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Sample records for additives alternative additiver

  1. Dynamical regimes of lipids in additivated liposomes with enhanced elasticity: A field-cycling NMR relaxometry approach.

    PubMed

    Fraenza, Carla C; Anoardo, Esteban

    2017-09-01

    We study the molecular dynamics of lipids in binary large unilamellar liposomes suspended in D2O composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) or soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC) additivated with different percentiles of sodium deoxycholate (SDC). We use the fast field-cycling proton NMR relaxometry technique over a wide timescale and at diverse temperatures. A model previously validated in different formulations is here employed for the relaxometric analysis of elastic vesicles. A new dynamical regime is observed for the first time in additivated DMPC and additivated/non-additivated SPC liposomes. This surprising feature is discussed in terms of vesicle shape fluctuations, enhanced elasticity and lipid & additive diffusion within the membrane. The continuum elastic theory is revisited for a better understanding of recent experiments and those here presented. We address the point of deformability measurements across rigid permeable barriers versus measurements of the bending elastic modulus in free-standing vesicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Additive Effectiveness Investigations in Alternative Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    refers to synthetic paraffinic kerosene generated through the Fischer-Tropsch process. Basically, a carbon source (coal, natural gas, biomass) is...converted to process gas ( carbon monoxide, CO, and hydrogen, H) and then catalytically reassembled into larger hydrocarbons. There are two basic types...derived from pine tree resin 2) Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (FSII) – Di Ethylene Glycol Methyl Ether (DiEGME). 3) Static Dissipater Additive (SDA

  3. Learning Basic Addition Facts from Choosing between Alternative Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of addition facts was investigated in a practice study. Participants were 103 Grade 1 children who practiced simple addition problems with three different methods: (a) writing down the answer, (b) choosing between two alternative answers, and (c) filling in the second missing addend. On a test with simple addition problems,…

  4. 9. Photocopy of 1940 architectural drawing titled: 'Alternations & Additions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of 1940 architectural drawing titled: 'Alternations & Additions to (4290) Hosital, Sections' includes section and elevation views. Dated 4-12-40. HABS film is a high-contrast 8x10' negative made from original drawing in the collection of Housing and Engineering Services, Fort Lewis, WA. - Fort Lewis, Post Hospital, Near Ninth Division Drive & Idaho Avenue, DuPont, Pierce County, WA

  5. Alternative current source based Schottky contact with additional electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, R. K.; Aslanova, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    Additional electric field (AEF) in the Schottky contacts (SC) that covered the peripheral contact region wide and the complete contact region narrow (as TMBS diode) SC. Under the influence of AEF is a redistribution of free electrons produced at certain temperatures of the semiconductor, and is formed the space charge region (SCR). As a result of the superposition of the electric fields SCR and AEF occurs the resulting electric field (REF). The REF is distributed along a straight line perpendicular to the contact surface, so that its intensity (and potential) has a minimum value on the metal surface and the maximum value at a great distance from the metal surface deep into the SCR. Under the influence of AEF as a sided force the metal becomes negative pole and semiconductor - positive pole, therefore, SC with AEF becomes an alternative current source (ACS). The Ni-nSi SC with different diameters (20-1000 μm) under the influence of the AEF as sided force have become ACS with electromotive force in the order of 0.1-1.0 mV, which are generated the electric current in the range of 10-9-10-7 A, flowing through the external resistance 1000 Ohm.

  6. Alternative fundamental measure theory for additive hard sphere mixtures.

    PubMed

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2006-11-21

    The purpose of this short paper is to present an alternative fundamental measure theory (FMT) for hard sphere mixtures. Keeping the main features of the original Rosenfeld's FMT [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 980 (1989)] and using the dimensional and the low-density limit conditions a new functional is derived incorporating Boublik's multicomponent extension [Mol. Phys. 59, 371 (1986)] of highly accurate Kolafa's equation of state for pure hard spheres. We test the theory for pure hard spheres and hard sphere mixtures near a planar hard wall and compare the results with the original Rosenfeld's FMT and one of its modifications and with new very accurate simulation data. The test reveals an excellent agreement between the results based on the alternative FMT and simulation data for density profile near a contact and some improvement over the original Rosenfeld's FMT and its modification at the contact region.

  7. Evaluation of Cetane Improver Additive in Alternative Jet Fuel Blends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Registration No. -Technical Report- U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center Detroit Arsenal Warren, Michigan 48397...Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, induding the time for...States Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) evaluated two 2-ethylhexyl nitrate additives to determine the effects of

  8. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  9. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  10. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ALTERNATIVES: MTBE AND ETHANOL ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the U.S. is considering options for additives to reformulated gasoline. To inform this debate the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is conducting a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of three gasoline alternatives. These alternatives include gasoline w...

  12. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AP17 Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for... alternative test method for olefin content in gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the... environmental benefits achieved from our fuels programs. ] DATES: This rule is effective November 21,...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ALTERNATIVES: MTBE AND ETHANOL ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the U.S. is considering options for additives to reformulated gasoline. To inform this debate the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is conducting a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of three gasoline alternatives. These alternatives include gasoline w...

  14. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Disqualification of...

  15. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Disqualification of...

  16. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Disqualification of...

  17. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Disqualification of...

  18. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Disqualification of...

  19. Alternative ankle-brachial index method identifies additional at-risk individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nead, Kevin T.; Cooke, John P.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Leeper, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether utilization of an alternative ankle-brachial index (ABI) calculation method improves mortality risk prediction compared to traditional methods. Background The ABI is used to diagnose peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to identify those at risk for cardiovascular events. Traditionally, the ABI is calculated using the higher of the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial ankle arteries. Studies directly comparing calculation methods are limited. Methods The ABI was calculated at baseline in 1,413 study participants undergoing non-emergent coronary angiography subsequently followed for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. There were 224 individuals assigned to the traditional-PAD group (ABI < 0.90) using the traditional ABI method. Of those remaining, an alternative ABI method utilizing the lower of the two ankle pressures assigned 282 patients to the alternative-PAD group. The 862 individuals not assigned to PAD by either method were the no-PAD group. Results There were 163 mortalities during a median follow-up of 5.0 years. Adjusted Cox regression models showed that the alternative-PAD group had an increased risk for all-cause (HR=1.49; 95% CI, 1.01-2.19) and cardiovascular mortality (HR=3.21; 95% CI, 1.53-6.37) versus the no-PAD group. Additionally, in the no-PAD group, there was an 11% (HR=1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17) increased risk of all-cause mortality per 1mm Hg increased difference between the left and right brachial systolic pressures. Conclusion The implementation of an alternative ABI method and use of the brachial difference identifies individuals at an increased risk for mortality who are currently missed using traditional ABI methods. Current ABI protocols may need to be evaluated. PMID:23707317

  20. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  1. Alternative selection of processing additives to enhance the lifetime of OPVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, J.; Waters, H.; Horie, M.; Smith, G. C.

    2016-03-01

    The use of processing additives is known to accelerate the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and therefore, this paper studies the impact of selecting alternative processing additives for PCPDTBT:PC71BM solar cells in order to improve the stability. The use of naphthalene-based processing additives has been undertaken, which is shown to reduce the initial power conversion efficiency by 23%-42%, primarily due to a decrease in the short-circuit current density, but also fill factor. However, the stability is greatly enhanced by using such additives, with the long term stability (T 50%) enhanced by a factor of four. The results show that there is a trade-off between initial performance and stability to consider when selecting the initial process additives. XPS studies have provided some insight into the decreased degradation and show that using 1-chloronaphthalene (ClN) leads to reduced morphology changes and reduced oxidation of the thiophene-ring within the PCPDTBT backbone.

  2. Couplings and recouplings of four angular momenta: Alternative 9j symbols and spin addition diagrams.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robenilson F; Bitencourt, Ana Carla P; Ragni, Mirco; Prudente, Frederico V; Coletti, Cecilia; Marzuoli, Annalisa; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The Wigner 9j symbols of the first kind-also known as Fano X-coefficients-serve to connect different addition schemes of four angular momenta, widely known examples being the LS and the jj couplings in atomic, molecular, and nuclear spectroscopies. Here, we also consider alternative sequences of binary couplings of four angular momenta, which are dealt through the 9j symbols of the second kind, and are explicitly given by the pentagonal (or Biedenharn-Elliott) identity. These coefficients are essential ingredients in the quantum-mechanical treatments of rotational and polarization phenomena in reaction dynamics and photoinduced processes. We also emphasize the combinatorial structure underlying the extended construction of a previously introduced truncated icosahedral "abacus", and provide extensions useful for algebraical manipulations, semiclassical interpretations, and computational applications, including all the 120 addition schemes.

  3. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  4. Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn–soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom® Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy

  5. Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom(®) Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Clean, agile alternative binders, additives and plasticizers for propellant and explosive formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Hawkins, T.W.; Lindsay, G.A.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) a clean, agile manufacturing of explosives, propellants and pyrotechniques (CANPEP) effort set about to identify new approaches to materials and processes for producing propellants, explosives and pyrotechniques (PEP). The RDX based explosive PBXN-109 and gun propellant M-43 were identified as candidates for which waste minimization and recycling modifications might be implemented in a short time frame. The binders, additives and plasticizers subgroup identified cast non-curable thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) formulations as possible replacement candidates for these formulations. Paste extrudable explosives were also suggested as viable alternatives to PBXN-109. Commercial inert and energetic TPEs are reviewed. Biodegradable and hydrolyzable binders are discussed. The applicability of various types of explosive formulations are reviewed and some issues associated with implementation of recyclable formulations are identified. It is clear that some processing and weaponization modifications will need to be made if any of these approaches are to be implemented. The major advantages of formulations suggested here over PBXN-109 and M-43 is their reuse/recyclability. Formulations using TPE or Paste could by recovered from a generic bomb or propellant and reused if they met specification or easily reprocessed and sold to the mining industry.

  9. Influence of Lubricant Additives on Friction and Wear Characteristics of Compressor parts under the Alternative Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hidehiro; Imai, Hachiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Ueki, Yutaka; Takizawa, Kikuo; Fukushima, Kiyoshi

    From the standpoint of lubricative deficit under the alternative refrigerant/lubricants coexistence, the influence of additives on friction and wear characteristics for compressor parts have been investigated by the wear tester reappeared on friction condition similarly to actual compressor. It has been shown that an ester type base oil containing TCP (tricresyl phosphate) as an extreme pressure agents indicates satisfactory lubrication because of its EP effect. However owning to the deterioration of base oil caused by a cresol which is a reactant of TCP, a hydrolysis inhibitor must be necessary. The results indicates that a hydrolysis inhibitor added to POE is able to not only prevent the base oil from deteriorating but also feed the strength into oil films. On the other hands, in such a case that TCP concentration added in an alkylbenzen type base oil is excess or wear track temperature is higher, wear amounts of compressor parts are increased on account of corrosion wear. The reactivity of TCP depends on wear track temperature and its concentration. Consequently, it is possible that EP effect of TCP has been considered in terms of its concentration and temperature to be appropriated.

  10. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... various fuel parameters including olefin content. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D1319... 80.46(b). On July 6, 2006, the American Petroleum Institute (API) petitioned the Agency to allow ASTM..., that would allow ASTM D6550 as an alternative test method provided no adverse comment was received by...

  11. 75 FR 26165 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...EPA is issuing a proposed rule to amend the diesel sulfur regulations to allow refiners, importers, distributors, and retailers of highway diesel fuel the option to use an alternative affirmative defense if the Agency finds highway diesel fuel samples above the specified sulfur standard at retail facilities. This rule also proposes to amend the gasoline benzene regulations to allow disqualified small refiners the same opportunity to generate gasoline benzene credits as that afforded to non-small refiners.

  12. 40 CFR 86.439-78 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of additions and changes. 86.439-78 Section 86.439-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.439... under § 86.438-78, notify the Administrator concurrently with the addition of a vehicle or the making of...

  13. 40 CFR 86.439-78 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of additions and changes. 86.439-78 Section 86.439-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.439... under § 86.438-78, notify the Administrator concurrently with the addition of a vehicle or the making of...

  14. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... additional construction requirements. Records must be maintained, for the useful life of the pipeline... meet this additional construction requirement: (a) Quality assurance (1) The construction of the pipeline segment must be done under a quality assurance plan addressing pipe inspection, hauling and...

  15. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... additional construction requirements. Records must be maintained, for the useful life of the pipeline... meet this additional construction requirement: (a) Quality assurance (1) The construction of the pipeline segment must be done under a quality assurance plan addressing pipe inspection, hauling and...

  16. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management program at all mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and/or rolling pipe to be... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe...

  17. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management program at all mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and/or rolling pipe to be... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe...

  18. The addition of oat fiber and natural alternative sweeteners in the manufacture of plain yogurt.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, E; McGregor, J U; Traylor, S

    1998-03-01

    Calorie-reduced yogurts that were fortified with 1.32% oat fiber were prepared from lactose-hydrolyzed milk, alone and supplemented with 2 and 4% sucrose or with 1.6, 3.6, and 5.5% fructose. Treated samples were compared with unsweetened yogurt and with yogurts sweetened with 2, 4, and 6% sucrose. Addition of 5.5% fructose increased fermentation time by 60%, slowing down the production of lactic, pyruvic, acetic, and propionic acids and the consumption of hippuric and orotic acids. Lactose hydrolysis had an inhibitory effect on starter activity at the beginning of fermentation and a stimulatory effect at the end of fermentation. Fiber addition led to increases in concentrations of acetic and propionic acid. Lactobacilli counts were lower in samples treated with fructose. The use of hydrolyzed milk had a stimulatory effect on total bacteria and lactobacilli counts throughout the cold storage period. After 28 d of storage, lactobacilli counts were consistently higher in fiber-fortified yogurts, but total bacteria counts were lower. Apparent viscosity increased with the addition of sweetener and fiber. Lactose-hydrolyzed and fructose yogurts had the highest viscosity values. Samples sweetened with sucrose received the highest scores for flavor. Fiber addition decreased overall flavor quality. The lactose-hydrolyzed yogurts received the highest flavor scores, independent of fiber fortification. Fiber addition improved the body and texture of unsweetened yogurts but lowered overall scores for body and texture in yogurts sweetened with sucrose.

  19. Effects of alternative cryoprotectants, diluents, straw size and cholesterol addition on cryopreserved rooster sperm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rooster sperm do not cryopreserve well. This is due in part to osmotic changes that sperm undergo during addition and removal of cryoprotectant (CPA), as well as membrane damage during the membrane phase transition from fluid at 37 degrees C to gel at low temperatures. When a CPA is removed from spe...

  20. Additional multifocal sulcus-based intraocular lens: alternative to multifocal intraocular lens in the capsular bag.

    PubMed

    Schrecker, Jens; Kroeber, Sandra; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim

    2013-04-01

    To compare the visual outcomes of additional multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) for sulcus fixation with those of standard multifocal IOLs in the capsular bag. Department of Ophthalmology, Rudolf-Virchow-Klinikum Glauchau, Glauchau, Germany. Prospective controlled clinical trial. Eyes had phacoemulsification and implantation of a monofocal IOL in the capsular bag and an additional aberration-free diffractive IOL in the ciliary sulcus (multifocal add-on IOL group). Measurements of uncorrected and distance-corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; contrast sensitivity; and defocus curve were performed 3 months postoperatively. Results were compared with those in eyes with an aberration-correcting diffractive posterior chamber IOL (multifocal PC IOL group). The multifocal add-on IOL group comprised 34 eyes of 20 patients and the multifocal PC IOL group, 31 eyes of 17 patients. Cataract surgery, IOL implantation, and the postoperative course were uneventful in all cases. There were no statistically significant differences in uncorrected and distance-corrected distance, intermediate, or near visual acuities between the 2 groups. The median uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.00 logMAR in both groups, and the median uncorrected near visual acuity was 0.10 logMAR in both groups. Contrast sensitivity testing yielded significantly better results in the multifocal add-on IOL group, especially at spatial frequencies over 1.5 cycles per degree. Defocus curves were similar in the 2 groups. Visual performance with a multifocal diffractive add-on IOL was equivalent to that achieved with a commonly used multifocal diffractive PC IOL. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Valuation of OSA process and folic acid addition as excess sludge minimization alternatives applied in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Martins, C L; Velho, V F; Ramos, S R A; Pires, A S C D; Duarte, E C N F A; Costa, R H R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA)-process and the folic acid addition applied in the activated sludge process to reduce the excess sludge production. The study was monitored during two distinct periods: activated sludge system with OSA-process, and activated sludge system with folic acid addition. The observed sludge yields (Yobs) were 0.30 and 0.08 kgTSS kg(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), control phase and OSA-process (period 1); 0.33 and 0.18 kgTSS kg(-1) COD, control phase and folic acid addition (period 2). The Yobs decreased by 73 and 45% in phases with the OSA-process and folic acid addition, respectively, compared with the control phases. The sludge minimization alternatives result in a decrease in excess sludge production, without negatively affecting the performance of the effluent treatment.

  2. Investigation in the use of plasma arc welding and alternative feedstock delivery method in additive manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhuzaim, Abdullah F.

    The work conducted for this thesis was to investigate the use of plasma arc welding (PAW) and steel shot as a means of additive manufacturing. A robotic PAW system and automatic shot feeder were used to manufacture linear walls approximately 100 mm long by 7 mm wide and 20 mm tall. The walls were built, layer-by-layer, on plain carbon steel substrate by adding individual 2.5 mm diameter plain carbon steel shot. Each layer was built, shot-by-shot, using a pulse of arc current to form a molten pool on the deposit into which each shot was deposited and melted. The deposition rate, a measure of productivity, was approximately 50 g/hour. Three walls were built using the same conditions except for the deposit preheat temperature prior to adding each new layer. The deposit preheat temperature was controlled by allowing the deposit to cool after each layer for an amount of time called the inter-layer wait time. The walls were sectioned and grain size and hardness distribution were measured as a function of wall height. The results indicated that, for all specimens, deposit grain size increased and hardness decreased as wall height increased. Furthermore, average grain size decreased and hardness increased as interlayer wait time increased. An analytical heat flow model was developed to study the influence of interlayer wait time on deposit temperature and therefore grain size and hardness. The results of the model indicated that as wall height increased, the rate of deposit heat removal by conduction to the substrate decreased leading to a higher preheat temperature after a fixed interlayer wait time causing grain size to increase as wall height increased. However, the model results also show that as wall height increased, the deposit surface area from which heat energy is lost via convection and radiation increased. The model also demonstrated that the use of a means of forced convection to rapidly remove heat from the deposit could be an effective way to boost

  3. Black liquor viscosity reduction through salt additives: A novel environmentally benign processing alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Processing black liquor at high solids would reduce SO{sub x} emissions, facilitate the use of non-chlorine bleaching techniques and enhance the energy efficiency of the pulping process. However, black liquor exhibits and exponential increase in viscosity as its solids content rises, thus hindering its processability in the composition range of interest (>70% solids). In this study, we present a new approach for controlling viscosity at high solids content by {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} black liquor through addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts increases the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several salts capable of viscosity reduction by as much as two orders of magnitude have been identified. The effects of cation size, solution pH and temperature on viscosity reduction is presented and interpreted in terms of the underlying principles of {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

  4. Biological activities of thermo-tolerant microbes from fermented rice bran as an alternative microbial feed additive.

    PubMed

    Koh, J H; Suh, H J

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the commercial potential of new microbial feed additive, Issatchenkia orientalis Y266 and Bacillus subtilis B266 from commercial fermented rice bran were tested for their tolerance or resistance to pH, bile, oxgall, and temperature. It was found that the strains grew very well up to pH 3.0 and resistant to relatively high concentrations of bile salt and oxgall. I. orientalis and B. subtilis are extremely tolerant in range of 70-90 degrees C in solid medium. B. subtilis B266 also has excellent tolerant property up to 90 degrees C in liquid medium. The health indexes (the microflora in the small intestines and the antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus) of chicks were significantly improved in the fermented rice bran with these strains (0.25% addition to diet) in comparison with the Avilamycin (20 mg/kg diet)-fed group (p < 0.05). The fermented rice bran-fed group showed a better microbial flora in the small intestines. Accordingly, it would appear that the fermented rice bran with these strains may be a potential candidate for an alternative microbial feed additive.

