, Salathe & Ebert (2003. J. Evol. Biol. 16: 976-985) tested and found the presence of this non-linearity in Daphnia magna. They argue that epistatic interactions cause this non-linearity. We argue here that their experimental protocol does not allow disentangling the effect of synergistic epistasis from two alternative hypotheses, namely hybrid vigour and statistical non-independence of data.

  20. Alternative approaches to epilepsy treatment.

    PubMed

    McElroy-Cox, Caitlin

    2009-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a diverse group of health care practices and products that fall outside the realm of traditional Western medical theory and practice and that are used to complement or replace conventional medical therapies. The use of CAM has increased over the past two decades, and surveys have shown that up to 44% of patients with epilepsy are using some form of CAM treatment. This article reviews the CAM modalities of meditation, yoga, relaxation techniques, biofeedback, nutritional and herbal supplements, dietary measures, chiropractic care, acupuncture, Reiki, and homeopathy and what is known about their potential efficacy in patients with epilepsy.

  1. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  2. Towards an alternative gravitational theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, J. A.; Beltrán, L. A.

    2015-03-01

    In 1680, Cassini proposed oval curves as alternative trajectories for the visible planets around the sun. The Cassini ovals were of course overshadowed by the Kepler's first law (1609), namely the planets move around the sun describing conic orbits. Here, we describe the possibility that the Cassini's idea works at larger or smaller scales. Indeed, we consider the Spiric curves (which are a generalization of the Cassini oval) and present the first steps towards a Spiric gravitational theory. We show that from our formalism an ellipse associated with a planet can be obtained as a particular case.

  3. Molecular Aluminum Additive for Burn Enhancement of Hydrocarbon Fuels.

    PubMed

    Guerieri, Philip M; DeCarlo, Samantha; Eichhorn, Bryan; Connell, Terrence; Yetter, Richard A; Tang, Xin; Hicks, Zachary; Bowen, Kit H; Zachariah, Michael R

    2015-11-12

    Additives to hydrocarbon fuels are commonly explored to change the combustion dynamics, chemical distribution, and/or product integrity. Here we employ a novel aluminum-based molecular additive, Al(I) tetrameric cluster [AlBrNEt3]4 (Et = C2H5), to a hydrocarbon fuel and evaluate the resultant single-droplet combustion properties. This Al4 cluster offers a soluble alternative to nanoscale particulate additives that have recently been explored and may mitigate the observed problems of particle aggregation. Results show the [AlBrNEt3]4 additive to increase the burn rate constant of a toluene-diethyl ether fuel mixture by ∼20% in a room temperature oxygen environment with only 39 mM of active aluminum additive (0.16 wt % limited by additive solubility). In comparison, a roughly similar addition of nano-aluminum particulate shows no discernible difference in burn properties of the hydrocarbon fuel. High speed video shows the [AlBrNEt3]4 to induce microexplosive gas release events during the last ∼30% of the droplet combustion time. We attribute this to HBr gas release based on results of temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) experiments of the [AlBrNEt3]4 dosed with O2 and D2O. A possible mechanism of burn rate enhancement is presented that is consistent with microexplosion observations and TPR results. PMID:26488461

  4. Antibodies: an alternative for antibiotics?

    PubMed

    Berghman, L R; Abi-Ghanem, D; Waghela, S D; Ricke, S C

    2005-04-01

    In 1967, the success of vaccination programs, combined with the seemingly unstoppable triumph of antibiotics, prompted the US Surgeon General to declare that "it was time to close the books on infectious diseases." We now know that the prediction was overly optimistic and that the fight against infectious diseases is here to stay. During the last 20 yr, infectious diseases have indeed made a staggering comeback for a variety of reasons, including resistance against existing antibiotics. As a consequence, several alternatives to antibiotics are currently being considered or reconsidered. Passive immunization (i.e., the administration of more or less pathogen-specific antibodies to the patient) prior to or after exposure to the disease-causing agent is one of those alternative strategies that was almost entirely abandoned with the introduction of chemical antibiotics but that is now gaining interest again. This review will discuss the early successes and limitations of passive immunization, formerly referred to as "serum therapy," the current use of antibody administration for prophylaxis or treatment of infectious diseases in agriculture, and, finally, recent developments in the field of antibody engineering and "molecular farming" of antibodies in various expression systems. Especially the potential of producing therapeutic antibodies in crops that are routine dietary components of farm animals, such as corn and soy beans, seems to hold promise for future application in the fight against infectious diseases. PMID:15844826

