Science.gov

Sample records for additives gasoline toxics

  1. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

  2. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, E.; Kimbrough, R.D.

    1993-12-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  4. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics...

  5. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics...

  6. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics...

  7. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics...

  8. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics...

  9. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  14. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  16. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  17. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  18. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  1. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  2. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  3. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.1035 Section 80.1035... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80.1035 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  5. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.1035 Section 80.1035... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80.1035 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.1035 Section 80.1035... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80.1035 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.1035 Section 80.1035... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80.1035 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  8. DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

  9. Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic—for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.103 - Gasoline fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gasoline fuel additives. 3201.103 Section 3201.103... Designated Items § 3201.103 Gasoline fuel additives. (a) Definition. Chemical agents added to gasoline to increase octane levels, improve lubricity, and provide engine cleaning properties to gasoline-fired...

  11. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  12. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  13. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  14. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  15. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  16. Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel

  17. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-04-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  18. SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ORD is conducting a screening of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of selected automotive fuel (i.e., gasoline) systems. Although no specific guidelines exist on how to conduct such a streamlined approach, the basic idea is to use a mix of qualitative and quantitative generi...

  19. Developmental toxicity evaluation of unleaded gasoline vapor in the rat.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L; White, R; Bui, Q; Daughtrey, W; Koschier, F; Rodney, S; Schreiner, C; Steup, D; Breglia, R; Rhoden, R; Schroeder, R; Newton, P

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of unleaded gasoline vapor for developmental toxicity, a sample was prepared by slowly heating API 94-02 (1990 industry average gasoline) and condensing the vapor. The composition of this vapor condensate, which comprises 10.4% by volume of the starting gasoline, is representative of real-world exposure to gasoline vapor encountered at service stations and other occupational settings and consists primarily of volatile short chain (C4-C6) aliphatic hydrocarbons (i.e. paraffins) with small amounts of cycloparaffins and aromatic hydrocarbons. A preliminary study in rats and mice resulted in no developmental toxicity in either species. However, a slight reduction in maternal body weight gain in rats led to the selection of rats for this guideline study. Groups of pregnant rats (n = 24/group) were exposed to unleaded gasoline vapor at concentrations of 0, 1000, 3000, or 9000 (75% lower explosive limit) ppm equivalent to 0, 2653, 7960, or 23,900 mg/m3, for 6 h/day on gestation days 6-19. All rats were sacrificed on gestation day 20. No maternal toxicity was observed. Developmentally, there were no differences between treated and control groups in malformations, total variations, resorptions, fetal body weight, or viability. The maternal and developmental NOAEL is 9000 ppm. Under conditions of this study, unleaded gasoline vapors did not produce evidence of developmental toxicity. PMID:11780956

  20. Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Martins, Cynthia R; Grisolia, Cesar K

    2009-10-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds.

  1. Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

  2. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  3. 40 CFR 80.1613 - Standards and other requirements for gasoline additive manufacturers and blenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturers, as defined in 40 CFR 79.2(f), who manufacture additives with a maximum allowed treatment rate of... gasoline additive manufacturers and blenders. 80.1613 Section 80.1613 Protection of Environment... Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1613 Standards and other requirements for gasoline additive manufacturers and...

  4. Multifunctional additives for automotive gasolines based on oxyethylated compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lykov, O.P.; Vishnyakova, T.P.; Tsygan, L.V.; Emel'yanov, V.E.

    1987-03-01

    The authors have investigated various oil-soluble nonionic surfactants with different degrees of oxyethylation as multifunctional additives for gasolines. The following products were taken for oxyethylation: C/sub 17/-C/sub 20/ synthetic fatty acids; concentrate of isocarboxylic and unsaturated acids segregated from C/sub 17/-C/sub 20/ SFA by cold acetone; technical C/sub 10/-C/sub 18/ alkylsalicylic acids; products from the condensation of AC acids with C/sub 10/-C/sub 16/ aliphatic amines; primary aliphatic amines.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ALTERNATIVES: MTBE AND ETHANOL ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the U.S. is considering options for additives to reformulated gasoline. To inform this debate the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is conducting a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of three gasoline alternatives. These alternatives include gasoline w...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the attest engagement... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80.1035 What are the attest engagement... requirements for attest engagements that apply to refiners and importers under §§ 80.125 through 80.130,...

  7. Improving the environmental and performance characteristics of vehicles by introducing the surfactant additive into gasoline.

    PubMed

    Magaril, Elena; Magaril, Romen

    2016-09-01

    The operation of modern vehicles requires the introduction of package of fuel additives to ensure the required level of operating characteristics, some of which cannot be achieved by current oil refining methods. The use of additives allows flexibility of impact on the properties of the fuel at minimal cost, increasing the efficiency and environmental safety of vehicles. Among the wide assortment of additives available on the world market, many are surfactants. It has been shown that the introduction of some surfactants into gasoline concurrently reduces losses from gasoline evaporation, improves the mixture formation during injection of gasoline into the engine and improves detergent and anticorrosive properties. The surfactant gasoline additive that provides significant improvement in the quality of gasoline used and environmental and operating characteristics of vehicles has been developed and thoroughly investigated. The results of studies confirming the efficiency of the gasoline additive application are herein presented. PMID:27206755

  8. Improving the environmental and performance characteristics of vehicles by introducing the surfactant additive into gasoline.

    PubMed

    Magaril, Elena; Magaril, Romen

    2016-09-01

    The operation of modern vehicles requires the introduction of package of fuel additives to ensure the required level of operating characteristics, some of which cannot be achieved by current oil refining methods. The use of additives allows flexibility of impact on the properties of the fuel at minimal cost, increasing the efficiency and environmental safety of vehicles. Among the wide assortment of additives available on the world market, many are surfactants. It has been shown that the introduction of some surfactants into gasoline concurrently reduces losses from gasoline evaporation, improves the mixture formation during injection of gasoline into the engine and improves detergent and anticorrosive properties. The surfactant gasoline additive that provides significant improvement in the quality of gasoline used and environmental and operating characteristics of vehicles has been developed and thoroughly investigated. The results of studies confirming the efficiency of the gasoline additive application are herein presented.

  9. 40 CFR 80.8 - Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel additives, and renewable fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel... Provisions § 80.8 Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel additives, and renewable fuels....

  10. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: developmental toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L G; Gray, T M; Marr, M C; Tyl, R W; Trimmer, G W; Hoffman, G M; Murray, F J; Clark, C R; Schreiner, C A

    2014-11-01

    CD-1 mice were exposed to baseline gasoline vapor condensate (BGVC) alone or to vapors of gasoline blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE). Inhalation exposures were 6h/d on GD 5-17 at levels of 0, 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m(3). Dams were evaluated for evidence of maternal toxicity, and fetuses were weighed, sexed, and evaluated for external, visceral, and skeletal anomalies. Exposure to 20,000mg/m(3) of BGVC produced slight reductions in maternal body weight/gain and decreased fetal body weight. G/MTBE exposure did not produce statistically significant maternal or developmental effects; however, two uncommon ventral wall closure defects occurred: gastroschisis (1 fetus at 10,000mg/m(3)) and ectopia cordis (1 fetus at 2000mg/m(3); 2 fetuses/1 litter at 10,000mg/m(3)). A second study (G/MTBE-2) evaluated similar exposure levels on GD 5-16 and an additional group exposed to 30,000mg/m(3) from GD 5-10. An increased incidence of cleft palate was observed at 30,000mg/m(3) G/MTBE. No ectopia cordis occurred in the replicate study, but a single observation of gastroschisis was observed at 30,000mg/m(3). The no observed adverse effect levels for maternal/developmental toxicity in the BGVC study were 10,000/2000mg/m(3), 20,000/20,000 for the G/MTBE study, and 10,000/20,000 for the G/MTBE-2 study. PMID:24979735

  11. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: developmental toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L G; Gray, T M; Marr, M C; Tyl, R W; Trimmer, G W; Hoffman, G M; Murray, F J; Clark, C R; Schreiner, C A

    2014-11-01

    CD-1 mice were exposed to baseline gasoline vapor condensate (BGVC) alone or to vapors of gasoline blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE). Inhalation exposures were 6h/d on GD 5-17 at levels of 0, 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m(3). Dams were evaluated for evidence of maternal toxicity, and fetuses were weighed, sexed, and evaluated for external, visceral, and skeletal anomalies. Exposure to 20,000mg/m(3) of BGVC produced slight reductions in maternal body weight/gain and decreased fetal body weight. G/MTBE exposure did not produce statistically significant maternal or developmental effects; however, two uncommon ventral wall closure defects occurred: gastroschisis (1 fetus at 10,000mg/m(3)) and ectopia cordis (1 fetus at 2000mg/m(3); 2 fetuses/1 litter at 10,000mg/m(3)). A second study (G/MTBE-2) evaluated similar exposure levels on GD 5-16 and an additional group exposed to 30,000mg/m(3) from GD 5-10. An increased incidence of cleft palate was observed at 30,000mg/m(3) G/MTBE. No ectopia cordis occurred in the replicate study, but a single observation of gastroschisis was observed at 30,000mg/m(3). The no observed adverse effect levels for maternal/developmental toxicity in the BGVC study were 10,000/2000mg/m(3), 20,000/20,000 for the G/MTBE study, and 10,000/20,000 for the G/MTBE-2 study.

  12. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: subchronic inhalation toxicity.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Parker, Craig M; Gray, Thomas M; Hoffman, Gary M

    2014-11-01

    Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess whether their use in gasoline influences the hazard of evaporative emissions. Test substances included vapor condensates prepared from an EPA described "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/m(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. A portion of the animals were maintained for a four week recovery period to determine the reversibility of potential adverse effects. Increased kidney weight and light hydrocarbon nephropathy (LHN) were observed in treated male rats in all studies which were reversible or nearly reversible after 4weeks recovery. LHN is unique to male rats and is not relevant to human toxicity. The no observed effect level (NOAEL) in all studies was 10,000mg/m(3), except for G/MTBE (<2000) and G/TBA (2000). The results provide evidence that use of the studied oxygenates are unlikely to increase the hazard of evaporative emissions during refueling, compared to those from gasoline alone. PMID:25020274

  13. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: subchronic inhalation toxicity.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Parker, Craig M; Gray, Thomas M; Hoffman, Gary M

    2014-11-01

    Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess whether their use in gasoline influences the hazard of evaporative emissions. Test substances included vapor condensates prepared from an EPA described "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/m(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. A portion of the animals were maintained for a four week recovery period to determine the reversibility of potential adverse effects. Increased kidney weight and light hydrocarbon nephropathy (LHN) were observed in treated male rats in all studies which were reversible or nearly reversible after 4weeks recovery. LHN is unique to male rats and is not relevant to human toxicity. The no observed effect level (NOAEL) in all studies was 10,000mg/m(3), except for G/MTBE (<2000) and G/TBA (2000). The results provide evidence that use of the studied oxygenates are unlikely to increase the hazard of evaporative emissions during refueling, compared to those from gasoline alone.

  14. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  15. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

    2002-08-25

    Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

  16. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of...

  17. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of...

  18. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of...

  19. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of...

  20. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of...

  1. Measurements of toxic exhaust emissions from gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Warner-Selph, M.A.

    1989-11-01

    Exhaust emission rates of selected toxic substances were determined for two gasoline-powered passenger cars. These substances, which have appeared on California Air Resources Board Toxic Air Contaminant list or have been candidates for the lists, include volatile and semi-volatile halogenated hydrocarbons, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, phenols, nitrobenzene, dialkylnitrosamines, and a number of other unregulated emissions. Regulated gaseous emissions and fuel economy were also measured. A literature search was performed to determine if any of these compounds had previously been measured in the exhaust of gasoline-powered vehicles and if appropriate analytical procedures were available. When unavailable, procedures were developed for sampling and analyzing the unregulated toxic emissions compounds. The two vehicles were then tested to determine the emission rates of the targeted compounds. In the tests, a 1987 Ford Taurus equipped with a 3-way plus oxidation catalyst and a 1986 Toyota Camry equipped with a 3-way catalyst only were operated over the Federal Test Procedure, the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and the New York City Cycle. The test fuel was a regular unleaded gasoline without ethanol or methanol, and was obtained from California.

  2. Evaluation of fuel additives for reduction of material imcompatibilities in methanol-gasoline blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, C. F.; Barbee, J. G.; Knutson, W. K.; Cuellar, J. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Screening tests determined the efficacy of six commercially available additives as modifiers of methanol's corrosivity toward metals and its weakening of tensile properties of nonmetals in automotive fuel systems. From the screening phase, three additives which seemed to protect some of the metals were tested in higher concentrations and binary combinations in search of optimal application conditions. Results indicate that two of the additives have protective properties and combining them increases the protection of the metals corroded by methanol-gasoline blends. Half of the metals in the tests were not corroded. Testing at recommended concentrations and then at higher concentrations and in combinations shows that the additives would have no protective or harmful effects on the nonmetals. Two additives emerged as candidates for application to the protection of metals in automotive methanol-gasoline fuel systems. The additives tested were assigned letter codes to protect their proprietary nature.

  3. Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    1999-04-26

    To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative

  4. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: developmental toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Linda G; Gray, Thomas M; Trimmer, Gary W; Parker, Robert M; Murray, F Jay; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Gasoline-vapor condensate (BGVC) or condensed vapors from gasoline blended with methyl t-butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME) diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via inhalation on gestation days (GD) 5-20 for 6h/day at levels of 0 (control filtered air), 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m(3). These exposure durations and levels substantially exceed typical consumer exposure during refueling (<1-7mg/m(3), 5min). Dose responsive maternal effects were reduced maternal body weight and/or weight change, and/or reduced food consumption. No significant malformations were seen in any study. Developmental effects occurred at 20,000mg/m(3) of G/TAME (reduced fetal body weight, increased incidence of stunted fetuses), G/TBA (reduced fetal body weight, increased skeletal variants) and G/DIPE (reduced fetal weight) resulting in developmental NOAEL of 10,000mg/m(3) for these materials. Developmental NOAELs for other materials were 20,000mg/m(3) as no developmental toxicity was induced in those studies. Developmental NOAELs were equal to or greater than the concurrent maternal NOAELs which ranged from 2000 to 20,000mg/m(3). There were no clear cut differences in developmental toxicity between vapors of gasoline and gasoline blended with the ether or alcohol oxygenates. PMID:24845242

  5. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: developmental toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Linda G; Gray, Thomas M; Trimmer, Gary W; Parker, Robert M; Murray, F Jay; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Gasoline-vapor condensate (BGVC) or condensed vapors from gasoline blended with methyl t-butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME) diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via inhalation on gestation days (GD) 5-20 for 6h/day at levels of 0 (control filtered air), 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m(3). These exposure durations and levels substantially exceed typical consumer exposure during refueling (<1-7mg/m(3), 5min). Dose responsive maternal effects were reduced maternal body weight and/or weight change, and/or reduced food consumption. No significant malformations were seen in any study. Developmental effects occurred at 20,000mg/m(3) of G/TAME (reduced fetal body weight, increased incidence of stunted fetuses), G/TBA (reduced fetal body weight, increased skeletal variants) and G/DIPE (reduced fetal weight) resulting in developmental NOAEL of 10,000mg/m(3) for these materials. Developmental NOAELs for other materials were 20,000mg/m(3) as no developmental toxicity was induced in those studies. Developmental NOAELs were equal to or greater than the concurrent maternal NOAELs which ranged from 2000 to 20,000mg/m(3). There were no clear cut differences in developmental toxicity between vapors of gasoline and gasoline blended with the ether or alcohol oxygenates.

  6. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies. PMID:26119831

  7. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies.

  8. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S H; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-06-29

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies.

  9. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S H; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies. PMID:26119831

  10. Effect of organometallic fuel additives on nanoparticle emissions from a gasoline passenger car.

    PubMed

    Gidney, Jeremy T; Twigg, Martyn V; Kittelson, David B

    2010-04-01

    Particle size measurements were performed on the exhaust of a car operating on a chassis dynamometer fueled with standard gasoline and gasoline containing low levels of Pb, Fe, and Mn organometallic additives. When additives were present there was a distinct nucleation mode consisting primarily of sub-10 nm nanoparticles. At equal molar dosing Mn and Fe gave similar nanoparticle concentrations at the tailpipe, whereas Pb gave a considerably lower concentration. A catalytic stripper was used to remove the organic component of these particles and revealed that they were mainly solid and, because of their association with inorganic additives, presumably inorganic. Solid nucleation mode nanoparticles of similar size and concentration to those observed here from a gasoline engine with Mn and Fe additives have also been observed from modern heavy-duty diesel engines without aftertreatment at idle, but these solid particles are a small fraction of the primarily volatile nucleation mode particles emitted. The solid nucleation mode particles emitted by the diesel engines are likely derived from metal compounds in the lubrication oil, although carbonaceous particles cannot be ruled out. Significantly, most of these solid nanoparticles emitted by both engine types fall below the 23 nm cutoff of the PMP number regulation.

  11. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: reproductive toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Gray, Thomas M; Steup, David; Roberts, Linda G; O'Callaghan, James P; Hoffman, Gary; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Vapor condensates of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline-blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for reproductive toxicity in rats at target concentrations of 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3), 6h/day, 7days/week. BGVC and G/MTBE were assessed over two generations, the others for one generation. BGVC and G/MTBE F1 offspring were evaluated for neuropathology and changes in regional brain glial fibrillary acidic protein content. No neurotoxicity was observed. Male kidney weight was increased consistent with light hydrocarbon nephropathy. In adult rats, decreased body weight gain and increased liver weight were seen. Spleen weight decreased in adults and pups exposed to G/TBA. No pathological changes to reproductive organs occurred in any study. Decreased food consumption was seen in G/TAME lactating females. Transient decreases in G/TAME offspring weights were observed during lactation. Except for a minor increase in time to mating in G/TBA which did not affect other reproductive parameters, there were no adverse reproductive findings. The NOAEL for reproductive and offspring parameters was 20,000mg/m(3) for all vapor condensates except for lower offspring NOAELs of 10,000mg/m(3) for G/TBA and 2000mg/m(3) for G/TAME. PMID:24813181

  12. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: reproductive toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Gray, Thomas M; Steup, David; Roberts, Linda G; O'Callaghan, James P; Hoffman, Gary; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Vapor condensates of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline-blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for reproductive toxicity in rats at target concentrations of 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3), 6h/day, 7days/week. BGVC and G/MTBE were assessed over two generations, the others for one generation. BGVC and G/MTBE F1 offspring were evaluated for neuropathology and changes in regional brain glial fibrillary acidic protein content. No neurotoxicity was observed. Male kidney weight was increased consistent with light hydrocarbon nephropathy. In adult rats, decreased body weight gain and increased liver weight were seen. Spleen weight decreased in adults and pups exposed to G/TBA. No pathological changes to reproductive organs occurred in any study. Decreased food consumption was seen in G/TAME lactating females. Transient decreases in G/TAME offspring weights were observed during lactation. Except for a minor increase in time to mating in G/TBA which did not affect other reproductive parameters, there were no adverse reproductive findings. The NOAEL for reproductive and offspring parameters was 20,000mg/m(3) for all vapor condensates except for lower offspring NOAELs of 10,000mg/m(3) for G/TBA and 2000mg/m(3) for G/TAME.

  13. 40 CFR 80.1363 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for gasoline produced at foreign refineries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... submitted to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, under the requirements of 40 CFR part 80... 40 CFR part 80, subpart L, including 40 CFR 80.1363 apply to . Pursuant to Clean Air Act section 113... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Foreign Refiners § 80.1363 What are the additional requirements under...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1363 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for gasoline produced at foreign refineries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... submitted to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, under the requirements of 40 CFR part 80... 40 CFR part 80, subpart L, including 40 CFR 80.1363 apply to . Pursuant to Clean Air Act section 113... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Foreign Refiners § 80.1363 What are the additional requirements under...

  15. Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk

    SciTech Connect

    Paixao, J.F.; Nascimento, I.A. . E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A.; Leite, M.B.L.; Carvalho, G.C.; Silveira, J.S.C.; Reboucas, M.; Matias, G.R.A.; Rodrigues, I.L.P.

    2007-03-15

    Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline

  16. Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: an approach to minimize environmental pollution risk.

    PubMed

    Paixão, J F; Nascimento, I A; Pereira, S A; Leite, M B L; Carvalho, G C; Silveira, J S C; Rebouças, M; Matias, G R A; Rodrigues, I L P

    2007-03-01

    Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline

  17. State of lead additive use, 1995: Two gasoline systems in Latin America, Part I

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    Unleaded gasoline in Latin America is taking market share away from leaded as automobile manufacturers, refiners, marketers, and consumers accommodate the phase-down of lead. The urgency of moving to unleaded gasoline is based on many factors as each country has a different viewpoint and a different environmental protection vision. This issue of Energy Detente examines the current phase of the ongoing lead phase-down in Latin America.

  18. Recovery of near-anhydrous ethanol as gasoline additive from fermentation products

    SciTech Connect

    Boukouvalas, C.; Markoulaki, E.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D.

    1995-06-01

    The use of near-anhydrous ethanol, obtained from fermentation products through low pressure distillation, as a gasoline additive is examined. To this purpose, a reliable model for predicting the azeotropic composition of an ethanol-water mixture as a function of the pressure is presented. It is developed by considering the available thermodynamic consistent experimental data and using the Wilson and the virial equations for the liquid-and vapor-phase nonideality, respectively. It is concluded that, for an area with no extremely cold winters-minimum ambient temperature -20{degrees}C-alcohol with 96.5%(wt) purity can be used in a 90/10 (vol) gasohol mixture. Such an alcohol can be produced with a single distillation column operating at 140 mmHg pressure with an energy consumption of 5150 kJ/kg of product; or with a system of two columns with lower energy consumption but higher capital cost. These energy consumptions are very sensitive to the accuracy of the predicted azeotropic composition at the operating pressures.