  5. Life without post-transcriptional addition of G-1: two alternatives for tRNAHis identity in Eukarya.

    PubMed

    Rao, Bhalchandra S; Jackman, Jane E

    2015-02-01

    The identity of tRNA(His) is strongly associated with the presence of an additional 5'-guanosine residue (G-1) in all three domains of life. The critical nature of the G-1 residue is underscored by the fact that two entirely distinct mechanisms for its acquisition are observed, with cotranscriptional incorporation observed in Bacteria, while post-transcriptional addition of G-1 occurs in Eukarya. Here, through our investigation of eukaryotes that lack obvious homologs of the post-transcriptional G-1-addition enzyme Thg1, we identify alternative pathways to tRNA(His) identity that controvert these well-established rules. We demonstrate that Trypanosoma brucei, like Acanthamoeba castellanii, lacks the G-1 identity element on tRNA(His) and utilizes a noncanonical G-1-independent histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS). Purified HisRS enzymes from A. castellanii and T. brucei exhibit a mechanism of tRNA(His) recognition that is distinct from canonical G-1-dependent synthetases. Moreover, noncanonical HisRS enzymes genetically complement the loss of THG1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrating the biological relevance of the G-1-independent aminoacylation activity. In contrast, in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is another Thg1-independent eukaryote, the G-1 residue is maintained, but here its acquisition is noncanonical. In this case, the G-1 is encoded and apparently retained after 5' end processing, which has so far only been observed in Bacteria and organelles. Collectively, these observations unearth a widespread and previously unappreciated diversity in eukaryotic tRNA(His) identity mechanisms.

  6. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and MS2 coliphage: effects of additives and alternative container materials.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael B; Iriarte, Mercedes; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-04-15

    The use of alternative container materials and added oxidants accelerated the inactivation of MS2 coliphage and Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. bacteria during solar water disinfection (SODIS) trials. Specifically, bottles made from polypropylene copolymer (PPCO), a partially UVB-transparent plastic, resulted in three-log inactivation of these organisms in approximately half the time required for disinfection in bottles made from PET, polycarbonate, or Tritan(®), which absorb most UVB light. Furthermore, the addition of 125 mg/L sodium percarbonate in combination with either citric acid or copper plus ascorbate tended to accelerate inactivation by factors of 1.4-19. Finally, it was observed that the inactivation of E. coli and enterococci derived from local wastewater was far slower than the inactivation of laboratory-cultured E. coli and Enterococcus spp., while the inactivation of MS2 was slowest of all. These results highlight the importance of UVB in SODIS under certain conditions, and also the greater sunlight resistance of some viruses and of bacteria of fecal origin, as compared to the laboratory-cultured bacteria commonly used to model their inactivation. Furthermore, this study illustrates promising new avenues for accelerating the inactivation of bacteria and viruses by solar disinfection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Additional comparisons of randomization-test procedures for single-case multiple-baseline designs: Alternative effect types.

    PubMed

    Levin, Joel R; Ferron, John M; Gafurov, Boris S

    2017-08-01

    A number of randomization statistical procedures have been developed to analyze the results from single-case multiple-baseline intervention investigations. In a previous simulation study, comparisons of the various procedures revealed distinct differences among them in their ability to detect immediate abrupt intervention effects of moderate size, with some procedures (typically those with randomized intervention start points) exhibiting power that was both respectable and superior to other procedures (typically those with single fixed intervention start points). In Investigation 1 of the present follow-up simulation study, we found that when the same randomization-test procedures were applied to either delayed abrupt or immediate gradual intervention effects: (1) the powers of all of the procedures were severely diminished; and (2) in contrast to the previous study's results, the single fixed intervention start-point procedures generally outperformed those with randomized intervention start points. In Investigation 2 we additionally demonstrated that if researchers are able to successfully anticipate the specific alternative effect types, it is possible for them to formulate adjusted versions of the original randomization-test procedures that can recapture substantial proportions of the lost powers. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Meta-analytic study of organic acids as an alternative performance-enhancing feed additive to antibiotics for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Polycarpo, G V; Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Cruz-Polycarpo, V C; Dadalt, J C; Rodrigues, P H M; Albuquerque, R

    2017-10-01

    The effect of organic acids as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance of broiler chickens was evaluated by meta-analysis, identifying and quantifying the main factors that influence results. A total of 51,960 broilers from 121 articles published between 1991 and 2016 were used. Interactions of additives [non-supplemented group (control), organic acids, and growth promoter antibiotics] with microbial challenge (with or without inoculation of pathogenic microorganisms) were studied on performance variables. Moreover, the effects of organic acids, used individually or in blends, were evaluated. Relative values of average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were obtained in relation to control: ΔADG and ΔADFI, respectively. Analysis of variance-covariance revealed lower ADG with organic acids when compared to antibiotics (P < 0.05). There was a significant interaction between the additives and the challenge on feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.01) and on viability (P < 0.05). Without challenge, organic acids improved broilers' FCR (P < 0.01), presenting results similar to antibiotics (P > 0.05). Under challenge, the organic acids were again effective on FCR (-5.67% in relation to control, P < 0.05), but they did not match antibiotics (-13.40% in relation to control, P < 0.01). Viability was improved only under challenge conditions, and only by antibiotics (+4.39% in relation to control, P < 0.05). ADG (P < 0.05) and FCR (P < 0.01) were increased by blends of organic acids, but not by the organic acids used alone (P > 0.05). ADFI and production factor were not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05). ΔADFI of organic-acid supplemented group showed a linear influence on ΔADG, which increases 0.64% at every 1% increase in ΔADFI. In conclusion, organic acids can be utilized as performance enhancing, but the results are lower than those found with antibiotics, particularly under microbial challenge. The blends of organic acids provide

  9. 77 FR 60708 - Additional Waiver Granted to and Alternative Requirement for the Town of Union, New York's CDBG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Treatment Plant ($716,000 budgeted). The water plant storage facility was damaged by the flood and a new.... Village of Endicott Water Plant ($150,000 budgeted) and Western Heights Blvd. Water Tank Access ($6,000 budgeted). The project will provide additional power and repairs to the water plant and the plant's...

  10. Fractionated Helical Tomotherapy as an alternative to radiosurgery in patients unwilling to undergo additional radiosurgery for recurrent brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, P; Lightstone, A W; Hyde, D E; Davey, P

    2010-01-01

    Our clinic routinely treats brain metastases with stereotactic radiosurgery using a 6 megavoltage (MV) linear accelerator, cones, and a surgically attached head frame. Four patients declined repeat radiosurgery for new lesions due to their previous discomfort and a fifth patient could not complete radiosurgery because of uncontrolled nausea. Instead patients were treated with Helical Tomotherapy (HT). This report discusses the spatial dose distribution of HT as measured in a head phantom and the clinical course of these five patients. The planning target volume (PTV) was a 3 mm geometric expansion of the gross tumour volume (GTV). The prescribed dose to the PTV was 27 Gy in five daily fractions with the distribution optimised to deliver 30 Gy to the GTV. Patients were immobilised with a mask and the lesions were targeted by MV computerised tomography, an inherent feature of the system. One patient died six weeks later from systemic disease; the remaining patients survived eight to 16 months. No patient experienced an exacerbation of neurological symptoms following Helical Tomotherapy. These results suggest that fractionated Helical Tomotherapy for brain metastases may be a viable alternative to radiosurgery in patients unable or unwilling to undergo that procedure. PMID:20139253

  11. Comparative Study of Alternative Fuel Icing Inhibitor Additive Properties & Chemical Analysis of Metal Speciation in Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Jet fuels are a mixture of diverse hydrocarbon chemical species that serve as a fuel source for jet aircraft engines. Jet fuels also contain...Figure 14. Freeze points of FSII-water mixtures by DSC, ASTM-D1177 35 Figure 15. Viscosity profile for the coolilng cycle of 10-100...disalicylidene-1,2-propanediamine (MDA). Fuel System Icing Inhibitor Additives: Petroleum is composed of a diverse mixture of hydrocarbons such as

  12. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD.

  13. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails.

    PubMed

    Manafi, M; Hedayati, M; Khalaji, S

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters.

  14. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails

    PubMed Central

    Manafi, M.; Hedayati, M.; Khalaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  15. Sludge reduction by direct addition of chlorine dioxide into a sequencing batch reactor under operational mode of repeatedly alternating aeration/non-aeration.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Liu, Weiyi; Li, Yuanmei; Xiao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of direct addition of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) into a repeatedly alternating aeration/non-aeration sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on its sludge reduction and process performance was investigated. The experimental results showed that the sludge reduction efficiency was 32.9% and the observed growth yield (Yobs) of SBR was 0.11 kg VSS (volatile suspended solids) /kg COD (chemical oxygen demand) for 80 days' operation at the optimum ClO2 dosage of 2.0 mg/g TSS (total suspended solids). It was speculated that cell lysis and cryptic growth, uncoupled metabolism and endogenous metabolism were jointly responsible for the sludge reduction in this study. COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the effluent increased on average 29.47, 4.44, 1.97 and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. However, the effluent quality still satisfied the first-class B discharge standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China. In that case, the sludge maintained fine viability with the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) being 14.47 mg O2/(g VSS·h) and demonstrated good settleability with the sludge volume index (SVI) being 116 mL/g. The extra cost of sludge reduction at the optimum ClO2 dosage was estimated to be 2.24 CNY (or 0.36 dollar)/kg dry sludge.

  16. Evaluation of food additives as alternative or complementary chemicals to conventional fungicides for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit.

    PubMed

    Palou, Lluis; Smilanick, Joseph L; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate potential alternatives to conventional fungicides to control decay, more than 20 food additives and generally regarded as safe compounds were tested at three concentrations in in vivo primary screenings with several cultivars of California peaches, nectarines, and plums that had been artificially inoculated with seven major postharvest pathogens: Monilinia fructicola, Botrytis cinerea, Geotrichum candidum, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium expansum, Mucor piriformis, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Overall, the best compounds were 200 mM potassium sorbate (PS), 200 mM sodium benzoate (SB), 200 mM sodium sorbate, 100 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose, 400 mM sodium carbonate, and 250 mM potassium carbonate. Sodium and ammonium molybdates, acid lactic, and hydrogen peroxide were somewhat effective but were phytotoxic to fruit skin tissues. However, the best compounds lacked effectiveness and persistence when tested against brown rot in small-scale trials of 60-s dips in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures; PS and SB reduced brown rot incidence by less than 40%. Rinsing treated fruit with tap water reduced the efficacy of the compounds by up to 30%. In contrast, heating the solutions to 55 or 60 degrees C significantly increased treatment efficacy. Brown rot incidence and severity were reduced by 35 and 25%, respectively, on PS-treated peaches after 7 days of incubation at 20 degrees C. However, treatment efficacy was not superior to that with water alone at these temperatures. In semicommercial trials, mixtures of fludioxonil with PS, SB, or 2-deoxy-D-glucose applied as fruit coatings on a packing line were not synergistic in their effect on brown rot, gray mold, and sour rot.

  17. Evaluation of food additives and low-toxicity compounds as alternative chemicals for the control of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum on citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Palou, Lluís; Usall, Josep; Smilanick, Joseph L; Aguilar, Maria-José; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2002-05-01

    The effectiveness of low-toxicity chemicals as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides for the control of post-harvest green and blue moulds of citrus was evaluated. A preliminary selection of chemicals, mostly common food additives, was made through in vivo primary screenings with oranges artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or P italicum. Selected compounds and mixtures were tested as heated solutions in small-scale trials. Immersion of artificially inoculated oranges or lemons for 120 s in solutions at 40.6 degrees C and natural pH of potassium sorbate (0.2 M), sodium benzoate (0.2 M) or mixtures (0.1 + 0.1 M) of potassium sorbate with sodium benzoate, sodium propionate or sodium acetate were the most effective organic acid salts tested and reduced green mould by 70-80% after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. The mixtures did not significantly enhance the effectiveness of potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate alone. These solutions were as effective as sodium carbonate or calcium polysulphide treatments and, in general, they were more effective on lemons than on oranges. Satisfactory control of green and blue moulds was obtained by dipping oranges for 150 s in solutions of sodium molybdate (24.2 mM) or ammonium molybdate (1.0 mM) at 48 or 53 degrees C, but not at 20 degrees C. At 53 degrees C, however, the effectiveness of hot water was not enhanced by either molybdate. Molybdenum salts at higher concentrations were phytotoxic and stained the fruit. At non-phytotoxic concentrations, the effectiveness of these solutions was more influenced by temperature than by concentration. In general, the inhibitory effects of all compounds tested were not fungicidal but fungistatic and not very persistent. In conclusion, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and ammonium molybdate, among the wide range of chemicals tested, were superior for the control of post-harvest Penicillium decay of citrus fruit.

  18. Effects of strains, strain crosses and environments on additive genetic and phenotypic variances in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Noor, R R; Barker, J S; Kinghorn, B P

    1993-01-12

    The stability of phenotypic, additive genetic and environmental variances of thorax length of Drosophila melanogaster in pure and synthetic strains was examined in two different environments. Two pure strains from different geographic locations (Melbourne and Townsville) were used, together with three synthetic populations formed from them. The existence of differences in thorax length between the Melbourne and Townsville populations, genotype by environment interaction, and heterosis in crosses between these populations indicate that they are genetically different. Thus geographic separation can cause differences in mean thorax length of flies from different populations. Both the difference in selection histories between the two localities and drift could lead to these differences. Up to the thirty fifth generation there was no evidence of any reduction in the difference between the Melbourne and Townsville populations, in either laboratory environment. The genetic differentiation of strains therefore may be maintained over many generations under new environmental conditions. The fluctuation over generations of heterosis of thorax length is possibly caused by the fluctuation of the rate of loss of favourable epistatic interaction in crossbred genotypes in combination with natural selection effects. V(p) was significantly higher in poor than in the good environment. This higher V(p) in the poor environment is most likly due to higher non additive genetic variance. V(p) was also significantly influenced by strain. In general, V(p) values of synthetic strains were higher than those of pure strains in both environments. Finally, the additive and environmental variances of thorax length were relatively stable across strains, generations and environments. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Wirkung von Herkünften, Kreuzungen und Umwelten auf additiv-genetische und phänotypische Varianzen in Drosophila melanogaster Die Stabilität phänotypischer, additiv-genetischer und umweltbedingter

  19. A cost-benefit analysis of blood donor vaccination as an alternative to additional DNA testing for reducing transfusion transmission of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Fischinger, J M; Stephan, B; Wasserscheid, K; Eichler, H; Gärtner, B C

    2010-11-16

    A survey-based, cost-benefit analysis was performed comparing blood screening strategies with vaccination strategies for the reduction of transfusion transmission of HBV. 231 whole blood donors and 126 apheresis donors were eligible and completed a questionnaire detailing their donation habits. The cost-benefit analysis included current mandatory HBV testing (HbsAg+anti-Hbc, A1), A1 with additional nucleic acid testing (NAT) for minipool (A2) or individual donation testing (A3), as well as HBV vaccination strategies using time-dependant (B1) or titre dependent booster vaccination solely (B2), or B2 in addition to current mandatory testing procedures (B3). Different cost models were applied using a 5% rate of discount. Absolute costs for current mandatory testing procedures (A1) over 20 years in Germany were €1009 million. Additional NAT would lead to incremental costs of 43% (A2) or 339% (A3), respectively. Vaccination strategies B1 and B2 showed cost-reductions relative to A1 of 30% and 14%, respectively. The number of remaining HBV infections could be reduced from 360 (for A1) to 13, using vaccination, compared with 144 or 105 remaining infections for A2 or A3, respectively. Absolute cost per prevented infection is similar (€2.0 million) for A2 and B3. HBV vaccination offers the near-elimination of transfusion infections while representing a potential cost-reduction.

  20. Use of the 2-μm cw laser as addition and/or alternative for the Nd:YAG in urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Lock, Tycho; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Klaessens, John

    2007-02-01

    Recently, 2 μm cw laser systems have been introduced for surgery. The 2 μm wavelength is predominantly absorbed by water and enables effective cutting and ablation of tissue similar to the cw CO II laser. In contrast to the CO II laser, the 2 μm wavelength is delivered through fiber optics and available for endoscopic procedures. After many years of experience with the 1.06 μm Nd:YAG laser, we started to use the 2 μm cw laser as alternative for various urological treatments. The treatments strategies and optimal settings were examined in the lab comparing the two 1.06 and 2 μm wavelengths performing thermal measurements. Consequently, the laser was applied for various urological cases. Penile tumors were resected with haemostatic effects and good aesthetic healing comparable with the Nd:YAG laser. Although the Nd:YAG has initially a deeper penetration, the blackening of the fiber during tissue cutting, provides a more superficial effect like the 2 μm laser. Bladder (pre)malignancies were ablated after biopsy. Only with higher stage tumors, coagulation depth of the Nd:YAG might be preferable for adequate treatment. Strictures in the urethra were incised and stents were effectively desobstructed: one patient with a stent implanted after a pelvic trauma, and one patient with catheterizable apedico stoma stenoses. The thermal damage during incision to deeper layers is minimal so recurrence due to scarring is not expected. Also hair grow in patients who underwent urethroplasty was effectively treated and scrotal atheromata cysts were effectively resected without recurrence. Laparoscopic nefrectomies are being considered using the 2 μm cw laser. The 2 μm cw laser has shown to be a versatile instrument for effective treatment of various urological indications. More patients and long term results are needed to prove the clinical significance compared to other treatment modalities

  1. Why were alternating-current-driven electrochemiluminescence properties from Ru(bpy)3(2+) dramatically improved by the addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles?

    PubMed

    Tsuneyasu, Shota; Ichihara, Kazuki; Nakamura, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Norihisa

    2016-06-28

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) is a phenomenon in which light is emitted from the excited state of a redox-active material generated by electrochemical reactions. Among light-emitting devices, ECL devices have various advantages in terms of structure and ease of fabrication, and therefore, they are expected to be next-generation emitting devices. In this study, we introduced rutile-type titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in a Ru(ii)-complex-based electrolyte to improve the emission properties of an alternating current (AC)-driven ECL device. The properties of the ECL device with TiO2 NPs were greatly improved (emission luminescence, 165 cd m(-2); half-life time, 1000 s) compared to a previously reported AC-driven ECL device without nanoparticles. To determine how TiO2 NPs helped in achieving high emission luminescence and long-term stability, we measured the optical and electrochemical properties of the Ru(bpy)3(2+)-based ECL solution in detail. The PL intensity of Ru(bpy)3(2+) was increased by adding TiO2 NPs, which indicated that the suppression of non-radiative quenching of the complex's excited states could improve the ECL intensity. With respect to the enhanced stability, electron transfers between Ru(bpy)3(2+) and TiO2 were suggested by detailed electrochemical measurements. These electron transfers occurred from the reduced Ru(bpy)3(2+) species to the TiO2, and subsequently, from the TiO2 to the oxidized Ru(bpy)3(2+) species. Such electron transfers are thought to improve the balance of the redox reactions in the ECL device, leading to long-term stability.

  2. Second-order advantage obtained from standard addition first-order instrumental data and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares. Calculation of the feasible bands of results.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Naimeh; Bahram, Morteza; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2014-03-25

    In order to achieve the second-order advantage, second-order data per sample is usually required, e.g., kinetic-spectrophotometric data. In this study, instead of monitoring the time evolution of spectra (and collecting the kinetic-spectrophotometric data) replicate spectra are used to build a virtual second order data. This data matrix (replicate mode×λ) is rank deficient. Augmentation of these data with standard addition data [or standard sample(s)] will break the rank deficiency, making the quantification of the analyte of interest possible. The MCR-ALS algorithm was applied for the resolution and quantitation of the analyte in both simulated and experimental data sets. In order to evaluate the rotational ambiguity in the retrieved solutions, the MCR-BANDS algorithm was employed. It has been shown that the reliability of the quantitative results significantly depends on the amount of spectral overlap in the spectral region of occurrence of the compound of interest and the remaining constituent(s). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Surfactant addition and alternating current electrophoretic oscillation during size fractionation of nanoparticles in channels with two or three different height segments.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jie; Hamblin, Mark N; Stout, John M; Tolley, H Dennis; Maynes, R Daniel; Woolley, Adam T; Hawkins, Aaron R; Lee, Milton L

    2011-12-16

    An array of parallel planar nanochannels containing two or three segments with varying inner heights was fabricated and used for size fractionation of inorganic and biological nanoparticles. A liquid suspension of the particles was simply drawn through the nanochannels via capillary action. Using fluorescently labeled 30 nm polyacrylonitrile beads, different trapping behaviors were compared using nanochannels with 200-45 nm and 208-54-30 nm height segments. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant to the liquid suspension and application of an AC electric field were shown to aid in the prevention of channel clogging. After initial particle trapping at the segment interfaces, significant particle redistribution occurred when applying a sinusoidal 8V peak-to-peak oscillating voltage with a frequency of 150 Hz and DC offset of 4V. Using the 208-54-30 nm channels, 30 nm hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids were divided into three fractions. When the AC electric field was applied to this trapped sample, all of the virus particles passed through the interfaces and accumulated at the channel ends.