  5. Alternative therapies for postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Leon

    2005-01-01

    Alternative therapies are being used by postmenopausal women in attempts to treat all of the complaints and medical conditions of the menopause. One-fifth of those who take prescription drugs for these indications also take herbal remedies and/or high-dose vitamins, most often without disclosing the fact to the physician. Although studies of alternative therapies are short-term and rarely focused on safety--let alone efficacy--in the long-term, there are many studies spread over the large number of substances involved. More than 130 studies, including meta-analyses, are reviewed in this article under the headings of phytoestrogens, especially from soy; therapies for hot flushes; and preventives for cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and breast cancer. Special attention is given to the recently recognized daidzein metabolite equol, and for the sake of completeness there are reviews of the unconventional, but not botanical, treatments estriol, transdermal progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. The total picture produced by conscientious review of the studies is bleak overall, but there seems to be good reason to pursue the possibilities inherent in soy protein with phytoestrogens in populations of women who endogenously produce equol.

  6. Alternative cosmology from cusp geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Reinaldo; Herbin Stalder Díaz, Diego

    We study an alternative geometrical approach on the problem of classical cosmological singularity. It is based on a generalized function f(x,y)=x(2+y^2=(1-z)z^n) which consists of a cusped projected coupled isosurface. Such a projected geometry is computed and analized into the context of Friedmann singularity-free cosmology where a pre-big bang scenario is considered. Assuming that the mechanism of cusp formation is described by non-linear oscillations of a pre- big bang extended very high energy density field (>3x10^{94} kg/m^3$), we show that the action under the gravitational field follows a tautochrone of revolution, understood here as the primary projected geometry that alternatively replaces the Friedmann singularity in the standard big bang theory. As shown here this new approach allows us to interpret the nature of both matter and dark energy from first geometric principles [1]. [1] Rosa et al. DOI: 10.1063/1.4756991

  7. Mitigation alternatives for L Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.B.

    1988-11-03

    The current condition of L Lake/Steel Creek was summarized in a report to SCDHEC in June 1988 which reported that the L Lake and Steel Creek ecosystems were adequately developing towards balanced biological communities. If mitigation for L Lake inputs, specifically temperature and nutrients, are required, several viable alternatives are available. A report prepared by Spencer in 1986 discusses the various options available for cooling L-Reactor discharges. In effect, a small cooling tower is the only realistic solution to reducing effluent temperatures. Nutrient mitigation can take several approaches including upstream sewage treatment, hypolimnetic withdrawal, dilution of input water by Par Pond water, precipitation of nutrients, and sediment oxidation. None of these systems would influence the thermal regime, but would significantly reduce nutrient input into the system. One beneficial use of L-Lake thermal effluents is algaculture, the production of useful algae. A document prepared in 1988 concludes that algaculture is a technically and economically feasible mitigation alternative for L Lake and could allow L Lake to be handled under Section 318 of the Clean Water Act.

  8. Alternate nozzle ablative materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

  9. Isoprenoid based alternative diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Taek Soon; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-08-18

    Fuel compositions are provided comprising a hydrogenation product of a monocyclic sesquiterpene (e.g., hydrogenated bisabolene) and a fuel additive. Methods of making and using the fuel compositions are also disclosed. ##STR00001##

  10. An infrastructure assessment of alternative Mars Transfer Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdridge, Jeffrey D.; Shepard, Kyle M.; Hueter, Uwe; Sumrall, Phil

    1990-01-01

    Development and evolutionary paths for many space transportation elements must be considered as the United States space program embarks on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A central element of the space transportation infrastructure necessary to support the SEI is Mars Transportation System (MTS). This system consists of the Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle. This paper describes the process and results in evaluating the alternate MTV propulsion concepts. Primary discriminators in evaluating different options for the MTV alternatives are: requirements for earth-to-orbit delivery, on-orbit facility and assembly requirements, and mission performance. Propulsion candidates assessed in this paper include nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear electric propulsion, solar electric propulsion, and cryogenic chemical propulsion (LO2/LH2). The primary discriminators as well as additional selection criteria will be discussed for each MTS alternative.