  19. Renewable Gasoline, Solvents, and Fuel Additives from 2,3-Butanediol.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Merriman, Walter W; Quintana, Roxanne L

    2016-07-21

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a renewable alcohol that can be prepared in high yield from biomass sugars. 2,3-BD was selectively dehydrated in a solvent-free process to a complex mixture of 2-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolanes and 4,5-dimethyl-2isopropyl dioxolanes with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Amberlyst-15. The purified dioxolane mixture exhibited an anti-knock index of 90.5, comparable to high octane gasoline, and a volumetric net heat of combustion 34 % higher than ethanol. The solubility of the dioxolane mixture in water was only 0.8 g per 100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude lower than the common gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether. The dioxolane mixture has potential applications as a sustainable gasoline blending component, diesel oxygenate, and industrial solvent. PMID:27304610

  20. Renewable Gasoline, Solvents, and Fuel Additives from 2,3-Butanediol.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Merriman, Walter W; Quintana, Roxanne L

    2016-07-21

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a renewable alcohol that can be prepared in high yield from biomass sugars. 2,3-BD was selectively dehydrated in a solvent-free process to a complex mixture of 2-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolanes and 4,5-dimethyl-2isopropyl dioxolanes with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Amberlyst-15. The purified dioxolane mixture exhibited an anti-knock index of 90.5, comparable to high octane gasoline, and a volumetric net heat of combustion 34 % higher than ethanol. The solubility of the dioxolane mixture in water was only 0.8 g per 100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude lower than the common gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether. The dioxolane mixture has potential applications as a sustainable gasoline blending component, diesel oxygenate, and industrial solvent.

  1. Determination of detergent and dispensant additives in gasoline by ring-oven and near infrared hypespectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues e Brito, Lívia; da Silva, Michelle P F; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R; Pasquini, Celio; Honorato, Fernanda A; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda

    2015-03-10

    A method using the ring-oven technique for pre-concentration in filter paper discs and near infrared hyperspectral imaging is proposed to identify four detergent and dispersant additives, and to determine their concentration in gasoline. Different approaches were used to select the best image data processing in order to gather the relevant spectral information. This was attained by selecting the pixels of the region of interest (ROI), using a pre-calculated threshold value of the PCA scores arranged as histograms, to select the spectra set; summing up the selected spectra to achieve representativeness; and compensating for the superimposed filter paper spectral information, also supported by scores histograms for each individual sample. The best classification model was achieved using linear discriminant analysis and genetic algorithm (LDA/GA), whose correct classification rate in the external validation set was 92%. Previous classification of the type of additive present in the gasoline is necessary to define the PLS model required for its quantitative determination. Considering that two of the additives studied present high spectral similarity, a PLS regression model was constructed to predict their content in gasoline, while two additional models were used for the remaining additives. The results for the external validation of these regression models showed a mean percentage error of prediction varying from 5 to 15%.

  2. Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of exhaust emissions from various vehicles. The effects of ethanol content fuels on emissions were tested by three types of vehicles: cars with no catalytic converter installation, cars with three-way catalytic converter and cars with dual-bed catalytic converter. The test result showed wide variations in the average emission rates with different mileages, fuel types and catalytic converters (benzene: 3.33-56.48 mg/km, toluene: 8.62-124.66 mg/km, m-xylene: 2.97-51.65 mg/km, formaldehyde: 20.82-477.57 mg/km and acetaldehyde: 9.46-219.86 mg/km). There was a modest reduction in emission rate of benzene, toluene and m-xylene in cars using E10 and E15 fuels. Use of ethanol fuels, however, leads to increased formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission rates. Our analysis revealed that alternative fuels and technologies give significant reduction in toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission—particularly car with dual-bed catalytic converter using E10 fuel.

  3. Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.

    PubMed

    Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

    2011-09-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed).

  4. Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. ); Mitchell, K. . Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. )

    1995-02-01

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

  5. Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G.

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

  6. Influence of the addition of sulphate and ferric ions in a methanogenic anaerobic packed-bed reactor treating gasoline-contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, B S; Chinalia, F A; Sarti, A; Silva, A J; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

    2006-01-01

    Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are relatively soluble aromatic compounds of gasoline. Gasoline storage tank leakages generally lead to an extensive contamination of groundwater. In the natural environment for instance, these compounds might be biodegraded under a variety of reducing potentials. The objective of this work was to examine the influence of the addition of sulphate and Fe(OH)3 in a methanogenic horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized-biomass reactor treating gasoline-contaminated water. Three different conditions were evaluated: methanogenic, sulphidogenic and sulphidogenic with the addition of ferric ions. Methanogenic condition showed the higher BTX degradation rates and the addition of sulphate negatively affected BTX removal rates with the production of H2S. However, the addition of ferric ions resulted in the precipitation of sulphur, improving BTX degradation by the consortium. Metanosphaera sp., Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosaeta concilii were identified in the consortium by means of 16S and directly related to the addition of ferric ions.

  7. [Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Content of the Additive in Gasoline for Motor Vehicles by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Rong, Hai-teng; Song, Chun-feng; Yuan, Hong-fu; Li, Xiao-yu; Hu, Ai-qin; Xie, Jin-chun; Yan, De-lin

    2015-10-01

    A new rapid quantitative method for the determination of oxygenates and the compounds not included in the national standard in gasoline using near-infrared spectroscopy is raised by this paper. This method combine near-infrared spectroscopy with oblique projection. This experiment choose four different types of gasoline, including reconcile gasoline, FCC refined gasoline, reformed gasoline and desulfurizing gasoline. Prepare series gasoline samples containing different concentrations and different types of compounds. Using FTIR spectrometer to measure those samples and got transmission spectrums. Oblique projection method could separate quantity spectral signal from mixed spectrum signal, and using projection to calculate and analyze the separated signal to obtain the content of measured component. The deviation between this method and the real content is low, the absolute error is less than 0.8 and the relative error is less than 8%. For the actual gasoline samples, compare results of this method with gas chromatography, the absolute error are less than 0.85 and the relative error are less than 6.85%. This method solves the problem of general multivariate calibration methods. It is very significant for the development of rapid detection technology using NIR suitable for on-site and the improvement of the quality of gasoline.

  8. Odour and flavour thresholds of gasoline additives (MTBE, ETBE and TAME) and their occurrence in Dutch drinking water collection areas.

    PubMed

    van Wezel, Annemarie; Puijker, Leo; Vink, Cees; Versteegh, Ans; de Voogt, Pim

    2009-07-01

    The use of ETBE (ethyl-tert-butylether) as gasoline additive has recently grown rapidly. Contamination of aquatic systems is well documented for MTBE (methyl-tert-butylether), but less for other gasoline additives. Due to their mobility they may easily reach drinking water collection areas. Odour and flavour thresholds of MTBE are known to be low, but for ETBE and TAME (methyl-tert-amylether) hardly information is available. The objective here is to determine these thresholds for MTBE, ETBE and TAME, and relate these to concentrations monitored in thousands of samples from Dutch drinking water collection areas. For ETBE odour and flavour thresholds are low with 1-2microgL(-1), for MTBE and TAME they range from 7 to 16microg L(-1). In most groundwater collection areas MTBE concentrations are below 0.1microg L(-1). In phreatic groundwaters in sandy soils not covered by a protective soil layer, occasionally MTBE occurs at higher concentrations. For surface water collection areas a minority of the locations is free of MTBE. For river bank and dune infiltrates, at a few locations the odour and flavour threshold is exceeded. For ETBE fewer monitoring data are available. ETBE was found in 2 out of 37 groundwater collection areas, in concentrations below 1microgL(-1). In the surface water collection areas monitored ETBE was found in concentrations near to the odour and flavour thresholds. The low odour and flavour thresholds combined with the high mobility and persistence of these compounds, their high production volumes and their increased use may yield problems with future production of drinking water.

  9. Gasolines as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.; Ma Pinto, R.; Sillero, A.

    1986-11-01

    Gasolines from several commercial sources have been used as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting of dry and aqueous samples of either /sup 3/H- or /sup 14/C-labeled compounds. Dry samples can be counted only by the addition of fluors to the gasolines, and compared to a standard liquid scintillator, efficiencies of around 75% were attained. For the counting of aqueous samples, gasolines must also be supplemented with secondary solvents (i.e., 10% naphthalene, 5% Triton X-100, or 10% methanol). Simply with Triton X-100, efficiencies similar to those obtained with a dioxane-based liquid scintillator were observed in the case of some gasolines. Drawbacks to gasoline are the higher toxicity and the variation of efficiency, probably depending on the presence of color markers. On the positive side is the low price of the gasolines, compared with either toluene or dioxane, and the facility of purchasing.

  10. Validation of the narcosis target lipid model for petroleum products: gasoline as a case study.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Joy A; Parkerton, Thomas F; Hellweger, Ferdi L; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2005-09-01

    The narcosis target lipid model (NTLM) was used to predict the toxicity of water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of six gasoline blending streams to algae (Pseudokirchnereilla subcapitata, formerly Selenastrum capricornutum), juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and water flea (Daphnia magna). Gasolines are comprised of hydrocarbons that on dissolution into the aqueous phase are expected to act via narcosis. Aquatic toxicity data were obtained using a lethal-loading test in which WAFs were prepared using different gasoline loadings. The compositions of the gasolines were determined by analysis of C3 to C13 hydrocarbons grouped in classes of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, aromatics, cyclic alkanes, and olefins. A model was developed to compute the concentrations of hydrocarbon blocks in WAFs based on gasoline composition and loading. The model accounts for the volume change of the gasoline, which varies depending on loading and volatilization loss. The predicted aqueous composition of WAFs compared favorably to measurements, and the predicted aqueous concentrations of WAFs were used in the NTLM to predict the aquatic toxicity of the gasolines. For each gasoline loading and species, total toxic units (TUs) were computed with an assumption of additivity. The acute toxicity of gasolines was predicted to within a factor of two for algae and daphnids. Predicted TUs overestimated toxicity to trout because of experimental factors that were not considered in the model. This analysis demonstrates the importance of aliphatic hydrocarbon loss to headspace during WAF preparation and the contribution of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons test to the toxicity of gasolines in closed systems and loss of aliphatics to headspace during WAF preparation. Model calculations indicate that satisfactory toxicity predictions can be achieved by describing gasoline composition using a limited number of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon blocks with different octanol-water partition

  11. Bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil using poultry litter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G; Tao, J.

    1996-10-01

    Contaminated soil, excavated from around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank, is commonly subjected to thermal degradation to remove the gasoline. Bioremediation as an alternative treatment technology is now becoming popular. The important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria include Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Poultry litter contains a large number of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, as well as many inorganic nutrients and organic biomass that may assist in biodegrading gasoline in contaminated soil. During bioremediation of contaminated soil, microbial densities are known to increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, bioremediation may result in a increase in the toxic characteristics of the soil due to the production of potentially toxic degradation intermediates. The objective of this research was to study the influence of the addition of poultry litter on the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by quantifying the changes in the densities of microorganisms and by monitoring the toxicity of the degradation products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Gasoline marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Metzenbaum, H.M.

    1991-02-01

    Consumers have the option of purchasing several different grades of unleaded gasoline regular, mid-grade, and premium which are classified according to an octane rating. Because of concern that consumers may be needlessly buying higher priced premium unleaded gasoline for their automobiles when regular unleaded gasoline would meet their needs, this paper determines whether consumers were buying premium gasoline that they may not need, whether the higher retail price of premium gasoline includes a price mark-up added between the refinery and the retail pump which is greater than that included in the retail price for regular gasoline, and possible reasons for the price differences between premium and regular gasoline.

  13. TOXIC EQUIVALENCY APPROACH FOR DIOXINS: AN EXAMPLE OF DOSE ADDITIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) is often called the most toxic man-made compound. However, it is but the prototype for a family of structurally related compounds which have a common mechanism of action, induce a common spectrum of biological responses, and are...

  14. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... additive on all emissions; (5) Toxicity and any other public health or welfare effects of the...

  15. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... additive on all emissions; (5) Toxicity and any other public health or welfare effects of the...

  16. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... additive on all emissions; (5) Toxicity and any other public health or welfare effects of the...

  17. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... additive on all emissions; (5) Toxicity and any other public health or welfare effects of the...

  18. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... additive on all emissions; (5) Toxicity and any other public health or welfare effects of the...

  19. 40 CFR 80.410 - What are the additional requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sample; (iii) Review original documents that reflect movement and storage of the certified Sulfur-FRGAS... as specified in paragraph (n)(1) of this section, and a description of the gasoline's movement and... the United States related to the requirements of this subpart H. (3) The forum for any civil...

  20. 40 CFR 80.410 - What are the additional requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sample; (iii) Review original documents that reflect movement and storage of the certified Sulfur-FRGAS... as specified in paragraph (n)(1) of this section, and a description of the gasoline's movement and... the United States related to the requirements of this subpart H. (3) The forum for any civil...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1363 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for gasoline produced at foreign refineries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... submitted to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, under the requirements of 40 CFR part 80... 40 CFR part 80, subpart L, including 40 CFR 80.1363 apply to . Pursuant to Clean Air Act section 113... under this subpart for gasoline produced at foreign refineries? 80.1363 Section 80.1363 Protection...

  2. 40 CFR 80.1363 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for gasoline produced at foreign refineries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... description of the method used to determine the identity of the refinery at which the gasoline was produced... language translations of any documents must be provided to an EPA inspector or auditor, on request, within 10 working days. (ix) English language interpreters must be provided to accompany EPA inspectors...

  3. Comparison of immunotoxic effects induced by the extracts from methanol and gasoline engine exhausts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Che, Wangjun; Liu, Guiming; Qiu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ran, Yun; Zeng, Xianggui; Wen, Weihua; Shu, Ya

    2010-06-01

    Gasoline engine exhaust has been considered as a major source of air pollution in China. Due to lower cyto- and geno-toxicity effects of methanol engine exhaust, methanol is regarded as a potential substitute for gasoline. We have previously compared cyto- and geno-toxicities of gasoline engine exhaust with that of methanol engine exhaust in A549 cells (Zhang et al., 2007).To characterize the immunotoxic effects for gasoline and methanol engine exhausts in immune cell, in this study, we further compared effects of gasoline and methanol engine exhausts on immune function in RAW264.7 cell and rabbit alveolar macrophages. Results showed that both gasoline and methanol engine exhaust could evidently inhibit RAW264.7 cell proliferation, promote RAW264.7 cell apoptosis, decrease E-rosette formation rate and inhibit anti-tumor effects of alveolar macrophages, at the same time, these effects of gasoline engine exhaust were far stronger than those of methanol engine exhaust. In addition, gasoline engine exhaust could significantly inhibit activities of ADCC of alveolar macrophages, but methanol engine exhaust could not. These results suggested that both gasoline and methanol engine exhausts might be immunotoxic atmospheric pollutants, but some effects of gasoline engine exhaust on immunotoxicities may be far stronger than that of methanol engine exhaust.

  4. Gasoline marketing

    SciTech Connect

    England-Joseph, J.

    1991-06-01

    This paper is a discussion of two reports. One, issued in April 1990, addresses gasoline octane mislabeling, and the other, issued in February 1991, addresses possible consumer overbuying of premium gasoline. Consumers can purchase several grades of unleaded gasoline with different octane ratings regular (87 octane), mid-grade (89 octane), and premium (91 octane or above). A major concern of consumer buying gasoline is that they purchase gasoline with an octane rating that meets their vehicles' octane requirements. In summary, it was found that consumers may unknowingly be purchasing gasoline with lower octane than needed because octane ratings are mislabeled on gasoline pumps. At the same time, other consumers, believing they may get better performance, may be knowingly buying higher priced premium gasoline when regular gasoline would meet their vehicles' needs. These practices could be coasting consumers hundred of millions of dollars each year.

  5. A test strategy for the assessment of additive attributed toxicity of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Kienhuis, Anne S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2016-08-01

    The new EU Tobacco Product Directive (TPD) prohibits tobacco products containing additives that are toxic in unburnt form or that increase overall toxicity of the product. This paper proposes a strategy to assess additive attributed toxicity in the context of the TPD. Literature was searched on toxicity testing strategies for regulatory purposes from tobacco industry and governmental institutes. Although mainly traditional in vivo testing strategies have been applied to assess toxicity of unburnt additives and increases in overall toxicity of tobacco products due to additives, in vitro tests combined with toxicogenomics and validated using biomarkers of exposure and disease are most promising in this respect. As such, tests are needed that are sensitive enough to assess additive attributed toxicity above the overall toxicity of tobacco products, which can associate assay outcomes to human risk and exposure. In conclusion, new, sensitive in vitro assays are needed to conclude whether comparable testing allows for assessment of small changes in overall toxicity attributed to additives. A more pragmatic approach for implementation on a short-term is mandated lowering of toxic emission components. Combined with risk assessment, this approach allows assessment of effectiveness of harm reduction strategies, including banning or reducing of additives.

  6. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    PubMed

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2013-09-15

    The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4-8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC50, one third of the LC01) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC50 by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC50, 13% of the LC01) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC50 by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na(+) followed by K(+) (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na(+) and K(+). Overall, whole body Na(+) loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a variety of toxicants. We theorize that a disruption of ion homeostasis may be a common mechanism underlying the acute additive toxicity of many contaminants in fish.

  7. 40 CFR 80.340 - What standards and requirements apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG)? 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention... gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG)? (a) Any refiner who...

  8. 40 CFR 80.340 - What standards and requirements apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG)? 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention... gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG)? (a) Any refiner who...

  9. 40 CFR 80.340 - What standards and requirements apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG)? 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention... gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG)? (a) Any refiner who...

  10. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: generation and characterization of test materials.

    PubMed

    Henley, Michael; Letinski, Daniel J; Carr, John; Caro, Mario L; Daughtrey, Wayne; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    In compliance with the Clean Air Act regulations for fuel and fuel additive registration, the petroleum industry, additive manufacturers, and oxygenate manufacturers have conducted comparative toxicology testing on evaporative emissions of gasoline alone and gasoline containing fuel oxygenates. To mimic real world exposures, a generation method was developed that produced test material similar in composition to the re-fueling vapor from an automotive fuel tank at near maximum in-use temperatures. Gasoline vapor was generated by a single-step distillation from a 1000-gallon glass-lined kettle wherein approximately 15-23% of the starting material was slowly vaporized, separated, condensed and recovered as test article. This fraction was termed vapor condensate (VC) and was prepared for each of the seven test materials, namely: baseline gasoline alone (BGVC), or gasoline plus an ether (G/MTBE, G/ETBE, G/TAME, or G/DIPE), or gasoline plus an alcohol (G/EtOH or G/TBA). The VC test articles were used for the inhalation toxicology studies described in the accompanying series of papers in this journal. These studies included evaluations of subchronic toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity. Results of these studies will be used for comparative risk assessments of gasoline and gasoline/oxygenate blends by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24852493

  11. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: generation and characterization of test materials.

    PubMed

    Henley, Michael; Letinski, Daniel J; Carr, John; Caro, Mario L; Daughtrey, Wayne; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    In compliance with the Clean Air Act regulations for fuel and fuel additive registration, the petroleum industry, additive manufacturers, and oxygenate manufacturers have conducted comparative toxicology testing on evaporative emissions of gasoline alone and gasoline containing fuel oxygenates. To mimic real world exposures, a generation method was developed that produced test material similar in composition to the re-fueling vapor from an automotive fuel tank at near maximum in-use temperatures. Gasoline vapor was generated by a single-step distillation from a 1000-gallon glass-lined kettle wherein approximately 15-23% of the starting material was slowly vaporized, separated, condensed and recovered as test article. This fraction was termed vapor condensate (VC) and was prepared for each of the seven test materials, namely: baseline gasoline alone (BGVC), or gasoline plus an ether (G/MTBE, G/ETBE, G/TAME, or G/DIPE), or gasoline plus an alcohol (G/EtOH or G/TBA). The VC test articles were used for the inhalation toxicology studies described in the accompanying series of papers in this journal. These studies included evaluations of subchronic toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity. Results of these studies will be used for comparative risk assessments of gasoline and gasoline/oxygenate blends by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  12. 40 CFR 80.1654 - California gasoline requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false California gasoline requirements. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1654 California gasoline requirements. (a) California gasoline exemption. California gasoline that complies with all the requirements...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1652 - Reporting requirements for gasoline refiners, gasoline importers, oxygenate producers, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting requirements for gasoline refiners, gasoline importers, oxygenate producers, and oxygenate importers. 80.1652 Section 80.1652... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1652 Reporting requirements for gasoline...

  14. Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

  15. Gasoline marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    In 1978 Congress passed the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act. This legislation requires uniform posting of accurate octane ratings on gas pumps to let consumers know the octane rating of the gasoline they are buying. However, because the Federal Trade Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not carried out their octane testing and enforcement responsibilities under the Act, there are no federal controls to ensure that gasoline octane postings are accurate. This report discussed how octane mislabeling is a problem in some states, and GAO believes consumer may be paying millions of dollars each year for gasoline with lower octane rating than what is posted on the pump. GAO is also concerned that the Act lacks provisions for posting octane ratings for gasoline-alcohol blends and has other provisions that may interfere with state octane enforcement efforts.

  16. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  17. Carcinogenic potential of gasoline and diesel engine oils.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Plutnick, R T

    1989-10-01

    Used gasoline engine oils are carcinogenic in mouse skin and mutagenic in Salmonella. The toxicity of fresh gasoline engine oils and that of fresh and used diesel engine oils are less well defined. The present studies examined the dermal carcinogenic potential of a series of fresh and used oils from both gasoline and diesel engines. The used oils represented a variety of operating conditions. The objective of the study was to assess the potential carcinogenic hazards associated with exposure to these materials. The majority of the used gasoline engine oils tested were carcinogenic although one oil, collected after a relatively short drainage interval, was inactive in the dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. Additionally, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were elevated in the used oils in comparison to the fresh oils. The fresh gasoline engine oils and both the fresh and used diesel engine oil samples were noncarcinogenic, and there was little evidence of elevated PAH levels in the used diesel engine oils. The carcinogenic potency of used oils from gasoline engines was related to drainage interval, but other factors such as contribution of the fuel due to blowby and driving cycle may also have been important. The used diesel engine oils were not carcinogenic even after extended use.