  4. Addition of fumaric acid and sodium benzoate as an alternative method to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Comes, Justin E; Beelman, Robert B

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preservative treatment capable of the Food and Drug Administration-mandated 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider. Unpreserved apple cider was treated with generally recognized as safe acidulants and preservatives before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 in test tubes and subjected to mild heat treatments (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) followed by refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). Fumaric acid had significant (P < 0.05) bactericidal effect when added to cider at 0.10% (wt/vol) and adjusted to pH 3.3, but citric and malic acid had no effect. Strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.96) between increasing undissociated fumaric acid concentrations and increasing log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider indicated the undissociated acid to be the bactericidal form. The treatment that achieved the 5-log reduction in three commercial ciders was the addition of fumaric acid (0.15%, wt/vol) and sodium benzoate (0.05%, wt/vol) followed by holding at 25 degrees C for 6 h before 24 h of refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Subsequent experiments revealed that the same preservatives added to cider in flasks resulted in a more than 5-log reduction in less than 5 and 2 h when held at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The treatment also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced total aerobic counts in commercial ciders to populations less than those of pasteurized and raw ciders from the same source (after 5 and 21 days of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C, respectively). Sensory evaluation of the same ciders revealed that consumers found the preservative-treated cider to be acceptable.

  5. All About Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A primer on alternative schools. Described are existing programs in different areas, philosophy of the alternative schools, funding, student behavior, community relations, accountability, State regulations, management, and the environment of the alternative school. A list of sources of additional information on alternative schools is included.…

  6. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  7. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  8. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002435.htm Food additives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food additives are substances that become part of a food ...

  9. There is no alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Louhiala, Pekka

    2010-12-01

    The term 'alternative medicine' is a misnomer because it suggests that there are two kinds of medicine alternative to each other. Although commonly used, the term is problematic. It escapes a meaningful definition, and 'alternative medicine' cannot be clearly differentiated from 'conventional medicine'. The nature of 'alternative' in 'alternative medicine' is anything but clear. In addition, bundling all the so-called alternative therapies under one heading is misleading. Due to the purely rhetoric nature of the 'alternativity', there seems to be no such thing as 'alternative medicine' in any meaningful sense.

  10. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  11. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  12. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... use practices like acupuncture in medicine. But until recently, most Western hospitals didn't provide any alternative ... medicine is often used instead of conventional medical techniques. Complementary medicine is used in addition to conventional ...

  14. Alternative strategies: a better alternative.

    PubMed

    Doody, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    Alternatives can be defined as being any financial asset other than traditional stocks and bonds. They include marketable alternatives, private capital, and equity real estate. There are two primary reasons for investing in alternatives: the potential for greater return and the opportunity to diversify a portfolio. Although alternatives were challenged in the highly volatile environment that existed in 2008 and early 2009, they generally lived up to expectations.

  15. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  16. Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefonek, Tom; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This special double issue focuses on the issue of alternative assessment and its place in educational reform. "Alternative Assessment: A National Perspective" (T. Stefonek) emphasizes that the fundamental purposes of new assessment methods are grounded in educational goals, meaningful outcomes, and curricular and instructional programs…

  17. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annett, Larry D.

    A model is presented for the categorizing of alternative schools, then the nature of the free school, which represents the essence of the alternative school movement, is examined. Strengths and weaknesses of court, legislative, and administrative approaches to resolve governance issues are set forth. This is followed by an analysis of three…

  18. Pleasant Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unks, Gerald

    1981-01-01

    The author feels that the current wave of political conservatism may prove beneficial to education if the national mood of decentralization and decontrol leads to a resurgence of community involvement and locally-developed alternatives. He cites several examples of successful urban alternative schools. (SJL)

  19. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  1. Alternatives to blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Donat R; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2013-05-25

    The use of alternatives to allogeneic blood continues to rest on the principles that blood transfusions have inherent risks, associated costs, and affect the blood inventory available for health-care delivery. Increasing evidence exists of a fall in the use of blood because of associated costs and adverse outcomes, and suggests that the challenge for the use of alternatives to blood components will similarly be driven by costs and patient outcomes. Additionally, the risk-benefit profiles of alternatives to blood transfusion such as autologous blood procurement, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and haemostatic agents are under investigation. Nevertheless, the inherent risks of blood, along with the continued rise in blood costs are likely to favour the continued development and use of alternatives to blood transfusion. We summarise the current roles of alternatives to blood in the management of medical and surgical anaemias.

  2. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  3. Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    1998-01-01

    Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

  4. Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    1998-01-01

    Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

  5. ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

  6. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  7. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice…

  8. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  9. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  10. Protocol for the purification of protected carbohydrates: toward coupling automated synthesis to alternate-pump recycling high-performance liquid chromatography† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures and characterization of final compound. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc07584c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gabe; Peng, Tianyuan; Kabotso, Daniel E. K.; Novotny, Milos V.

    2016-01-01

    Given recent advances in automated oligosaccharide synthesis, analytical techniques that can be coupled to a synthetic framework are needed to not just identify but also purify to homogeneity protected carbohydrate compounds at levels of ≥99.5% purity. Herein, an alternate-pump recycling high-performance liquid chromatography (R-HPLC) method has been developed to allow purification of protected carbohydrates at levels of ≥99.5% purity. PMID:27775116

  11. Evaluation of food additives as alternative or complementary chemicals to conventional fungicides for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Among more than twenty food additives and GRAS (generally regarded as safe) compounds that were tested at three concentrations in in vivo primary screenings with several cultivars of California peaches, nectarines, and plums that had been artificially inoculated with seven major postharvest pathogen...

  12. Evaluation of a combination of isotope dilution and single standard addition as an alternative calibration method for the determination of precious metals in lead fire assay buttons by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, Sien; Wambeke, Dorine; De Raedt, Ine; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the application of isotope dilution (for Pt, Pd and Ag) and single standard addition and internal standardization (for the mono-isotopic elements Au and Rh) in the analysis of lead buttons obtained by fire assay using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as an attempt to improve and evaluate the ultimate accuracy and precision of the analytical method. For this purpose, first, a spike lead button, containing the elements of interest in an altered isotopic composition, was prepared. Subsequently, the spike button thus obtained was checked for its homogeneity in terms of element contents and isotope ratios. Additional inductive melting was shown to further improve its homogeneity. In a next step, appropriate portions of this spike button were melted together with an adequate amount of every sample (lead button) to be analyzed and the resulting 'blend' lead buttons were then analyzed using either isotope dilution or single standard addition/internal standardization for quantification. Also external calibration versus matrix-matched lead standards was performed to determine the precious metal concentrations in the same samples, thus allowing comparison of the figures of merit with those of the combined isotope dilution and standard addition/internal standardization approach. Isotope dilution was shown to provide results for the determination of Pt, Pd, and Ag in lead buttons that are more accurate (average deviation between ID result and reference value of < 2%) than those obtained by external calibration (average deviation between experimental result and reference value ≈ 8%). For the mono-isotopic elements Au and Rh, determined via single standard addition and internal standardization, no significant difference was observed between the results provided by the three methods investigated.

  13. Environment and Alternative Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Rajni

    Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and…

  14. Alternative diets.

    PubMed

    Berschneider, Helen M

    2002-02-01

    As pet owners become more conscious of their own diets and the impact it has on their health, they naturally become more interested in what their animal companions are eating and how that might be affecting their pet's health. Many are exploring alternatives to standard commercial pet foods, and some are asking their veterinarians for advice. Small-animal nutrition is an ever-changing field. What veterinarians were taught 10 years ago may no longer be sound advice. This article explores some of the reasoning behind the development of both conventional commercial pet foods and the alternative foods and diets. It questions some of the conventional dogma as well as some of the trendy assumptions in the current marketplace. The intent is to provide the veterinarian with some balanced information on which to base nutritional advice to clients, and to begin forming new opinions or at least asking new questions. Guidelines on formulating a homemade diet for dogs are included.

  15. Effects of Additives on Electrochemical Growth of Cu Film on Co/SiO2/Si Substrate by Alternating Underpotential Deposition of Pb and Surface-Limited Redox Replacement by Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J. S.; Lin, L. Y.; Wu, C. L.; Cheng, Y. L.; Chen, G. S.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of additives to an acidic electrolyte for electrochemical deposition of copper film to prevent corrosion of the Co/SiO2/Si substrate have been investigated. A sacrificial Pb layer was formed by underpotential deposition (UPD), then a Cu layer was prepared using surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR) to exchange the UPD-Pb layer in an acidic copper electrolyte with trisodium citrate, sodium perchlorate, and ethylenediamine as additives. The additives significantly affected the replacement of UPD-Pb by Cu and prevented galvanic corrosion of the Co/SiO2/Si substrate in the acidic Cu electrolyte. The results showed that both sodium perchlorate and ethylenediamine reduced the corrosion of the Co substrate and resulted in Cu film with low electrical resistivity. However, residual Pb was present in the Cu film when using trisodium citrate, as the citrate ions slowed copper displacement. The proposed sequential UPD-Pb and SLRR-Cu growth method may enable electrochemical deposition for fabrication of Cu interconnects on Co substrate from acidic Cu electrolyte.

  16. Alternative Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-11

    JP-8 BACK-UP SLIDES Unclassified 19 What Are Biofuels ? Cellulose “first generation”“second generation” C18:0 C16:1 Triglycerides (fats, oils ...equipment when supplying jet fuel not practicable or cost effective Unclassified 5 erna ve ue s ocus Petroleum Crude Oil (declining discovery / production...on Jet A/A-1 Approved fuels, DXXXX Unclassified 6 JP-8/5 (Commercial Jet Fuel, ASTM Spec) DARPA Alternative Jet Fuels • Agricultural crop oils

  17. Alternate materials for alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports on an extensive investigation of five different crystalline engineering thermoplastics and their reactions to various alternate fuels. The investigation covered acetal copolymer, nylon 6/6, polyphenylene sulfide, PBT polyester, and liquid crystal polymer. These five base resins were used in unfilled, glass fiber reinforced, impact modified, glass/mineral reinforced, and long-glass fiber reinforced grades. All of the materials were tested in ASTM reference Fuel C (50% toluene, 50% iso-octane), Auto-oxidized (sour gas), and Aggressive fuel with M25, M50, and M85 at 60{degrees} and 121{degrees} C. This study was undertaken due to the automotive industry's shift towards alternate fuels and higher operating temperatures.

  18. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  19. Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals; Additional Signal Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    colors on subjective conspicuity, before conducting a two- night, visual-search paradigm -based field experiment to quantitatively determine relative...signal made any difference (2nd column), and the results indicated “no.” With knowledge of the observers’ color-vision, we were able to determine if a...trials on 15-16 May 2017. The test used a visual search paradigm . For most trials, the experimenters displayed a single signal from one of two boats

  20. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  1. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  2. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation.

  3. Looking for an Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  4. Alternate Realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Two identical learners, observing different example input, or the same examples, but in different order, can form different categories and so judge newer/later input differently. (Machine Learning, T. Mitchell, McGraw Hill, 1997 and Asa H., R. Jones, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol 109, # 3/4, pg 159, 2006) It seems certain that each of us experiences a somewhat different reality, the question is just how widely these realities can vary one from another. Perhaps 4% of people exhibit synesthesia, perceiving letters or numbers as colored, numbers and dates as having personalities or occupying locations in space. (Synesthesia, R. Cytowic, MIT Press, 2002) The Sapir- Whorf hypothesis claims that a speakers language influences his category structure and the way he thinks. (Language, thought, and reality, B. Whorf, MIT Press, 1956) Those who are skillful at mathematics may know an additional language and be able to think thoughts that the layman can not. The philosophers Plato and Descartes claimed to have had, at certain moments in their lives, a new view of the world, its basic constituents, and its rules which were totally different from our conventional view of reality. (Reflections on Kurt Godel, H. Wang, MIT Press, 1987, pg. 46) Fairly large scale differences are experienced by those who believe in (make use of) concepts like spirit(s), soul(s), god(s), life after death, platonism or Everett's many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics (The Physics of Immortality, F. Tipler, Doubleday, 1994, pg. 176) )

  5. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Nathanael; Aliev, Ali; Baughman, Ray

    2015-03-01

    There is a large promise for thermophones in high power sonar arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding aerogel-like carbon nanotube sheets demonstrate the best performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large size freestanding carbon nanotube sheets and other even more exotic materials published recently, hampers the field. We present here new alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly and cost effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanoscale materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  6. Alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Askew, W. S.; McNamara, T. M.; Maxfield, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The commercialization of alternative fuels is analyzed. Following a synopsis of US energy use, the concept of commercialization, the impacts of supply shortages and demand inelasticity upon commercialization, and the status of alternative fuels commercialization to date in the US are discussed. The US energy market is viewed as essentially numerous submarkets. The interrelationship among these submarkets precludes the need to commercialize for a specific fuel/use. However, the level of consumption, the projected growth in demand, and the inordinate dependence upon foreign fuels dictate that additional fuel supplies in general be brought to the US energy marketplace. Commercialization efforts encompass a range of measures designed to accelerate the arrival of technologies or products in the marketplace. As discussed in this paper, such a union of willing buyers and willing sellers requires that three general conditions be met: product quality comparable to existing products; price competitiveness; and adequate availability of supply. Product comparability presently appears to be the least problematic of these three requirements. Ethanol/gasoline and methanol/gasoline blends, for example, demonstrate the fact that alternative fuel technologies exist. Yet price and availability (i.e., production capacity) remain major obstacles. Given inelasticity (with respect to price) in the US and abroad, supply shortages - actual or contrived - generate upward price pressure and should make once-unattractive alternative fuels more price competitive. It is noted, however, that actual price competitiveness has been slow to occur and that even with price competitiveness, the lengthy time frame needed to achieve significant production capacity limits the near-term impact of alternative fuels.

  7. EPA Response to RFC 11001

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Response to Ms Randlshofer that IRIS assessment of halogenated platinum salts is not needed due to platinum fuel additived being removed from the list of registered additives for use in on-road diesel vehicles

  8. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  9. Approaches to Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamayan, Else V.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the major characteristics of nontraditional or alternative assessment in language learning, the uses of alternative assessment procedures, and different types of alternative assessment. An annotated bibliography discusses eight important works in the field. (75 references) (MDM)

  10. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  11. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Ali E; Mayo, Nathanael K; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Robles, Raquel O; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yongsheng; Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-05-26

    Thermophones are highly promising for applications such as high-power SONAR arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets provide the most attractive performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large-size freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets and other even more exotic materials recently investigated hampers the field. We describe alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high-energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanostructured materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. We demonstrate that the heat capacity of aerogel-like nanostructures can be extracted by a thorough analysis of the sound pressure spectra. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high-power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  12. Alternative tsunami models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, A.; Lyatskaya, I.

    2009-01-01

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation.

  13. Humanized recombinant vaccinia virus complement control protein (hrVCP) with three amino acid changes, H98Y, E102K, and E120K creating an additional putative heparin binding site, is 100-fold more active than rVCP in blocking both classical and alternative complement pathways.

    PubMed

    Ghebremariam, Yohannes T; Odunuga, Odutayo O; Janse, Kristen; Kotwal, Girish J

    2005-11-01

    Vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) is able to modulate the host complement system by regulating both pathways of complement activation. Efficient downregulation of complement activation depends on the ability of the regulatory protein to effectively bind the activated third (C3b) and fourth (C4b) complement components. Based on native crystallographic structure, molecular modeling, and sequence alignment with other Orthopoxviral complement control proteins (CCPs) and their host homologs, putative sites have been found on VCP as contact points for C3b/C4b. Here, we report that using site-directed mutagenesis, modified proteins have been generated. In addition, we report that the generated modified proteins with postulated contact point substitutions have shown greater ability to regulate both the classical and the alternative pathways of complement activation than the recombinant Western Reserve VCP, with one modified protein showing nearly 100-fold more potency in regulating both complement activation pathways independently. The augmented in vitro inhibitory activity of the modified protein together with the newly created putative heparin binding site suggests its promising potential as a competent therapeutic agent in modulating various complement-mediated ailments, for example, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, reperfusion injury, and xenorejection.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1600-3 - Communications facilities; refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications facilities; refuge alternatives....1600-3 Communications facilities; refuge alternatives. (a) Refuge alternatives shall be provided with a... communication system, which can be used from inside the refuge alternative; and (2) An additional communication...

  15. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  16. Clean Metal Finishing Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement None This is a critical safety issue with high strength steels Fatigue Fatigue debit must not exceed chrome Some debit...less hydrogen embrittlement . It is under evaluation by the Joint Cd Alternatives Team (JCAT). Sn-Zn has been put forward for some applications where...evaluations of Cd alternatives it has been the only alternative to completely avoid hydrogen embrittlement . It has proved to be the best alternative for

  17. Shoreside Alternative Energy Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    in November 2000 titled, Shoreside Alternative Energy Evaluation. This study of alternative energies focused on usage of natural gas, and included...energy sources such as costs, benefits, and logistic availability. This study of alternative energies focused on usage of natural gas and included...resources in this area. Recognizing Air Station Cape Cod as a leader in utilizing alternative energies , the Research and Development Center established

  18. Chicano Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicia, H. Homero; Almaguer, Clementina

    Alternative schooling is challenging some basic notions of curriculum, operation, and structure of traditional schools; it is not challenging the basic concept of schooling. Chicano alternative education, an elusive concept, lacks a precise definition. Chicano alternative schools reflect a vast diversity in structure, focus, and goals. The Chicano…

  19. Chicano Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicia, H. Homero; Almaguer, Clementina

    Alternative schooling is challenging some basic notions of curriculum, operation, and structure of traditional schools; it is not challenging the basic concept of schooling. Chicano alternative education, an elusive concept, lacks a precise definition. Chicano alternative schools reflect a vast diversity in structure, focus, and goals. The Chicano…

  20. Alternatives for Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alternatives for Education, San Pedro, CA.

    A directory of alternative schools and a list of books and reprints about alternative education are presented. The alternative schools listed are almost all on the West Coast and include both day and boarding schools at the primary and secondary level. The name and address of each school is given along with supplementary material about its…

  1. Assessment "Honest Alternatives".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Susan Glazer

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the challenge of finding or creating alternatives to tests and traditional grading systems. Reflects on and describes the experience of creating an assessment tool and cautions against choosing alternatives that merely camouflage the grades. Encourages educators to find authentic alternatives to describe children's growth. (BAC)

  2. 21 CFR 640.120 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Alternative Procedures § 640.120... Regulations regarding blood, blood components, or blood products. Requests for such exceptions or alternatives... permission may be given orally by the Director. Oral requests and approvals must be promptly followed...

  3. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 7, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-11-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on recent additions to the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Station Locator database, biodiesel buying co-ops, and developing the CNG infrastructure in Bangladesh. Also a memo from CIVITAS 2003.

  4. Cyclic Polymer with Alternating Monomer Sequence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Zi; Zhao, Youliang; Zhang, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Cyclic polymers with alternating monomer sequence are synthesized for the first time based on the ring-closure strategy. Well-defined telechelic alternating polymers are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization by copolymerizing the electron acceptor monomer of N-benzylmaleimide and donor monomer of styrene with a feed ratio of 1 between them. The corresponding cyclic alternating polymers are then produced by the UV-induced Diels-Alder click reaction to ring-close the linear alternating polymer precursors under highly diluted reaction solution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  6. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  7. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  9. Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Jacobs, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    While nearly all states now have something on their books labeled "alternate route to certification," these programs defy standard definition due to their enormous variability. States differ in the types of candidates allowed to apply (e.g., career changers or recent college graduates) and in the academic backgrounds these individuals must…

  10. Alternative Solar Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  11. Alternative solar indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, L. J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  12. On alternating quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseva, Jenia; Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2017-03-01

    We study an inhomogeneous quantum walk on a line that evolves according to alternating coins, each a rotation matrix. For the quantum walk with the coin alternating between clockwise and counterclockwise rotations by the same angle, we derive a closed form solution for the propagation of probabilities, and provide its asymptotic approximation via the method of stationary phase. Finally, we observe that for a x03c0;/4 angle, this alternating rotation walk will replicate the renown Hadamard walk.

  13. Alternatives to Certain Phthalates Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The alternatives assessment partnership project on alternatives to certain phthalates seeks to eplore the human health and environmental profiles of eight action plan phthalates and functional alternatives

  14. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  15. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  16. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  18. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  19. Alternative Schools, Mainstream Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jan; Conner, Evguenia

    2007-01-01

    Alternative education has its own history. Having emerged in the sixties as a response to the social crisis, its goal was primarily to fight increasing bureaucracy and the depersonalization of public education by giving students more freedom and minimal adult supervision. In the eighties, the understanding of "alternative education" narrowed to…

  20. Alternative Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Kerri L.

    2004-01-01

    Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and…

  1. System Alternatives Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrait, James A.

    1977-01-01

    The Systems Alternatives Project is an attempt to develop open classroom alternatives within a modular scheduling system. Biology students are given both action and test objectives that emphasize individualization. Structure of the project is detailed and an attempt to analyze the project evaluation data statistically is included. (MA)

  2. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  3. Analytical services contract reform alternatives project

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.W.; Fox, M.R.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Minette, M.J.