  11. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2014-02-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  12. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2013-11-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine and physical activity for menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Taya L; Mark, Saralyn

    2004-01-01

    Forty percent of all menopausal women seek medical attention to alleviate symptoms of menopause, a natural physiologic process. Severe symptoms and an overall decrease in quality of life have prompted many women to demand additional information and treatment. Although menopausal hormone therapy has been the standard, increasing evidence suggests that women are looking to complementary and alternative therapies for management and treatment of menopausal symptoms. Modalities such as physical activity, diet supplements, body work, and mind-body techniques are often used without evaluation or treatment by conventional health care providers. Many of these treatments may present varying risks and contraindications. Consequently, there is a great need for ongoing education and research to ensure alternative therapy use is not only effective, but also safe. This paper provides a systematic review of current complementary and alternative modalities and of physical activity used in the management and treatment of menopausal symptoms.

  14. An alternative tensiometer design for deep vadose zone monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, A. B.; Kandelous, M. M.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The conventional tensiometer is among the most accurate devices for soil water matric potential measurements, as well as for estimations of soil water flux from soil water potential gradients. Uncertainties associated with conventional tensiometers such as caused by ambient temperature effects and the draining of the tensiometer tube, as well as their limitation for deep soil monitoring has prevented their widespread use for vadose zone monitoring, despite their superior accuracy, in general. We introduce an alternative tensiometer design that offers the accuracy of the conventional tensiometer, while minimizing afore-mentioned uncertainties and limitations. The proposed alternative tensiometer largely eliminates temperature-induced diurnal fluctuations and uncertainties associated with the draining of the tensiometer tube, and removes the limitation in installation depth. In addition, the manufacturing costs of this alternative tensiometer design is close to that of the conventional tensiometer, while it is especially suited for monitoring of soil water potential gradients as required for soil water flux measurements.

  15. Nitrogen isotope fractionation by alternative nitrogenases and past ocean anoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinning; Sigman, Daniel M; Morel, François M M; Kraepiel, Anne M L

    2014-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation constitutes the main input of fixed nitrogen to Earth's ecosystems, and its isotope effect is a key parameter in isotope-based interpretations of the N cycle. The nitrogen isotopic composition (δ(15)N) of newly fixed N is currently believed to be ∼-1‰, based on measurements of organic matter from diazotrophs using molybdenum (Mo)-nitrogenases. We show that the vanadium (V)- and iron (Fe)-only "alternative" nitrogenases produce fixed N with significantly lower δ(15)N (-6 to -7‰). An important contribution of alternative nitrogenases to N2 fixation provides a simple explanation for the anomalously low δ(15)N (<-2‰) in sediments from the Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events and the Archean Eon. A significant role for the alternative nitrogenases over Mo-nitrogenase is also consistent with evidence of Mo scarcity during these geologic periods, suggesting an additional dimension to the coupling between the global cycles of trace elements and nitrogen.

  16. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

  17. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member...

  18. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member...

  19. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member...

  20. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member...

  1. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member...

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is ... based on scientific evidence from research studies. Complementary medicine refers to treatments that are used with standard ...

  3. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  4. 40 CFR 152.43 - Alternate formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Procedures § 152.43 Alternate formulations... label text of the alternate formulation product must be identical to that of the basic formulation....

  5. 40 CFR 152.43 - Alternate formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Procedures § 152.43 Alternate formulations... label text of the alternate formulation product must be identical to that of the basic formulation....