  18. Aflatoxin Toxicity Reduction in Feed by Enhanced Binding to Surface-Modified Clay Additives

    PubMed Central

    Jaynes, William F.; Zartman, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal feeding studies have demonstrated that clay additives, such as bentonites, can bind aflatoxins in ingested feed and reduce or eliminate the toxicity. Bentonite deposits are found throughout the world and mostly consist of expandable smectite minerals, such as montmorillonite. The surfaces of smectite minerals can be treated with organic compounds to create surface-modified clays that more readily bind some contaminants than the untreated clay. Montmorillonites treated with organic cations, such as hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), more effectively remove organic contaminants, such as benzene and toluene, from water than untreated clay. Similarly, montmorillonite treated with PTMA (Kd = 24,100) retained more aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) from aqueous corn flour than untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 944). Feed additives that reduced aflatoxin toxicity in animal feeding studies adsorbed more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than feed additives that were less effective. The organic cations HDTMA and PTMA are considered toxic and would not be suitable for clay additives used in feed or food, but other non-toxic or nutrient compounds can be used to prepare surface-modified clays. Montmorillonite (SWy) treated with choline (Kd = 13,800) and carnitine (Kd = 3960) adsorbed much more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than the untreated clay (Kd = 944). A choline-treated clay prepared from a reduced-charge, high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 20,100) adsorbed more AfB1 than the choline-treated high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 1340) or the untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 293). Surface-modified clay additives prepared using low-charge smectites and nutrient or non-toxic organic compounds might be used to more effectively bind aflatoxins in contaminated feed or food and prevent toxicity. PMID:22069725

  19. Controlling a toxic shock of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to anaerobic digestion using activated carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; De Araujo, Cecilia; Sze, Chun Chau; Stuckey, David C

    2015-04-01

    Several powdered and granular activated carbons (PACs and GACs) were tested for adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in bench-scale anaerobic digestion reactors to control the toxicity of PCP to acetoclastic methanogenesis. Results showed that the adsorption capacities of PAC were reduced by 21-54%, depending on the PAC addition time, in the presence of the methanogenic sludge compared to the controls without sludge. As a preventive measure, PAC at a low dose of 20% (mass ratio to the VSS) added 24 h prior to, or simultaneously with, the addition of PCP could completely eliminate the toxic effects of PCP. At the same dose, PAC also enabled methanogenesis to recover immediately after the sludge had been exposed to PCP for 24h. GAC was not effective in enabling the recovery of methanogenesis due to its slow adsorption kinetics; however, at a dose of 80% it could partially ameliorate the toxic shock of PCP. PMID:25665874

  20. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-11-01

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L-1, or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L-1, there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L-1 of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the

  1. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-12-21

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L(-1), or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L(-1), there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L(-1) of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L(-1) of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.

  2. Aquatic toxicity assessment of the additive 6-methylcoumarine using four experimental systems.

    PubMed

    Jos, A; Repetto, G; Ríos, J C; Del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Cameán, A M

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity assessment of chemicals is one of the main issues in the current policies in order to protect the health of the environment and human beings. Food and cosmetic additives have been extensively studied in relation to their toxicity to humans, but data about their ecotoxicological effects are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of the additive 6-methylcoumarine in the aquatic milieu using a test battery comprising experimental model systems from different trophic levels. The inhibition of bioluminiscence was studied in the bacteria Vibrio fischeri (decomposer), the inhibition of growth was evaluated in the alga Chlorella vulgaris (producer) and immobilization was studied in the cladoceran Daphnia magna (first consumer). Finally, several end points were evaluated in the RTG-2 salmonid fish cell line, including neutral red uptake, protein content, methylthiazol tetrazolium salt metabolization, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and leakage, and morphology. The sensitivity of the test systems employed was as follows: V. fischeri > D. magna > C. vulgaris > RTG-2 cell line. The results show that 6-methylcoumarine is not expected to produce acute toxic effects on the aquatic biota. However, chronic and synergistic effects with other chemicals cannot be excluded and should be further investigated.

  3. Mechanism of concentration addition toxicity: they are different for nonpolar narcotic chemicals, polar narcotic chemicals and reactive chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhifen; Du, Jianwei; Yin, Kedong; Wang, Liansheng; Yu, Hongxia

    2004-03-01

    According to the toxicity mechanism of the individual chemicals, the concentration addition toxicity mechanism is revealed for nonpolar-narcotic-chemical mixtures, polar-narcotic-chemical mixtures and reactive-chemical mixtures, respectively. For nonpolar-narcotic-chemical mixtures, the partitioning of individual chemicals from water to biophase was determined, and the result shows that their concentration additive effect results from no competitive partitioning among individual chemicals. For polar-narcotic-chemical mixtures, their toxicity are contributed by two factors (the total baseline toxicity and the hydrogen bond donor activity of individual chemicals), and it is the concentration additive effect for either of these two factors that leads to their concentration addition toxicity. In addition, the interactions between the reactive chemicals and the biological macromolecules are discussed thoroughly. The results suggest that the net effect of these interactions is zero, and it is this zero net effect that leads to the concentration addition toxicity mechanism for reactive-chemical mixtures.

  4. Degradation of a Mixture of Hydrocarbons, Gasoline, and Diesel Oil Additives by Rhodococcus aetherivorans and Rhodococcus wratislaviensis▿

    PubMed Central

    Auffret, Marc; Labbé, Diane; Thouand, Gérald; Greer, Charles W.; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Two strains, identified as Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016 and Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017, were isolated from a microbial consortium that degraded 15 petroleum compounds or additives when provided in a mixture containing 16 compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, octane, hexadecane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane [isooctane], cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, naphthalene, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate [2-EHN]). The strains had broad degradation capacities toward the compounds, including the more recalcitrant ones, MTBE, ETBE, isooctane, cyclohexane, and 2-EHN. R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 degraded and mineralized to different extents 11 of the compounds when provided individually, sometimes requiring 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as a cosolvent. R. aetherivorans IFP 2017 degraded a reduced spectrum of substrates. The coculture of the two strains degraded completely 13 compounds, isooctane and 2-EHN were partially degraded (30% and 73%, respectively), and only TBA was not degraded. Significant MTBE and ETBE degradation rates, 14.3 and 116.1 μmol of ether degraded h−1 g−1 (dry weight), respectively, were measured for R. aetherivorans IFP 2017. The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEXs) had a detrimental effect on ETBE and MTBE biodegradation, whereas octane had a positive effect on the MTBE biodegradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. BTEXs had either beneficial or detrimental effects on their own degradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. Potential genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation in the two strains were identified and partially sequenced. PMID:19837842

  5. Importance of Rhodococcus strains in a bacterial consortium degrading a mixture of hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives revealed by metatranscriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Marc D; Yergeau, Etienne; Labbé, Diane; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise; Greer, Charles W

    2015-03-01

    A bacterial consortium (Mix3) composed of microorganisms originating from different environments (soils and wastewater) was obtained after enrichment in the presence of a mixture of 16 hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives. After addition of the mixture, the development of the microbial composition of Mix3 was monitored at three different times (35, 113, and 222 days) using fingerprinting method and dominant bacterial species were identified. In parallel, 14 bacteria were isolated after 113 days and identified. Degradation capacities for Mix3 and the isolated bacterial strains were characterized and compared. At day 113, we induced the expression of catabolic genes in Mix3 by adding the substrate mixture to resting cells and the metatranscriptome was analyzed. After addition of the substrate mixture, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased at day 222 while a shift between Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium was observed after 113 days. Mix3 was able to degrade 13 compounds completely, with partial degradation of isooctane and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate, but tert-butyl alcohol was not degraded. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain IFP 2016 isolated from Mix3 showed almost the same degradation capacities as Mix3: these results were not observed with the other isolated strains. Transcriptomic results revealed that Actinobacteria and in particular, Rhodococcus species, were major contributors in terms of total and catabolic gene transcripts while other species were involved in cyclohexane degradation. Not all the microorganisms identified at day 113 were active except R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 that appeared to be a major player in the degradation activity observed in Mix3.

  6. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-11-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/Fm‧) by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l-1 (ametryn) to 132 μg l-1 (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/Fm‧.

  7. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Adam D; Collier, Catherine J; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2015-11-30

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/F(m)') by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l(-1) (ametryn) to 132 μg l(-1) (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/F(m)'.

  8. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/Fm′) by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l−1 (ametryn) to 132 μg l−1 (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/Fm′. PMID:26616444

  9. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Adam D; Collier, Catherine J; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/F(m)') by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l(-1) (ametryn) to 132 μg l(-1) (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/F(m)'. PMID:26616444

  10. Gasoline marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information on states' gasoline octane testing programs. Questionnaires were sent to 56 state officials, of which 51 responded. Twenty states responded that they have gasoline octane testing programs, and 7 others responded that, while they do not have a testing program, they test octane in response to complaints. Officials from 13 states that do not have an octane testing program responded that they plan to recommend a program within 3 years primarily because of consumer complaints. Eleven states indicated that octane mislabeling is a problem in their states. Eighteen states responded that octane mislabeling is not a problem. Twenty-one responded that they had no basis to judge if there is a problem.

  11. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35...

  12. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35...

  13. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35...

  14. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35...

  15. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35...

  16. Promotion of Ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-04-09

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess.

  17. Promotion of Ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  18. Toxicity Minimized Cryoprotectant Addition and Removal Procedures for Adherent Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Allyson Fry; Glasscock, Cameron; McClanahan, Danielle R.; Benson, James D.; Higgins, Adam Z.

    2015-01-01

    Ice-free cryopreservation, known as vitrification, is an appealing approach for banking of adherent cells and tissues because it prevents dissociation and morphological damage that may result from ice crystal formation. However, current vitrification methods are often limited by the cytotoxicity of the concentrated cryoprotective agent (CPA) solutions that are required to suppress ice formation. Recently, we described a mathematical strategy for identifying minimally toxic CPA equilibration procedures based on the minimization of a toxicity cost function. Here we provide direct experimental support for the feasibility of these methods when applied to adherent endothelial cells. We first developed a concentration- and temperature-dependent toxicity cost function by exposing the cells to a range of glycerol concentrations at 21°C and 37°C, and fitting the resulting viability data to a first order cell death model. This cost function was then numerically minimized in our state constrained optimization routine to determine addition and removal procedures for 17 molal (mol/kg water) glycerol solutions. Using these predicted optimal procedures, we obtained 81% recovery after exposure to vitrification solutions, as well as successful vitrification with the relatively slow cooling and warming rates of 50°C/min and 130°C/min. In comparison, conventional multistep CPA equilibration procedures resulted in much lower cell yields of about 10%. Our results demonstrate the potential for rational design of minimally toxic vitrification procedures and pave the way for extension of our optimization approach to other adherent cell types as well as more complex systems such as tissues and organs. PMID:26605546

  19. The toxicity of sulfamethazine to Daphnia magna and its additivity to other veterinary sulfonamides and trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    De Liguoro, Marco; Fioretto, Barbara; Poltronieri, Carlo; Gallina, Guglielmo

    2009-06-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs), the oldest chemotherapeutic agents used for antimicrobial therapy, still play an important role in veterinary mass treatments. Consequently, traces of these compounds, alone or in combinations, have been repeatedly detected in the environment. Sulfamethazine (SMZ) deserves particular attention not only because it is the most used veterinary SA, but also due to its proven effects on fertility in mice and on thyroid hormone homeostasis in rats. In this study, after evaluating the acute toxicity to Daphnia magna of six veterinary SAs and trimethoprim (TMP), the additivity of SMZ to each other compound was tested using the isobologram method. Two reproduction tests on the same biological model were also performed in order to derive LOEC and NOEC of SMZ. The acute EC(50) was in the range 131-270 mgL(-1) for all the compounds tested with the exception of sulfaguanidine (EC(50)=3.86 mgL(-1)). In acute binary tests SMZ showed a complex interaction with sulfaquinoxaline (superadditivity, additivity or subadditivity) at the three different combination ratios tested, simple additivity to TMP and less than additive interaction when paired to the other SAs. LOEC and NOEC of SMZ obtained from reproduction tests were 3.125 and 1.563 mgL(-1), respectively. In conclusion, SMZ should not harm the crustacean population at environmentally realistic concentrations. Its toxicity is comparable to that of other systemic SAs, and their binary interactions are less than additive. The same can not be entirely said for enteric SAs, and considering that these compounds are administered at high doses and mostly excreted in unmetabolised form, further evaluation of their impact to the aquatic environment seems advisable. PMID:19269673

  20. Toxicological Assessments of Rats Exposed Prenatally to Inhaled Vapors of Gasoline and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which is blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ...

  1. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    PubMed

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  2. California`s cleaner burning gasoline and methyl tertiary butyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, J.; Mazur, L.

    1995-12-31

    As of June 1, 1996, California is required to use cleaner-burning gasoline to help meet federal ambient air quality standards and reduce ambient air toxics. Cleaner-burning gasoline reduces smog-forming emissions from motor vehicles by 15% and air pollution by over three million pounds per day. This is equivalent to removing 3.5 million cars from California`s roads. To enhance combustion and thus reduce emissions, California cleaner burning gasoline is required to contain 2.0% oxygen by weight. This is achieved by addition of oxygenates, such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Ambient air data of MTBE derived from motor vehicle emissions and refueling activities has been measured in several pilot studies and at 22 urban sites as part of California`s Air Resources Board statewide toxics monitoring network. These activities have only recently been initiated and this paper will describe data collected to date.

  3. Additive toxicity of herbicide mixtures and comparative sensitivity of tropical benthic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Marie; Heimann, Kirsten; Quayle, Pamela; Negri, Andrew P

    2010-11-01

    Natural waters often contain complex mixtures of unknown contaminants potentially posing a threat to marine communities through chemical interactions. Here, acute effects of the photosystem II-inhibiting herbicides diuron, tebuthiuron, atrazine, simazine, and hexazinone, herbicide breakdown products (desethyl-atrazine (DEA) and 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA)) and binary mixtures, were investigated using three tropical benthic microalgae; Navicula sp. and Cylindrotheca closterium (Ochrophyta) and Nephroselmis pyriformis (Chlorophyta), and one standard test species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Ochrophyta), in a high-throughput Maxi-Imaging-PAM bioassay (Maxi-IPAM). The order of toxicity was; diuron > hexazinone > tebuthiuron > atrazine > simazine > DEA > 3,4-DCA for all species. The tropical green alga N. pyriformis was up to 10-fold more sensitive than the diatoms tested here and reported for coral symbionts, and is recommended as a standard tropical test species for future research. All binary mixtures exhibited additive toxicity, and the use of herbicide equivalents (HEq) is therefore recommended in order to incorporate total-maximum-load measures for environmental regulatory purposes.

  4. Effects of an ethanol-gasoline mixture: results of a 4-week inhalation study in rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, I; Poon, R; Valli, V; Yagminas, A; Bowers, W J; Seegal, R; Vincent, R

    2005-01-01

    The inhalation toxicity of an ethanol-gasoline mixture was investigated in rats. Groups of 15 male and 15 female rats were exposed by inhalation to 6130 ppm ethanol, 500 ppm gasoline or a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (by volume, 6130 ppm ethanol and 500 ppm gasoline), 6 h a day, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Control rats of both genders received HEPA/charcoal-filtered room air. Ten males and ten females from each group were killed after 4 weeks of treatment and the remaining rats were exposed to filtered room air for an additional 4 weeks to determine the reversibility of toxic injuries. Female rats treated with the mixture showed growth suppression, which was reversed after 4 weeks of recovery. Increased kidney weight and elevated liver microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, urinary ascorbic acid, hippuric acid and blood lymphocytes were observed and most of the effects were associated with gasoline exposure. Combined exposure to ethanol and gasoline appeared to exert an additive effect on growth suppression. Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract was observed only in the ethanol-gasoline mixture groups, and exposure to either ethanol and gasoline had no effect on the organ, suggesting that an irritating effect was produced when the two liquids were mixed. Morphology in the adrenal gland was characterized by vacuolation of the cortical area. Although histological changes were generally mild in male and female rats and were reversed after 4 weeks, the changes tended to be more severe in male rats. Brain biogenic amine levels were altered in ethanol- and gasoline-treated groups; their levels varied with respect to gender and brain region. Although no general interactions were observed in the brain neurotransmitters, gasoline appeared to suppress dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens region co-exposed to ethanol. It was concluded that treatment with ethanol and gasoline, at the levels studied, produced mild, reversible

  5. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are...

  6. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are...

  7. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are...

  8. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are...

  9. Upgrading of cracking gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.; Ragonese, F.P.; Yurchak, S.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes an integrated catalytic cracking and gasoline upgrading process. It comprises: withdrawing a product stream from the riser reactor of a catalytic cracking process unit; charging the product stream to a primary fractionation zone; withdrawing an intermediate gasoline stream from the primary fractionation zone, the intermediate gasoline stream comprising olefinic gasoline having an ASTM D86 boiling range from about 90{degrees} to about 170{degrees} C.; contacting a first portion of the intermediate gasoline stream and a C{sub 2}{minus}C{sub 5} olefinic stream with a catalyst under conversion conditions to form an upgraded gasoline stream; and charging a second portion of the intermediate gasoline stream together with the upgraded gasoline stream to a gasoline product storage facility.

  10. Nanoparticle delivery of chemosensitizers improve chemotherapy efficacy without incurring additional toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Caster, Joseph M.; Sethi, Manish; Kowalczyk, Sonya; Wang, Edina; Tian, Xi; Hyder, Sayed Nabeel; Wagner, Kyle T.; Zhang, Ying-Ao; Kapadia, Chintan; Au, Kin Man; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chemosensitizers can improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy and overcome treatment resistance. Successful translation of chemosensitizers depends on the development of strategies that can preferentially deliver chemosensitizers to tumors while avoiding normal tissue. We hypothesized that nanoparticle (NP) formulation of chemosensitizers can improve their delivery to tumors which can in turn improve their therapeutic index. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach, we engineered NP formulations of two chemosensitizers, the PI3-kindase inhibitor wortmanin (Wtmn) and the PARP inhibitor olaparib. NP Wtmn and NP olaparib were evaluated as chemosensitizers using lung cancer cells and breast cancer cells respectively. We found Wtmn to be an efficient chemosensitizer in all tested lung-cancer cell lines reducing tumor cell growth between 20 and 60% compared to drug alone. NP formulation did not decrease its efficacy in vitro. Olaparib showed less consistent chemosensitization as a free drug or in NP formulation. NP Wtmn was further evaluated as a chemosensitizer using mouse models of lung cancer. We found that NP Wtmn is an effective chemosensitizer and more effective than free Wtmn showing a 32% reduction in tumor growth compared to free Wtmn when given with etoposide. Importantly, NP Wtmn was able to sensitize the multi-drug resistant H69AR cells to etoposide. Additionally, the combination of NP Wtmn and etoposide chemotherapy did not significantly increase toxicity. The present study demonstrates the proof of principle of using NP formulation of chemosensitizing drugs to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy. PMID:25584654

  11. Nanoparticle delivery of chemosensitizers improve chemotherapy efficacy without incurring additional toxicity.

    PubMed

    Caster, Joseph M; Sethi, Manish; Kowalczyk, Sonya; Wang, Edina; Tian, Xi; Nabeel Hyder, Sayed; Wagner, Kyle T; Zhang, Ying-Ao; Kapadia, Chintan; Man Au, Kin; Wang, Andrew Z

    2015-02-14

    Chemosensitizers can improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy and overcome treatment resistance. Successful translation of chemosensitizers depends on the development of strategies that can preferentially deliver chemosensitizers to tumors while avoiding normal tissue. We hypothesized that nanoparticle (NP) formulation of chemosensitizers can improve their delivery to tumors which can in turn improve their therapeutic index. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach, we engineered NP formulations of two chemosensitizers, the PI3-kindase inhibitor wortmanin (Wtmn) and the PARP inhibitor olaparib. NP Wtmn and NP olaparib were evaluated as chemosensitizers using lung cancer cells and breast cancer cells respectively. We found Wtmn to be an efficient chemosensitizer in all tested lung-cancer cell lines reducing tumor cell growth between 20 and 60% compared to drug alone. NP formulation did not decrease its efficacy in vitro. Olaparib showed less consistent chemosensitization as a free drug or in NP formulation. NP Wtmn was further evaluated as a chemosensitizer using mouse models of lung cancer. We found that NP Wtmn is an effective chemosensitizer and more effective than free Wtmn showing a 32% reduction in tumor growth compared to free Wtmn when given with etoposide. Importantly, NP Wtmn was able to sensitize the multi-drug resistant H69AR cells to etoposide. Additionally, the combination of NP Wtmn and etoposide chemotherapy did not significantly increase toxicity. The present study demonstrates the proof of principle of using NP formulation of chemosensitizing drugs to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy.

  12. Characteristics of concentration-inhibition curves of individual chemicals and applicability of the concentration addition model for mixture toxicity prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Wang, Xiaochang C; Ma, Xiaoyan

    2015-03-01

    The concentration addition (CA) model has been widely applied to predict mixture toxicity. However, its applicability is difficult to evaluate due to the complexity of interactions among substances. Considering that the concentration-response curve (CRC) of each component of the mixture is closely related to the prediction of mixture toxicity, mathematical treatments were used to derive a characteristic index kECx (k was the slope of the tangent line of a CRC at concentration ECx). The implication is that the CA model would be applicable for predicting the mixture toxicity only when chemical components have similar kECx in the whole or part of the concentration range. For five selected chemicals whose toxicity was detected using luminescent bacteria, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) showed much higher kECx values than the others and its existence in the binary mixtures brought about overestimation of the mixture toxicity with the CA model. The higher the mass ratio of SDBS in a multi-mixture was, the more the toxicity prediction deviated from measurements. By applying the method proposed in this study to analyze some published data, it is confirmed that some components having significantly different kECx values from the other components could explain the large deviation of the mixture toxicity predicted by the CA model. PMID:25499050

  13. H. R. 5375: A Bill to amend the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act to provide consumers with additional information concerning the octane rating of gasoline. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, July 25, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill would require each gasoline retailer to display the following warning statement: WARNING. Most cars are designed to operate best on low-octane gasoline. Check your owner's manual to see what grade of gasoline is best for your car. The effective date of this amendment would be 120 days after the date of the enactment of the act.