    1995-03-23

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) was directed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to examine the feasibility of outsourcing all or part of its laboratory and analytical functions as part of a contract reform effort. The analytical services provided by WHC were found to be significantly greater than that of a typical environmental laboratory which provides sample analysis based on a simple sample in-report out model. In addition to high-volume production analysis, the work scope includes special analytical services, technical consulting, sample handling and disposition, and special material preparations. Numerous broad ranging potential contract reform alternatives were identified and categorized into seven main alternatives with associated sub-alternatives. Issues associated with each alternative varied significantly depending on the alternative. Fifteen issues were identified and described including human resources, contract, and procurement areas. Readers of this report will perhaps identify additional alternatives and/or issues. In addressing the issues, it was determined that those issues pertaining to labor relations and procurement require major policy resolutions by WHC/DOE senior management prior to being able to establish meaningful assumptions for cost/benefit analyses of the seven alternatives. Further review was therefore stopped without economic analyses or recommendation for any specific alternative. Accordingly, this report is intended to fulfill the requirements of RL Milestone AS-95-016.

  4. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Alternative dialysis strategies with icodextrin.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Sarah E; Teitelbaum, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Proper volume management continues to be a major challenge in patients requiring renal replacement therapy. In patients performing peritoneal dialysis the introduction of icodextrin represented a major advance in this effort. Recent studies have demonstrated a potential role for the use of novel dialysis strategies employing icodextrin to further enhance ultrafiltration and to improve cardiac indices in patients with ultrafiltration failure. These alternative strategies include the use of icodextrin in non-traditional patient populations (low transporters), the simultaneous use of glucose-based and icodextrin solutions in combination, and the use of icodextrin twice daily rather than for just a single dwell. This paper will briefly review the current status of these alternative dialysis strategies with icodextrin. In addition, the potential role for icodextrin to decrease postoperative adhesions will be discussed as well. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Alternating gradient photodetector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overhauser, Albert W. (Inventor); Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A far infrared (FIR) range responsive photodetector is disclosed. There is a substrate of degenerate germanium. A plurality of alternating impurity-band and high resistivity layers of germanium are disposed on the substrate. The impurity-band layers have a doping concentration therein sufficiently high to include donor bands which can release electrons upon impingement by FIR photons of energy hv greater than an energy gap epsilon. The high resistivity layers have a doping concentration therein sufficiently low as to not include conducting donor bands and are depleted of electrons. Metal contacts are provided for applying an electrical field across the substrate and the plurality of layers. In the preferred embodiment as shown, the substrate is degenerate n-type (N++) germanium; the impurity-band layers are n+ layers of germanium doped to approximately the low 10(exp 16)/cu cm range; and, the high resistivity layers are n-layers of germanium doped to a maximum of approximately 10(exp)/cu cm. Additionally, the impurity-band layers have a thickness less than a conduction-electron diffusion length in germanium and likely to be in the range of 0.1 to 1.0 micron, the plurality of impurity-bands is of a number such that the flux of FIR photons passing therethrough will be substantially totally absorbed therein, the thickness of the high resistivity layers is such compared to the voltage applied that the voltage drop in each the high resistivity layers controls the occurence of impact ionization in the impurity-band layers to a desired level.

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gaboury, Isabelle; Johnson, Noémie; Robin, Christine; Luc, Mireille; O’Connor, Daniel; Patenaude, Johane; Pélissier-Simard, Luce; Xhignesse, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether medical training prepares FPs to meet the requirements of the Collège des médecins du Québec for their role in advising patients on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design Secondary analysis of survey results. Setting Quebec. Participants Family physicians and GPs in active practice. Main outcome measures Perceptions of the role of the physician as an advisor on CAM; level of comfort responding to questions and advising patients on CAM; frequency with which patients ask their physicians about CAM; personal position on CAM; and desire for training on CAM. Results The response rate was 19.5% (195 respondents of 1000) and the sample appears to be representative of the target population. Most respondents (85.8%) reported being asked about CAM several times a month. A similar proportion (86.7%) believed it was their role to advise patients on CAM. However, of this group, only 33.1% reported being able to do so. There is an association between an urban practice and knowledge of the advisory role of physicians. More than three-quarters of respondents expressed interest in receiving additional training on CAM. Conclusion There is a gap between the training that Quebec physicians receive on CAM and their need to meet legal and ethical obligations designed to protect the public where CAM products and therapies are concerned. One solution might be more thorough training on CAM to help physicians meet the Collège des médecins du Québec requirements. PMID:27965354

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  11. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  12. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  13. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-84-2042 ESL-TR-84-29 ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCH 0) PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO CANADA In JULY 1984 Final Report for...in small engincs. -291 REFERENCES 1. Gratton, M., Sampath, P., " Alternate Fuels Combustion Research Phase If", Pratt & Whitney Canada , AFWAL-TR-83-2057...for Period May 80 Sep e ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCHMa80-Sp3 4. PERFORMING ORIJ. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 4. 60ONTRA-CT-WI GANUMNER(s) *M

  14. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  15. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  16. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  17. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  18. GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

  19. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... government and regulatory agencies. In conventional medicine, effective cancer treatment is defined as one that causes a tumor to reduce in size or remain stable. Description Many alternative therapies seek to treat illness by helping the body ...

  20. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  1. An Alternative to Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunathan, Arni; Guenther, John

    1970-01-01

    Two faculty members from the University of Missouri propose film making as an alternative to writing as a means of self expression for today's students and offer suggestions for preparing and operating a film production program. (LS)

  2. Consumer Health: Alternative Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... classified by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM): Whole medical systems Mind-body medicine Biologically based practices Manipulative and body-based practices Energy medicine Keep in mind that the distinctions between ...

  3. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  4. Marking: A Critical Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Having pupils critique their own work is an alternative to marking that is worthy of consideration. Pupil critique fosters in students a willingness to take responsibility for the quality of their work products. (RM)

  5. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  6. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  7. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  8. Military Energy Alternatives Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    Power Generation and Alternative Energy Branch US Army RDECOM CERDEC CP&ID Power Division Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD...RDER-CCA-PG PG A E - C R – 1 2– 0 1 M ili ta ry E ne rg y A lte rn at iv es C on fe re nc e Military Energy ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Energy Alternatives Conference 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jonathan

  9. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2010-06-30

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels. Thailand is of particular interest since it introduced E20 to its commercial market in 2007 and the US is now considering introducing E20 into the US market.

  10. Alternative Policy Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    CpRE CENTER FOR POLICY RESEARCH IN EDUCATION Alternative Policy o Instruments I Lorraine M. McDonnell Richard F. Elmore November 1987 DTICELECTE...03 Alternative Policy Instruments Lorraine M. McDonnell The RAND Corporation Richard F. Elmore Michigan State University November 1987 THRAND...range of policy instruments available or on the political and organizational conditions needed for each to work as intended. Policy decisions would

  11. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  12. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  13. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  14. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  15. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  16. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  17. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  18. Biobased lubricant additives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  19. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  20. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  1. Additive manufactured serialization

    DOEpatents

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  2. Alternative models in developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-yul; Inselman, Amy L; Kanungo, Jyotshnabala; Hansen, Deborah K

    2012-02-01

    In light of various pressures, toxicologists have been searching for alternative methods for safety testing of chemicals. According to a recent policy in the European Union (Regulation, Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, REACH), it has been estimated that over the next twelve to fifteen years, approximately 30,000 chemicals may need to be tested for safety, and under current guidelines such testing would require the use of approximately 7.2 million laboratory animals [ Hofer et al. 2004 ]. It has also been estimated that over 80% of all animals used for safety testing under REACH legislation would be used for examining reproductive and developmental toxicity [Hofer et al., 2004]. In addition to REACH initiatives, it has been estimated that out of 5,000 to 10,000 new drug entities that a pharmaceutical company may start with, only one is finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration at a cost of over one billion dollars [ Garg et al. 2011 ]. A large portion of this cost is due to animal testing. Therefore, both the pharmaceutical and chemical industries are interested in using alternative models and in vitro tests for safety testing. This review will examine the current state of three alternative models - whole embryo culture (WEC), the mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST), and zebrafish. Each of these alternatives will be reviewed, and advantages and disadvantages of each model will be discussed. These models were chosen because they are the models most commonly used and would appear to have the greatest potential for future applications in developmental toxicity screening and testing.

  3. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  4. Biodiesel: an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Manzanera, Maximino; Molina-Muñoz, Maria L; González-López, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and could be a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Most of the sources, methods and apparatus to produce biodiesel are reviewed here. Some of the patents propose the use of oils and fats of animal or vegetal origin and other kind of sources. Many others focus on the methods for the production or oxidation stability of the biofuel in order to make its production economically competitive. Several apparatus comprising reactors and refineries are also presented. This review article summarizes recent and important patents relating to the production of biodiesel to make its production a viable alternative.

  5. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  6. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  7. Wideband Speech Enhancement Addition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    RADC-4-114 WIM9AND SEHENHANCMN ADDITION Mws IL Woes DT-iC&C JUN 2 3 S81 A SROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENM2"a Air Force Sys~tems CoFW~mmand~ Griffiss Air ...1ii: ii i 4.1.1 INEL *9e******q***.*..**..... 41 4.1.2 DSS and IMP . • 43 4.2 Recommendations . 43 4.Z .1 Chant es Not Hequir :L -2 Re sear ch...developed over a number of years, primarily under the sp•naorship of the United States Air Force, Rome Air D~velopment Center (RADC). The device that is

  8. Appendix: Additional Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    The number of contributions to the Symposium was so high that only the review and invited talks have found place, in the form of articles, in this volume. This Appendix lists all these additional contributions (oral and posters) which are not present as articles. The abstracts of all contributions were published in a booklet produced by the Local Organizing Committee and are available at the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). More information on these contributions (PowerPoint presentations and/or articles) have been made public in the Internet web site of the conference (http://cab.inta-csic.es/molecular_universe/).

  9. Solvent alternatives guide

    SciTech Connect

    Elion, J.M.; Monroe, K.R.; Hill, E.A.

    1996-06-01

    It is no longer legal to manufacture or import chlorofluorocarbon 113 or methyl chloroform solvents, and companies that currently clean their parts with either material are now required to implement environmentally safe substitutes. To help find alternative methods, Research Triangle Institute`s Surface Cleaning Technology Program has designed a Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), an online tool that enables access to practical information and recommendations for acceptable solvents. Developed in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency, SAGE is available free of charge on the Internet`s World Wide Web.

  10. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  11. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. Thailand has continued to work to promote increased consumption of gasohol especially for highethanol content fuels like E85. The government has confirmed its effort to draw up incentives for auto makers to invest in manufacturing E85-compatible vehicles in the country. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels.

  12. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  13. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2016-09-23

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Finally, taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically.

  14. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire.

    PubMed

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2016-09-23

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically.

  15. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically. PMID:27659065

  16. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    DOE PAGES

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; ...

    2016-09-23

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regionsmore » (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Finally, taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically.« less

  17. Nearest shrunken centroids via alternative genewise shrinkages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byeong Yeob; Bair, Eric; Lee, Jae Won

    2017-01-01

    Nearest shrunken centroids (NSC) is a popular classification method for microarray data. NSC calculates centroids for each class and “shrinks” the centroids toward 0 using soft thresholding. Future observations are then assigned to the class with the minimum distance between the observation and the (shrunken) centroid. Under certain conditions the soft shrinkage used by NSC is equivalent to a LASSO penalty. However, this penalty can produce biased estimates when the true coefficients are large. In addition, NSC ignores the fact that multiple measures of the same gene are likely to be related to one another. We consider several alternative genewise shrinkage methods to address the aforementioned shortcomings of NSC. Three alternative penalties were considered: the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD), the adaptive LASSO (ADA), and the minimax concave penalty (MCP). We also showed that NSC can be performed in a genewise manner. Classification methods were derived for each alternative shrinkage method or alternative genewise penalty, and the performance of each new classification method was compared with that of conventional NSC on several simulated and real microarray data sets. Moreover, we applied the geometric mean approach for the alternative penalty functions. In general the alternative (genewise) penalties required fewer genes than NSC. The geometric mean of the class-specific prediction accuracies was improved, as well as the overall predictive accuracy in some cases. These results indicate that these alternative penalties should be considered when using NSC. PMID:28199352

  18. Finding alternatives to antibiotics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. The availability of new antibiotics has severely declined, and so alternatives to antibiotics need to be considered in both animal agriculture and human medicine. Products for disease prevention are different than products for d...

  19. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  20. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  1. Alternatives in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Bruce, Ed.

    These six lectures explore alternative approaches to education both within and outside the educational system. The contributions and their authors include: "Telling It Like It Ain't: An Examination of the Language of Education," by Neil Postman; "The Psychology of J. Piaget and Its Relevance to Education," by Vinh Bang (presented also in French);…

  2. Alternatives to Evolutionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses alternative theories to evolutionism. Five theories are mentioned, but most attention is given to the steady state theory of species which the author considers the most suitable partner for Darwinism in O- and A-level biology courses in the United Kingdom. (HM)

  3. The SOLAR Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)

  4. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  5. Alternatives in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Millard

    This paper on alternatives in teacher education begins by analyzing the current emphasis on the scientific approach in education. The author finds the promise of the scientific approach to be illusory. He defines it as education that promotes behavior change in some desirable direction. However, this definition, which the author finds equally…

  6. Compensated pulsed alternator

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.; Driga, Mircea D.; Woodson, Herbert H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

  7. Alternative Energy Busing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  8. Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Jan A.

    Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

  9. Alternative Programming for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.; Frey, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The Council for Adult and Experiential Learning is currently cataloguing alternative programming features that are most effective with adult students in a best practices inventory organized around a framework of high-level descriptive principles of effectiveness. This chapter identifies a few interesting features from a quick survey of this…

  10. A Better Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Mandated as an option for students who have not been successful in traditional programs, continuation education provides as alternative setting that helps students meet graduation requirements and earn their high school diplomas. Continuation high schools are quite successful in helping their students. This is due to their small size (usually 20:1…

  11. Independent Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Seth F.

    Ten alternative high schools serving a total of 2,750 students in New York City were evaluated in terms of their administration, programs, student body, and specific educational objectives. Three main types of programs were in operation at the schools. These included: (1) Remediation with emphasis on basic skills in reading, mathematics and…

  12. Alternative Education Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

  13. Alternative energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresselhaus, M. S.; Thomas, I. L.

    2001-11-01

    Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising.

  14. Alternatives; A Filmography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert, Nadine, Comp.; And Others

    Over 120 films are listed which deal with alternatives in education, lifestyles, work, religion, crafts, and politics. Among topics covered are open classrooms, communes, changing family structures, day care, and racial problems. Each film is summarized; length, copyrights, date, producer, and distributor are listed. A brief bibliography, subject…

  15. Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

  16. PEAT: an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Schora, F. C.; Punwani, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    Even though peat is a low-heating value and low-bulk density fossil fuel which in its natural state contains over 80 percent moisture, it can be an economical alternative to coal, and fuel oil, as is the case in Iceland and Finland for direct combustion applications. This is because of the relative ease with which peat can be harvested, and the generally low sulfur and ash content of peat. Recent studies show that peat also has very favorable characteristics for conversion to synthetic fuels. Tests show that on the basis of chemistry and kinetics, peat is a better raw material than coal for production of synthetic fuels. Recent estimates also show that conversion of peat to high-Btu gas (>950 Btu/scf) is competitive with other alternatives of synthetic high-Btu gas. Therefore, peat can be an economical energy alternative depending upon location of peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation and cost of other energy alternatives.

  17. Alternative Approaches to Negotiating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramming, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    The wait-and-react and laundry-list approaches to combating teachers' collective-bargaining demands are ineffective. An alternative goals-setting approach requires management and the district negotiations team to identify important needs and objectives. West Seneca Central School District ended contentious negotiations by presenting unions with…

  18. Alternatives in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Bruce, Ed.

    These six lectures explore alternative approaches to education both within and outside the educational system. The contributions and their authors include: "Telling It Like It Ain't: An Examination of the Language of Education," by Neil Postman; "The Psychology of J. Piaget and Its Relevance to Education," by Vinh Bang (presented also in French);…

  19. Alternative Modes of Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Frank

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that research on small group behavior, in a wide variety of settings, will be enhanced by rethinking alternative modes of enquiry, e.g., a focus on induction, a study of whole systems of human enterprise, the utilization of subjective experience, and trans-causal thinking. (Author/RC)

  20. Secondary Retention Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Nancy R.; Hopkins, Patricia

    Two alternatives to retention in grade for secondary school students were evaluated in Austin (Texas). Both were designed to allow students who are potential retainees (PRs) to receive remediation in one semester. The Transitional Academic Program (TAP) allows PRs to enroll in ninth-grade courses while repeating eighth-grade courses they had…

  1. The SOLAR Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)

  2. Archive Storage Media Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    Reviews requirements for a data archive system and describes storage media alternatives that are currently available. Topics discussed include data storage; data distribution; hierarchical storage architecture, including inline storage, online storage, nearline storage, and offline storage; magnetic disks; optical disks; conventional magnetic…

  3. Alternative Energy Busing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  4. Formative Evaluation Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of formative evaluation highlights alternative formative evaluation methods and tools and explains their advantages, disadvantages, and applicable contexts. Methods described include two-on-one evaluation; think-aloud protocols; computer interviewing; self-evaluation; panel reviews; evaluation meetings; computer journals and networks;…

  5. Alternatives to Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  6. Publishing: Alternatives and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penchansky, Mimi; And Others

    The Library Association of the City University of New York presents an annotated bibliography on the subject of small and alternative publishing. In the first section directories, indexes, catalogs, and reviews are briefly described. Book distributors for small publishers are listed next. The major portion of the bibliography is a listing of books…

  7. Alternatives to Evolutionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses alternative theories to evolutionism. Five theories are mentioned, but most attention is given to the steady state theory of species which the author considers the most suitable partner for Darwinism in O- and A-level biology courses in the United Kingdom. (HM)

  8. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  9. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  10. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  11. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  12. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  13. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  14. Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

    Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

  15. Alternating superlattice textures in driven nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Alejandro O.; Laroze, David; Clerc, Marcel G.; Cabanas, Ana M.

    2017-03-01

    Nanomagnets driven with uniform electric currents exhibit a wide variety of spatial textures. In the present work, we investigate alternating superlattice states in nanomagnets, which are spatially periodic textures composed by several spatial modes that oscillate in time. The magnetic system is described in the continuum approach by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation, and direct numerical simulations of this model allow us to characterize the alternating patterns. As a result of this temporal oscillation, textures alternate between different shapes. In particular, we focus on two types of textures, namely a superhexagon and a square-like pattern, which are composed by six and two dominant Fourier modes, respectively. Based on an appropriate modal decomposition, we reveal that the mechanism that originates the alternating superhexagon is a homoclinic bifurcation. In addition, we show that the oscillatory square-like texture emerges through a supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation.

  16. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  17. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  18. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  19. Examination of Alternative Models of Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldag, Ramon J.; Brief, Arthur P.

    1978-01-01

    Researchers have generally assumed overall job satisfaction to be an additive function of weighted job satisfaction facet scores. This paper considers the linear compensatory model as well as two nonlinear alternatives. Available from: Ramon J. Aldag, University of Wisconsin, 1155 Observatory Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. (Author)

  20. Examination of Alternative Models of Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldag, Ramon J.; Brief, Arthur P.

    1978-01-01

    Researchers have generally assumed overall job satisfaction to be an additive function of weighted job satisfaction facet scores. This paper considers the linear compensatory model as well as two nonlinear alternatives. Available from: Ramon J. Aldag, University of Wisconsin, 1155 Observatory Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. (Author)

  1. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    PubMed

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  2. [Alternative hemodialysis regimens].

    PubMed

    Matos, Jorge Paulo Strogoff de; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2010-03-01

    The mortality rate among patients on hemodialysis (HD) is extremely high. Remaining life expectancy for a patient initiating HD is only approximately one quarter of that of the general population at the same age bracket. The conventional HD regimen based on four-hour sessions three times a week was empirically established nearly four decades ago and needs to be revisited. Since the failure of the HEMO Study to demonstrate the clinical benefits of higher urea Kt/V for patients on conventional HD, an increasing interest for alternative HD regimens has emerged aiming at providing a treatment for improving survival rates. Short daily HD and long nocturnal HD stand out as the most promising alternative regimens. Economical obstacles which could hinder the clinical application of emerging knowledge in the field should be overcome.