  6. An alternative to India ink stain.

    PubMed

    Ibembe, Isaac Nicholas; Wiggin, Timothy Roger

    2015-07-01

    Accessing India ink in rural Uganda is difficult and costly. An alternative stain was sought to assist in microbiological diagnoses of cryptococcal infections in immunosuppressed patients with meningitis. Mascara proved to be an excellent and cheap alternative.

  7. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during...

  8. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during...

  9. Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information FAQs about OCCAM Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Health Care Providers: A Workbook and Tips ... your health care provider(s) about your complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use during and after your cancer care. ...

  10. Are There Feasible Alternatives to Laboratory Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses several alternatives to the use of laboratory animals in investigating biomedical problems. Alternatives include tissue culture, use of plant and bacterial material, redesigning experiments, and construction of mathematical and computer models. (CS)

  11. The Pressing Need for Alternative Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Examines the nature of technology in use today, suggests alternative forms of technology, and looks at the future relationships likely to evolve between alternative technology and developing and developed countries throughout the world. (JR)

  12. An alternative to India ink stain.

    PubMed

    Ibembe, Isaac Nicholas; Wiggin, Timothy Roger

    2015-07-01

    Accessing India ink in rural Uganda is difficult and costly. An alternative stain was sought to assist in microbiological diagnoses of cryptococcal infections in immunosuppressed patients with meningitis. Mascara proved to be an excellent and cheap alternative. PMID:25999353

  13. 33 CFR 127.017 - Alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... written request for the alternative at least 30 days before facility operations under the alternative... same degree of safety provided by the regulations in this part. (b) The COTP approves or...

  14. 33 CFR 127.017 - Alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... written request for the alternative at least 30 days before facility operations under the alternative... same degree of safety provided by the regulations in this part. (b) The COTP approves or...

  15. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  16. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  17. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  18. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  19. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  20. Understanding Conic Sections Using Alternate Graph Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elizabeth M.; Jones, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article describes two alternative coordinate systems and their use in graphing conic sections. This alternative graph paper helps students explore the idea of eccentricity using the definitions of the conic sections.

  1. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

  2. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  3. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  4. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  5. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  6. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  7. The Experiences of Alternately Certified Teachers with Teacher Mentoring, Teacher Effectiveness, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Charyl L.

    2010-01-01

    Alternately certified teachers (ACTs) are teachers who receive teacher training in an accelerated program provided by alternate certification programs (ACPs). Induction/mentoring programs are provided to ACTs as a source of additional training. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine ACTs' perceptions of their effectiveness as…

  8. Professional Development Experiences of Alternatively Certified Career and Technical Education Teachers in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welfare, Rhonda Marie

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to increase the quantity and quality of available teachers, states have begun to offer alternate methods of teacher certification. This means that in addition to traditional teacher training, which involves graduation from an accredited teacher-education institution, states provide alternate routes to enable teachers to transition to…

  9. Comparing Number Lines and Touch Points to Teach Addition Facts to Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Foust, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three elementary students with autism were taught single-digit addition problem-solving skills using number and touch-point strategies. Prior to the study, all students were unable to correctly calculate single-digit addition problems. An alternating-treatments design was used to compare the acquisition performance of single-digit addition…

  10. 33 CFR 101.120 - Alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.120 Alternatives. (a) Alternative Security Agreements. (1) The U.S... Alternative Security Arrangements covering short international voyages on fixed routes between...

  11. 40 CFR 191.04 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative standards. 191.04 Section... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL....04 Alternative standards. (a) The Administrator may issue alternative standards from those...

  12. 40 CFR 191.04 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alternative standards. 191.04 Section... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL....04 Alternative standards. (a) The Administrator may issue alternative standards from those...

  13. Alternative Schools: A Practical Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascheim, Skip; And Others

    This manual is a practical guide based on school experiences and legal requirements in Massachusetts. It is intended to help alternative schools get off the ground and to stay out of trouble with State and local authorities. Some brief sketches of four alternative schools are presented to indicate alternatives that already exist. Sections…

  14. Alternative School Development: A Guide for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTurk, Philip; Mackin, Robert

    There is a tendency to simply view alternative schools as against tests, grades, bells, seats in rows, and dress regulations. This obscures the need for alternative schools to have stable organizational structures if they are to play an important role in education. There are five stages in the development of an alternative school. They include (a)…

  15. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Storkey, J; Macdonald, A J; Poulton, P R; Scott, T; Köhler, I H; Schnyder, H; Goulding, K W T; Crawley, M J

    2015-12-17

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to 'bounce back' in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape.