  14. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements of subparts D, E, F, and J of this part...

  15. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements required by these regulations shall...

  16. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements of subparts D, E, F, and J of this part...

  17. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements required by these regulations shall...

  18. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements of subparts D, E, F, and J of this part...

  19. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements required by these regulations shall...

  20. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 3: diesel and gasoline.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Within this review the genotoxicity of diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions is placed in an historical context. New technologies have changed the composition of transportation methods considerably, reducing emissions of many of the components of health concern. The similarity of modern diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions to other carbonaceous fuels and emissions is striking. Recently an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that there was sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust (Group 1). In addition, the Working Group found that diesel exhaust has "a positive association (limited evidence) with an increased risk of bladder cancer." Like most other carbonaceous fuel emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts contain toxic levels of respirable particles (PM <2.5μm) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the level of toxic components in exhausts from diesel and gasoline emissions has declined in certain regions over time because of changes in engine design, the development of better aftertreatment devices (e.g., catalysts), increased fuel economy, changes in the fuels and additives used, and greater regulation. Additional research and better exposure assessments are needed so that decision makers and the public can decide to what extent diesel and gasoline engines should be replaced. PMID:25795114

  1. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 3: diesel and gasoline.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Within this review the genotoxicity of diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions is placed in an historical context. New technologies have changed the composition of transportation methods considerably, reducing emissions of many of the components of health concern. The similarity of modern diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions to other carbonaceous fuels and emissions is striking. Recently an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that there was sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust (Group 1). In addition, the Working Group found that diesel exhaust has "a positive association (limited evidence) with an increased risk of bladder cancer." Like most other carbonaceous fuel emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts contain toxic levels of respirable particles (PM <2.5μm) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the level of toxic components in exhausts from diesel and gasoline emissions has declined in certain regions over time because of changes in engine design, the development of better aftertreatment devices (e.g., catalysts), increased fuel economy, changes in the fuels and additives used, and greater regulation. Additional research and better exposure assessments are needed so that decision makers and the public can decide to what extent diesel and gasoline engines should be replaced.

  2. 40 CFR 80.1640 - Standards and requirements that apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG). 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1640 Standards and requirements that apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline...

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. 75 FR 72727 - Addition of National Toxicology Program Carcinogens; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... emissions from vegetation, particularly from deciduous forests. The commenter cited sources that state that... criterion.'' EPA has published in the Federal Register of November 30, 1994 (59 FR 61432) a statement... EPCRA section 313 list of toxic chemicals? As discussed in the proposed rule (75 FR 17333, April 6,...

  5. Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

    2003-08-15

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications.

  6. 40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.78 Controls... gasoline provided that such gasoline is used in an oxygenated fuels program control area during an oxygenated fuels control period. (7) No person may combine any reformulated gasoline blendstock for...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1295 - How are gasoline benzene credits used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are gasoline benzene credits used... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1295 How are gasoline benzene credits used? (a) Credit use. (1) Gasoline...

  8. 40 CFR 80.1295 - How are gasoline benzene credits used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are gasoline benzene credits used... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1295 How are gasoline benzene credits used? (a) Credit use. (1) Gasoline...

  9. 40 CFR 80.1295 - How are gasoline benzene credits used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are gasoline benzene credits used... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1295 How are gasoline benzene credits used? (a) Credit use. (1) Gasoline...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1295 - How are gasoline benzene credits used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are gasoline benzene credits used... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1295 How are gasoline benzene credits used? (a) Credit use. (1) Gasoline...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1295 - How are gasoline benzene credits used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are gasoline benzene credits used... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1295 How are gasoline benzene credits used? (a) Credit use. (1) Gasoline...

  12. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? For the purpose...

  13. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? For the purpose...

  14. 40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?...

  15. 40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?...

  16. 40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?...

  17. 40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?...

  18. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? For the purpose...

  19. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? For the purpose...

  20. 40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?...

  1. 40 CFR 80.211 - What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... imported gasoline as blendstock? 80.211 Section 80.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.211 What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as...

  2. 40 CFR 80.220 - What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GPA gasoline? 80.220 Section 80.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.220 What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline? (a) GPA gasoline. (1)...

  3. 40 CFR 80.211 - What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... imported gasoline as blendstock? 80.211 Section 80.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.211 What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as...

  4. 40 CFR 80.220 - What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GPA gasoline? 80.220 Section 80.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.220 What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline? (a) GPA gasoline. (1)...

  5. 40 CFR 80.220 - What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GPA gasoline? 80.220 Section 80.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.220 What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline? (a) GPA gasoline. (1)...

  6. 40 CFR 80.220 - What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GPA gasoline? 80.220 Section 80.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.220 What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline? (a) GPA gasoline. (1)...

  7. 40 CFR 80.211 - What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... imported gasoline as blendstock? 80.211 Section 80.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.211 What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as...

  8. 40 CFR 80.220 - What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GPA gasoline? 80.220 Section 80.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.220 What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline? (a) GPA gasoline. (1)...

  9. 40 CFR 80.211 - What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... imported gasoline as blendstock? 80.211 Section 80.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.211 What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as...

  10. 40 CFR 80.211 - What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... imported gasoline as blendstock? 80.211 Section 80.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.211 What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as...

  11. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Marcia S.; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as “Project MIX.” Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. Conclusion The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The

  12. Aquatic toxicity and ecological risk assessment of seven parabens: Individual and additive approach.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tamura, Ikumi; Hirata, Yoshiko; Kato, Jun; Kagota, Keiichiro; Katsuki, Shota; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl(-1) for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using medaka (Oryzias latipes), Daphnia magna, and Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata for four parabens, which was consistent with our previous study on three parabens, n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. The aquatic toxicity on fish, daphnia, and algae was weaker for the parabens with a shorter alkyl chain than those with a longer alkyl chain as predicted by their hydrophobicity. Medaka vitellogenin assays and DNA microarray analysis were carried out for methylparaben and found induction of significant vitellogenin in male medaka at 630μgl(-1) of methylparaben, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as choriogenin and vitellogenin increased for concentrations at 10μgl(-1) of methylparaben. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of seven parabens in Tokushima and Osaka were divided by predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and hazard quotient (MEC/PNEC) was determined for individual parabens. The MEC/PNEC was highest for n-propylparaben and was 0.010 followed by n-butylparaben (max. of 0.0086) and methylparaben (max. of 0.0042). The sum of the MEC/PNEC for the seven parabens was 0.0049. Equivalence factors were assigned for each paraben on the basis of the toxicity of n-butylparaben for each species, and n-butylparaben equivalence was calculated for the measured environmental concentrations. The MEC/PNEC approach was also conducted for the n-butylparaben-based equivalence values. The maximum MEC/PNEC was 0.018, which is lower than the trigger level for further detailed study such as

  13. Aquatic toxicity and ecological risk assessment of seven parabens: Individual and additive approach.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tamura, Ikumi; Hirata, Yoshiko; Kato, Jun; Kagota, Keiichiro; Katsuki, Shota; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl(-1) for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using medaka (Oryzias latipes), Daphnia magna, and Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata for four parabens, which was consistent with our previous study on three parabens, n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. The aquatic toxicity on fish, daphnia, and algae was weaker for the parabens with a shorter alkyl chain than those with a longer alkyl chain as predicted by their hydrophobicity. Medaka vitellogenin assays and DNA microarray analysis were carried out for methylparaben and found induction of significant vitellogenin in male medaka at 630μgl(-1) of methylparaben, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as choriogenin and vitellogenin increased for concentrations at 10μgl(-1) of methylparaben. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of seven parabens in Tokushima and Osaka were divided by predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and hazard quotient (MEC/PNEC) was determined for individual parabens. The MEC/PNEC was highest for n-propylparaben and was 0.010 followed by n-butylparaben (max. of 0.0086) and methylparaben (max. of 0.0042). The sum of the MEC/PNEC for the seven parabens was 0.0049. Equivalence factors were assigned for each paraben on the basis of the toxicity of n-butylparaben for each species, and n-butylparaben equivalence was calculated for the measured environmental concentrations. The MEC/PNEC approach was also conducted for the n-butylparaben-based equivalence values. The maximum MEC/PNEC was 0.018, which is lower than the trigger level for further detailed study such as

  14. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  15. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  16. Simulation: Gasoline Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-13

    The Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility helped Argonne researchers model what happens inside an engine when you use gasoline in a diesel engine. Engineers are exploring this type of combustion as a sustainable transportation option because it may be more efficient than traditional gasoline combustion engines but produce less soot than diesel.

  17. 40 CFR 80.1240 - How is a refinery's or importer's compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart determined? 80.1240 Section 80.1240... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1240 How is a refinery's or importer's compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart determined? (a) A...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1240 - How is a refinery's or importer's compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart determined? 80.1240 Section 80.1240... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1240 How is a refinery's or importer's compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart determined? (a) A...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1240 - How is a refinery's or importer's compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart determined? 80.1240 Section 80.1240... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1240 How is a refinery's or importer's compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart determined? (a) A...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1240 - How is a refinery's or importer's compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart determined? 80.1240 Section 80.1240... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1240 How is a refinery's or importer's compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart determined? (a) A...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1240 - How is a refinery's or importer's compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart determined? 80.1240 Section 80.1240... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1240 How is a refinery's or importer's compliance with the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart determined? (a) A...

  2. 40 CFR 80.1604 - Gasoline sulfur standards and requirements for parties downstream of refiners and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gasoline sulfur standards and... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1604 Gasoline sulfur standards and requirements for parties downstream of refiners and importers. (a) The sulfur standard for gasoline at any downstream location shall be...

  3. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    PubMed

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes. PMID:24956589

  4. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    PubMed

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes.

  5. 40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation... ethanol violation. Blend into gasoline denatured ethanol with a sulfur content higher than 30 ppm. (f)...

  6. 76 FR 9013 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline... this action are those who (1) Manufacture gasoline, post-refinery component, or detergent additives, (2) blend detergent additives into gasoline or post-refinery component, or (3) transport or receive...

  7. Gasoline formulations draw interest at technical meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    At the most recent NPRA Question and Answer Session on Refining and Petrochemical Technology, refiners exchanged information and experiences on reformulated gasoline recipes and blending systems. At the time the meeting was held--October 11--13, 1994, in Washington DC--US refiners were gearing up to produce the new fuel in time for the December 1 deadline. Under discussion were: blending instrumentation and control systems; flow metering; complex and simple models; and gasoline properties. Discussions are presented on the following questions. For an in-line gasoline blending system, is there a flowmeter which can measure flow independent of stream composition so that several different fluids can be blended and measured through one meter without recalibration? What changes in unit operations will result from the reformulated gasoline complex model vs. operations under the EPA simple model? Are any refiners planning to use the Complex Model prior to 1998 and if so, how will fungibility be handled? With the advent of new fuels mandated by EPA and some states, does anyone have tangible evidence concerning effects this will have on gasoline properties such as corrosivity, additive compatibility, polymerization, etc.? What precautions are being taken to prevent water contamination of MTBE during marine shipment? How do you deal with wet MTBE to prevent resulting haze in finished gasoline?

  8. Aquatic toxicity of nine aircraft deicer and anti-icer formulations and relative toxicity of additive package ingredients alkylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Loyo-Rosales, J. E.; Rice, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of the effects of aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF) runoff on aquatic organisms in receiving streams is a complex issue because the identities of numerous toxic additives are proprietary and not publicly available. Most potentially toxic and endocrine disrupting effects caused by ADAF are due to the numerous additive package ingredients which vary among manufacturers and types of ADAF formulation. Toxicity investigations of nine ADAF formulations indicate that endpoint concentrations for formulations of different manufacturers are widely variable. Type IV ADAF (anti-icers) are more toxic than Type I (deicers) for the four organisms tested (Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Selenastrum capricornutum). Acute toxicity endpoint concentrations ranged from 347 to 7700 mg/L as ADAF for Type IV and from 1550 to 45 100 mg/L for Type I formulations. Chronic endpoint concentrations ranged from 70 to 1300 mg/L for Type IV and from 37 to 18 400 mg/L for Type I formulations. Alkylphenol ethoxylates and tolyltriazoles are two known classes of additives. Nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, octylphenol, octylphenol ethoxylates, and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles were quantified in the nine ADAF formulations, and toxicity tests were conducted with nonylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles. Toxicity units computed for glycol and these additives, with respect to toxicity of the ADAF formulations, indicate that a portion of ADAF toxicity can be explained by the known additives and glycols, but much of the toxicity is due to unidentified additives. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  9. Aquatic toxicity of nine aircraft deicer and anti-icer formulations and relative toxicity of additive package ingredients alkylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-henzotriazoles.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Steven R; Geis, Steven W; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P

    2006-12-01

    Characterization of the effects of aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF) runoff on aquatic organisms in receiving streams is a complex issue because the identities of numerous toxic additives are proprietary and not publicly available. Most potentially toxic and endocrine disrupting effects caused by ADAF are due to the numerous additive package ingredients which vary among manufacturers and types of ADAF formulation. Toxicity investigations of nine ADAF formulations indicate that endpoint concentrations for formulations of different manufacturers are widely variable. Type IV ADAF (anti-icers) are more toxic than Type I (deicers) for the four organisms tested (Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Selenastrum capricornutum). Acute toxicity endpoint concentrations ranged from 347 to 7700 mg/L as ADAF for Type IV and from 1550 to 45,100 mg/L for Type I formulations. Chronic endpoint concentrations ranged from 70 to 1300 mg/L for Type IV and from 37 to 18,400 mg/L for Type I formulations. Alkylphenol ethoxylates and tolyltriazoles are two known classes of additives. Nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, octylphenol, octylphenol ethoxylates, and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles were quantified in the nine ADAF formulations, and toxicity tests were conducted with nonylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles. Toxicity units computed for glycol and these additives, with respect to toxicity of the ADAF formulations, indicate that a portion of ADAF toxicity can be explained by the known additives and glycols, but much of the toxicity is due to unidentified additives.

  10. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry--Part XXII: Health hazards from exposure to gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether: study of New Jersey residents.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1996-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether has caused the following cancers in rats and mice: kidney, testicular, liver, lymphomas, and leukemias. Thus, in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard methyl tertiary butyl ether-for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals-as a probable human carcinogen. This means that some humans are at extreme risk of contracting cancers resulting from their exposure to oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether. Immediately after the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline, many consumers of this product in New Jersey, New York, Alaska, Maine, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Arizona, Montana, Massachusetts, California, and other areas, experienced a variety of neurotoxic, allergic, and respiratory illnesses. These illnesses were similar to those suffered by refinery workers from the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers Union who mixed methyl tertiary butyl ether with gasoline. Additionally, these illnesses occurred following exposure to extremely low levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline, particularly when compared to the adverse health effects that occurred only after exposure to very high levels of conventional gasoline. Thus, gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether exhibited substantially more toxicity in humans than gasoline without this additive. A number of oil industry-sponsored or influenced reports alleged that these illnesses were either unrelated to exposure to reformulated gasoline or were characteristic of some yet-to-be-identified communicable disease. These studies further alleged that the widespread concern was not about illness, but was merely a reaction to the odor and the five cent increase in the price of gasoline. To clarify the significance of this issue, it is important to note that consumers have been using gasoline for many decades, with complaints only occurring following exposure to high

  11. Gasoline engine choking arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Armes, P.W.

    1987-10-13

    In combination with a gasoline engine including a fuel tank having a fuel inlet and outlet, an automatic choke is described having a pivotal choke butterfly plate, an air filter, and a rod mounting the air filter. A choking arrangement comprises means immobilizing the pivotal choke butterfly plate at an open position and means communicating with the fuel inlet selectively urging fuel passage from the fuel tank outlet during gasoline engine starting.

  12. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  13. Reduction of dioxin-like toxicity in effluents by additional wastewater treatment and related effects in fish.

    PubMed

    Maier, Diana; Benisek, Martin; Blaha, Ludek; Dondero, Francesco; Giesy, John P; Köhler, Heinz-R; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies to reduce micropollutants which mediate dioxin-like toxicity was investigated. Technologies compared included ozonation, powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon. In addition to chemical analyses in samples of effluents, surface waters, sediments, and fish, (1) dioxin-like potentials were measured in paired samples of effluents, surface waters, and sediments by use of an in vitro biotest (reporter gene assay) and (2) dioxin-like effects were investigated in exposed fish by use of in vivo activity of the mixed-function, monooxygenase enzyme, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in liver. All advanced technologies studied, based on degradation or adsorption, significantly reduced dioxin-like potentials in samples and resulted in lesser EROD activity in livers of fish. Results of in vitro and in vivo biological responses were not clearly related to quantification of targeted analytes by use of instrumental analyses. PMID:27262214

  14. Phase Partitioning from Theanol Blend Gasolines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the use of ethanol and other alcohols as motor fuel additives has increased. Additionally, ethanol production has expanded due to the potential use of ethanol as a primary fuel source. Historical patterns of gasoline composition show strong dependency on regulato...

  15. Biodegradation of gasoline by gellan gum-encapsulated bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Moslemy, Peyman; Neufeld, Ronald J; Guiot, Serge R

    2002-10-20

    Encapsulated cell bioaugmentation is a novel alternative solution to in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of such a remediation strategy based on the performance of encapsulated cells in the biodegradation of gasoline, a major groundwater contaminant. An enriched bacterial consortium, isolated from a gasoline-polluted site, was encapsulated in gellan gum microbeads (16-53 microm diameter). The capacity of the encapsulated cells to degrade gasoline under aerobic conditions was evaluated in comparison with free (non-encapsulated) cells. Encapsulated cells (2.6 mg(cells) x g(-1) bead) degraded over 90% gasoline hydrocarbons (initial concentration 50-600 mg x L(-1)) within 5-10 days at 10 degrees C. Equivalent levels of free cells removed comparable amounts of gasoline (initial concentration 50-400 mg x L(-1)) within the same period but required up to 30 days to degrade the highest level of gasoline tested (600 mg x L(-1)). Free cells exhibited a lag phase in biodegradation, which increased from 1 to 5 days with an increase in gasoline concentration (200-600 x mg L(-1)). Encapsulation provided cells with a protective barrier against toxic hydrocarbons, eliminating the adaptation period required by free cells. The reduction of encapsulated cell mass loading from 2.6 to 1.0 mg(cells) x g(-1) bead caused a substantial decrease in the extent of biodegradation within a 30-day incubation period. Encapsulated cells dispersed within the porous soil matrix of saturated soil microcosms demonstrated a reduced performance in the removal of gasoline (initial concentrations of 400 and 600 mg x L(-1)), removing 30-50% gasoline hydrocarbons compared to 40-60% by free cells within 21 days of incubation. The results of this study suggest that gellan gum-encapsulated bacterial cells have the potential to be used for biodegradation of gasoline hydrocarbons in aqueous systems.

  16. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  17. 40 CFR 80.1358 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1358 Section 80.1358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1358 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program? No person shall—...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1360 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1360 Section 80.1360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1360 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program? (a) The...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section 80.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1225 - Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1225 Section 80.1225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene General Information § 80.1225 Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Refiners...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1361 - What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1361 Section 80.1361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1361 What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Any person liable for...

  2. 40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section 80.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene...

  3. 40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section 80.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1361 - What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1361 Section 80.1361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1361 What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Any person liable for...

  5. 40 CFR 80.1358 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1358 Section 80.1358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1358 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program? No person shall—...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1225 - Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1225 Section 80.1225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene General Information § 80.1225 Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Refiners...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1361 - What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1361 Section 80.1361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1361 What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Any person liable for...

  8. 40 CFR 80.1361 - What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1361 Section 80.1361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1361 What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Any person liable for...

  9. 40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section 80.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section 80.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1360 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1360 Section 80.1360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1360 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program? (a) The...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1361 - What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1361 Section 80.1361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1361 What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Any person liable for...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1360 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1360 Section 80.1360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1360 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program? (a) The...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1225 - Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1225 Section 80.1225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene General Information § 80.1225 Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Refiners...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1360 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1360 Section 80.1360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1360 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program? (a) The...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1225 - Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1225 Section 80.1225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene General Information § 80.1225 Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Refiners...

  17. 40 CFR 80.1358 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1358 Section 80.1358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1358 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program? No person shall—...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1360 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1360 Section 80.1360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1360 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program? (a) The...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1225 - Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1225 Section 80.1225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene General Information § 80.1225 Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Refiners...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1358 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1358 Section 80.1358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1358 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program? No person shall—...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1358 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1358 Section 80.1358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1358 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program? No person shall—...

  2. 40 CFR 80.1603 - Gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gasoline sulfur standards for refiners... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1603 Gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers. (a) Sulfur standards—(1) Annual average standard....

  3. 40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.395 Section 80.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.395 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program? (a) Persons liable...

  4. 40 CFR 80.240 - What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur standards? 80.240 Section 80.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions § 80.240 What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards? (a) The gasoline sulfur...

  5. 40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.395 Section 80.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.395 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program? (a) Persons liable...

  6. 40 CFR 80.240 - What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur standards? 80.240 Section 80.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions § 80.240 What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards? (a) The gasoline sulfur...

  7. 40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.385 Section 80.385 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.385 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program? No person shall:...