  3. Alternate dietary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Krey, S H

    1982-09-01

    Various forms of vegetarian diets are discussed and evaluated for their nutritional adequacy. Health, philosophical, religious, ecological, and economic concerns are suggested as possible reasons for these alternate dietary lifestyles. Nutrients of specific concern ot the vegetarian are highlighted and suggestions given to help incorporate these in the diet, thereby avoiding marginal intakes. With judicious menu planning and careful thought to food selections, most vegetarian diets can supply excellent nutrition. Very restricted vegetarian diets or higher level macrobiotic diets may not be nutritionally complete, and individuals following these diets may benefit from special dietary counseling and dietary supplementation. Otherwise, these diets may place the adult as well as pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children at a nutritional risk. As vegetarian food habits are becoming more widespread, physicians and nutritionists must be knowledgeable about these alternate dietary lifestyles in order to counsel their patients appropriately, to understand the reasons for these eating habits, and to be supportive of the choice of diet.

  4. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  5. Alternatives to ECMO.

    PubMed Central

    Donn, S M

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed technological advancements which are unparalleled in neonatology. ECMO has been demonstrated to be a powerful rescue treatment, but has perhaps been overutilised and is not universally available. Alternative treatments have been shown to be both safe and efficacious in the management of infants with respiratory failure. Direct head to head clinical trials will probably be necessary to establish appropriate criteria and indications for use, given the wide diversity of pathophysiology these unique patients present. PMID:7802759

  6. Alternative population futures.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    Alternative population scenarios to the year 2000 are presented and policy implications of the various scenarios are discussed. Population models are described. Projections are made based on different sets of assumptions regarding changes in birth, death, marriage and migration rates. A "high" series, "medium" series and "low" series of projections are made for total population. Projections are also made regarding urban and rural population, families and households, and the labor force.

  7. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gushee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Alternative pyramid wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kooten, Maaike; Veran, Jean Pierre; Bradley, Colin

    2017-04-01

    The feasibility of a lenslet-based pyramid wavefront sensor (L-PWFS) and a double roof prism-based PWFS (DR-PWFS) as alternatives to a classical PWFS are investigated in this work. Traditional PWFSs require shallow angles and strict apex tolerances, making them difficult to manufacture. Lenslet arrays and roof prisms, on the other hand, are both common optical components that can be used as a PWFS. Characterizing these alternative pyramids and understanding how they differ from a traditional pyramid will allow the PWFS to become more widely used. The sensitivity of the SUSS microOptics 300-4.7 array and two ios Optics roof prisms are compared with a double PWFS (D-PWFS), as well as the simulated performance of an idealized PWFS for varying amounts of modulation and induced wavefront error. In response to low-order Zernike modes, the L-PWFS shows much lower performance and quicker saturation for large amounts of wavefront errors. The DR-PWFS, on the other hand, performs as well as the D-PWFS for the tests conducted. We conclude from this that the DR-PWFS does provide a feasible alternative to the classical pyramid in a range of applications.

  9. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    PubMed

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans.

  10. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  11. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  12. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Three additions to the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package: Alternative storage for the uppermost active cells, Flows in hydrogeologic units, and the Hydraulic-coductivity depth-dependence (KDEP) capability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary C.

    2003-01-01

    The Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package is an internal flow package for MODFLOW-2000 that allows the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology to be defined differently than the definition of model layers. Effective hydraulic properties for the model layers are calculated using the hydraulic properties of the hydrogeologic units. The HUF Package can be used instead of the Block-Centered Flow (BCF) or the Layer Property Flow (LPF) Packages. This report documents three additions to the HUF Package.

  13. Alternatives to eigenstate thermalization.

    PubMed

    Rigol, Marcos; Srednicki, Mark

    2012-03-16

    An isolated quantum many-body system in an initial pure state will come to thermal equilibrium if it satisfies the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). We consider alternatives to ETH that have been proposed. We first show that von Neumann's quantum ergodic theorem relies on an assumption that is essentially equivalent to ETH. We also investigate whether, following a sudden quench, special classes of pure states can lead to thermal behavior in systems that do not obey ETH, namely, integrable systems. We find examples of this, but only for initial states that obeyed ETH before the quench.

  14. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached.

  15. Potential alternate life biochemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

  16. Alternatives to Seesaw

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-10-10

    The seesaw mechanism is attractive not only because it"explains'' small neutrino mass, but also because of its packaging with the SUSY-GUT, leptogenesis, Dark Matter, and electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this package has the flavor, CP, and gravitino problems. I discuss two alternatives to the seesaw mechanism. In one of them, the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking solves these problems, while predicts naturally light Dirac neutrinos. In the other, the light Majorana neutrinos arise from supersymmetry breaking with right-handed neutrinos below TeV, and the Dark Matter and collider phenomenology are significantly different.

  17. THE ALTERNATIVE FOR SURVIVAL*

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The need of the time is to develop the traditional health care systems as a people oriented health care system. The factors that dominated the health care structure of our nation has been systematically pushing the traditional systems of medicine away from the people. In this background, an attempt has been made to reflect upon one's own experience, to understand the pattern of domination and to probe and suggest further on what could be the possible alternative development strategy and suggest specific tasks that would help define the development problematique in a meaningful manner in order to progress further in a self-determined manner PMID:22557469

  18. Alternative therapy in pruritus.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Because of its multitude of origins, the symptom complex of pruritus has a plethora of purported remedies and few therapeutic indications. Very few topical and systemic FDA approved medications have the indication of pruritus. Specific therapy still awaits a better definition of the exact physiologic events in chronic pruritus. Hence most medications actually focus on the central nervous system--the peripheral receptors--and the lack of specific physiologic targets has inhibited pharmacologic development. The resulting gap has opened the door to a variety of alternative therapies.

  19. Propulsion alternatives for suburban rail corridors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ablamsky, R.A.; King, C.M.

    1981-09-01

    This study examined 5 propulsion alternatives to extending existing capital-intensive electrification and using additional electric multiple-unit (MU) cars. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify alternatives to existing electric MU cars and diesel locomotive hauled trains used for commuter rail service in the New York-New Jersey-Connecticut region, (2) to evaluate each alternative in terms of performance capability, reliability, and other technical factors or constraints, (3) to develop capital and operating cost data for each alternative and type of electrification, and (4) to compare each baseline electrification system with feasible propulsion alternatives. The following propulsion alternatives were compared: dual-powered locomotive, alternating current locomotive, direct current locomotive, and dual-powered MU car.

  20. Energy supply alternatives for Picatinny Arsenal, NJ. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Savoie, M.J.; Moshage, R.E.; Davidson, J.E.; Schanche, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a study to determine the most economic methods of supplying thermal and electrical energy to Picatinny Arsenal, NJ. Based on energy use patterns and the condition of existing equipment, 10 major potential energy supply alternatives were identified and evaluated. Most of the alternatives contain additional options for various fuels and electrical generation. Each alternative was evaluated on the basis of (1) availability of funds, (2) initial capital costs, and (3) annual O and M costs.

  1. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  2. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  3. Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These webpages provide information on EPA’s Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program which evaluates substitutes for ozone-depleting substances in major industrial use sectors. The SNAP program promotes a smooth transition to safer alternatives.

  4. Alternatives for Jet Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, R. J.; Sain, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Approaches are developed as alternatives to current design methods which rely heavily on linear quadratic and Riccati equation methods. The main alternatives are discussed in two broad categories, local multivariable frequency domain methods and global nonlinear optimal methods.

  5. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the supplements over two years. People with fibromyalgia may benefit from practicing tai chi according to ... significantly greater decrease in total score on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. In addition, the tai chi group ...

  7. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  8. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period was originally scheduled to close on October...

  9. 78 FR 48593 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... obtain additional information on the following topics: Training, In-place Shelters, Escape Methodology..., Question 1.'' Please explain the rationale supporting your views. To the extent possible, provide relevant... refuge alternative, decision-making training on when to use a refuge alternative, and expectations...

  10. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  11. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  12. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  13. Alkalis in alternative biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Bryers, R.W.; Baxter, L.L.; Jenkins, B.M.; Oden, L.L.

    1994-12-31

    The alkali content and behavior of inorganic material of annually produced biofuels severely limits their use for generating electrical power in conventional furnaces. A recent eighteen-month investigation of the chemistry and firing characteristics of 26 different biofuels has been conducted. Firing conditions were simulated in the laboratory for eleven biofuels. This paper describes some results from the investigation including fuel properties, deposits, deposition mechanisms, and implications for biomass boiler design, fuel sampling and characterizations. Urban wood fuel, agricultural residues, energy crops, and other potential alternate fuels are included in the study. Conventional methods for establishing fuel alkali content and determining ash sticky temperatures were deceptive. The crux of the problem was found to be the high concentration of potassium in biofuels and its reactions with other fuel constituents which lower the ``sticky temperature`` of the ash to the 650 C to 760 C (1,200 F-1,400 F).

  14. Alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

  15. Exploring new energy alternatives.

    SciTech Connect

    LePoire, D.J.

    2011-09-01

    What is most likely to satisfy our energy needs in the future - wind farms and photovoltaic arrays, or something yet to be invented? Options for the world's energy future may include surprises, thanks to innovative research under way around the world. The article focuses on the energy sources alternatives in the U.S. It explores innovations for energy sources such as wind farms, solar thermal concentrators, solar cells, and geothermal energy production. It states that the attainment of energy efficiency through conversation or improved technology allows to extract more applied energy. It points out that techniques are being explored to expand the possible fuel materials to includes other types of uranium and thorium. Furthermore, it discusses the capability of nanotechnology in offering a tool which could help create designs that convert energy more efficiently.

  16. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. R.

    1984-03-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  17. 78 FR 48397 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Transportation (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    .... In addition, the proposed rule would include the full text of each provision and/or clause alternate... as well as each alternate. In addition, the proposed rule would include the full text of each... applicability of the provisions/ clauses or their alternates. The inclusion of the full text of each...

  18. Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Nakley, Leah M.; Yen, Chia H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn has invested over $1.5 million in engineering, and infrastructure upgrades to renovate an existing test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), which is now being used as an Alternative Fuels Laboratory. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and thermal stability testing. This effort is supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing project. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale F-T catalyst screening experiments. These experiments require the use of a synthesis gas feedstock, which will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics, product yields and hydrocarbon distributions. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor for catalyst activation studies. Product gas composition and performance data can be continuously obtained with an automated gas sampling system, which directly connects the reactors to a micro-gas chromatograph (micro GC). Liquid and molten product samples are collected intermittently and are analyzed by injecting as a diluted sample into designated gas chromatograph units. The test facility also has the capability of performing thermal stability experiments of alternative aviation fuels with the use of a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) (Ref. 1) in accordance to ASTM D 3241 "Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels" (JFTOT method) (Ref. 2). An Ellipsometer will be used to study fuel fouling thicknesses on heated tubes from the HLPS experiments. A detailed overview of the test facility systems and capabilities are described in this paper.

  19. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkel, Philip; Holcomb, Rodney B.

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  20. Alternative calcination development status report

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  1. Alternative Tsunami Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, A.; Lyatskaya, I.

    2009-01-01

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 "Eur. J. Phys." 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 "Eur. J. Phys." 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional,…

  2. Alternative Tsunami Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, A.; Lyatskaya, I.

    2009-01-01

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 "Eur. J. Phys." 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 "Eur. J. Phys." 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional,…

  3. Alternating phase focused linacs

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.

    1980-01-01

    A heavy particle linear accelerator employing rf fields for transverse and ongitudinal focusing as well as acceleration. Drift tube length and gap positions in a standing wave drift tube loaded structure are arranged so that particles are subject to acceleration and succession of focusing and defocusing forces which contain the beam without additional magnetic or electric focusing fields.

  4. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  5. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  6. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Rhamnolipid surfactants: alternative substrates, new strategies.

    PubMed

    Benincasa, Maria; Marqués, AnaM; Pinazo, Aurora; Manresa, Angels

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on the various possibilities of using alternative substrates and new strategies. Such strategies include an integrated production system to reduce the environmental impact and an attempt to minimize residues, which reinforces socio-economic and region-structural development. Additionally, we offer an overview of the physicochemical and biological properties of rhamnolipid surfactants associated with the applications of these molecules in different circumstances.

  8. Orbicularis plication for ptosis: a third alternative.

    PubMed

    Singh, Daljit

    2006-01-01

    The surgery involves exposure of the orbicularis oculi muscle via a skin flap starting near the upper orbital margin then progressing downward. The orbicularis oculi fibers near the lid margin are then joined to the proximal orbicularis fibers and the skin flap is sutured back to normal position. Over 9 years, 265 operations have been performed on a wide variety and severity of ptosis. The technique is a viable addition/alternative to the existing methods of ptosis surgery.

  9. An alternative method on quadratic programming problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasril, Y.; Mohd, I. B.; Mustaffa, I.; Aminuddin, MMM.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we proposed an alternative approach to find the optimum solution of quadratic programming problems (QPP) in its original form without additional information such as slack variable, surplus variable or artificial variable as done in other favourite methods. This approached is based on the violated constraints by the unconstrained optimum. The optimal solution of QPP obtained by searching from initial point to another point alongside of feasible region.

  10. A new quenching alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R.J.; Faulkner, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The quenching of ferrous alloys implies the controlled extraction of heat from a part at a rate sufficient to harden the part and still control the desired dimensional limitations. Quenchants in common use today are: molten metals, molten salts, petroleum oils, polymer solutions, water, and salt/water solutions. Each type of quenchant has its benefits and limitations. With current waste legislation and the trends toward environmentally friendlier industrial working fluids, many of these quenching products are coming under close scrutiny by the users and legislators. The most widely used quenchant is petroleum oil due to its favorable heat extraction characteristics. The dependence upon imports, price vulnerability, and contamination potential have caused suppliers and users to look into alternative products. Research into renewable resource, non-petroleum, vegetable oils has been going on globally for several years. The drawbacks encountered with many vegetable oils were widely known and only years of research enabled them to be overcome. The presently formulated product not only performs as well as petroleum oil but shows some characteristics better than those of the petroleum products, especially in the biodegradability and ecological aspects of the products. Stability and reproducible quenching properties have been proven with over two and one half years of field testing.

  11. Alternative Compression Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

  12. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  13. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  14. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Sujay; Mikati, Mohamad A; Vigevano, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a very rare disease characterized by recurrent attacks of loss of muscular tone resulting in hypomobility of one side of the body. The etiology of the disease due to ATP1A3 gene mutations in the majority of patients. Few familial cases have been described. AHC has an onset in the first few months of life. Hemiplegic episodes are often accompanied by other paroxysmal manifestations, such as lateral eyes and head deviation toward the hemiplegic side and a very peculiar monocular nystagmus. As the attack progresses, hemiplegia can shift to the other side of the body. Sometimes the attack can provoke bilateral paralysis, and these patients may have severe clinical impairment, with difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Hemiplegic attacks may be triggered by different stimuli, like bath in warm water, motor activity, or emotion. The frequency of attacks is high, usually several in a month or in a week. The duration is variable from a few minutes to several hours or even days. Sleep can stop the attack. Movement disorders such as dystonia and abnormal movements are frequent. Cognitive delay of variable degree is a common feature. Epilepsy has been reported in 50% of the cases, but seizure onset is usually during the third or fourth year of life. Many drugs have been used in AHC with very few results. Flunarizine has the most supportive anecdotal evidence regarding efficacy.

  15. [Alternative oxidase in industrial fungi].

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Liu, Qiang; He, Hao; Li, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have been used in industrial fermentation extensively. Based on non-phosphorylating electron transport process, alternative respiration pathway (ARP) acts as an energy overflow, which can balance carbon metabolism and electron transport, allow the continuance of tricarboxylic acid cycle without the formation of ATP, and permit the turnover of carbon skeletons. Alternative respiration pathway also plays an important role in the stress response of fungi and the physiological function of conditioned pathogen. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase responsible for the activity of alternative respiration pathway, which exists widely in higher plants, parts of fungi and algae. Owing to the property that alternative oxidase (AOX) is sensitive to salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and insensitive to conventional inhibitors of cytochrome respiration, alternative respiration pathway by AOX is also named as cyanide-resistant respiration (CRR). In recent years, the study of the alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase has been a hot topic in the area involving cellular respiration metabolism. In this review we summarized the latest research advances about the functions of alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase in industrial fungi.

  16. Embedding Sensors During Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sbriglia, Lexey Raylene

    2015-08-10

    This PowerPoint presentation had the following headings: Fused deposition modeling (FDM); Open source 3D printing; Objectives; Vibration analysis; Equipment; Design; Material choices; Failure causes, such as tension, bubbling; Potential solutions; Simulations; Embedding the sensors; LabView programming; Alternate data acquisition; Problem and proposed solution; and, Conclusions

  17. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  18. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  19. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  20. Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, B.D.; Barlett, P.; Basaran, A.; Colling, K.; Osis, I.; Smith, M.K.

    1986-11-01

    Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. In this laboratory, the authors have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats.

  1. Alternative display and interaction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolas, M. T.; McDowall, I. E.; Mead, R. X.; Lorimer, E. R.; Hackbush, J. E.; Greuel, C.

    1995-01-01

    While virtual environment systems are typically thought to consist of a head mounted display and a flex-sensing glove, alternative peripheral devices are beginning to be developed in response to application requirements. Three such alternatives are discussed: fingertip sensing gloves, fixed stereoscopic viewers, and counterbalanced head mounted displays. A subset of commercial examples that highlight each alternative is presented as well as a brief discussion of interesting engineering and implementation issues.

  2. Synthetic and Alternate Fuels Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    e-e AD-A197 531 AD_ m iI ORNL/TM-10706 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL Synthetic and Alternate LABORATORY Fuels Characterization •_ _ __ _ _Final Report February...21701-5012 62787A 2787A878 CA 294 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Synthetic and Alternate Fuels Characterization 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) W. H...results suggest that highly refined and finished mobility fuels from synthetic or alternate sources will not pose a significantly greater toxicological

  3. Army Alternative Ground Fuels Qualification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-31

    coming decades. The Services have already taken steps to certify aircraft, ships, tactical vehicles, and support equipment to use alternative liquid ... GTL / BTL / CBTL: All use Fischer-Tropsch Processes** H2O unclassified 20 More Possibilities For Making Alternative Jet Fuels (or Blendstocks...Alternatively Sourced Liquid Hydrocarbons Fossil Energy Feedstock (large U.S. resource) coal petcoke oil shale • Various conversion processes

  4. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  5. Alternative RNA splicing and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sali; Cheng, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is a fundamental mechanism by which a gene can give rise to multiple distinct mRNA transcripts, yielding protein isoforms with different, even opposing, functions. With the recognition that alternative splicing occurs in nearly all human genes, its relationship with cancer-associated pathways has emerged as a rapidly growing field. In this review, we summarize recent findings that have implicated the critical role of alternative splicing in cancer and discuss current understandings of the mechanisms underlying dysregulated alternative splicing in cancer cells. PMID:23765697

  6. Alternative RNA splicing and cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sali; Cheng, Chonghui

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is a fundamental mechanism by which a gene can give rise to multiple distinct mRNA transcripts, yielding protein isoforms with different, even opposing, functions. With the recognition that alternative splicing occurs in nearly all human genes, its relationship with cancer-associated pathways has emerged as a rapidly growing field. In this review, we summarize recent findings that have implicated the critical role of alternative splicing in cancer and discuss current understandings of the mechanisms underlying dysregulated alternative splicing in cancer cells.

  7. Testing alternate gravitational theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standish, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    The planetary ephemerides are used to examine different suggested forms of the gravitational equations of motion which could possibly cause the observed Pioneer Anomaly. It is shown that most of the forms would be unacceptable, including that generally assumed - a constant acceleration directed toward the Sun. The tests show that three other forms could not exist within 10 au's of the Sun. Only one suggested form would be compatible with the Pioneer Anomaly affecting Saturn or any other more inward planet. Additional planetary observations in the future may possibly eliminate this form also.

  8. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  9. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  10. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  11. Protein Complex Production in Alternative Prokaryotic Hosts.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; López-Estepa, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco J; Vega, M Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Research for multiprotein expression in nonconventional bacterial and archaeal expression systems aims to exploit particular properties of "alternative" prokaryotic hosts that might make them more efficient than E. coli for particular applications, especially in those areas where more conventional bacterial hosts traditionally do not perform well. Currently, a wide range of products with clinical or industrial application have to be isolated from their native source, often microorganisms whose growth present numerous problems owing to very slow growth phenotypes or because they are unculturable under laboratory conditions. In those cases, transfer of the gene pathway responsible for synthesizing the product of interest into a suitable recombinant host becomes an attractive alternative solution. Despite many efforts dedicated to improving E. coli systems due to low cost, ease of use, and its dominant position as a ubiquitous expression host model, many alternative prokaryotic systems have been developed for heterologous protein expression mostly for biotechnological applications. Continuous research has led to improvements in expression yield through these non-conventional models, including Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Mycobacterium as alternative bacterial expression hosts. Advantageous properties shared by these systems include low costs, high levels of secreted protein products and their safety of use, with non-pathogenic strains been commercialized. In addition, the use of extremophilic and halotolerant archaea as expression hosts has to be considered as a potential tool for the production of mammalian membrane proteins such as GPCRs.