  16. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storkey, J.; MacDonald, A. J.; Poulton, P. R.; Scott, T.; Köhler, I. H.; Schnyder, H.; Goulding, K. W. T.; Crawley, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to ‘bounce back’ in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape.

  17. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  18. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 arc being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. Our goal is to significantly improve upon the characteristics of proposed zirconia cells for oxygen production. To achieve that goal we are looking at electrolytic systems that operate at significantly lower temperatures, preferably below 31C to allow the incorporation of liquid CO2 in the electrolyte. Our preliminary results indicate that such a system will have much higher current densities and have simpler cathode construction than a porous gas feed electrode system. Such a system could be achieved based on nonaqueous electrolytes or ionic liquids. We are focusing our research on the anode reaction that will produce oxygen from a product generated at the cathode using CO2 as the feed. Operation at low temperatures also will open up the full range of polymer and metal materials, allowing a more robust system design to withstand the rigors of flight, landing, and long term unattended operation on the surface of Mars.

  19. Quantitative Modeling of the Alternative Pathway of the Complement System

    PubMed Central

    Dorado, Angel; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an integral part of innate immunity that detects and eliminates invading pathogens through a cascade of reactions. The destructive effects of the complement activation on host cells are inhibited through versatile regulators that are present in plasma and bound to membranes. Impairment in the capacity of these regulators to function in the proper manner results in autoimmune diseases. To better understand the delicate balance between complement activation and regulation, we have developed a comprehensive quantitative model of the alternative pathway. Our model incorporates a system of ordinary differential equations that describes the dynamics of the four steps of the alternative pathway under physiological conditions: (i) initiation (fluid phase), (ii) amplification (surfaces), (iii) termination (pathogen), and (iv) regulation (host cell and fluid phase). We have examined complement activation and regulation on different surfaces, using the cellular dimensions of a characteristic bacterium (E. coli) and host cell (human erythrocyte). In addition, we have incorporated neutrophil-secreted properdin into the model highlighting the cross talk of neutrophils with the alternative pathway in coordinating innate immunity. Our study yields a series of time-dependent response data for all alternative pathway proteins, fragments, and complexes. We demonstrate the robustness of alternative pathway on the surface of pathogens in which complement components were able to saturate the entire region in about 54 minutes, while occupying less than one percent on host cells at the same time period. Our model reveals that tight regulation of complement starts in fluid phase in which propagation of the alternative pathway was inhibited through the dismantlement of fluid phase convertases. Our model also depicts the intricate role that properdin released from neutrophils plays in initiating and propagating the alternative pathway during bacterial infection. PMID

  20. Quantitative Modeling of the Alternative Pathway of the Complement System.

    PubMed

    Zewde, Nehemiah; Gorham, Ronald D; Dorado, Angel; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an integral part of innate immunity that detects and eliminates invading pathogens through a cascade of reactions. The destructive effects of the complement activation on host cells are inhibited through versatile regulators that are present in plasma and bound to membranes. Impairment in the capacity of these regulators to function in the proper manner results in autoimmune diseases. To better understand the delicate balance between complement activation and regulation, we have developed a comprehensive quantitative model of the alternative pathway. Our model incorporates a system of ordinary differential equations that describes the dynamics of the four steps of the alternative pathway under physiological conditions: (i) initiation (fluid phase), (ii) amplification (surfaces), (iii) termination (pathogen), and (iv) regulation (host cell and fluid phase). We have examined complement activation and regulation on different surfaces, using the cellular dimensions of a characteristic bacterium (E. coli) and host cell (human erythrocyte). In addition, we have incorporated neutrophil-secreted properdin into the model highlighting the cross talk of neutrophils with the alternative pathway in coordinating innate immunity. Our study yields a series of time-dependent response data for all alternative pathway proteins, fragments, and complexes. We demonstrate the robustness of alternative pathway on the surface of pathogens in which complement components were able to saturate the entire region in about 54 minutes, while occupying less than one percent on host cells at the same time period. Our model reveals that tight regulation of complement starts in fluid phase in which propagation of the alternative pathway was inhibited through the dismantlement of fluid phase convertases. Our model also depicts the intricate role that properdin released from neutrophils plays in initiating and propagating the alternative pathway during bacterial infection.