  8. 40 CFR 80.240 - What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur standards? 80.240 Section 80.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions § 80.240 What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards? (a) The gasoline sulfur...

  9. 40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.395 Section 80.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.395 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program? (a) Persons liable...

  10. 40 CFR 80.240 - What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur standards? 80.240 Section 80.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions § 80.240 What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards? (a) The gasoline sulfur...

  11. 40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.385 Section 80.385 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.385 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program? No person shall:...

  12. 40 CFR 80.240 - What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur standards? 80.240 Section 80.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions § 80.240 What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards? (a) The gasoline sulfur...

  13. 40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.385 Section 80.385 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.385 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program? No person shall:...

  14. 40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reformulated gasoline. 80.78 Section 80.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.78 Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. (a) Prohibited activities. (1) No person may...

  15. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.375 Section 80.375 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California...

  16. 40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reformulated gasoline. 80.78 Section 80.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.78 Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. (a) Prohibited activities. (1) No person may...

  17. 40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur... gasoline. The requirements of this section apply to any refiner approved for small refiner standards...

  18. 40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for GPA gasoline. 80.219 Section 80.219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.219 Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. The requirements...

  19. 40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for GPA gasoline. 80.219 Section 80.219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.219 Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. The requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1348 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements § 80.1348 What gasoline sample retention...

  1. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.375 Section 80.375 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California...

  2. 40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for GPA gasoline. 80.219 Section 80.219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.219 Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. The requirements...

  3. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.375 Section 80.375 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1348 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements § 80.1348 What gasoline sample retention...

  5. 40 CFR 80.1348 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements § 80.1348 What gasoline sample retention...

  6. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.375 Section 80.375 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1656 - Exemptions for gasoline used for research, development, or testing purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for gasoline used for... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1656 Exemptions for gasoline used for research, development, or testing purposes. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.375 Section 80.375 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California...

  9. Desulfurization of gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J E

    1975-01-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

  10. Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26 × 107 cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 μg (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 μg (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline. PMID:24857922

  11. Aerobic degradation of trichloroethylene by co-metabolism using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen

    2014-05-22

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26×10⁷ cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 μg (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 μg (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline.

  12. Neurotoxic effects of gasoline and gasoline constituents.

    PubMed Central

    Burbacher, T M

    1993-01-01

    This overview was developed as part of a symposium on noncancer end points of gasoline and key gasoline components. The specific components included are methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl tertiary butyl ether, tertiary amyl methyl ether, butadiene, benzene, xylene, toluene, methyl alcohol, and ethyl alcohol. The overview focuses on neurotoxic effects related to chronic low-level exposures. A few general conclusions and recommendations can be made based on the results of the studies to date. a) All the compounds reviewed are neuroactive and, as such, should be examined for their neurotoxicity. b) For most of the compounds, there is a substantial margin of safety between the current permissible exposure levels and levels that would be expected to cause overt signs of neurotoxicity in humans. This is not the case for xylene, toluene, and methanol, however, where neurologic effects are observed at or below the current Threshold Limit Value. c) For most of the compounds, the relationship between chronic low-level exposure and subtle neurotoxic effects has not been studied. Studies therefore should focus on examining the dose-response relationship between chronic low-level exposure and subtle changes in central nervous system function. PMID:8020437

  13. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

  14. Comparative performance study of spark ignition engines burning alcohols, gasoline, and alcohol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Desoky, A.A.; Rabie, L.H.

    1983-12-01

    In recent years it has been clear that the reserves of oil, from which petrol is refined, are becoming limited. In order to conserve these stocks of oil, and to minimize motoring costs as the price of dwindling oil resources escalates, it's obviously desirable to improve the thermal efficiency of the spark ignition engine. There are also obvious benefits to be obtained from making spark ignition engines run efficiently on alternative fuel, (non-crude based fuel). It has been claimed that hydrogen is an ideal fuel for the internal combustion engine it certainly causes little pollution, but is difficult to store, high in price, and difficult to burn efficiently in the engine without it knocking and backfiring. These problems arise because of the very wide flammability limits and the very high flame velocity of hydrogen. Alcohols used an additive or substitute for gasoline could immediately help to solve both energy and pollution problems. An experimental tests were carried out at Mansoura University Laboratories using a small single cylinder SIE, fully instrumented to measure the engine performance. The engine was fueled with pure methonol, pure ethonol, gasoline methanol blends and gasaline ethanol blends. The results showed that in principle, from kechnological aspects it's possible to use alcohols as a gasoline extender or as alcohol's gasoline, blends for automobiles. With regard to energy consumptions alcohols and alcohols gasoline blends lead to interesting results. The fuel economy benefits of using alcohols gasoline blends was found to be interesting in the part throltle operation.

  15. Investigation on the eco-toxicity of lake sediments with the addition of drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-08-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) have a potential to realize eutrophication control objectives by reducing the internal phosphorus (P) load of lake sediments. Information regarding the ecological risk of dewatered WTR reuse in aquatic environments is generally lacking, however. In this study, we analyzed the eco-toxicity of leachates from sediments with or without dewatered WTRs toward algae Chlorella vulgaris via algal growth inhibition testing with algal cell density, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activity, and subcellular structure indices. The results suggested that leachates from sediments unanimously inhibited algal growth, with or without the addition of different WTR doses (10% or 50% of the sediment in dry weight) at different pH values (8-9), as well as from sediments treated for different durations (10 or 180days). The inhibition was primarily the result of P deficiency in the leachates owing to WTR P adsorption, however, our results suggest that the dewatered WTRs were considered as a favorable potential material for internal P loading control in lake restoration projects, as it shows acceptably low risk toward aquatic plants.

  16. Investigation on the eco-toxicity of lake sediments with the addition of drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-08-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) have a potential to realize eutrophication control objectives by reducing the internal phosphorus (P) load of lake sediments. Information regarding the ecological risk of dewatered WTR reuse in aquatic environments is generally lacking, however. In this study, we analyzed the eco-toxicity of leachates from sediments with or without dewatered WTRs toward algae Chlorella vulgaris via algal growth inhibition testing with algal cell density, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activity, and subcellular structure indices. The results suggested that leachates from sediments unanimously inhibited algal growth, with or without the addition of different WTR doses (10% or 50% of the sediment in dry weight) at different pH values (8-9), as well as from sediments treated for different durations (10 or 180days). The inhibition was primarily the result of P deficiency in the leachates owing to WTR P adsorption, however, our results suggest that the dewatered WTRs were considered as a favorable potential material for internal P loading control in lake restoration projects, as it shows acceptably low risk toward aquatic plants. PMID:27521931

  17. Acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of copper, zinc, and nickel to Pimephales promelas: Evidence of more-than-additive effect.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Natalie R; Hoang, Tham C; O'Brien, Timothy E

    2016-02-01

    Metal mixture toxicity has been studied for decades. However, the results are not consistent, and thus ecological risk assessment and regulation of mixtures has been difficult. The objective of the present study was to use a systematic experimental design to characterize the toxicity of binary-metal mixture of Cu, Zn, and Ni to Pimephales promelas, typically to determine whether the effect of these binary-metal mixtures on P. promelas is more-than-additive. Standard 96-h toxicity tests were conducted with larval P. promelas based on US Environmental and Protection Agency methods to determine metal mixture effects. All experiments were conducted in synthetic moderately hard water with no addition of dissolved organic matter. Three different effect analysis approaches, the MixTox model, the Finney model, and the toxic unit method, were used for comparison. The results indicate that the toxicity of Cu+Zn, Cu+Ni, and Zn+Ni mixtures to P. promelas was more-than-additive. Among the 3 mixtures, the effect of the Cu+Ni mixture was the most profound. The results of the present study are useful for applications to models such as the metal mixture biotic ligand model. More research should be conducted to determine the mechanisms of acute and chronic toxicity of metal mixtures.

  18. Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Radiation Therapy and Daily Temozolomide Is Associated With Minimal Toxicity in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenburgh, James J.; Desjardins, Annick; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Reardon, David A.; Peters, Katherine B.; Herndon, James E.; Marcello, Jennifer; Bailey, Leighann; Threatt, Stevie; Sampson, John; Friedman, Allan; Friedman, Henry S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in the study, and received standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide. All patients underwent a craniotomy and were at least 2 weeks postoperative. Radiation therapy was administered in 1.8-Gy fractions, with the clinical target volume for the primary course treated to a dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost of 9 to 14.4 Gy, to a total dose of 59.4 Gy. Patients received temozolomide at 75 mg/m{sup 2} daily throughout the course of radiation therapy. Bevacizumab was given at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days, beginning a minimum of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results: Of the 125 patients, 120 (96%) completed the protocol-specified radiation therapy. Five patients had to stop the protocol therapy, 2 patients with pulmonary emboli, and 1 patient each with a Grade 2 central nervous system hemorrhage, Grade 4 pancytopenia, and wound dehiscence requiring surgical intervention. All 5 patients ultimately finished the radiation therapy. After radiation therapy, 3 patients had progressive disease, 2 had severe fatigue and decreased performance status, 1 patient had a colonic perforation, and 1 had a rectal fissure; these 7 patients therefore did not proceed with the protocol-specified adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, and irinotecan. However, 113 patients (90%) were able to continue on study. Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide was found to be associated with minimal toxicity in patients newly diagnosed with GBM.

  19. Reformulated gasoline study, executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, R.E.; Michalski, G.W.; Baron, R.E.; Lyons, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    The feasibility of adopting alternative standards for reformulated gasoline (RFG) in New York State has been studied for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (the Energy Authority). In addition to Federal RFG (EPA 1) and EPA II, California Air Resources Board RFG (CARB 2) and a modified Federal low sulfur RFG (LS-EPA II) were investigated. The effects of these alternative RFGs on petroleum refinery gasoline production costs, gasoline distribution costs, New York State air quality and the New York State economy were considered. New York has already adopted the California low emission vehicle (LEV) and other emission control programs that will affect vehicles and maintenance. From 1998 to 2012 without the introduction of any type of RFG, these programs are estimated to reduce New York State mobile source summer emissions by 341 tons per day (or 40%) of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and by 292 tons per day (or 28%) of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and to reduce winter emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) by 3,072 tons per day (or 39%). By 2012, the planned imposition of Federal RFG will produce further reductions (percent of 1998 levels) of 10 %, 4 % and 11%, respectively, for NMHC, NO{sub x} and CO. If New York State goes beyond EPA II and adopts CARB 2 specifications, further reductions achieved in 2012 are estimated to be very small, equaling 2% or less of 1998 levels of NMHC and NO{sub x} emissions, while CO emissions would actually increase by about 2%. When compared to EPA II over the same time frame, LS-EPA II would produce negligible (less than 1%) reductions in each of the above emissions categories.

  20. Gasoline Composition in 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition in the U.S is determined by factors related to crude oil source, refinery capacity, geography and regulatory factors. Major regulation derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments determines the benzene and former oxygenate requirements for reformulated...

  1. Potential health effects of gasoline and its constituents: A review of current literature (1990-1997) on toxicological data.

    PubMed Central

    Caprino, L; Togna, G I

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed toxicological studies, both experimental and epidemiological, that appeared in international literature in the period 1990-1997 and included both leaded and unleaded gasolines as well as their components and additives. The aim of this overview was to select, arrange, and present references of scientific papers published during the period under consideration and to summarize the data in order to give a comprehensive picture of the results of toxicological studies performed in laboratory animals (including carcinogenic, teratogenic, or embryotoxic activity), mutagenicity and genotoxic aspects in mammalian and bacterial systems, and epidemiological results obtained in humans in relation to gasoline exposure. This paper draws attention to the inherent difficulties in assessing with precision any potential adverse effects on health, that is, the risk of possible damage to man and his environment from gasoline. The difficulty of risk assessment still exists despite the fact that the studies examined are definitely more technically valid than those of earlier years. The uncertainty in overall risk determination from gasoline exposure also derives from the conflicting results of different studies, from the lack of a correct scientific approach in some studies, from the variable characteristics of the different gasoline mixtures, and from the difficulties of correctly handling potentially confounding variables related to lifestyle (e.g., cigarette smoking, drug use) or to preexisting pathological conditions. In this respect, this paper highlights the need for accurately assessing the conclusive explanations reported in scientific papers so as to avoid the spread of inaccurate or misleading information on gasoline toxicity in nonscientific papers and in mass-media messages. PMID:9452413

  2. Toxicity of food additives (excluding antioxidants). January 1978-November 1987 (citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity of food additives (excluding antioxidants) and their effects on the liver, kidneys, bladder, and other organs. The carcinogenic and teratogenic properties of these substances are also considered. The synthetic sweeteners, particularly the saccharins and cyclamates, and other additives, including nitrates and nitrites are discussed. Methods to detect and quantitate these additives are also included. (This updated bibliography contains 340 citations, 132 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Characterization and preliminary toxicity assay of nano-titanium dioxide additive in sugar-coated chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Xin; Cheng, Bin; Yang, Yi-Xin; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Jia-Hui; Du, Li-Jing; Liu, Yuanfang; Zhao, Yuliang; Wang, Haifang

    2013-05-27

    Nanotechnology shows great potential for producing food with higher quality and better taste through including new additives, improving nutrient delivery, and using better packaging. However, lack of investigations on safety issues of nanofood has resulted in public fears. How to characterize engineered nanomaterials in food and assess the toxicity and health impact of nanofood remains a big challenge. Herein, a facile and highly reliable separation method of TiO2 particles from food products (focusing on sugar-coated chewing gum) is reported, and the first comprehensive characterization study on food nanoparticles by multiple qualitative and quantitative methods is provided. The detailed information on nanoparticles in gum includes chemical composition, morphology, size distribution, crystalline phase, particle and mass concentration, surface charge, and aggregation state. Surprisingly, the results show that the number of food products containing nano-TiO2 (<200 nm) is much larger than known, and consumers have already often been exposed to engineered nanoparticles in daily life. Over 93% of TiO2 in gum is nano-TiO2 , and it is unexpectedly easy to come out and be swallowed by a person who chews gum. Preliminary cytotoxicity assays show that the gum nano-TiO2 particles are relatively safe for gastrointestinal cells within 24 h even at a concentration of 200 μg mL(-1) . This comprehensive study demonstrates accurate physicochemical property, exposure, and cytotoxicity information on engineered nanoparticles in food, which is a prerequisite for the successful safety assessment of nanofood products. PMID:23065899

  4. Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  5. Prediction of joint algal toxicity of nano-CeO2/nano-TiO2 and florfenicol: Independent action surpasses concentration addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Se; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2016-08-01

    Co-exposure of aquatic organisms to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and antibiotics is likely to take place in the environment. However, the impacts of co-exposure on aquatic organisms are virtually unknown and understanding the joint toxicity of ENPs and antibiotics is a topic of importance. The independent action (IA) model and the concentration addition (CA) model are two of the most common approaches to mixture toxicity assessment. In this study, the joint toxicity of two ENPs (nCeO2 and nTiO2) and one antibiotic (florfenicol, FLO) to Chlorella pyrenoidosa was determined to compare the applicability of the IA and the CA model. Concentration-response analyses were performed for single toxicants and for binary mixtures containing FLO and one of the ENPs at two suspended particle concentrations. The effect concentrations and the observed effects of the binary mixtures were compared to the predictions of the joint toxicity. The observed toxicity associated with the nCeO2 or nTiO2 exposure was enhanced by the concomitant FLO exposure. The joint toxicity of nCeO2 and FLO was significantly higher than that of nTiO2 and FLO. Predictions based on the IA and CA models tend to underestimate the overall toxicity (in terms of median effect concentration) of the binary mixtures, but IA performs better than CA, irrespective of the effect level under consideration and the types of mixtures studied. This result underpins the need to consider the effects of mixtures of ENPs and organic chemicals on aquatic organisms, and the practicability of the IA and CA methods in toxicity assessment of ENPs.

  6. Effect of oxygenates blending with gasoline to improve fuel properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babazadeh Shayan, Soheil; Seyedpour, Seyed Morteza; Ommi, Fathollah

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of oxygenate additives into gasoline for the improvement of physicochemical properties of blends. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Methanol, Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and Tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA) blend into unleaded gasoline with various blended rates of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Physicochemical properties of blends are analyzed by the standard American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods. Methanol, TBA, and TAA increase density of the mixtures, but MTBE decreases density. The addition of oxygenates lead to a distortion of the base gasoline's distillation curves. The Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of gasoline is found to increase with the addition of the oxygenated compounds. All oxygenates improve both motor and research octane numbers. Among these four additives, TBA shows the best fuel properties.

  7. 40 CFR 80.415 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.415 Section 80.415... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Attest Engagements § 80.415 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  8. 40 CFR 80.415 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.415 Section 80.415... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Attest Engagements § 80.415 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  9. 40 CFR 80.415 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.415 Section 80.415... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Attest Engagements § 80.415 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  10. 40 CFR 80.415 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.415 Section 80.415... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Attest Engagements § 80.415 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  11. 40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... volume of applicable gasoline produced or imported in batch i. Ti = The toxics value of batch i. n = The number of batches of gasoline produced or imported during the averaging period. i = Individual batch of... toxics value, Ti, of each batch of gasoline is determined using the Phase II Complex Model specified...

  12. Chlorpyrifos Toxicity in Mouse Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons at Different Stages of Development: Additive Effect on Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Amani, Nahid; Soodi, Maliheh; Daraei, Bahram; Dashti, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a neurotoxic organophosphorus (OP) insecticide. Its mechanism of action includes oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). The aim of the present study is to investigate CPF toxicity in mature and immature cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), as well as its effect on glutamate induced excitotoxicity. Materials and Methods This study was an in vitro experimental study performed on mice cultured CGNs. Immature and mature neurons were exposed to different concentrations of CPF (1-1000 µM) and glutamate (10-600 µM) for 48 hours after which we used the MTT assay to measure cytotoxicity. Immature neurons had exposure to CPF for 5 days in order to evaluate the cytotoxic effect on developing neurons. Mature neurons received sub-lethal concentrations of CPF (10, 100 µM) combined with different concentrations of glutamate. AChE activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed after treatments. Results Immature CGNs had increased sensitivity to CPF toxicity compared to mature neurons. We observed significantly greater ROS production in immature compared to mature neurons, however AChE activity was more inhibited in mature neurons. Although CPF toxicity was not well correlated with AChE inhibition, it correlated well with ROS production. Glutamate toxicity was potentiated by sub-lethal concentration of CPF, however glutamate induced ROS production was not affected. The results suggested that CPF potentiated glutamate toxicity by mechanisms other than oxidative stress. Conclusion CPF toxicity differed in mature and immature neurons. Potentiated glutamate toxicity by CPF implied that CPF exposure might be a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27602329

  13. Chlorpyrifos Toxicity in Mouse Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons at Different Stages of Development: Additive Effect on Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Amani, Nahid; Soodi, Maliheh; Daraei, Bahram; Dashti, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a neurotoxic organophosphorus (OP) insecticide. Its mechanism of action includes oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). The aim of the present study is to investigate CPF toxicity in mature and immature cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), as well as its effect on glutamate induced excitotoxicity. Materials and Methods This study was an in vitro experimental study performed on mice cultured CGNs. Immature and mature neurons were exposed to different concentrations of CPF (1-1000 µM) and glutamate (10-600 µM) for 48 hours after which we used the MTT assay to measure cytotoxicity. Immature neurons had exposure to CPF for 5 days in order to evaluate the cytotoxic effect on developing neurons. Mature neurons received sub-lethal concentrations of CPF (10, 100 µM) combined with different concentrations of glutamate. AChE activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed after treatments. Results Immature CGNs had increased sensitivity to CPF toxicity compared to mature neurons. We observed significantly greater ROS production in immature compared to mature neurons, however AChE activity was more inhibited in mature neurons. Although CPF toxicity was not well correlated with AChE inhibition, it correlated well with ROS production. Glutamate toxicity was potentiated by sub-lethal concentration of CPF, however glutamate induced ROS production was not affected. The results suggested that CPF potentiated glutamate toxicity by mechanisms other than oxidative stress. Conclusion CPF toxicity differed in mature and immature neurons. Potentiated glutamate toxicity by CPF implied that CPF exposure might be a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    PubMed

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  15. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J Eide,I Zielinska, B Lawson, D

    2003-08-24

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  17. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gasoline; special rules for gasoline..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gasoline; special rules for gasoline..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gasoline; special rules for gasoline..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline...

  20. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

  1. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: source behaviour.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~1m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

  2. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

  3. Evaluating the Combined Toxicity of Cu and ZnO Nanoparticles: Utility of the Concept of Additivity and a Nested Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Baas, Jan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Vijver, Martina G

    2016-05-17

    Little is understood regarding the effects of mixtures of different metal-based nanoparticles (NPs). Using concentration-addition (CA) and independent-action (IA) models, we evaluated the combined toxicity of Cu and ZnO NPs based on five nested combinations, i.e., Cu(NO3)2-CuNPs, Zn(NO3)2-ZnONPs, Cu(NO3)2-ZnONPs, Zn(NO3)2-CuNPs, and CuNPs-ZnONPs on root elongation of Lactuca sativa L. The CA and IA models performed equally well in estimating the toxicity of mixtures of Cu(NO3)2-CuNPs, Zn(NO3)2-ZnONPs, and Zn(NO3)2-CuNPs, whereas the IA model was significantly better for fitting the data of Cu(NO3)2-ZnONPs and CuNPs-ZnONPs mixtures. Dissolved Cu proved to be the most toxic metal species to lettuce roots in the tests, followed by Cu NPs, dissolved Zn, and ZnO NPs, respectively. An antagonistic effect was observed for ZnO NPs on the toxicity of Cu NPs. This antagonistic effect is expected to be the result of interactions between dissolved Cu and dissolved Zn, particulate Zn and dissolved Zn, particulate Cu and dissolved Zn, and between particulate Zn and dissolved Cu. In general terms, assuming additivity gives a first indication of the combined toxicity with soluble and insoluble metal particles, both being important in driving the toxicity of metal-based NPs to higher plants. PMID:27070131

  4. 40 CFR 80.1336 - What if a refiner or importer cannot produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? 80.1336 Section 80.1336 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Hardship Provisions § 80.1336 What if a refiner or importer cannot produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? In extreme, unusual, and unforeseen...