  12. Integrating alternative splicing detection into gene prediction

    PubMed Central

    Foissac, Sylvain; Schiex, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing (AS) is now considered as a major actor in transcriptome/proteome diversity and it cannot be neglected in the annotation process of a new genome. Despite considerable progresses in term of accuracy in computational gene prediction, the ability to reliably predict AS variants when there is local experimental evidence of it remains an open challenge for gene finders. Results We have used a new integrative approach that allows to incorporate AS detection into ab initio gene prediction. This method relies on the analysis of genomically aligned transcript sequences (ESTs and/or cDNAs), and has been implemented in the dynamic programming algorithm of the graph-based gene finder EuGÈNE. Given a genomic sequence and a set of aligned transcripts, this new version identifies the set of transcripts carrying evidence of alternative splicing events, and provides, in addition to the classical optimal gene prediction, alternative optimal predictions (among those which are consistent with the AS events detected). This allows for multiple annotations of a single gene in a way such that each predicted variant is supported by a transcript evidence (but not necessarily with a full-length coverage). Conclusions This automatic combination of experimental data analysis and ab initio gene finding offers an ideal integration of alternatively spliced gene prediction inside a single annotation pipeline. PMID:15705189

  13. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-07-01

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  14. Business System Planning Project, Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-10-30

    The CHG Chief Information Officer (CIO) requested a study of alternatives to the current business system computing environment. This Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project Alternatives Analysis document presents an analysis of the current Project Controls, Work Management, and Business Management systems environment and alternative solutions that support the business functions. The project team has collected requirements and priorities from stakeholders in each business area and documented them in the BSP System Requirements Specification (SRS), RPP-6297. The alternatives analysis process identifies and measures possible solutions in each of the business process areas against the requirements as documented in the SRS. The team gathered input from both internal and external sources to identify and grade the possible solutions. This document captures the results of that activity and recommends a suite of software products. This study was to select the best product based on how well the product met the requirements, not to determine the platform or hardware environment that would be used. Additional analysis documentation can be found in BSP project files.

  15. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  16. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  17. Alternative representation for the stability diagram of quadrupole ion traps upon additional quadrupolar excitation.

    PubMed

    Vernier, Arnaud; Chirot, Fabien; Antoine, Rodolphe; Salvador, Arnaud; Charrier, Jean-Philippe; Lemoine, Jerome; Dugourd, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the stability of ions in a linear ion trap under the application of one or two auxiliary radiofrequency (RF) fields, in order to perform simultaneous resonant excitation/ejection of several different ions. The influence of the amplitude and frequency of the auxiliary field is addressed through the construction of experimental and theoretical stability diagrams. Theoretical diagrams are constructed using the method developed by Konenkov et al. [J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 13, 597 (2002)]. We propose a new representation of stability diagrams more adapted to the study of auxiliary excitations than the canonical one. Stability regions are represented as a function of the fundamental RF amplitude and of the relative intensity of the excitation. This representation facilitates the monitoring of the evolution of the mass-selectivity of first- and higher-order resonant excitations in the trap, for which an empirical law is derived. We also show that the relative phase shift between the excitation field and the main driving field has a strong influence on the shape of the diagrams.

  18. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under this section. (b) Fracture control (1) The toughness properties for pipe must address the potential for initiation, propagation and arrest of fractures in accordance with: (i) API Specification 5L... specification level 2 or ASME B31.8 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). (2) Fracture control must: (i...

  19. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7); and (iii) Any correction factors needed to address pipe grades... external corrosion by a non-shielding coating. (2) Coating on pipe used for trenchless installation must...

  20. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7); and (iii) Any correction factors needed to address pipe grades... external corrosion by a non-shielding coating. (2) Coating on pipe used for trenchless installation must...

  1. 76 FR 20998 - Additional Allocations and Waivers Granted to and Alternative Requirements for 2010 Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Disaster Recovery Grantees AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... recovery grants for the purpose of assisting the recovery in areas covered by a declaration of major... CONTACT: Scott Davis, Director, Disaster Recovery and Special Issues Division, Office of Block...

  2. 78 FR 46999 - Additional Waivers and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy Grantees in Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    .... Waiver to permit some activities in support of the tourism industry (State of New York only). In the... State to fund certain tourism activities within the counties most impacted and distressed by Hurricane Sandy. This notice broadens that waiver to allow the State to fund certain tourism activities...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1734-99 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adversely affect the system durability are deemed approved unless disapproved by the Administrator within 30... affect engine or emission control system durability. Examples of such changes include any change that could affect durability, thermal characteristics, deposit formation, or exhaust product composition, i.e...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1734-99 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adversely affect the system durability are deemed approved unless disapproved by the Administrator within 30... affect engine or emission control system durability. Examples of such changes include any change that could affect durability, thermal characteristics, deposit formation, or exhaust product composition, i.e...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1734-99 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adversely affect the system durability are deemed approved unless disapproved by the Administrator within 30... affect engine or emission control system durability. Examples of such changes include any change that could affect durability, thermal characteristics, deposit formation, or exhaust product composition, i.e...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1734-99 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adversely affect the system durability are deemed approved unless disapproved by the Administrator within 30... affect engine or emission control system durability. Examples of such changes include any change that could affect durability, thermal characteristics, deposit formation, or exhaust product composition, i.e...

  7. 40 CFR 86.082-34 - Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  8. 75 FR 26121 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review Under Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR... implications, as specified in Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000). This rule applies to... Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks EPA interprets EO 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23...

  9. 75 FR 65368 - Additional Waivers Granted to and Alternative Requirements for the State of Illinois' CDBG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Economic Development Activities. For the national objective documentation for business assistance... benefit for certain economic development activities. Illinois has requested a waiver of the public benefit standards for certain economic development activities. The public benefit provisions set standards...

  10. Acceptability of Alternatives to Traditional Emergency Care: Patient Characteristics, Alternate Transport Modes, and Alternate Destinations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Shah, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    To determine the acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care, we assessed the proportion of subjects willing to consider alternative modes of transportation and alternative destinations. We further identified patient characteristics associated with willingness to consider these alternatives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study in the emergency department (ED) of an academic medical center. Research assistants screened all non-critically ill ED patients for eligibility and willingness to participate and administered an interview-based survey that included questions on demographic and clinical characteristics, perceived illness severity, and acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care for acute illness and injuries. We calculated the proportions and 95% confidence intervals for subjects who found alternative transport modes and destinations acceptable and developed a log-binomial regression model to identify patient characteristics associated with acceptability of alternative modes of transport and alternative destinations. Complete data were available on 1,058 subjects. Forty-two percent of the study sample arrived to the ED via emergency medical services (EMS). Over two-thirds of the study sample (68.2%) was willing to consider transport via either taxi or medical transport van and 69.0% was willing to consider either transportation to an urgent care center or their primary care physician's office. Other alternatives, including delayed EMS response time, were less frequently endorsed as acceptable alternatives. Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative modes of transportation included younger age, chief complaint, previous ED use, and place of residence (p < 0.05). Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative destinations included younger age, non-white race, lower patient acuity, and lower self-perceived illness severity (p < 0.05). In our ED, some patients found

  11. Alternative Teacher Certification in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This publication describes alternative teacher certification programs in Texas that train interns who are generally mature, mid-career individuals. The document is organized into seven sections: (1) "Alternative Certification in Texas" discusses the history and background of the programs including legislation, the first alternative…

  12. Alternative Financing Methods for College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBard, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Explains how changes in government policies have caused college students to seek alternative ways to finance college. Explores strategies used by students to pay for college, and the impact work has on their success. Looks at some alternative ways to pay for college, such as employee supported educational programs, savings incentives, and the…

  13. Rural Inservice Using Alternate Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmet, James L.

    Three small rural school districts in Montana and Wyoming used alternate school day scheduling to make time for staff and curriculum development inservice programs. The schedule of one short and four long days delivered the instructional time of 175 6-hour days each year. Benefits of alternate scheduling included time for regular inservice…

  14. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  15. The Alternative Press in Microform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Daniel C.

    Presented is an analysis of what has been done regarding the preservation of alternative publications in microfilm. The alternative press was defined, for the purposes of this study, as "nonstandard, nonestablishment publications." Two projects undertaken to microfilm such publications, one by the Microphoto Division of Bell and Howell…

  16. Consideration of Alternative Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFann, Howard H.; And Others

    A discussion of factors associated with evaluation of proposed alternative educational systems is presented in brief form. Emphasis is given to enumeration of critical characteristics serving as the basis of comparison, examination of alternative systems in terms of each characteristic, and determination based on the comparison as to whether the…

  17. Alternative Funerals: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, M. Betsy; Williams, Robert R.

    1981-01-01

    Studied attitudes and beliefs related to death and funeral preferences in a small midwestern Protestant congregation. While most respondents felt a ceremony or funeral was important, 75 percent preferred an alternative to the conventional funeral. Alternatives considered building a simple coffin with private burial and later public ceremony.…

  18. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  19. Alternate Semester 1972. An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Barry D.; And Others

    Five students from a Boston high school and 35 from Lincoln-Sudbury took part in an alternate semester consisting of 5 units: Outward Bound, environmental issues, urban, rural, and river/building. Students had to be juniors or seniors, have parental permission, and meet graduation requirements. The alternate semester began with Outward Bound, a…

  20. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Effects Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Complementary and alternative are terms used ... with cancer here. What Are Complementary and Alternative Methods? How Are Complementary Methods Used to Manage Cancer? ...

  1. Persons with allergy symptoms use alternative medicine more often.

    PubMed

    Kłak, Anna; Raciborski, Filip; Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Opoczyńska-Świeżewska, Dagmara; Szymański, Jakub; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Piekarska, Barbara; Sybilski, Adam; Tomaszewska, Aneta; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to indicate the relation between the use of alternative medicine and the occurrence of allergic diseases in the Polish population of adults in the age of 20-44 years. Moreover the additional aim of the study is to define the relation between the sex, age and place of living and the use of alternative medicine. The data from the project Epidemiology of Allergic Diseases in Poland (ECAP) has been used for analysis. This project was a continuation of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The questions on alternative medicine were asked to the group of 4671 respondents in the age of 20-44 years. Additionally outpatient tests were performed in order to confirm the diagnosis of allergic diseases. The total of 22.2% of respondents that participated in the study have ever used alternative medicine (n = 4621). A statistically significant relation between the use of alternative medicine and declaration of allergic diseases and asthma symptoms has been demonstrated (p &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt; 0.001). No statistically significant relation between the use of alternative medicine by persons diagnosed by a doctor with any form of asthma or seasonal allergic rhinitis (p &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt; 0.05) has been demonstrated. The occurrence of allergic diseases and asthma influences the frequency of alternative medicine use. However the frequency of alternative medicine use does not depend on allergic disease or asthma being confirmed by a doctor.

  2. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  3. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

  4. Consider the DME alternative for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, T.H.; Meurer, P.C.

    1996-07-01

    Engine tests demonstrate that dimethyl ether (DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) can provide an alternative approach toward efficient, ultra-clean and quiet compression ignition (CI) engines. From a combustion point of view, DME is an attractive alternative fuel for CI engines, primarily for commercial applications in urban areas, where ultra-low emissions will be required in the future. DME can resolve the classical diesel emission problem of smoke emissions, which are completely eliminated. With a properly developed DME injection and combustion system, NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced to 40% of Euro II or U.S. 1998 limits, and can meet the future ULEV standards of California. Simultaneously, the combustion noise is reduced by as much as 15 dB(A) below diesel levels. In addition, the classical diesel advantages such as high thermal efficiency, compression ignition, engine robustness, etc., are retained.

  5. Water alternating gas injection maximizes recoverable reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Opdal, S.T.

    1995-10-01

    In the North Sea, water alternating gas injection (WAG) can be an alternative to water flooding. The Gullfaks field is located in Block 34/10 in the Norwegian North Sea. Different methods have been investigated to improve the recovery from Gullfaks, including polymers, surfactants, WAG, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal wells. Several of these methods have been laboratory and field tested. Both horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing are used on a regular basis. In addition, an area in the Lower Brent Formation was selected in 1991 as a pilot for the WAG method. WAG was initially proposed for gas-flooded fields as a method of controlling gas fingering and improving vertical sweep, particularly for miscible CO{sub 2} displacements. Effective at improving immiscible gas injection, WAG can also be beneficiary to fields that are being water flooded. This paper reviews the design problems associated with the WAG operation. It discusses the performance and sweep efficiency which resulted from the WAG.

  6. A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.

    2001-02-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. .

  7. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  8. Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Carlton, B D; Barlett, P; Basaran, A; Colling, K; Osis, I; Smith, M K

    1986-11-01

    Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. Limited data are available on the health effects, in particular reproductive toxicity effects, of these compounds. In our laboratory, we have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement (micron/sec), percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats.

  9. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  10. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  11. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  12. Laser Additive Manufacturing Bulk Graphene Copper Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zengrong; Chen, Feng; Ling, Dong; Nian, Qiong; Parandoush, Pedram; Zhu, Xing; Shao, Zhuqiang; Cheng, Gary J

    2017-08-30

    The exceptional mechanical properties of graphene enable itself as ideal nanofiller to reinforce the metal matrix composites (MMCs). In this work, graphene copper (Gr-Cu) nanocomposites have been fabricated by laser additive manufacturing process. The transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the fabricated nanocomposites. The XRD, Raman spectrum, energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and TEM results demonstrate the feasibility of laser additive manufacturing of Gr-Cu nanocomposites. Microstructures were characterized by high resolution TEM (HRTEM) further reveal the interface between copper matrix and graphene. With addition of graphene, mechanical properties of the composites were significantly enhanced. Nanoindentation tests show that average modulus value and hardness of the composites are 118.9 GPa and 3 GPa respectively; a 17.6% and a 50% increase were achieved compared with pure copper, respectively. This work opens a new way to manufacture the figure strong copper based composites with ultra-strong mechanical property, and provides alternatives for applications in electrical and thermal conductors. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Gasoline and diesel fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, C.P.

    1981-10-13

    A gasoline and diesel fuel additive is composed of a mixture of alcohol, toluene, and hydrogen peroxide. The preferred ratio of these substances is 16/8/1. Also for the purpose of quality control, when the additive is to be used with diesel fuel, a few drops of diesel fuel and several drops of glycerin are added to the additive mixture to determine if the proper mixture and blending has been achieved. The process of making this additive includes vigorous agitation of the substances as they are blended together in the order of a predetermined amount of toluene being added to a predetermined quantity of alcohol, and then a chosen amount of hydrogen peroxide being added thereafter. Followed by the vigorous blending of these substances, and then immediate putting of the mixture into suitable containers, and tightly sealing the containers to prevent deterioration of the additive mixture.

  14. Splenorrhaphy. The alternative.

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, D V; Spjut-Patrinely, V; Burch, J M; Mattox, K L; Bitondo, C G; Cruse-Martocci, P; Jordan, G L

    1990-01-01

    From 1980 to 1989, 240 adult patients underwent splenorrhaphy at one urban trauma center. This represents 43.4% of all splenic injuries seen during this time interval. Splenic injuries were graded I to V, and splenorrhaphy was attempted except when the spleen was shattered or when multiple injuries with associated hypotension were present. Penetrating wounds, blunt trauma, or iatrogenic/unknown etiologies were present in 54.2%, 41.6%, and 4.2% of patients, respectively. Grade I or II injuries were present in 51.7% of patients, grade III in 34.6%, grade IV or V in 9.6%, and unknown grade in 4.1%. The technique of splenorrhaphy was simple suture (usually chromic) with or without the addition of topical hemostatic agents in 200 patients (83.3%), topical agents alone in 12 (5%), unknown type of repair in 12 (5%), compression, cautery, or nonbleeding injury in 9 (3.8%), and partial or hemisplenectomy in 7 (2.9%). Postoperative rebleeding occurred in three patients (1.3%) with grade II, III, and IV injuries, respectively, and led to splenectomy at reoperation. In another patient who had a hemisplenectomy performed for a grade IV injury, subphrenic abscesses and septic shock led to the death of the patient. Splenorrhaphy can be safely performed in properly selected adult patients after a variety of injuries. The risk of rebleeding is practically nil when the spleen is fully mobilized and visualized during repair. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2339918

  15. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  16. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Sugar Addition Test

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-06-20

    In order to meet certain production goals, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has focused on implementing a more temporally efficient method of waste vitrification. Changes in frit composition and alterations in the feed preparation process were investigated to determine if melt rate could be improved. The addition of sugar as an alternative reductant to formic acid was investigated for Macrobatch 3 (MB3).

  17. Particulate emission reduction using additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rising, B.

    1998-07-01

    A particulate emission reduction study using a large industrial combustion turbine was undertaken. With heavy oil, both the mass particulate rate and smoke emissions exceeded original emission projections. Extensive particulate (gravimetric) emission tests were conducted to define the problem, and to assess specific corrective actions. Physical characterization of the particulate emissions revealed that the particulates from heavy oil were much larger than those found from lighter distillates. A review of the available literature on the subject was undertaken. Methods that were found to be effective at reducing smoke emissions were selected as a starting point. From this information, various techniques, including water injection, emulsification, and additive injection were evaluated to address both the visible smoke emissions and the particulate emission. Only the use of metal based fuel additives was found to be effective in reducing both visible smoke emissions and particulates. From vendor information, different additive time was selected for evaluation. Because of the complex chemistry of the fuel and additive mixtures, the vendor was required to optimize the additive carrier. Additives reduced particulates produced from the burning of heavy oil, but were found to be relatively ineffective with lighter distillate oils. Extensive chemical and physical characterization of the particulates were undertaken. From heavy oil, the particulates were found to be physically larger, greater than 5 microns. The additive was most effective on the heavy oils, but did not appear to alter the particulate size distribution. Additives did not appear to have any impact on the conversion of fuel bond sulfur into sulfuric acid mist. Additive dosage ratios were found which reduced the total particulate emission signature to meet current environmental requirements, while also nearly eliminating the plume visibility issues.

  18. Additive manufacturing: Toward holistic design

    DOE PAGES

    Jared, Bradley H.; Aguilo, Miguel A.; Beghini, Lauren L.; ...

    2017-03-18

    Here, additive manufacturing offers unprecedented opportunities to design complex structures optimized for performance envelopes inaccessible under conventional manufacturing constraints. Additive processes also promote realization of engineered materials with microstructures and properties that are impossible via traditional synthesis techniques. Enthused by these capabilities, optimization design tools have experienced a recent revival. The current capabilities of additive processes and optimization tools are summarized briefly, while an emerging opportunity is discussed to achieve a holistic design paradigm whereby computational tools are integrated with stochastic process and material awareness to enable the concurrent optimization of design topologies, material constructs and fabrication processes.

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  20. [Unusual reactions to food additives].

    PubMed

    Novembre, E; Dini, L; Bernardini, R; Resti, M; Vierucci, A

    1992-01-01

    The most important symptoms caused by food additives are urticaria and angioedema, but rhinitis, asthma and gastrointestinal disturbances are also reported. Only seldom food additives have been shown to induce symptoms in other organs such central nervous system or joints and with a sparse objective evidence. In this study, we report two cases of unusual reactions to food additives (tartrazine and benzoates) involving mainly the central nervous system (headache, migraine, overactivity, concentration and learning difficulties, depression) and joints (arthralgias), confirmed with diet and double blind challenge. The possible pathogenetic mechanisms are also discussed.

  1. [Neuropsychological deficits in alternating hemiplegia of childhood: a case study].

    PubMed

    Muriel, Vega; Garcia-Molina, Alberto; Aparicio-Lopez, Celeste; Ensenat, Antònia; Roig-Rovira, Teresa

    2015-07-01

    Alternating hemiplegic of childhood is a predominantly sporadic neurodevelopmental syndrome of uncertain etiology, characterized by alternating transient attacks of hemiplegia. Additional features include tonic fits, dystonic posturing, ocular motor abnormalities and deficits in cognitive functioning. A girl of 7 years-old with alternating hemiplegic of childhood. The first symptoms debut at 17 months of age in the form of lower limb weakness, migraine, nystagmus and hemiplegic crisis alternating both hemibodies. We administrate the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV (WISC-IV), the Conners Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II), the Conners scales for parents (CPRS-48) and teachers (CTRS-28) and the Behavior Rating Inventory Executive Function (BRIEF). In our study we found deficits in sustained attention, reduced speed of information processing, and difficulties in understanding, speaking and working memory. In addition, parents and teachers reported behavioral disturbances, difficulties inhibition capability, in self-control and in regulating emotions.