  1. An alternative to Zoe's Law.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, James

    2015-03-01

    Under the criminal law of New South Wales, the destruction of a foetus (other than in the course of a medical procedure) constitutes grievous bodily harm to the pregnant woman. Charges can be laid for offences against the woman, but not against the foetus. Many are dissatisfied with this. The Crimes Amendment (Zoe's Law) Bill 2013 (No 2) (NSW) aimed to change this by providing that a foetus is taken to be a living person for the purposes of certain offences. The Bill was strongly opposed on the basis that according personhood to a foetus in this way will have undesirable consequences that could erode the reproductive rights of women. The public debate over how the criminal law addresses the destruction of a foetus has centred on Zoe's Law. This article proposes an alternative amendment. that aims, to accommodate the concerns of the Bill's supporters and its detractors.

  2. Basic sciences: an alternative career?

    PubMed

    Khatri, R

    2013-01-01

    Career selection is a crucial and a complex process which is also true for the medical profession. In the context of our country, due to the limited opportunity and proper guidance, migration of medical graduates to foreign countries is increasing. Though, clinical subjects have a huge attraction, basic science field has failed to impress our medical graduates. In current scenario, basic science field seems to be a dumping site for the incompetent as the candidates who have failed trying their luck elsewhere stumble upon basic science careers though it is not true for all. Moreover, a very few medical graduates are interested in developing their career as a basic scientist. Therefore, to motivate today's young medical graduates, there is a need of a good mentor along with a proper career guidance which can help them to understand the basic science field as an alternative career. PMID:23774420

  3. An alternative to Zoe's Law.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, James

    2015-03-01

    Under the criminal law of New South Wales, the destruction of a foetus (other than in the course of a medical procedure) constitutes grievous bodily harm to the pregnant woman. Charges can be laid for offences against the woman, but not against the foetus. Many are dissatisfied with this. The Crimes Amendment (Zoe's Law) Bill 2013 (No 2) (NSW) aimed to change this by providing that a foetus is taken to be a living person for the purposes of certain offences. The Bill was strongly opposed on the basis that according personhood to a foetus in this way will have undesirable consequences that could erode the reproductive rights of women. The public debate over how the criminal law addresses the destruction of a foetus has centred on Zoe's Law. This article proposes an alternative amendment. that aims, to accommodate the concerns of the Bill's supporters and its detractors. PMID:25980199

  4. Alternative Fuels for Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Melissa; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metabolism is significantly altered to support the various metabolic needs of tumor cells. The most prominent change is the increased tumor glycolysis that leads to increased glucose uptake and utilization. However, it has become obvious that many non-glucose nutrients, such as amino acids, lactate, acetate and macromolecules, can serve as alternative fuels for cancer cells. This knowledge reveals an unexpected flexibility and evolutionarily-conserved model in which cancer cells uptake nutrients from their external environment to fulfill their necessary energetic needs. It is possible that tumor cells have evolved the ability to utilize different carbon sources due to the limited supply of nutrient that can be driven by oncogenic mutations and tumor microenvironmental stresses. In certain cases, these factors permanently alter the tumor cells’ metabolism, causing certain nutrients to become indispensable and thus creating opportunities for therapeutic intervention to eradicate tumors by their metabolic vulnerabilities. PMID:25815843

  5. Alternative models of OPEC behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sultan, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    Since the 1973 oil price jump there has been considerable interest in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and its role in the international oil market. However, most of the literature on this subject is mainly concerned with either a time-control problem in which the optimality and implication of certain market behavior is analyzed or a simulation of the oil market assuming a particular market behavior by OPEC members. Our objective in this preliminary research is to present a unified framework in which we construct models of viable alternative market behaviors for OPEC members assuming profit-maximization behavior. Each model will be specified as a system of nonlinear simultaneous equations, and for a particular functional forms specification, we present the estimates of the first two models considered.