  5. 40 CFR 80.216 - What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the GPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standards apply to gasoline... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.216 What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the...

  6. 40 CFR 80.216 - What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the GPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What standards apply to gasoline... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.216 What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the...

  7. 40 CFR 80.380 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? 80.380 Section 80...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.380 What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? Any person...

  8. 40 CFR 80.1336 - What if a refiner or importer cannot produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? 80.1336 Section 80.1336 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Hardship Provisions § 80.1336 What if a refiner or importer cannot produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? In extreme, unusual, and unforeseen...

  9. 40 CFR 80.216 - What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the GPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What standards apply to gasoline... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.216 What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1349 - Alternative sampling and testing requirements for importers who import gasoline into the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for importers who import gasoline into the United States by truck. 80.1349 Section 80.1349... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements § 80.1349 Alternative sampling and testing requirements for importers who import gasoline into the United States...

  11. 40 CFR 80.216 - What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the GPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What standards apply to gasoline... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.216 What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1336 - What if a refiner or importer cannot produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? 80.1336 Section 80.1336 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Hardship Provisions § 80.1336 What if a refiner or importer cannot produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? In extreme, unusual, and unforeseen...

  13. 40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80.350 Section 80.350 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers § 80.350 What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

  14. 40 CFR 80.380 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? 80.380 Section 80...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.380 What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? Any person...

  15. 40 CFR 80.216 - What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the GPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standards apply to gasoline... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.216 What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the...

  16. Data on Ethanol in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  17. Combustion behavior of gasoline and gasoline/ethanol blends in a modern direct-injection 4-cylinder engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, T.; Miers, S. A.

    2008-04-01

    Early in 2007 President Bush announced in his State of the Union Address a plan to off-set 20% of gasoline with alternative fuels in the next ten years. Ethanol, due to its excellent fuel properties for example, high octane number, renewable character, etc., appears to be a favorable alternative fuel from an engine perspective. Replacing gasoline with ethanol without any additional measures results in unacceptable disadvantages mainly in terms of vehicle range.

  18. Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country

  19. Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country

  20. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  1. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    PubMed

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline. PMID:24870412

  2. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    PubMed

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  3. Reduction of hydrogen cyanide concentrations and acute inhalation toxicity from flexible polyurethane foam combustion products by the addition of copper compounds. Part 3. The effect of copper additives on the flammability characteristics of flexible polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.C.; Braun, E.; Shields, J.R.; Lowe, D.

    1990-10-01

    The report addresses the issue of whether the addition of a copper compound to a flexible polyurethane foam would affect the flammability characteristics of the foam. The following properties were examined: (1) ignitability in three systems (the NBS Toxicity Test Method, the Cone Calorimeter, and Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT)), (2) heat release rate under small-scale (Cone Calorimeter) and medium-scale (furniture calorimeter), (3) smoke obscuration (Cone Calorimeter), and (4) rate of flame spread (LIFT). In all cases, no differences in flammability characteristics between the treated and untreated foam were observed.

  4. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  5. Ethyl-leaded gasoline: how a classic occupational disease became an international public health disaster.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, William

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the controversy about the use of tetraethyl lead (TEL) as a gasoline additive. Early warnings were ignored by industry, and as leaded gasoline became more profitable, scientists willing to support industry were financed as guardians of the scientific criteria for lead's health impacts. Controversy erupted in 1924 after refinery accidents left workers dying from violent insanity. In efforts to protect their profits, industry executives falsely claimed there was no alternative to leaded gasoline. Fifty years passed before scientific, court, and regulatory challenges had any influence. When independent research finally emerged, the results were damning enough to support an international phase-out of leaded gasoline.

  6. Benzene pollution from gasoline usage.

    PubMed

    Foo, S C

    1991-04-01

    Local gasolines contain benzene ranging from 1.8 to 3.7% and their use can lead to significant exposure to benzene. Gasoline station attendants were found to be exposed to short-term exposure levels (STEL) of 0.064-179 ppm. Their 8-h time-weighted averaged (TWA) exposure ranged from 0.028 to 0.71 ppm. For motorcar service mechanics, TWA exposure levels ranged from 0.014 to 1.7 ppm. The exposure of drivers of gasoline delivery tankers ranged from 0.08 to 2.37 ppm for personal TWA exposure over the whole workshift. For local people not occupationally exposed to gasoline or other benzene-containing volatile chemicals, exposure from the ambient environment ranged from 0.0023 to 0.027 ppm. Gasoline usage also contributed to the contamination of surface water with benzene. Benzene levels in water samples taken from drains leading from gasoline stations were between 1.1 and 40.4 micrograms l-1.

  7. Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-09-15

    The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (<15%). This may be attributed to the changes in the combustion conditions in the carburetor engine with 20% ethanol addition. Furthermore, the influence of ethanol-gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx. PMID:19595441

  8. Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-09-15

    The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (<15%). This may be attributed to the changes in the combustion conditions in the carburetor engine with 20% ethanol addition. Furthermore, the influence of ethanol-gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx.

  9. Additive effects of mitochondrion-targeted cytochrome CYP2E1 and alcohol toxicity on cytochrome c oxidase function and stability of respirosome complexes.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Seema; Srinivasan, Satish; Anandasadagopan, Sureshkumar; Chowdhury, Anindya Roy; Selvaraj, Venkatesh; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Joseph, Joy; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol treatment induces oxidative stress by a combination of increased production of partially reduced oxygen species and decreased cellular antioxidant pool, including GSH. Recently, we showed that mitochondrion-targeted CYP2E1 augments alcohol-mediated toxicity, causing an increase in reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress. Here, we show that cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is a critical target of CYP2E1-mediated alcohol toxicity. COS-7 and Hep G2 cell lines expressing predominantly mitochondrion-targeted (Mt(++)) CYP2E1 and livers from alcohol-treated rats showed loss of CcO activity and increased protein carbonylation, which was accompanied by a decline in the steady state levels of subunits I, IVI1, and Vb of the CcO complex. This was also accompanied by reduced mitochondrial DNA content and reduced mitochondrial mRNA. These changes were more prominent in Mt(++) cells in comparison with wild type (WT) CYP2E1-expressing or ER(+) (mostly microsome-targeted) cells. In addition, mitochondrion-specific antioxidants, ubiquinol conjugated to triphenyl phosphonium, triphenylphosphonium conjugated carboxyl proxyl, and the CYP2E1 inhibitor diallyl sulfide prevented the loss of CcO activity and the CcO subunits, most likely through reduced oxidative damage to the enzyme complex. Our results suggest that damage to CcO and dissociation of respirosome complexes are critical factors in alcohol-induced toxicity, which is augmented by mitochondrion-targeted CYP2E1. We propose that CcO is one of the direct and immediate targets of alcohol-induced toxicity causing respiratory dysfunction.

  10. Biofiltration of gasoline and ethanol-amended gasoline vapors.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marlene; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Paca, Jan; Soccol, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the projected increase in use of ethanol as a biofuel, the current study was conducted to compare the biofiltration efficiencies for plain and 25% ethanol-containing gasoline. Two biofilters were operated in a downflow mode for 7 months, one of them being compost-based whereas the other using a synthetic packing material, granulated tire rubber, inoculated with gasoline-degrading microorganisms. Inlet concentrations measured as total hydrocarbon (TH) ranged from 1.9 to 5.8 g m(-3) at a constant empty bed retention time of 6.84 min. Contrary to the expectations based on microbiological considerations, ethanol-amended gasoline was more readily biodegraded than plain hydrocarbons, with the respective steady state elimination capacities of 26-43 and 14-18 gTH m(-3) h(-1) for the compost biofilter. The efficiency of both biofilters significantly declined upon the application of higher loads of plain gasoline, yet immediately recovering when switched back to ethanol-blended gasoline. The unexpected effect of ethanol in promoting gasoline biodegradation was explained by increasing hydrocarbon partitioning into the aqueous phase, with mass transfer being rate limiting for the bulk of components. The tire rubber biofilter, after a long acclimation, surpassed the compost biofilter in performance, presumably due to the 'buffering' effect of this packing material increasing the accessibility of gasoline hydrocarbons to the biofilm. With improved substrate mass transfer, biodegradable hydrocarbons were removed in the tire rubber biofilter's first reactor stage, with most of the remaining poorly degradable smaller-size hydrocarbons being degraded in the second stage.

  11. Fate of gasoline oxygenates in conventional and multilevel wells of a contaminated groundwater table in Düsseldorf, Germany.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Monica; Lacorte, Sílvia; Forner, Claudia; Rohns, Hans-Peter; Irmscher, Rudolf; Barceló, Damià

    2005-11-01

    In a gasoline-contaminated site in Düsseldorf, Germany a two-year monitoring program was carried out to determine the presence, behavior, and fate of 12 gasoline additives in a total of 96 samples from 14 groundwater wells. The origin of contamination was suspected to be a gasoline spill at a gas station. Target compounds were methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), its main degradation products, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-butyl formate (TBF); other gasoline additives, oxygenate dialkyl ethers: Ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE); aromatics: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), and other compounds causing odor problems: Dicyclopentadiene and trichloroethylene. Purge and trap coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry permitted detection of ng/L concentrations. Ninety of the 96 samples analyzed contained MTBE at levels varying between 0.01 to 645 microg/L. Five contaminated hot spots were identified with levels up to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) drinking water advisory values (20-40 microg/L) and one of them doubling Danish suggested toxicity level of 350 microg/L at a depth of 11 m. No significant natural attenuation was found in MTBE degradation, although samples with high levels of MTBE contained 0.1 to 440 microg/L of TBA. These levels were attributed to its presence in the contamination source more than MTBE degradation. tert-Butyl alcohol was found to be recalcitrant in groundwater. In all cases, BTEX were at low concentrations or not detected, showing less persistence than MTBE. The monitoring of the contamination plume showed that the distribution of the MTBE and TBA in the aquifer formed a similar vertical concentration profile that was influenced by the groundwater flow direction.

  12. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose

  13. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose

  14. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-04-28

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were developed.

  15. Analysis of Air Toxics From NOAA WP-3 Aircraft Measurements During the TexAQS 2006 Campaign: Comparison With Emission Inventories and Additive Inhalation Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Negro, L. A.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Atlas, E.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.; Schauffler, S.; Hendershot, R.; Washenfelder, R.; Fried, A.; Richter, D.; Walega, J. G.; Weibring, P.

    2007-12-01

    Benzene and nine other air toxics classified as human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) were measured from the NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the TexAQS 2006 campaign. In-situ measurements of benzene, measured with a PTR-MS instrument, are used to estimate emission fluxes for comparison with point source emission inventories developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Mean and median mixing ratios for benzene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, dibromoethane, dichloromethane, and vinyl chloride, encountered over the city of Houston during the campaign, are combined with inhalation unit risk factor values developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to estimate the additive inhalation risk factor. This additive risk factor represents the risk associated with lifetime (70 year) exposure at the levels measured and should not be used as an absolute indicator of risk to individuals. However, the results are useful for assessments of changing relative risk over time, and for identifying dominant contributions to the overall air toxic risk.

  16. 40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions § 80.255 Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low...

  17. 40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions § 80.255 Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low...

  18. 40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions § 80.255 Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low...

  19. 40 CFR 80.335 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certify that the procedures meet the requirements of the ASTM procedures required under 40 CFR 80.330. (d... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline...

  20. 40 CFR 80.335 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certify that the procedures meet the requirements of the ASTM procedures required under 40 CFR 80.330. (d... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline...

  1. 40 CFR 80.335 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certify that the procedures meet the requirements of the ASTM procedures required under 40 CFR 80.330. (d... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline...

  2. 40 CFR 80.1631 - Gasoline, RBOB, and CBOB sample retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures required under 40 CFR 80.1630. (d) Requirements for refiners who analyze composited samples. Prior... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gasoline, RBOB, and CBOB sample... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur §...

  3. Dissolution of monoaromatic hydrocarbons into groundwater from gasoline-oxygenate mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, M.; Lemon, L.; Barker, J.F. )

    1992-12-01

    The effects of the [open quotes]oxygenate[close quotes] additives methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the aqueous solubility of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from gasoline were evaluated through equilibrium batch experiments. For a gasoline:water ratio of 1:10 (v/v), up to 15% MTBE or up to 85% methanol in gasoline produced no enhanced BTEX solubility. However, at higher gasoline:water ratios, aqueous methanol concentrations above 10% enhanced BTEX solubility. The initial methanol content of the gasoline and the equilibrating gasoline- to water-phase ratio controlled the aqueous methanol concentration. Partitioning theory and the experimental results were used to calculate aqueous benzene and methanol concentrations in successive batches of fresh groundwater equilibrating with the fuel and subsequent residuals. These successive batches simulated formation of a plume of contaminated groundwater. The front of the plume generated from high-methanol gasoline equilibrating with groundwater at a gasoline:water ratio of more than 1 had high methanol content and elevated BTEX concentrations. Thus, release of high-methanol fuels could have a more serious, initial impact on groundwater than do releases of methanol-free gasoline. 22 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Limited recovery of soil microbial activity after transient exposure to gasoline vapors.

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, Jakub J; Christensen, Jan H; Mayer, Philipp; Brandt, Kristian K

    2016-09-01

    During gasoline spills complex mixtures of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released to terrestrial environments. Gasoline VOCs exert baseline toxicity (narcosis) and may thus broadly affect soil biota. We assessed the functional resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery of microbial functions) in soil microbial communities transiently exposed to gasoline vapors by passive dosing via headspace for 40 days followed by a recovery phase of 84 days. Chemical exposure was characterized with GC-MS, whereas microbial activity was monitored as soil respiration (CO2 release) and soil bacterial growth ([(3)H]leucine incorporation). Microbial activity was strongly stimulated and inhibited at low and high exposure levels, respectively. Microbial growth efficiency decreased with increasing exposure, but rebounded during the recovery phase for low-dose treatments. Although benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) concentrations decreased by 83-97% during the recovery phase, microbial activity in high-dose treatments did not recover and numbers of viable bacteria were 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than in control soil. Re-inoculation with active soil microorganisms failed to restore microbial activity indicating residual soil toxicity, which could not be attributed to BTEX, but rather to mixture toxicity of more persistent gasoline constituents or degradation products. Our results indicate a limited potential for functional recovery of soil microbial communities after transient exposure to high, but environmentally relevant, levels of gasoline VOCs which therefore may compromise ecosystem services provided by microorganisms even after extensive soil VOC dissipation. PMID:27376993

  5. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  6. Adsorption equilibrium and dynamics of gasoline vapors onto polymeric adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lijuan; Yu, Weihua; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2014-03-01

    The emission of gasoline vapors is becoming a significant environmental problem especially for the population-dense area and also results in a significant economic loss. In this study, adsorption equilibrium and dynamics of gasoline vapors onto macroporous and hypercrosslinked polymeric resins at 308 K were investigated and compared with commercial activated carbon (NucharWV-A 1100). The results showed that the equilibrium and breakthrough adsorption capacities of virgin macroporous and hypercrosslinked polymeric resins were lower than virgin-activated carbon. Compared with origin adsorbents, however, the breakthrough adsorption capacities of the regenerated activated carbon for gasoline vapors decreased by 58.5 % and 61.3 % when the initial concentration of gasoline vapors were 700 and 1,400 mg/L, while those of macroporous and hypercrosslinked resins decreased by 17.4 % and 17.5 %, and 46.5 % and 45.5 %, respectively. Due to the specific bimodal property in the region of micropore (0.5-2.0 nm) and meso-macropore (30-70 nm), the regenerated hypercrosslinked polymeric resin exhibited the comparable breakthrough adsorption capacities with the regenerated activated carbon at the initial concentration of 700 mg/L, and even higher when the initial concentration of gasoline vapors was 1,400 mg/L. In addition, 90 % of relative humidity had ignorable effect on the adsorption of gasoline vapors on hypercrosslinked polymeric resin. Taken together, it is expected that hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent would be a promising adsorbent for the removal of gasoline vapors from gas streams.

  7. 40 CFR 80.382 - What requirements apply to gasoline for use in American Samoa, Guam and the Commonwealth of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What requirements apply to gasoline...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.382 What requirements apply to gasoline for use in American Samoa, Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands? The...

  8. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  9. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  13. 40 CFR 80.374 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? 80.374 Section 80.374... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.374 What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? In appropriate extreme and...

  14. 40 CFR 80.382 - What requirements apply to gasoline for use in American Samoa, Guam and the Commonwealth of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What requirements apply to gasoline...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.382 What requirements apply to gasoline for use in American Samoa, Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands? The...

  15. 40 CFR 80.374 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? 80.374 Section 80.374... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.374 What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? In appropriate extreme and...

  16. 40 CFR 80.374 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? 80.374 Section 80.374... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.374 What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? In appropriate extreme and...

  17. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most petroleum refineries are facing the challenge of producing gasoline, which contains the desirable properties and complies with the ever-increasing environmental regulations and health restrictions. The impact of gasoline on the environment is directly related to its composit...

  18. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  19. Recent advances in investigations of toxicity of automotive exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Stupfel, Maurice

    1976-01-01

    The influence of auto exhaust on man's health is difficult to gauge considering the intricacy of human environmental urban stresses and particularly of other air polluting (industrial, domestic) emissions. Epidemiological surveys made in road tunnel employees and in traffic officers have not demonstrated specific effects and have often been complicated by cigarette smoking as a factor. Long-term animal experiments run mostly on small rodents give evidence of little effect of the pathological actions of dilutions such as those encountered in high polluted cities. However the acute toxicity of gasoline exhaust emission is well known and mostly due to carbon monoxide. Considering the different types of cycles and operating conditions of vehicles (gasoline and diesel), auto exhaust gases constitute no more a chemical entity than they show, a definite toxicity. A great number of substances that they contain (nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, antiknock additives, heavy metals, possible catalysts are highly toxic as shown by in vivo and in vitro (mutagenic) tests. Interactions of the components are for the moment ignored or poorly understood. Besides, the evolution of the physicochemical properties and natures of the auto exhaust emission in the gaseous biotope of man under determined conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and hygrometry provoke the formation of secondary products such as oxidants and ozone. Several experiments show clearly that irradiation increases the toxicity of auto exhaust significantly. For these reasons, geographical, meteorological, and chronological (circadian and seasonal) factors should be taken into consideration, especially with regard to emission standards. PMID:67944

  20. Production of high octane gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, R.H.; La Pierre, R.B.; Owens, P.J.; Varghese, P.

    1988-04-19

    This patent describes a process for producing a high octane gasoline, which comprises hydrocracking a highly aromatic, substantially dealkylated hydrocarbon feed having an initial boiling point of at least 300/sup 0/F. and an end point of not more than 650/sup 0/F., an aromatic content of at least 50 weight percent, an API gravity of not more than 25 and a hydrogen content not more than 12.5 weight percent at a hydrogen partial pressure of not more than 1000 psig and a conversion of not more than 80 to gasoline boiling range products having an octane rating of at least 87 (RON+0).

  1. A silver lining? The connection between gasoline prices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Courtemanche, Charles

    2011-01-01

    I find evidence of a negative association between gasoline prices and body weight using a fixed effects model with several robustness checks. I also show that increases in gas prices are associated with additional walking and a reduction in the frequency with which people eat at restaurants, explaining their effect on weight. My estimates imply that 8% of the rise in obesity between 1979 and 2004 can be attributed to the concurrent drop in real gas prices, and that a permanent $1 increase in gasoline prices would reduce overweight and obesity in the United States by 7% and 10%.

  2. Efficiency and equity of a gasoline tax increase

    SciTech Connect

    French, M. )

    1989-01-01

    This article evaluates the efficiency and equity of an increase in the federal gasoline tax. Such an increase is shown to be a relatively efficient source of additional federal revenues. Near-term deadweight losses in consumer welfare would be small, the tax increase would reduce the price distortions related to pollution and congestion, and near-term income losses related to macroeconomic rigidities would be comparable to losses from alternative revenue-raising options. However, an increase in the gasoline tax would not affect equally all people with the same earning power, and it would not take less from those people with less ability to pay.

  3. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  4. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  5. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  6. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  7. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  8. Acute toxicity evaluation of JP-8 jet fuel and JP-8 jet fuel containing additives. Final report, November 1995-February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.E.; Kinead, E.R.; Feldmann, M.L.; Leahy, H.F.; Jederberg, W.W.

    1996-11-01

    To reduce fuel fouling in current U.S Navy and Air Force aircraft systems and to provide additional heat sink and thermal stability for future systems, the Air Force is developing an improved JP-8 jet fuel (JP-8 + 100). Two companies (Betz and Mobil) have developed additive packages that are currently being tested in aircraft systems. To determine if the additive packages will produce health effects for flightline personnel, acute testing was performed on JP-8 and the two JP-8 + 100 jet fuels. A single oral dose at 5 mg jet fuel/kg body weight to five male and five female F-344 rats, and a single dermal application of 2 g jet fuel/kg body weight applied to five male and five female NZW rabbits resulted in no deaths. No signs of toxic stress were observed, and all animals gained weight over the 14-day observation periods. Single treatment of 0.5 mL neat jet fuel to rabbit skin produced negative results for skin irritation. Guinea pigs tailed to elicit a sensitization response following repeated applications of the jet fuels. Inhalation vapor exposure to JP-8, JP-8 + 100 (Betz), and JP-8 (Mobil) were determined to be >3.43, >3.52, and >3.57 mg/L, respectively. LD% values for aerosol exposure to JP-8, JP-8 + 100 (Betz), and JP-8 + 100 (Mobil) were >4.44, >4.39, and >4.54 mg/L, respectively. Under the conditions of these tests, the additive packages did not potentiate the acute effects normally associated with JP-8 jet fuel exposures.