  2. 78 FR 48407 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Quality Assurance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... addition, the proposed rule would include the full text of each provision and/or clause alternate. DATES... of the full text of each clause alternate aims to make the terms of a clause alternate clearer to... paragraphs from the basic provision or clause. This proposed rule would include the full text of each...

  3. Food additives: an ethical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mepham, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Food additives are an integral part of the modern food system, but opinion polls showing most Europeans have worries about them imply an urgent need for ethical analysis of their use. The existing literature on food ethics, safety assessment and animal testing. Food additives provide certain advantages in terms of many people's lifestyles. There are disagreements about the appropriate application of the precautionary principle and of the value and ethical validity of animal tests in assessing human safety. Most consumers have a poor understanding of the relative benefits and risks of additives, but concerns over food safety and animal testing remain high. Examining the impacts of food additives on consumer sovereignty, consumer health and on animals used in safety testing should allow a more informed debate about their appropriate uses.

  4. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  5. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  6. Alternative Significant Contribution Approaches Evaluated

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) discusses alternative approaches that EPA evaluated for defining emissions that constitute each upwind state’s significant contribution to nonattainment and interference with maintenance downwind.

  7. Alternatives. How to Avoid ID.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    1984-01-01

    Three alternatives to instructional development are briefly described: shifting more instructional responsibility from developer to learner; implementing an instructional system utilizing paraprofessionals, content experts, and peers; and selecting and adapting existing instructional materials. (MBR)

  8. Alternatives. How to Avoid ID.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    1984-01-01

    Three alternatives to instructional development are briefly described: shifting more instructional responsibility from developer to learner; implementing an instructional system utilizing paraprofessionals, content experts, and peers; and selecting and adapting existing instructional materials. (MBR)

  9. Clear Thinking about Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... industry, with corporations both large and small vigorously marketing their products. 5 | Clear Thinking about Alternative Therapies ... Once the FDA has cleared the product for marketing, people are protected by disclosure requirements such as ...

  10. Alternative splicing and muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Pistoni, Mariaelena; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is a major contributor to proteomic diversity and to the control of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this reasons, alternative splicing is tightly regulated in different tissues and developmental stages and its disruption can lead to a wide range of human disorders. The aim of this review is to focus on the relevance of alternative splicing for muscle function and muscle disease. We begin by giving a brief overview of alternative splicing, muscle-specific gene expression and muscular dystrophy. Next, to illustrate these concepts we focus on two muscular dystrophy, myotonic muscular dystrophy and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, both associated to disruption of splicing regulation in muscle. PMID:20603608

  11. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  12. Peat as an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.

    1980-07-01

    The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

  13. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  14. Hypersensitivity reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Shahid; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-06-01

    To provide an updated concise review on food additives adverse reactions, diagnosis, and management. Despite the common use of food additives, their adverse reactions seem to be very rare in the general population (0.01-0.23%) but higher in atopic individuals (2-7%). Probably because of the difficulty in diagnosis, most of the available information is based on case reports or small series. Reported reactions are mostly mild and may affect the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, or the airways, and rarely anaphylaxis. Food additives should be suspected as the culprit in patients who report a history of reactions to a number of unrelated foods or to a certain food when commercially prepared but not when prepared at home. The major problem in dealing with reactions to additives is the identification of the offending agent(s). Apart from a careful history taking, allergy skin testing or in-vitro testing are rarely useful. Trials of elimination and reintroduction may be more helpful. If the anticipated reaction is severe, a well designed challenge testing should be carried out. Once the offending additive(s) is confirmed, treatment is avoidance. Because accidental exposure often happens, patients with a history of severe reactions should have self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert (Turlock, California, USA) identification.

  15. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

  16. Nutritional supplements and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Kristine J; McClain, Craig J; McClave, Stephen A; Dryden, Gerald W

    2004-03-01

    A major health care trend in the last decade has been the increased use of complementary and alternative medicine and nutritional supplements. Indeed, we now have Physician's Desk References for both herbal therapies and dietary supplements. A large amount of out-of-pocket dollars are spent on complementary and alternative medicine each year in the United States, and complementary and alternative medicine users believe strongly in the efficacy of their treatments. In the area of inflammatory bowel disease, probiotics appear to be a highly promising form of therapy. In acute pancreatitis, enteral nutrition has been shown to be safe and effective. Peppermint oil is one of the most widely used complementary and alternative medicine therapies for irritable bowel syndrome. Antioxidants are increasingly used in liver disease, especially agents involved in methionine metabolism. Both S-adenosylmethionine and betaine have shown efficacy in animal models of alcoholic liver disease, and "knockout" mice that develop S-adenosylmethionine deficiency also develop steatohepatitis. Thus, there is great interest in these complementary and alternative medicine agents in both alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. There are also important safety issues related to complementary and alternative medicine. Deaths of well-known athletes have highlighted the risks of ephedra, and some research suggests that complementary and alternative medicine agents are a major cause of fulminant liver failure necessitating liver transplantation. Thus, physicians must be aware not only of the potential therapeutic benefits of complementary and alternative medicine agents and nutritional supplements, but also their potential risks, including toxicity and drug interactions.

  17. Alternative fuels for road vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Poulton, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    The finite nature of global fossil fuel resources underscores the need to develop alternative vehicular fuels. Increased use of renewable and alternative fuels can extend fossil fuel supplies and help resolve air pollution problems inherent in automotive use of conventional fuels. Fuel characteristics, safety implications, feedstocks, infrastructure, fuel production costs, emissions performance, required vehicle modifications, and outlook are described for LPG, reformulated gasoline, natural gas, hydrogen, electricity, biofuels, ethanol, and methanol. 26 fig., 288 refs., 29 tabs.

  18. Distillate Fuel Trends: International Supply Variations and Alternate Fuel Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    general trend toward a more uniform diesel around the world but the use of alternative fuels, such as biodiesel , has introduced additional variations...reduce sulfur; however, there are still areas with high sulfur, poor stability fuel. The primary source of alternate diesel fuel is Biodiesel , more...US FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, aka Biodiesel FIA Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption FT SPK Fischer Tropsch derived Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene

  19. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Free Piston Linear Alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Janson Wu; Nicholas Paradiso; Peter Van Blarigan; Scott Goldsborough

    1998-11-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) free piston powered linear alternator has been conducted to determine if improvements can be made in the thermal and conversion efficiencies of modern electrical generator systems. Performance of a free piston engine was investigated using a rapid compression expansion machine and a full cycle thermodynamic model. Linear alternator performance was investigated with a computer model. In addition linear alternator testing and permanent magnet characterization hardware were developed. The development of the two-stroke cycle scavenging process has begun.

  20. Simplifying the modal mu-calculus alternation hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradfield, J. C.

    In [Bra96], the strictness of the modal mu-calculus alternation hierarchy was shown by transferring a hierarchy from arithmetic; the latter was a corollary of a deep and highly technical analysis of [Lub93]. In this paper, we show that the alternation hierarchy in arithmetic can be established by entirely elementary means; further, simple examples of strict alternation depth n formulae can be constructed, which in turn give very simple examples to separate the modal hierarchy. In addition, the winning strategy formulae of parity games are shown to be such examples.

  1. Non-aqueous electrolytes for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-14

    An electrolyte electrochemical device includes an anodic material and an electrolyte, the electrolyte including an organosilicon solvent, a salt, and a hybrid additiving having a first and a second compound, the hybrid additive configured to form a solid electrolyte interphase film on the anodic material upon application of a potential to the electrochemical device.

  2. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition.

    PubMed

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set.

  3. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  4. Alternative vaccination schedule preferences among parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Schaffer, Sarah; Singer, Dianne; Butchart, Amy; Davis, Matthew; Freed, Gary L

    2011-11-01

    Increasing numbers of parents use alternative vaccination schedules that differ from the recommended childhood vaccination schedule for their children. We sought to describe national patterns of alternative vaccination schedule use and the potential "malleability" of parents' current vaccination schedule choices. We performed a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents of children 6 months to 6 years of age. Bivariate and multivariate analyses determined associations between demographic and attitudinal factors and alternative vaccination schedule use. The response rate was 61% (N = 748). Of the 13% of parents who reported following an alternative vaccination schedule, most refused only certain vaccines (53%) and/or delayed some vaccines until the child was older (55%). Only 17% reported refusing all vaccines. In multivariate models, nonblack race and not having a regular health care provider for the child were the only factors significantly associated with higher odds of using an alternative schedule. A large proportion of alternative vaccinators (30%) reported having initially followed the recommended vaccination schedule. Among parents following the recommended vaccination schedule, 28% thought that delaying vaccine doses was safer than the schedule they used, and 22% disagreed that the best vaccination schedule to follow was the one recommended by vaccination experts. More than 1 of 10 parents of young children currently use an alternative vaccination schedule. In addition, a large proportion of parents currently following the recommended schedule seem to be "at risk" for switching to an alternative schedule.

  5. Spontaneous alternation in marine crabs: invasive versus native species.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Patricia Ann; Teichman, Elizabeth; Oleksiak, Justin; Balci, Fuat

    2009-09-01

    Organisms ranging from paramecia to humans tend to explore places that have been least recently explored, which is referred to as spontaneous alternation. Although organisms rely on different sources of information in alternating between places, the emergent behavioral pattern is likely advantageous during exploration and foraging. Under this rationale, continuous spontaneous alternation performance of the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas was assessed and compared with the native blue crab, Callinectes sapidus in a plus-maze submerged in seawater. For the first time spontaneous alternation behavior was demonstrated in Crustacea (i.e., C. maenas) and significant interspecific differences in alternation performance were observed between the invasive versus the native species. Carcinus maneas exhibited a pronouncedly higher spontaneous alternation performance than C. sapidus. Carcinus maneas on average alternated at levels higher than chance, which was not the case for C. sapidus. These observations point to an additional behavioral mechanism that might result in the competitive success of green crabs over blue crabs in areas where they co-occur. Most of the subjects exhibited asymptotic alternation performance from the onset; there was no improvement in their performance over the course of the experimental session. This finding implies the innate nature of this behavioral policy.

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  7. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  8. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  9. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  10. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  11. Alternate Energy from the Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, E.

    2003-12-01

    Due to rapid growth of the world's population and more demands for energy, and due to limited amount of fossil fuels (which provide 95 % of the world's energy needs), harnessing of alternate energy sources such as solar and wind power should be considered. In addition to the mountain passes with usually high wind, vast and flat desert areas could be good candidates for harvesting both solar and wind power. We set up a weather station in the middle of a desert, approximately 65 km east-west by 130 km north-south, located at Dugway (40\\deg 08' N, 113\\deg 27' W, 1124 m above mean sea level) in northwestern Utah, USA, in 1999. This station measured the incoming (Rsi) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation using two CM21 Kipp & Zonen pyranometers (one inverted), the incoming (Rli or atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo or terrestrial) longwave radiation, using two CG1 Kipp & Zonen pyrgeometers (one inverted), and the net (Rn) radiation using a Q*7 net radiometer (Radiation Energy Balance System, REBS). We also measured the 3-m wind speed (U3) and direction (R.M. Young wind monitor) and precipitation (Campbell Sci., Inc.) and some other weather parameters. The measurements were taken every two seconds, and averaged into 20-min, continuously, throughout the year. The two-year (January 2000 - December 2001) period comparisons of global or solar radiation and windiness with two other stations in central (Hunter) and northern (Logan) Utah, indicate higher average solar radiation [Rsi,Dugway = 601 MJ / (m2-month) vs. Rsi, Hunter = 5371 MJ /(m2-month) and Rsi, Logan = 516 MJ /(m2-month)] and much higher 10-m average wind (UDugway = 478 km/d vs. UHunter = 323 km/d and ULogan = 275 km/d) throughout the period over the desert. These data reveal the possibility of simultaneously harvesting these two sources of clean energies at this vast and uniform desert area. Keywords: Desert, energy, radiation balance, solar and wind energies, windiness.

  12. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  13. Soil stabilization by chemical additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, F. M.

    The effects of phosphoric acid and lime additives on the compaction characteristics, the cohesion value, and the angle of friction of soils containing various percentages of Kaolin clay were compared and the applicability of Sherif's procedure for determining the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest for chemically stabilized soils was investigated. Both additives were found to increase the cohesion and the angle of friction of compacted sandkaolin clay mixtures. Increments were greater in basic addition than in acidic addition. The increment in the cohesion value is dependent mostly on clay content, water content and dry density while the increment in the angle of friction is mostly dependent on clay content and water content, with the factors of the type and content of the chemical common to both increments. Compaction data indicate that maximum dry density, and optimum water content are dependent on clay content and chemical type and content. The expression proposed by Sherif was found to be applicable for chemically treated cohesive soils.

  14. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  15. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  16. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  17. Additivity of nonlinear biomass equations

    Treesearch

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Two procedures that guarantee the property of additivity among the components of tree biomass and total tree biomass utilizing nonlinear functions are developed. Procedure 1 is a simple combination approach, and procedure 2 is based on nonlinear joint-generalized regression (nonlinear seemingly unrelated regressions) with parameter restrictions. Statistical theory is...

  18. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  19. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; ...

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  20. APAP and Alternative Titration Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Omer; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Positive airway pressure therapy (PAP) is commonly prescribed treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Traditionally, the determination of the optimal pressure for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing was made by manual titration of the device by a sleep technician in attendance during polysomnography. However, the advent of alternative methods for determination of optimal PAP – such as auto-titrating PAP (APAP) – has seen tremendous growth over the past decade. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the currently available alternative methods for titration of PAP in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with special emphasis on obstructive sleep apnea. Recent Findings Recent prospective-randomized studies of alternative methods of titration suggest that pressure determinations made by such devices are comparable to traditional manual titrations made in the sleep laboratory. Obstacles to the adoption of such alternative modes of titration into day-to-day practice may be attributable to issues surrounding appropriate patient selection, differences between devices, re-imbursement policies of third party payors, consensus amongst sleep experts, and individual physicians’ practice patterns and volumes. While newer generations and types of auto-titrating PAP devices are entering the sleep field constantly, providers’ knowledge and time availability remain limiting factors. Summary There is tremendous growth in the technology and scientific evidence in support of alternative modes of PAP titration for sleep-disordered breathing, but barriers to implementation remain. PMID:20806054

  1. Autocratic strategies for alternating games.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Repeated games have a long tradition in the behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce linear constraints on payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of "zero-determinant" (or, more generally, "autocratic") strategies to alternating games, which are often biologically more relevant than traditional synchronous games. Alternating games naturally result in asymmetries between players because the first move matters or because players might not move with equal probabilities. In a strictly-alternating game with two players, X and Y, we give conditions for the existence of autocratic strategies for player X when (i) X moves first and (ii) Y moves first. Furthermore, we show that autocratic strategies exist even for (iii) games with randomly-alternating moves. Particularly important categories of autocratic strategies are extortionate and generous strategies, which enforce unfavorable and favorable outcomes for the opponent, respectively. We illustrate these strategies using the continuous Donation Game, in which a player pays a cost to provide a benefit to the opponent according to a continuous cooperative investment level. Asymmetries due to alternating moves could easily arise from dominance hierarchies, and we show that they can endow subordinate players with more autocratic strategies than dominant players.

  2. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  3. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkiewicz, M.

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  4. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  5. Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

  6. Coupling transcription and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing regulation not only depends on the interaction of splicing factors with splicing enhancers and silencers in the pre-mRNA, but also on the coupling between transcription and splicing. This coupling is possible because splicing is often cotranscriptional and promoter identity and occupation may affect alternative splicing. We discuss here the different mechanisms by which transcription regulates alternative splicing. These include the recruitment of splicing factors to the transcribing polymerase and "kinetic coupling", which involves changes in the rate of transcriptional elongation that in turn affect the timing in which splice sites are presented to the splicing machinery. The recruitment mechanism may depend on the particular features of the carboxyl terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, whereas kinetic coupling seems to be linked to how changes in chromatin structure and other factors affect transcription elongation.

  7. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    SciTech Connect

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-12-15

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  8. La formation en alternance en France (Alternative Education in France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Claudine

    "Alternative" or cooperative education is a way of organizing instruction that combines education in an academic institution with training in a professional setting. The approach has attracted a renewed interest in Europe in the past few years because of its potential for motivating students, reducing student attrition, and raising the…

  9. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  10. 33 CFR 127.017 - Alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any alternative requested under paragraph (a) of this section— (1) In writing; or (2) Orally, with subsequent written confirmation. ... written request for the alternative at least 30 days before facility operations under the alternative...

  11. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-03-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

  12. Two alternative versions of strangeness

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Kazuhikoa

    2008-01-01

    The concept of strangeness emerged from the low energy phenomenology before the entry of quarks in particle physics. The connection between strangeness and isospin is rather accidental and loose and we recognize later that the definition of strangeness is model-dependent. Indeed, in Gell-Mann’s triplet quark model we realize that there is a simple alternative representation of strangeness. When the concept of generations is incorporated into the quark model we find that only the second alternative version of strangeness remains meaningful, whereas the original one does no longer keep its significance. PMID:18997448

  13. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  14. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  15. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Celine K.; Black, Douglas L.; Zheng, Sika

    2016-01-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that regulate splicing, both during development and in the adult brain. PMID:27094079

  16. Alternative propellant aerosol delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Hugh D C; Leach, Chet L

    2005-01-01

    The year 2006 represents the 50th anniversary of the pressurized metered dose inhaler. With most technologies, 50 years represents a significant time span for technology evolution and modification, but with propellant-driven metered dose inhalers, the pace of change has been relatively slow. We are now in the era of alternative propellant aerosol delivery systems, but at this 50-year juncture, what are the characteristics of these systems and what are the prospects for future advances? This review will consider alternative propellant aerosol delivery systems broadly from their inception through future opportunities and challenges.

  17. Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard

    We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].

  18. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  19. Additive manufacturing of permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Johnson, F.; McCall, S. K.

    2016-10-28

    Here, permanent magnets enable energy conversion. Motors and generators are used to convert both electrical to mechanical energy and mechanical to electrical energy, respectively. They are precharged (magnetized) prior to being used in an application and must remain magnetized during operation. In addition, they should generate sufficient magnetic flux for a given application. Nevertheless permanent magnets can be demagnetized (discharged of their magnetization) by other magnetic materials in their service vicinity, temperature changes (thermal demagnetization), microstructural degradations and the magnet’s internal demagnetizing field. Therefore a permanent magnet can be qualified based on the properties that measure its ability to withstand demagnetization and to supply sufficient magnetic flux required for a given application. Some of those properties are further discussed below. Additive manufacturing followed by exchange spring magnets will be discussed afterwards.

  20. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  1. Additive manufacturing of permanent magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Johnson, F.; ...

    2016-10-28

    Here, permanent magnets enable energy conversion. Motors and generators are used to convert both electrical to mechanical energy and mechanical to electrical energy, respectively. They are precharged (magnetized) prior to being used in an application and must remain magnetized during operation. In addition, they should generate sufficient magnetic flux for a given application. Nevertheless permanent magnets can be demagnetized (discharged of their magnetization) by other magnetic materials in their service vicinity, temperature changes (thermal demagnetization), microstructural degradations and the magnet’s internal demagnetizing field. Therefore a permanent magnet can be qualified based on the properties that measure its ability to withstandmore » demagnetization and to supply sufficient magnetic flux required for a given application. Some of those properties are further discussed below. Additive manufacturing followed by exchange spring magnets will be discussed afterwards.« less

  2. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  3. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  4. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  5. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  6. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  8. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  9. The adaptive significance of unproductive alternative splicing in primates.

    PubMed

    Skandalis, Adonis; Frampton, Mark; Seger, Jon; Richards, Miriam H

    2010-10-01

    Alternative gene splicing is pervasive in metazoa, particularly in humans, where the majority of genes generate splice variant transcripts. Characterizing the biological significance of alternative transcripts is methodologically difficult since it is impractical to assess thousands of splice variants as to whether they actually encode proteins, whether these proteins are functional, or whether transcripts have a function independent of protein synthesis. Consequently, to elucidate the functional significance of splice variants and to investigate mechanisms underlying the fidelity of mRNA splicing, we used an indirect approach based on analyzing the evolutionary conservation of splice variants among species. Using DNA polymerase β as an indicator locus, we cloned and characterized the types and frequencies of transcripts generated in primary cell lines of five primate species. Overall, we found that in addition to the canonical DNA polymerase β transcript, there were 25 alternative transcripts generated, most containing premature terminating codons. We used a statistical method borrowed from community ecology to show that there is significant diversity and little conservation in alternative splicing patterns among species, despite high sequence similarity in the underlying genomic (exonic) sequences. However, the frequency of alternative splicing at this locus correlates well with life history parameters such as the maximal longevity of each species, indicating that the alternative splicing of unproductive splice variants may have adaptive significance, even if the specific RNA transcripts themselves have no function. These results demonstrate the validity of the phylogenetic conservation approach in elucidating the biological significance of alternative splicing.