  6. Towards an alternative evolution model.

    PubMed

    van Waesberghe, H

    1982-01-01

    Lamarck and Darwin agreed on the inconstancy of species and on the exclusive gradualism of evolution (nature does not jump). Darwinism, revived as neo-Darwinism, was almost generally accepted from about 1930 till 1960. In the sixties the evolutionary importance of selection has been called in question by the neutralists. The traditional conception of the gene is disarranged by recent molecular-biological findings. Owing to the increasing confusion about the concept of genotype, this concept is reconsidered. The idea of the genotype as a cluster of genes is replaced by a cybernetical interpretation of the genotype. As nature does jump, exclusive gradualism is dismissed. Saltatory evolution is a natural phenomenon, provided by a sudden collapse of the thresholds which resist against evolution. The fossil record and the taxonomic system call for a macromutational interpretation. As Lamarck and Darwin overlooked the resistance of evolutionary thresholds, an alternative evolution model is needed, the first to be constructed on a palaeontological and taxonomic basis.

  7. Alternator control for battery charging

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  8. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  9. Alternative treatment of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Moga, M M

    2003-01-01

    Major risk factors for gallbladder disease include a sedentary lifestyle and a diet rich in refined sugars. In genetically prone individuals, these two factors lead to an abnormal bile composition, altered gut microflora, and hyperinsulinemia, with resulting gallstone formation. As a large percentage of gallbladder patients have continued digestive complaints following cholecystectomy, the author examines complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments to counteract gallstone formation. Herbal medicine such as turmeric, oregon grape, bupleurum, and coin grass may reduce gallbladder inflammation and relieve liver congestion. Elimination of offending foods, not necessarily 'fatty' foods, is often successful and recommended by many holistic physicians. Regular aerobic exercise has a beneficial effect on hyperinsulinemia, which is often associated with gallbladder disease. Dietary changes that lower plasma insulin levels, such as a change in dietary fats and substitution of unrefined carbohydrates for refined carbohydrates, may also be helpful.

  10. Alternate alloying for environmental resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Smolik, G.R.; Banerji, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The 35 papers contained in this collection detail efforts being made toward achieving environmental resistance of alloys and conserved usage of strategic and critical materials. An in-depth look is taken at the roles played by various alloying elements in providing desired microstructures, properties, and influences upon environmental attack. Also presented are applications and performances of alternate alloys in aqueous and high temperature gaseous and molten salt environments. The book is broken down into five key sections covering: 1) philosophies and status of programs designing alloys for resistance to various environmental and microstructural stability of some of these alloys systems, 2) applications in hot corrosion and sulfidizing environments, 3) applications in oxidizing conditions, 4) corrosion resistance in aqueous environments, and 5) other properties, such as physical and mechanical, which are necessary to evaluate overall alloy performance.

  11. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  12. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  13. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  14. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  15. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  16. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  17. Processable high temperature resistant addition type polyimide laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.

    1973-01-01

    Basic studies that were performed using model compounds to elucidate the polymerization mechanism of the so-called addition-type (A-type) polyimides are reviewed. The fabrication and properties of polyimide/graphite fiber composites using A-type polyimide prepolymers as the matrix are also reviewed. An alternate method for preparing processable A-type polyimides by means of in situ polymerization of monomer reactants (PMR) on the fiber reinforcement is described. The elevated temperature properties of A-type PMR/graphite fiber composites are also presented.

  18. ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF NILGIRIS DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU

    PubMed Central

    Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S. S.; Rajan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by previous collectors. In addition a number of exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine like Homoeopathy and Unani have not been collected and preserved as herbarium records. The present paper lists 36 species of wild plants and 69 species of exotics. Their areas of occurrence, phonological data, accession numbers, and names of collectors have been given. PMID:22556568

  19. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  20. Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato

    SciTech Connect

    Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.