  9. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

    2010-03-01

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  10. Gasoline risk management: a compendium of regulations, standards, and industry practices.

    PubMed

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    This paper is part of a special series of publications regarding gasoline toxicology testing and gasoline risk management; this article covers regulations, standards, and industry practices concerning gasoline risk management. Gasoline is one of the highest volume liquid fuel products produced globally. In the U.S., gasoline production in 2013 was the highest on record (API, 2013). Regulations such as those pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) and many others provide the U.S. federal government with extensive authority to regulate gasoline composition, manufacture, storage, transportation and distribution practices, worker and consumer exposure, product labeling, and emissions from engines and other sources designed to operate on this fuel. The entire gasoline lifecycle-from manufacture, through distribution, to end-use-is subject to detailed, complex, and overlapping regulatory schemes intended to protect human health, welfare, and the environment. In addition to these legal requirements, industry has implemented a broad array of voluntary standards and best management practices to ensure that risks from gasoline manufacturing, distribution, and use are minimized.

  11. Gasoline risk management: a compendium of regulations, standards, and industry practices.

    PubMed

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    This paper is part of a special series of publications regarding gasoline toxicology testing and gasoline risk management; this article covers regulations, standards, and industry practices concerning gasoline risk management. Gasoline is one of the highest volume liquid fuel products produced globally. In the U.S., gasoline production in 2013 was the highest on record (API, 2013). Regulations such as those pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) and many others provide the U.S. federal government with extensive authority to regulate gasoline composition, manufacture, storage, transportation and distribution practices, worker and consumer exposure, product labeling, and emissions from engines and other sources designed to operate on this fuel. The entire gasoline lifecycle-from manufacture, through distribution, to end-use-is subject to detailed, complex, and overlapping regulatory schemes intended to protect human health, welfare, and the environment. In addition to these legal requirements, industry has implemented a broad array of voluntary standards and best management practices to ensure that risks from gasoline manufacturing, distribution, and use are minimized. PMID:24995590

  12. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  13. 40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation... ethanol violation. Any oxygenate blender who violates § 80.385(e) is liable for the violation. (11)...

  14. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  15. Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Farshad

    The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding of exhaust products of fuels such as gasoline, ethanol and 2,5-dimethylfuran and comparison of results. A quantitative analysis of individual hydrocarbon species from exhaust emissions of these three fuels were carried out with direct injects spark ignition (DISI) single cylinder engine. The analysis of hydrocarbon species were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) connected on-line to SI engine. During this project, novel works have been done including the set up of on-line exhaust emission measurement device for detection and quantification of individual volatile hydrocarbons. Setting of a reliable gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurement system required definition and development of a precise method. Lubricity characteristics of biofuels and gasoline were investigated using High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results showed great enhancing lubricity characteristics of biofuels when added to conventional gasoline. 2,5-dimenthylfuran was found to be the best among the fuels used, addition of this fuel to gasoline also showed better result compared with ethanol addition.

  16. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  17. Production of high octane gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.H.; La Pierre, R.B.; Owens, P.J.; Varghese, P.

    1990-07-24

    A process for producing a high octane gasoline, which comprises hydrocracking a highly aromatic, substantially dealkylated hydrocarbon feed having an initial boiling point of at least 300{degrees}F and an end point of not more than 650{degrees}F, and aromatic content of at least 50 weight percent, an API gravity of not more than 25 and a hydrogen content not more than 12.5 weight percent at a hydrogen partial pressure of not more than 1000 psig and a conversion of greater than 50% and not more than 85% to gasoline boiling range products have an octane rating of at least 87 (RON + 0), the hydrocracking taking place in the presence of a catalyst comprising a large pore size crystalline silicate zeolite and a matrix comprising silica.

  18. Conversion of paraffins to gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a continuous process for conversion of C/sub 2/-C/sub 4/ alkanes to aromatic rich hydrocarbons boiling in the gasoline range comprising: maintaining a dual vertical column reactor comprising a lower transport riser reaction zone and an upper turbulent fluidized bed reaction zone, both zones containing fluidized catalyst comprising acid medium pore metallosilicate zeolite; contacting a feedstock comprising at least one C/sub 2/-C/sub 4/ alkane with fluidized catalyst in the lower transport zone under high temperature dehydrogenation conditions to dehydrogenate the feedstock and substantially prevent cracking reactions to obtain an intermediate product comprising dehydrogenated hydrocarbons and aromatics; and contacting the intermediate hydrocarbon product with fluidized catalyst in the upper turbulent zone under lower temperature oligomerization conditions to obtain a final product comprising C/sub 5/+ gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons.

  19. Effects of cold temperature and ethanol content on VOC emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty spark ignition vehicles operating on summer and winter grade gasoline (E0) and ethanol blended (E10 and E85) fuels. Vehicle...

  20. Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels on Learning and Memory

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential toxicity of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels to the developing nervous system is of concern. We previously reported an absence of effect on learning and memory as seen in a trace fear conditioning task and water maze task in offspring of dams exposed prenatally to the...

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF THE GASOLINE OXYGENATE ETHANOL ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BTX BIODEGRADATION. (R823420)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is frequently found along with benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in groundwater contaminated with gasoline. Yet, little is known about its effect on bioremediation of the toxic BTX contaminants. Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of ethanol on microb...

  2. Use of the characteristic Raman lines of toluene (C7 H8) as a precise frequency reference on the spectral analysis of gasoline-ethanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Meyrueis, Patrick P.

    2014-09-01

    In order to reduce some of the toxic emissions produced by internal combustion engines, the fossil-based fuels have been combined with less harmful materials in recent years. However, the fuels used in the automotive industry generally contain different additives, such as toluene, as anti-shock agents and as octane number enhancers. These materials can cause certain negative impact, besides the high volatility implied, on public health or environment due to its chemical composition. Toluene, among several other chemical compounds, is an additive widely used in the commercially-available gasoline-ethanol blends. Despite the negative aspects in terms of toxicity that this material might have, the Raman spectral information of toluene can be used to achieve certain level of frequency calibration without using any additional chemical marker in the sample or any other external device. Moreover, the characteristic and well-defined Raman line of this chemical compound at 1003 cm-1 (even at low v/v content) can be used to quantitatively determine certain aspects of the gasoline-ethanol blend under observation. By using an own-designed Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman), we have collected and analyzed different commercially-available and laboratory-prepared gasoline-ethanol blends. By carefully observing the main Raman peaks of toluene in these fuel blends, we have determined the frequency accuracy of the Raman spectra obtained. The spectral information has been obtained in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1.66 cm-1. The Raman spectra obtained presented only reduced frequency deviations in comparison to the standard Raman spectrum of toluene provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

  3. Advanced oxidation to treat gasoline-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.; Medlar, S.J. )

    1992-04-01

    For 10 to 20 years, an undetermined amount of gasoline leaked from a petroleum terminal at a site in New York State and caused groundwater contamination. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes were detected in concentrations of up to 90mg/L in some areas, and high levels of iron and lead were also observed. After discovery, recovery wells were installed to pump the pure product out of the ground. To date, more than 1500m[sup 3] (400,000 gal) of gasoline have been recovered. Wells were also installed to intercept the contaminant plume to prevent its migration. An air stripper with vapor-phase carbon was put on line as an immediate response measure to treat the intercepted groundwater. A site remediation plan was proposed to pump the gasoline-contaminated groundwater, treat it to remove both the metals and toxic organic contaminants, and then recharge it to the aquifer. One of the technologies proposed for the treatability study was the advanced oxidation (AO) process which uses ozone and hydrogen peroxide to destroy organic chemicals. This process involves the formation of free radicals by ozone decomposition; the hydroxyl radical concentration increases and contaminant oxidation and destruction are promoted.

  4. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  5. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  6. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: neurotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, James P; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential neurotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. The functional observation battery (FOB) with the addition of motor activity (MA) testing, hematoxylin and eosin staining of brain tissue sections, and brain regional analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used to assess behavioral changes, traditional neuropathology and astrogliosis, respectively. FOB and MA data for all agents, except G/TBA, were negative. G/TBA behavioral effects resolved during recovery. Neuropathology was negative for all groups. Analyses of GFAP revealed increases in multiplebrain regions largely limited to males of the G/EtOH group, findings indicative of minor gliosis, most significantly in the cerebellum. Small changes (both increases and decreases) in GFAP were observed for other test agents but effects were not consistent across sex, brain region or exposure concentration. PMID:24879970

  7. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: neurotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, James P; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential neurotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. The functional observation battery (FOB) with the addition of motor activity (MA) testing, hematoxylin and eosin staining of brain tissue sections, and brain regional analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used to assess behavioral changes, traditional neuropathology and astrogliosis, respectively. FOB and MA data for all agents, except G/TBA, were negative. G/TBA behavioral effects resolved during recovery. Neuropathology was negative for all groups. Analyses of GFAP revealed increases in multiplebrain regions largely limited to males of the G/EtOH group, findings indicative of minor gliosis, most significantly in the cerebellum. Small changes (both increases and decreases) in GFAP were observed for other test agents but effects were not consistent across sex, brain region or exposure concentration.

  8. 40 CFR 80.553 - Under what conditions may the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards be extended for a small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... refiner gasoline sulfur standards be extended for a small refiner of motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.553... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine... small refiner gasoline sulfur standards be extended for a small refiner of motor vehicle diesel fuel?...

  9. 40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What alternative sulfur standards and... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers § 80.350 What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

  10. 40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What alternative sulfur standards and... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers § 80.350 What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1641 - Alternative sulfur standards and requirements that apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative sulfur standards and... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1641 Alternative sulfur standards and requirements that apply to importers... gasoline under § 80.1630, and the annual sulfur average and per-gallon cap standards otherwise...

  12. 40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What alternative sulfur standards and... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers § 80.350 What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  14. Partitioning of aromatic constituents into water from gasoline and other complex solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, P.V.; Delfino, J.J.; Rao, P.S.C. )

    1991-05-01

    Variations in gasoline composition (source variations) as well as complexity (nonideal behavior, cosolvent effects) contributing to variability in gasoline-water partitioning of aromatic hydrocarbon constituents were examined. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in water extracts of 31 gasoline samples varied over 1 order of magnitude, reflecting the diversity in gasoline composition. However, the gasoline-water partition coefficients (K{sub fw}) varied by less than 30% among these samples. Partitioning between water and known mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic solvents was measured and used to estimate the upper and lower bounds of K{sub fw} values for more complex solvent mixtures such as gasoline and diesel fuel. Oxygenated additives, such as methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), were shown to have minimal cosolvent effects on hydrocarbon partitioning. The observed inverse, log-log linear dependence of K{sub fw} values on aqueous solubility could be well predicted by assuming gasoline to be an ideal solvent mixture (i.e., Raoult's law is valid).

  15. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  16. Biodegradation of gasoline ether oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Ether oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) are added to gasoline to improve fuel combustion and decrease exhaust emissions. Ether oxygenates and their tertiary alcohol metabolites are now an important group of groundwater pollutants. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the microorganisms, enzymes and pathways involved in both the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of these compounds. This review also aims to illustrate how these microbiological and biochemical studies have guided, and have helped refine, molecular and stable isotope-based analytical approaches that are increasingly being used to detect and quantify biodegradation of these compounds in contaminated environments.

  17. Post-mortem detection of gasoline residues in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims.

    PubMed

    Pahor, Kevin; Olson, Greg; Forbes, Shari L

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gasoline residues could be detected post-mortem in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims. The lungs and heart blood were investigated to determine whether they were suitable samples for collection and could be collected without contamination during an autopsy. Three sets of test subjects (pig carcasses) were investigated under two different fire scenarios. Test subjects 1 were anaesthetized following animal ethics approval, inhaled gasoline vapours for a short period and then euthanized. The carcasses were clothed and placed in a house where additional gasoline was poured onto the carcass post-mortem in one fire, but not in the other. Test subjects 2 did not inhale gasoline, were clothed and placed in the house and had gasoline poured onto them in both fires. Test subjects 3 were clothed but had no exposure to gasoline either ante- or post-mortem. Following controlled burns and suppression with water, the carcasses were collected, and their lungs and heart blood were excised at a necropsy. The headspace from the samples was analysed using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Gasoline was identified in the lungs and heart blood from the subjects that were exposed to gasoline vapours prior to death (test subjects 1). All other samples were negative for gasoline residues. These results suggest that it is useful to analyse for volatile ignitable liquids in lung tissue and blood as it may help to determine whether a victim was alive and inhaling gases at the time of a fire.

  18. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  19. What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This analysis provides context for considering the impact of rising domestic light crude oil production on the price that U.S. consumers pay for gasoline, and provides a framework to consider how changes to existing U.S. crude oil export restrictions might affect gasoline prices.

  20. MAPPING GASOLINE REQUIREMENTS, APPLICABLE REGULATIONS AND BANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal and State regulations play an important role in understanding gasoline composition around the United States. Multiple sources of information on these programs were used to develop reliable, up-to-date maps showing gasoline requirements imposed by various regulations. Th...

  1. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  2. Historical Gasoline Composition Data 1976 - 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  3. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  4. Antimony Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

  5. Toxic trauma.

    PubMed

    Moles, T M; Baker, D J

    2001-01-01

    Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) carry many inherent dangers. Such materials are distributed widely in industrial and military sites. Toxic trauma (TT) denotes the complex of systemic and organ injury caused by toxic agents. Often, TT is associated with other injuries that also require the application of life-support techniques. Rapid onset of acute respiratory failure and consequent cardiovascular failure are of primary concern. Management of TT casualties is dependent upon the characteristics of the toxic agents involved and on the demographics surrounding the HAZMAT incident. Agents that can produce TT possess two pairs of salient characteristics: (1) causality (toxicity and latency), and (2) EMS system (persistency and transmissibility). Two characteristics of presentations are important: (1) incident presentation, and (2) casualty presentation. In addition, many of these agents complicate the processes associated with anaesthesia and must be dealt with. Failure of recognition of these factors may result in the development of respiratory distress syndromes and multiorgan system failure, or even death. PMID:11513285

  6. 40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... average toxics value determined? 80.825 Section 80.825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.825 How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined? (a) The refinery or importer annual average toxics value is calculated as...

  7. Performance comparison of autothermal reforming for liquid hydrocarbons, gasoline and diesel for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Inyong; Bae, Joongmyeon; Bae, Gyujong

    This paper discusses the reforming of liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for fuel cell applications, focusing on gasoline and diesel due to their high hydrogen density and well-established infrastructures. Gasoline and diesel are composed of numerous hydrocarbon species including paraffins, olefins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics. We have investigated the reforming characteristics of several representative liquid hydrocarbons. In the case of paraffin reforming, H 2 yield and reforming efficiency were close to thermodynamic equilibrium status (TES), although heavier hydrocarbons required slightly higher temperatures than lighter hydrocarbons. However, the conversion efficiency was much lower for aromatics than paraffins with similar carbon number. We have also investigated the reforming performance of simulated commercial diesel and gasoline using simple synthetic diesel and gasoline compositions. Reforming performances of our formulations were in good agreement with those of commercial fuels. In addition, the reforming of gas to liquid (GTL) resulted in high H 2 yield and reforming efficiency showing promise for possible fuel cell applications.

  8. Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Pienkos, Philip T.

    2002-01-15

    Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19

  9. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    PubMed

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  10. Conversion of alkalines to gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.

    1989-11-07

    This patent describes a process for converting an aliphatic hydrocarbon feedstream compromising paraffins to gasoline. It comprises heating the feedstream in a first heat exchange unit; withdrawing the heated feedstream; adding the feedstream to a first reaction zone containing zeolite catalyst whereby the zeolite catalyst is at least partially deactivated; withdrawing an effluent from the first reaction zone compromising olefins, aromatics, and unreacted paraffins; withdrawing the partially deactivated zeolite catalyst from the first reaction zone; cooling the effluent in a second heat exchange unit; withdrawing the cooled effluent; adding the partially deactivated zeolite catalyst to a second reaction zone; and adding the cooled effluent to the second reaction zone containing partially deactivated zeolite catalyst particles, whereby at least a portion of olefins present in the effluent are oligomerized.

  11. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Total Organic Gas Speciation Profiles from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anirban; Sonntag, Darrell; Cook, Richard; Yanca, Catherine; Schenk, Charles; Choi, Yunsoo

    2016-06-21

    Total organic gases (TOG) emissions from motor vehicles include air toxic compounds and contribute to formation of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). These emissions are known to be affected by temperature; however previous studies have typically focused only on the temperature dependence of total emission factors and select toxic compounds. This study builds on the previous research by performing an evaluation of a comprehensive set of gas-phase organic compounds present in gasoline motor vehicle exhaust. A fleet of five vehicles using port fuel injection engine technology and running on E10 fuel was tested. Overall, three temperatures (0, 20, and 75 °F; or -18, -7, and 24 °C), two driving conditions (urban-FTP75 and aggressive driving-US06) and 161 compounds were evaluated; the emissions distributions were used to construct speciation profiles for each driving cycle and temperature. Overall, the speciation results indicated a significant increase in alkane and methane content, and decrease in alcohol, aldehyde and ketone content with decreasing temperature. These were verified using a statistical significance test. The fraction and composition of Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) were significantly affected by temperature for both driving cycles. The ozone forming potentials of these profiles were evaluated using the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale. Aromatic content was predicted to be a major driver behind the ozone forming potentials. Additionally, the decreasing ozone potential could be attributed to increased methane fractions with increasing temperature. PMID:27203618

  12. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Total Organic Gas Speciation Profiles from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anirban; Sonntag, Darrell; Cook, Richard; Yanca, Catherine; Schenk, Charles; Choi, Yunsoo

    2016-06-21

    Total organic gases (TOG) emissions from motor vehicles include air toxic compounds and contribute to formation of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). These emissions are known to be affected by temperature; however previous studies have typically focused only on the temperature dependence of total emission factors and select toxic compounds. This study builds on the previous research by performing an evaluation of a comprehensive set of gas-phase organic compounds present in gasoline motor vehicle exhaust. A fleet of five vehicles using port fuel injection engine technology and running on E10 fuel was tested. Overall, three temperatures (0, 20, and 75 °F; or -18, -7, and 24 °C), two driving conditions (urban-FTP75 and aggressive driving-US06) and 161 compounds were evaluated; the emissions distributions were used to construct speciation profiles for each driving cycle and temperature. Overall, the speciation results indicated a significant increase in alkane and methane content, and decrease in alcohol, aldehyde and ketone content with decreasing temperature. These were verified using a statistical significance test. The fraction and composition of Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) were significantly affected by temperature for both driving cycles. The ozone forming potentials of these profiles were evaluated using the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale. Aromatic content was predicted to be a major driver behind the ozone forming potentials. Additionally, the decreasing ozone potential could be attributed to increased methane fractions with increasing temperature.

  13. 40 CFR 80.1336 - What if a refiner or importer cannot produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Hardship Provisions § 80.1336 What if a refiner or importer cannot produce... care, EPA may permit a refinery or importer to exceed the allowable average benzene levels specified...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1336 - What if a refiner or importer cannot produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Hardship Provisions § 80.1336 What if a refiner or importer cannot produce... care, EPA may permit a refinery or importer to exceed the allowable average benzene levels specified...

  15. Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission Factors for Nonroad Engines: DRAFT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document details the research and development behind how MOVES2014a estimates air toxic emissions for nonroad engines and equipment run on conventional gasoline without ethanol (E0) and gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) as well as diesel fuel, compressed natural gas (C...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  20. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  1. Identification of gasoline adulteration using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined to multivariate data processing.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Marcio Pozzobon; de Godoy, Luiz Antonio Fonseca; Ferreira, Ernesto Correa; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Augusto, Fabio

    2008-08-01

    A method to detect potential adulteration of commercial gasoline (Type C gasoline, available in Brazil and containing 25% (v/v) ethanol) is presented here. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GCxGC-FID) data and multivariate calibration (multi-way partial least squares regression, N-PLS) were combined to obtain regression models correlating the concentration of gasoline on samples from chromatographic data. Blends of gasoline and white spirit, kerosene and paint thinner (adopted as model adulterants) were used for calibration; the regression models were evaluated using samples of Type C gasoline spiked with these solvents, as well as with ethanol. The method was also checked with real samples collected from gas stations and analyzed using the official method. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for gasoline concentrations on test samples calculated using the regression model ranged from 3.3% (v/v) to 8.2% (v/v), depending on the composition of the blends; in addition, the results for the real samples agree with the official method. These observations suggest that GCxGC-FID and N-PLS can be an alternative for routine monitoring of fuel adulteration, as well as to solve several other similar analytical problems where mixtures should be detected and quantified as single species in complex samples. PMID:18571187

  2. Predict octane number for gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Zahed, A.H.; Mullah, S.A.; Bashir, M.D. )

    1993-05-01

    A model with five independent variables is used to predict the octane number of gasoline blends with more accuracy than any previous model. Often, it is useful to know the resulting octane number before the gasoline is blended. Clearly, such a model is useful because good predictive models have been few and far between. With high-powered and faster personal computers, regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regression analysis technique to predict the octane rating of 16 blends of motor gasoline. Predicted results for the 16 blends of gasolines were compared with experimental results obtained on CFR engines. Predicted results from the proposed empirical model were in agreement with the experimental data with an average deviational error of 0.54%.

  3. Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Edgar R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

  4. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  5. Petroleum fingerprinting: Dating a gasoline release

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.D.; Morrison, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    Dating a gasoline releases is particularly important in situations involving a contaminated gasoline service station. Often the station begins under the control of a major oil company, and as it ages and deteriorates it may be operated by a series of smaller operators. When facing a claim for contamination, often operators blame former operators. Fingerprinting is one of several successful methods used to date petroleum releases on contaminated sites. The topics covered in this article are inventory reconciliation; reverse groundwater modeling; hydrocarbon fingerprinting.