  10. Imaging Alternative Future School Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popper, Samuel H., Ed.

    This publication presents the proceedings of the University of Minnesota UCEA Career Development Seminar on alternative school organization for the future. Participants addressed themselves to how both universities and public school systems must adapt to changing social aspirations if they are to remain effective. This entails education…

  11. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  12. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches Alternatives for Jet Engine Control is reported. A numerical study employing feedback tensors for optimal control of nonlinear systems was completed. It is believed that these studies are the first of their kind. State regulation, with a decrease in control power is demonstrated. A detailed treatment follows.

  13. Choosing forest residues management alternatives.

    Treesearch

    John M. Pierovich; Richard C. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Forest residues management involves disposal, modification, or utilization of wood products. The costs and benefits of the several alternatives available to forest managers must be evaluated in relation to land management goals and constraints in four areas: (1) unused wood fiber, (2) conflagrations, (3) impairment of forest resources, and (4) opposition to treatment...

  14. Alternative nitrogen sources for cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several alternative nitrogen (N) sources, rates of N, and amendments were evaluated at Prattville, Alabama, on cotton in 2008. Nitrogen rates reported are for sidedress application only. Dry urea produced the highest yield, averaging 1100 pounds lint per acre. Ammonia volatilization was measured fr...

  15. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control is reported. Extensive numerical testing is included. It is indicated that optimal inputs contribute significantly to the process of calculating tensor approximations for nonlinear systems, and that the resulting approximations may be order-reduced in a systematic way.

  16. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control, is reported. The principal new activities involved the initial testing of an input design method for choosing the inputs to a non-linear system to aid the approximation of its tensor parameters, and the beginning of order reduction studies designed to remove unnecessary monomials from tensor models.

  17. Alternatives to Afrocentrism. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John J., Ed.

    The essays in this collection place the current Afrocentric movement in its historical context and offer alternative suggestions about how to teach African American students about their history. The first section deals with the roots of Afrocentrism, analyzes the content of Afrocentric books and curricula, and discusses the impact of Afrocentrism…

  18. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  19. Alternative Sources of Student Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Dolores E.

    Financial barriers to college attendance that affect women, minorities, low-income, and other nontraditional students are identified, along with alternative sources of student financial aid. Research has suggested that financially-independent students are most vulnerable to fluctuations in aid, and tend to have low incomes, be minority members or…

  20. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  1. Alternative Careers in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Charlotte

    Several alternate definitions of "physical education" can be presented to illustrate the fact that changes in name or definition open the way to new opportunities and new ways of thinking of career options. Traditional definitions of physical education have limited it to a profession of teaching in the traditional school system normal…

  2. Alternatives to Afrocentrism. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John J., Ed.

    The essays in this collection place the current Afrocentric movement in its historical context and offer alternative suggestions about how to teach African American students about their history. The first section deals with the roots of Afrocentrism, analyzes the content of Afrocentric books and curricula, and discusses the impact of Afrocentrism…

  3. Student Loans: Alternatives for Reauthorization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The papers presented at the symposium include: Student Loans: Some Practical Radical Alternatives (D. Bruce Johnstone); Solving the Student Loan Problem by Supplementing Government Loan Policy--An Expanded Role for Institutional Aid Administrators in the 1980's (Kurt L. Kendis); Estimating Manageable Educational Loan Limits for Graduate and…

  4. An Overview of Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    2006-01-01

    This publication represents the first in a series of papers on alternative education for the U.S. Department of Labor. The main focus of this review is community- or district-based programs that have as their primary focus the re-engagement of out-of-school youth in learning in order to better prepare these youth to successfully enter high growth…

  5. Alternative Education: The Cutting Edge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jay

    2004-01-01

    Miami Valley Career Technology Youth Connections, an alternative high school located in Dayton, Ohio, has an enrollment of 160 students and was created as a joint venture among local politicians to address the high dropout rates in Montgomery County, Ohio. To achieve this, the Montgomery County commissioners created a task force to develop…

  6. Biotherapeutics as alternatives to antibiotics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing pressure to limit antibiotic use in agriculture is heightening the need for alternative methods to reduce the adverse effects of clinical and subclinical disease on livestock performance that are currently managed by in-feed antibiotic usage. Immunomodulators have long been sought as such...

  7. Evaluating Alternatives to Exclusive "He."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd-Mancillas, William R.

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on reading comprehension of the use of the exclusive pronoun "he" and more or less contrived alternatives. Subjects, 358 students enrolled in an introduction to human communication at a large northeastern university, read three different forms of the same essay. One essay form exclusively used "he,"…

  8. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  9. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  10. Lecture Alternatives in Teaching English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judy, Stephen, Ed.

    The five sections of the document are: General Discussion; Classroom Experiences; Evaluation and Non-Lecture Teaching; A Closing Note; and Appendix. The ten papers presented are as follows: "Lecture Alternatives and the English Class" by Stephen Judy; "Let's See How it Goes: A View of the Teacher as Manager of Student-Initiated Activities" by…

  11. Alternative Education: The Cutting Edge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jay

    2004-01-01

    Miami Valley Career Technology Youth Connections, an alternative high school located in Dayton, Ohio, has an enrollment of 160 students and was created as a joint venture among local politicians to address the high dropout rates in Montgomery County, Ohio. To achieve this, the Montgomery County commissioners created a task force to develop…

  12. Not Just Another Alternative School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we problematize the establishment of an Africentric Alternative School in Toronto, Canada. We argue that policy, and race and racializations cannot be understood outside of, or immune to, neoliberalism. We contend that policy is a form of racial biopolitics, and race is now produced through neoliberal markets, in conjunction with…

  13. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  14. Academic Tenure and Its Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Morton S.

    1980-01-01

    The key attributes, rationale, and criticisms of the academic tenure system are outlined. The alternatives are (1) to lengthen the pretenure probation period, (2) to limit tenure to a specific length, and (3) to replace tenure with fixed-term, renewable contracts. Academic freedom and professional security are key issues. (MSE)

  15. Nanometric alternating magnetic field generator.

    PubMed

    Espejo, A P; Tejo, F; Vidal-Silva, N; Escrig, J

    2017-07-05

    In this work we introduce an alternating magnetic field generator in a cylindrical nanostructure. This field appears due to the rotation of a magnetic domain wall located at some position, generating a magnetic region that varies its direction of magnetization alternately, thus inducing an alternating magnetic flux in its vicinity. This phenomenon occurs due to the competition between a spin-polarized current and a magnetic field, which allows to control both the angular velocity and the pinning position of the domain wall. As proof of concept, we study the particular case of a diameter-modulated nanowire with a spin-polarized current along its axis and the demagnetizing field produced by its modulation. This inhomogeneous field allows one to control the angular velocity of the domain wall as a function of its position along the nanowire allowing frequencies in the GHz range to be achieved. This generator could be used in telecommunications for devices in the range of radiofrequencies or, following Faraday's induction law, could also induce an electromotive force and be used as a movable alternate voltage source in future nanodevices.

  16. Alternatives to War in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that human history is a story of paradoxes: cooperation and conflict, war and peace. States that, throughout history, various individuals and groups have sought alternatives to war. Describes attempts to keep the peace, to manage conflict, and to initiate social reforms that eliminate the causes of war. (CFR)

  17. Imaging Alternative Future School Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popper, Samuel H., Ed.

    This publication presents the proceedings of the University of Minnesota UCEA Career Development Seminar on alternative school organization for the future. Participants addressed themselves to how both universities and public school systems must adapt to changing social aspirations if they are to remain effective. This entails education…

  18. Community College Career Alternatives Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Patricia A.; Valente, Patricia L.

    This handbook was designed as a resource on career alternatives for counselors and students and to identify the Illinois colleges and universities to which the community college student may transfer to complete his/her education. The handbook is classified by college majors offered at Morton College (MC), and is based on information obtained from…

  19. An Alternative to Process Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joan; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Some disadvantages in the use of process recordings as an assessment and teaching tool for evaluating the communication skills of the student in nurse-client interactions are discussed. A more useful alternative process requires actual observation and subsequent participation by the instructor during student-client interviews. (EC)

  20. Alternatives to Grading Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchudi, Stephen, Ed.

    The result of an investigation into the grading writing by the National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Alternatives to Grading Student Writing, this collection of essays offers the writing teacher several innovative and interesting options. Following an introduction by the editor (chair of the Committee), in which he delineates the…

  1. An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).

  2. Home Schooling: A Controversial Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffey, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Home schooling, an alternative involving about 1 million students annually, walks a fine line in an educational reform era. Home-schooling families have succeeded in establishing their constitutional right to educate their children and have proven their educational programs' legitimacy with achievement test results and with successful "graduates."…

  3. Alternatives To Dissection. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill, Ed.; Winiarskyj, Lesia, Ed.

    This packet attempts to provide educationally sound alternatives to dissection in the classroom, thereby making it possible for teachers to eliminate dissection from the curriculum. This packet can also be used by educators who include dissection in their curricula but consider it important to respect the expression of students' ethical, moral, or…

  4. Alternative Approaches to Introductory Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonello, Frank J.; And Others

    This document examines the educational output of three alternative approaches to introductory macroeconomics at the University of Notre Dame. The framework for evaluation consists of the cognitive and affective tradeoffs entailed by using a new experimental course as opposed to two more traditional courses. The experimental course is a freshman…

  5. "Partial Vision" in Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ron

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the philosophies and pedagogies of Waldorf and Montessori schools points out that no single educational perspective can encompass all possibilities of human growth. Educators should attend to the "seed qualities" of alternative educational philosophies rather than their dogmas. A caring relationship between teachers and students is…

  6. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  7. Alternative Assignment Incentive Pay Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1...degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION from the NAVAL POSTGRADAUTE SCHOOL June 2005 Authors... Business and Public Policy iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ALTERNATIVE

  8. Alternative Models for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, John G.

    Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present…

  9. Alternative Routes for Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This publication presents a series of charts, designed for quick reference, which describe the status of alternative teacher certification routes in each of the 50 states. The charts were prepared in response to an increasing number of inquiries from educators, policy makers, and the public. Information was gathered by telephone surveys of state…

  10. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  11. Modeling Reaction Time and Accuracy of Multiple-Alternative Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fábio P.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Several sequential sampling models using racing diffusion processes for multiple-alternative decisions were evaluated using data from two perceptual discrimination experiments. The structures of the models differed on a number of dimensions, including whether there was lateral inhibition between accumulators, whether there was decay in evidence, whether evidence could be negative, and whether there was variability in starting points. Data were collected from a letter discrimination task in which stimulus difficulty and probability of the response alternatives were varied along with number of response alternatives. Model fitting results ruled out a large number of model classes in favor of a smaller number of specific models, most of which showed a moderate to high degree of mimicking. The best-fitting models had zero to moderate values of decay, no inhibition, and assumed that the addition of alternatives either affected the subprocesses contributing to the nondecisional time, the degree of caution, or the quality of evidence extracted from stimuli. PMID:20045893

  12. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  13. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, OH, Oct. 17 to 18, 2007 (ref. 1).

  14. Simulating the Use of Alternative Fuels in a Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Chin, Jeffrey Chevoor; Liu, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The interest in alternative fuels for aviation has created a need to evaluate their effect on engine performance. The use of dynamic turbofan engine simulations enables the comparative modeling of the performance of these fuels on a realistic test bed in terms of dynamic response and control compared to traditional fuels. The analysis of overall engine performance and response characteristics can lead to a determination of the practicality of using specific alternative fuels in commercial aircraft. This paper describes a procedure to model the use of alternative fuels in a large commercial turbofan engine, and quantifies their effects on engine and vehicle performance. In addition, the modeling effort notionally demonstrates that engine performance may be maintained by modifying engine control system software parameters to account for the alternative fuel.

  15. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  16. Alternative medicine remedies might stimulate viability of leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Styczynski, Jan; Wysocki, Mariusz

    2006-01-01

    Ex vivo activity of three products of alternative therapy against leukemic and normal cells was analyzed. Extracts of Viscum album, Uncaria tomentosa, and Croton lechleri were used for the study. Leukemic cells of 53 children with acute leukemias and four cell lines, Jurkat, CCRF-CEM, HL-60, and K-562 were tested for sensitivity to alternative medicine remedies by the MTT assay, cell-cycle analysis and annexin-V binding assay. Leukemic cells showed high resistance to tested three compounds of alternative medicine in all performed assays. Additionally, tested remedies stimulated survival of leukemic cells in 45%, 96%, and 83% cases, respectively; while no effect was observed in normal lymphocytes. In combination studies, Viscum album extract did not increase prednisolone and cytarabine cytotoxicity in leukemic cells. We conclude that some alternative medicine remedies might stimulate the viability of childhood leukemic cells.

  17. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    1 AFWAL-TR-85-2118 01 SHALE JP-4 ADDITIVE EVALUATION 16 Teresa A. Boos Timothy L. Dues 00 Fuels Branch ’ Fuels and Lubrication Division o ZLECTE 00...technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. TERESA A. BOOS, Chemical Engineer TIMOTHY L. DUES, Chemical Engineer Fuels Branch Fuels...Unclassified) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Teresa A. Boos and Ti mthy L. Dues 13.. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yr. Mo., Day) 15

  18. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  19. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  20. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  1. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  2. Alternative splicing interference by xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Zaharieva, Emanuela; Chipman, J Kevin; Soller, Matthias

    2012-06-14

    The protein coding sequence of most eukaryotic genes (exons) is interrupted by non-coding parts (introns), which are excised in a process termed splicing. To generate a mature messenger RNA (mRNA) hundreds of combinatorial protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions are required to splice out often very large introns with high fidelity and accuracy. Inherent to splicing is the use of alternative splice sites generating immense proteomic diversity from a limited number of genes. In humans, alternative splicing is a major mode of regulating gene expression, occurs in over 90% of genes and is particularly abundant in the brain. Only recently, it has been recognized that the complexity of the splicing process makes it susceptible to interference by various xenobiotics. These compounds include antineoplastic substances, commonly used drugs and food supplements and cause a spectrum of effects ranging from deleterious inhibition of general splicing to highly specific modifications of alternative splicing affecting only certain genes. Alterations in splicing have been implicated in numerous diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Splicing regulation plays an important role in the execution of programmed cell death. The switch between anti- and pro-apoptotic isoforms by alternative splice site selection and misregulation of a number of splicing factors impacts on cell survival and disease. Here, our current knowledge is summarized on compounds interfering with general and alternative splicing and of the current methodology to study changes in these processes relevant to the field of toxicology and future risk assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Alternative therapy in childhood cancer].

    PubMed

    Szirmai, Hajnalka; Földesi, Eniko; Zsámbor, Csilla; Hauser, Péter; Jakab, Zsuzsa; Müller, Judit; Schuler, Dezso; Garami, Miklós

    2006-10-08

    In Hungary there are as many as 300 children diagnosed with malignant tumor each year. Along with the traditional treatments, alternative remedies have been increasingly applied in the past two decades despite the availability of the more complex and more effective malignant tumor treatments. The authors attempted to find out about the applied alternative remedies for childhood cancer outside the traditional treatments, to determine how frequently they were applied and to examine what psychological factors had lead to their application. Children's parents, getting active treatment and also the ones that have been rehabilitated at the II. Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University. 60 percent of the 34 children being examined were getting several kinds of therapy. The most frequently applied alternative remedies were the following: nature products, diet supplements, herbs, diet changes. The parents' choice was mainly influenced by other parents' opinions (42%), frequently appearing commercials in media (26%) and their current financial background (23%). The authors have found on the base of their research that the general aim of parents was: to help their own incapability to help (31%), to make sure about the efficiency of the treatment (45%). Independently of demographic or clinical facts the use of alternative remedies are excessively widespread and popular with children having tumor. Thus it is not advisable or reasonable to absolutely refuse them since they are quite widespread and people tend to strongly believe in them. As for doctors, they are to give professional advice and help with choosing the alternative remedies that are not harmful or even more, the ones that can make traditional treatments more effective.

  4. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  5. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  6. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  7. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  8. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  9. Transformation of Breast Reconstruction via Additive Biomanufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Chhaya, Mohit P.; Balmayor, Elizabeth R.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to current breast reconstruction options. However, the conventional approach of using a scaffold in combination with adipose-derived precursor cells poses several problems in terms of scalability and hence clinical feasibility. Following the body-as-a-bioreactor approach, this study proposes a unique concept of delayed fat injection into an additive biomanufactured and custom-made scaffold. Three study groups were evaluated: Empty scaffold, Scaffold containing 4 cm3 lipoaspirate and Empty scaffold +2-week prevascularisation period. In group 3, of prevascularisation, 4 cm3 of lipoaspirate was injected into scaffolds after 2 weeks. Using a well-characterised additive biomanufacturing technology platform, patient-specific scaffolds made of medical-grade-polycaprolactone were designed and fabricated. Scaffolds were implanted in subglandular pockets in immunocompetent minipigs (n = 4) for 24-weeks. Angiogenesis and adipose tissue regeneration were observed in all constructs. Histological evaluation showed that the prevascularisation + lipoaspirate group had the highest relative area of adipose tissue (47.32% ± 4.12) which was significantly higher than both lipoaspirate-only (39.67% ± 2.04) and empty control group (8.31% ± 8.94) and similar to native breast tissue (44.97% ± 14.12). This large preclinical animal study provides proof-of-principle that the clinically applicable prevascularisation and delayed fat-injection techniques can be used for regeneration of large volumes of adipose tissue. PMID:27301425

  10. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher's Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanova, J.; Romera, P.; Lasagni, F.; Zorrilla, A.; Perinan, A.

    2014-06-01

    In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles (LV) production, due to the growth of competition worldwide. It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers, reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration.This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

  11. Additively manufactured sub-periosteal jaw implants.

    PubMed

    Mommaerts, M Y

    2017-02-28

    Severe bone atrophy jeopardizes the success of endosseous implants. This technical note aims to present the innovative concept of additively manufactured sub-periosteal jaw implants (AMSJIs). Digital datasets of the patient's jaws and wax trial in occlusion are used to segment the bone and dental arches, for the design of a sub-periosteal frame and abutments in the optimal location related to the dental arch and for the design of the suprastructure. The implants and suprastructure are three-dimensionally (3D) printed in titanium alloy. The provisional denture is 3D-printed in polymer. AMSJIs offer an alternative approach for patients with extreme jaw bone atrophy. This report refers to the use of this technique for full maxillary rehabilitation, but partial defects in either jaw and extended post-resection defects may also be approached using the same technique. This customized, prosthesis-driven reverse-engineering approach avoids bone grafting and provides immediate functional restoration with one surgical session.

  12. Alternate item types: continuing the quest for authentic testing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Anne; Kenny, Lorraine E

    2009-03-01

    Many test developers suggest that multiple-choice items can be used to evaluate critical thinking if the items are focused on measuring higher order thinking ability. The literature supports the use of alternate item types to assess additional competencies, such as higher level cognitive processing and critical thinking, as well as ways to allow examinees to demonstrate their competencies differently. This research study surveyed nurses after taking a test composed of alternate item types paired with multiple-choice items. The participants were asked to provide opinions regarding the items and the item formats. Demographic information was asked. In addition, information was collected as the participants responded to the items. The results of this study reveal that the participants thought that, in general, the items were more authentic and allowed them to demonstrate their competence better than multiple-choice items did. Further investigation into the optimal blend of alternate items and multiple-choice items is needed.

  13. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  14. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  15. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  16. Why patients use alternative medicine: results of a national study.

    PubMed

    Astin, J A

    1998-05-20

    Research both in the United States and abroad suggests that significant numbers of people are involved with various forms of alternative medicine. However, the reasons for such use are, at present, poorly understood. To investigate possible predictors of alternative health care use. Three primary hypotheses were tested. People seek out these alternatives because (1) they are dissatisfied in some way with conventional treatment; (2) they see alternative treatments as offering more personal autonomy and control over health care decisions; and (3) the alternatives are seen as more compatible with the patients' values, worldview, or beliefs regarding the nature and meaning of health and illness. Additional predictor variables explored included demographics and health status. A written survey examining use of alternative health care, health status, values, and attitudes toward conventional medicine. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used in an effort to identify predictors of alternative health care use. A total of 1035 individuals randomly selected from a panel who had agreed to participate in mail surveys and who live throughout the United States. Use of alternative medicine within the previous year. The response rate was 69%. The following variables emerged as predictors of alternative health care use: more education (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.3); poorer health status (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5); a holistic orientation to health (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9); having had a transformational experience that changed the person's worldview (OR, 1 .8; 95% CI, 1 .3-2.5); any of the following health problems: anxiety (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.0); back problems (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1 .7-3.2); chronic pain (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 -3.5); urinarytract problems (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5); and classification in a cultural group identifiable by their commitment to environmentalism, commitment to feminism, and interest in spirituality and personal

  17. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the case...

  20. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the case...