  6. Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, R F

    1993-01-01

    The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

  7. Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R F

    1993-12-01

    The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

  8. Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

    1982-06-01

    Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

  9. Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R F

    1993-12-01

    The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations.

  10. Cold temperature effects on speciated MSAT emissions from light duty vehicles operating on gasoline and ethanol blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty gasoline vehicles. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three phase LA92 driving cycle on a temperature controlled chassis...

  11. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Bunting, Bruce G

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its

  12. Toxic megacolon

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease - toxic megacolon; Crohn disease - toxic megacolon; Ulcerative colitis - toxic megacolon ... people with an inflamed colon due to: Ulcerative colitis , or Crohn disease that is not well controlled ...

  13. [Investigation and application of gasoline sample identity technique].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingrong; Xu, Yupeng; Yang, Haiying; Wang, Zheng

    2004-09-01

    Chemometrics method was used to solve the problem of automatic selecting model for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) of gasoline samples by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detection (GC/FID). The 29 peaks in GC/FID DHA chromatogram and their amounts were selected as the discriminating parameters to establish the five pattern models for different gasoline samples, such as fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline, coking gasoline, straight run gasoline, reformed gasoline, and alkylation gasoline. The principle component analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogies (SIMCA) were used to classify the gasoline samples and to identify the unknown samples according to the above pattern models. One hundred gasoline samples, derived from known resources, were employed to validate the reliability of the sample identity technique. With the help of the pattern identity method referred here, the automation of GC/FID DHA method becomes possible.

  14. Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ban-Weiss, George A; McLaughlin, John P; Harley, Robert A; Kean, Andrew J; Grosjean, Eric; Grosjean, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Carbonyls can be toxic and highly reactive in the atmosphere. To quantify trends in carbonyl emissions from light-duty (LD) vehicles, measurements were made in a San Francisco Bay area highwaytunnel bore containing essentially all LD vehicles during the summers of 1999, 2001, and 2006. The LD vehicle emission factor for formaldehyde, the most abundant carbonyl, did not change between 1999 and 2001, then decreased by 61 +/- 7% between 2001 and 2006. This reduction was due to fleet turnover and the removal of MTBE from gasoline. Acetaldehyde emissions decreased by 19 +/- 2% between 1999 and 2001 and by the same amount between 2001 and 2006. Absent the increased use of ethanol in gasoline after 2003, acetaldehyde emissions would have further decreased by 2006. Carbonyl emission factors for medium- (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks were measured in 2006 in a separate mixed-traffic bore of the tunnel. Emission factors for diesel trucks were higher than those for LD vehicles for all reported carbonyls. Diesel engine exhaust dominates over gasoline engines as a direct source of carbonyl emissions in California. Carbonyl concentrations were also measured in liquid-gasoline samples and were found to be low (< 20 ppm). The gasoline brands that contained ethanol showed higher concentrations of acetaldehyde in unburned fuel versus gasoline that was formulated without ethanol. Measurements of NO2 showed a yearly rate of decrease for LD vehicle emissions similar to that of total NOx in this study. The observed NO2/NOx ratio was 1.2 +/- 0.3% and 3.7 +/- 0.3% for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively.

  15. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks. 48.4081-4 Section 48.4081-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... bind the buyer, is in substantially the same form as the model certificate provided in paragraph...

  16. Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos; Gusmão, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Cauê Bonucci; Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luís André

    2010-04-01

    Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota.

  17. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  18. Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M

    1982-07-01

    Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

  19. Gasoline marketing: Octane mislabeling in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The problem of octane mislabeling at gasoline stations in New York City has grown - from 46 or fewer citations in 1981 to 171 citations in 1986. No single source of octane mislabeling exists but the city has found both gasoline station operators and fuel distributors to blame. The problem does not seem to be unique to any one type of gasoline station but 57 percent of the 171 citations issued involved gasoline sold under the name of a major refiner; the rest involved unbranded gasoline. Octane cheating can be lucrative in New York City. A station intentionally mislabeling its gasoline could realize amounts many times the city's maximum $500 fine for cheating.

  20. Chemical fingerprinting of gasoline. 2. Comparison of unevaporated and evaporated automotive gasoline samples.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, P M L; Du Pasquier, E

    2004-02-10

    Analysis of the C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene compounds present in automotive gasoline using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC-MS (SIM)) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate between different samples of gasoline. Phase one of this study explored the ability of this method to differentiate gasoline samples at different levels of evaporation. A total of 35 random samples of unevaporated gasoline, covering three different grades (regular unleaded, premium unleaded and lead replacement), were collected in Sydney, Australia and examined. The high-boiling C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene compounds present in the gasoline were used to chemically fingerprint each sample at different levels of evaporation. Samples of 25, 50, 75 and 90% evaporated gasoline (by weight) were generated from the 35 samples of unevaporated gasoline. Analysis of the data by PCA followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that the 35 samples formed 18 unique groups, irrespective of the level of evaporation. Good discrimination between gasoline samples that were collected on the same day was obtained. Phase two of this study examined the change in gasoline samples over time. The C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene composition in 96 samples of gasoline collected from three service stations over a 16-week period was examined using the method described. In most cases, it was found that the C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene profile changed from week to week, and from station to station. In a comparison of all 96 samples together it was found that the majority could be differentiated from one another. The application of the method to forensic casework is discussed. PMID:15013165

  1. The chemical origin of octane sensitivity in gasoline fuels containing nitroalkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Cracknell, R.F.; McAllister, L.J.; Norton, M.; Walmsley, H.L.; Andrae, J.C.G.

    2009-05-15

    Experimental octane measurements are presented for a standard gasoline to which has been added various quantities of nitromethane, nitroethane and 1-nitropropane. The addition of nitroalkanes was found to suppress the Motor Octane Number to a much greater extent than the Research Octane Number. In other words addition of nitroalkanes increases the octane sensitivity of gasoline. Density Functional Theory was used to model the equilibrium thermodynamics and the barrier heights for reactions leading to the break-up of nitroethane. These results were used to develop a chemical kinetic scheme for nitroalkanes combined with a surrogate gasoline (for which a mechanism has been developed previously). Finally the chemical kinetic simulations were combined with a quasi-dimensional engine model in order to predict autoignition in octane rating tests. Our results suggest that the chemical origin of octane sensitivity in gasoline/nitroalkane blends cannot be fully explained on the conventional basis of the extent to which NTC behaviour is absent. Instead we have shown that the contribution of the two pathways leading to autoignition in gasoline containing nitroalkanes becomes much more significant under the more severe conditions of the Motor Octane method than the Research Octane method. (author)

  2. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for

  3. Relations between the detection of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in surface and ground water and its content in gasoline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.J.; Halde, M.J.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The relations between the content of MTBE in gasoline and the detection frequency of MTBE in ground and surface water were analyzed using the percent by volume of MTBE in gasoline provided by NIPER. For groundwater, 21 metropolitan areas had information on detection frequency and percent volume of MTBE in gasoline, while for surface water, only 9 metropolitan areas had this information. For groundwater, three cities, i.e., Columbia, SC, Harrisburg, PA, and Norfolk, VA, had values of MTBE in gasoline for only 2 sampling periods and had a MTBE in gasoline for only 2 sampling periods. The frequency of detection of MTBE in surface and ground water had a positive relation to content of MTBE in gasoline. The occurrence of the fuel additive MTBE in ground and surface water was related to its issue in gasoline. The frequency of detection of MTBE was higher in areas that use greater amounts of MTBE in gasoline. As the percent by volume of MTBE in gasoline increased, the frequency of detection of MTBE in ground and surface water increased.

  4. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels.

  5. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. PMID:27243931

  6. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  7. Lead--the toxic metal to stay with human.

    PubMed

    Srianujata, S

    1998-07-01

    Lead has been known to be toxic to most living things at high dose. It is found naturally in earth and present in almost all parts of the environment, such as foods, air, water, dust, soil, paint, and tissues of living organisms including human. This metal is being used in various aspects including the manufacturing of storage batteries, production of chemicals, paints and gasoline additives. It is also used to make various metal products, e.g. sheet lead, solder, and pipes. Human exposure to lead is mainly from foods and other environments. However, it is expected that exposure to environmental lead is normally excessive and produces toxic effects. The well-known and excessive environmental exposures are air of industrial and heavy traffic areas. Use of leaded gasoline has caused the main lead pollution for years in almost every big city. Therefore, city inhabitants normally exposed to lead much more than those who live in the rural area. The most vulnerable groups at risk to lead exposure are fetuses and preschool age children. Young children in the 2-3 year-old age may be the most at risk for exposure to contaminated soil. Adults are affected when exposure is excessive in the working place and causing lead poisoning. Toxicities are mainly on heme biosynthesis, neurological effects including encepharopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and most importantly on I.Q. deficits. It also affects renal tissues to produce acute and chronic nephropathy and elevated blood pressure. There are studies of lead exposure of various means and the effects on human health, both in children and adults. Lead in environment and human exposure are expected to stay with us for long to come, due the still required lead use in many fields, particularly the use of lead in storage batteries and others. The magnitude of exposure will depend solely on the control of use by not allowing the contamination of lead in our environment to be excessive.

  8. Simultaneous determination of methyl tert.-butyl ether and its degradation products, other gasoline oxygenates and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in Catalonian groundwater by purge-and-trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Mònica; Lacorte, Sílvia; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barceló, Damià

    2003-05-01

    In Catalonia (northeast Spain), a monitoring program was carried out to determine methyl tert.-butyl ether (MTBE), its main degradation products, tert.-butyl alcohol (TBA), tert.-butyl formate (TBF), and other gasoline additives, the oxygenate dialkyl ethers ethyl tert.-butyl ether, tert.-amyl methyl ether and diisopropyl ether and the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in 21 groundwater wells that were located near different gasoline point sources (a gasoline spill and underground storage tank leakage). Purge-and-trap coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimised for the simultaneous determination of the above mentioned compounds and enabled to detect concentrations at ng/l or sub-microg/l concentrations. Special attention was given to the determination of polar MTBE degradation products, TBA and TBF, since not much data on method performance and environmental levels are given on these compounds in groundwater. All samples analysed contained MTBE at levels between 0.3 and 70 microg/l. Seven contaminated hot spots were identified with levels up to US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water advisory (20-40 microg/l) and a maximum concentration of 670 microg/l (doubling the Danish suggested toxicity level of 350 microg/l). Samples with high levels of MTBE contained 0.1-60 microg/l of TBA, indicating (but not proving) in situ degradation of parent compound. In all cases, BTEX was at low concentrations or not detected showing less solubility and persistence than MTBE. This fact confirms the suitability of MTBE as a tracer or indicator of long-term gasoline contamination than the historically used BTEX.

  9. Customer exposure to gasoline vapors during refueling at service stations.

    PubMed

    Hakkola, M A; Saarinen, L H

    2000-09-01

    Gasoline is a volatile complex mixture of hydrocarbon compounds that is easily vaporized during handling under normal conditions. Modern reformulated gasoline also contains oxygenates to enhance octane number and reduce ambient pollution. This study measured the difference in the exposure of customers to gasoline and oxygenate vapors during refueling in service stations with and without vapor recovery systems. Field measurements were carried out at two self-service stations. One was equipped with Stage I and the other with Stage II vapor recovery systems. At Stage I stations there is vapor recovery only during delivery from road tanker, and at Stage II stations additional vapor recovery during refueling. The exposure of 20 customers was measured at both stations by collecting air samples from their breathing zone into charcoal tubes during refueling with 95-octane reformulated gasoline. Each sample represented two consecutive refuelings. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection for vapor components. The Raid vapor pressure of gasoline was 70 kPa and an oxygen content 2 wt%. Oxygenated gasoline contained 7 percent methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and 5 percent methyl tert-amyl ether (MtAE). The geometric mean concentrations of hydrocarbons (C3-C11) in the customers' breathing zone was 85 mg/m3 (range 2.5-531 mg/m3) at the Stage I service station and 18 mg/m3 (range < 0.2-129 mg/m3) at the Stage II service station. The geometric mean of the exposure of customers to MtBE during refueling at the Stage I service station was 15.3 mg/m3 (range 1.8-74 mg/m3), and at the Stage II service station 3.4 mg/m3 (range 0.2-16 mg/m3). The differences in exposure were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean refueling times were 57 seconds (range 23-207) at the Stage I and 66 seconds (range 18-120) at the Stage II station. The measurements were done on consecutive days at the various service stations. The temperature ranged

  10. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  11. Process for olefins to gasoline conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes an improved process for the conversion of lower olefinic hydrocarbon feedstock to C{sub 5}+ gasoline range hydrocarbons. It comprises: contacting a hydrocarbon stream containing C{sub 3}{minus} and/or C{sub 4}{minus} olefinic hydrocarbons with a medium pore shape selective solid catalyst in an oligomerization zone under oligomerization conditions to produce an effluent stream rich in C{sub 5}+ gasoline range hydrocarbons; separating the effluent stream to provide a C{sub 3}{minus} hydrocarbon stream and a C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbon stream; and fractionating the C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbon stream to produce a C{sub 5}+ gasoline range hydrocarbon stream, a stream rich in C{sub 4} hydrocarbons and a stream rich in C{sub 3} hydrocarbons.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    MedlinePlus

    ... where he had been working with an 8-horse-power, gasoline-powered pump. Doors adjacent to the ... treated for CO poisoning after using two 8 horse-power, gasoline-powered, pressure washers in a poorly ...

  13. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

  14. High octane gasoline and distillates from oxygenates

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes an integrated process for the conversion of methanol to high octane gasoline and distillate, comprising the steps of: (a) contacting oxygenated hydrocarbon feed with solid conversion catalyst in a conversion zone with oxygenate conversion conditions to produce an effluent stream comprising a major portion of olefinic hydrocarbons wherein the catalyst has a moderately low Bronsted acid activity; (b) fractionating the effluent stream to produce olefinic hydrocarbon streams comprising, first C/sub 2/-olefinic stream, second C/sub 3/ olefinic stream, third C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ olefinic stream, fourth C/sub 6/ and C/sub 7/ olefinic stream and fifth C/sub 8/ + olefinic stream; (c) passing the second C/sub 3/ olefinic stream and the fourth C/sub 6/ and C/sub 7/ olefinic stream to an olefins oligomerization zone under oligomerization conditions in contact with medium pore size selective zeolite catalyst whereby C/sub 5/ + gasoline and distillate are produced; (d) passing a hydrocarbon feedstream comprising a portion of step (c) C/sub 5/ + gasoline, step (b) third C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ olefinic hydrocarbon stream in conjunction with a methanol feedstream to an etherification zone in contact with an acid etherification catalyst under etherification conditions to produce a mixture of high octane either-rich gasoline; (e) recovering a stream comprising unreacted methanol and C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons and a stream comprising ether-rich gasoline; (f) passing step (e) stream comprising unreacted methanol and C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons to step (c) oligomerization zone for conversion to gasoline and distillate.

  15. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80.210 Section 80.210 Protection of Environment... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  16. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    the main process leading to the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential. While for Hyundai ICEV, gasoline production and tailpipe emission were the primary sources of environmental impact in the use phase. Tailpipe emission was a significant cause for increase in Eutrophication Potential and Global Warming Potential, and so forth. On the basis of inventory data analysis and 2010 Beijing electricity mix, the comparative results of haze-induced pollutants emissions showed that the full life cycle emissions of PM2.5, NO(x), SO(x), VOCs of Midi EV were higher than those of Hyundai ICEV, but the emission of NH3 was lower than that of Hyundai ICEV. Different emissions in use phase were the chief reason leading to this trend. In addition, by sensitivity analysis the results indicated that with the increase of lifetime mileage and proportion of cleaning energy, the rate of GHG( Green House Gas) emission reduction per kilometer of Midi EV became higher with respect to Hyundai ICEV. Haze-induced pollutants emission from EV could be significantly reduced using cleaner power energy. According to the assessment results, some management strategies aiming at electric car promotion were proposed. PMID:25929083

  17. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    the main process leading to the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential. While for Hyundai ICEV, gasoline production and tailpipe emission were the primary sources of environmental impact in the use phase. Tailpipe emission was a significant cause for increase in Eutrophication Potential and Global Warming Potential, and so forth. On the basis of inventory data analysis and 2010 Beijing electricity mix, the comparative results of haze-induced pollutants emissions showed that the full life cycle emissions of PM2.5, NO(x), SO(x), VOCs of Midi EV were higher than those of Hyundai ICEV, but the emission of NH3 was lower than that of Hyundai ICEV. Different emissions in use phase were the chief reason leading to this trend. In addition, by sensitivity analysis the results indicated that with the increase of lifetime mileage and proportion of cleaning energy, the rate of GHG( Green House Gas) emission reduction per kilometer of Midi EV became higher with respect to Hyundai ICEV. Haze-induced pollutants emission from EV could be significantly reduced using cleaner power energy. According to the assessment results, some management strategies aiming at electric car promotion were proposed.

  18. Turbocharging the DA465 gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng-Qi; Zong, Li-Jun; Wang, Yin-Yan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve performance of the DA465Q gasoline engine, a substantial amount of research was done to optimize its turbocharging system. The research led to the GT12 turbocharger being selected and its turbocharging parameters being settled. Based on these tests, rational matching was worked out for respective components of the turbocharging system. Results show that this turbocharger allows the engine to easily meet the proposed requirements for power and economic performance, giving insight into further performance improvements for gasoline engines.

  19. Integrated etherification and oxygenates to gasoline process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1989-05-02

    An integrated once through process for the production of ether-rich liquid fuels is described comprising: (a) reacting a fresh mixture of excess methanol in a hydrocarbon feedstock containing C/sub 4/+ isoalkenes in the presence of acidic etherification catalyst under etherification conditions whereby an etherification effluent stream containing methyl tertiary alkyl ethers is produced; (b) separating the etherification effluent stream to provide a first stream comprising ether-rich gasoline and a second stream comprising unreacted methanol and olefinic hydrocarbons; and (c) contacting the second stream with an acidic metallosilicate catalyst under olefinic and oxygenates conversion conditions at elevated temperature whereby C/sub 6/+ gasoline is produced.

  20. Health effects of gasoline exposure. II. Mortality patterns of distribution workers in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Otto; Harris, F.; Smith, T.J.

    1993-12-01

    In this study, the cohort consisted of 18,135 distribution employees with potential exposure to gasoline for at least one year at land-based terminals (n = 9,026) or on marine vessels (n = 9,109) between 1946 and 1985. The primary objective of the study was to determine the relationship, if any, between exposure to gasoline and mortality from kidney cancer or leukemia. In addition, other causes of death of secondary interest included multiple myeloma and heart diseases. The mortality of the cohort was observed through June 30,1989. The results of this study indicated that there was no increased mortality from either kidney cancer or leukemia among marketing and marine distribution employees who were exposed to gasoline in the petroleum industry when compared to the general population. We did not find any relationship in our study between gasoline exposure and mortality from multiple myeloma or heart diseases. In general, we did not find any significantly increased mortality, either overall or from specific causes, associated with gasoline exposure in this study of marketing and marine distribution employees. 35 refs., 18 tabs.

  1. Refining economics of U.S. gasoline: octane ratings and ethanol content.

    PubMed

    Hirshfeld, David S; Kolb, Jeffrey A; Anderson, James E; Studzinski, William; Frusti, James

    2014-10-01

    Increasing the octane rating of the U.S. gasoline pool (currently ∼ 93 Research Octane Number (RON)) would enable higher engine efficiency for light-duty vehicles (e.g., through higher compression ratio), facilitating compliance with federal fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. The federal Renewable Fuels Standard calls for increased renewable fuel use in U.S. gasoline, primarily ethanol, a high-octane gasoline component. Linear programming modeling of the U.S. refining sector was used to assess the effects on refining economics, CO2 emissions, and crude oil use of increasing average octane rating by increasing (i) the octane rating of refinery-produced hydrocarbon blendstocks for oxygenate blending (BOBs) and (ii) the volume fraction (Exx) of ethanol in finished gasoline. The analysis indicated the refining sector could produce BOBs yielding finished E20 and E30 gasolines with higher octane ratings at modest additional refining cost, for example, ∼ 1¢/gal for 95-RON E20 or 97-RON E30, and 3-5¢/gal for 95-RON E10, 98-RON E20, or 100-RON E30. Reduced BOB volume (from displacement by ethanol) and lower BOB octane could (i) lower refinery CO2 emissions (e.g., ∼ 3% for 98-RON E20, ∼ 10% for 100-RON E30) and (ii) reduce crude oil use (e.g., ∼ 3% for 98-RON E20, ∼ 8% for 100-RON E30). PMID:25224603

  2. Replacing gasoline with corn ethanol results in significant environmental problem-shifting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Bae, Junghan; Kim, Junbeum; Suh, Sangwon

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies on the life-cycle environmental impacts of corn ethanol and gasoline focused almost exclusively on energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and largely overlooked the influence of regional differences in agricultural practices. This study compares the environmental impact of gasoline and E85 taking into consideration 12 different environmental impacts and regional differences among 19 corn-growing states. Results show that E85 does not outperform gasoline when a wide spectrum of impacts is considered. If the impacts are aggregated using weights developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), overall, E85 generates approximately 6% to 108% (23% on average) greater impact compared with gasoline, depending on where corn is produced, primarily because corn production induces significant eutrophication impacts and requires intensive irrigation. If GHG emissions from the indirect land use changes are considered, the differences increase to between 16% and 118% (33% on average). Our study indicates that replacing gasoline with corn ethanol may only result in shifting the net environmental impacts primarily toward increased eutrophication and greater water scarcity. These results suggest that the environmental criteria used in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) be re-evaluated to include additional categories of environmental impact beyond GHG emissions.

  3. Refining economics of U.S. gasoline: octane ratings and ethanol content.

    PubMed

    Hirshfeld, David S; Kolb, Jeffrey A; Anderson, James E; Studzinski, William; Frusti, James

    2014-10-01

    Increasing the octane rating of the U.S. gasoline pool (currently ∼ 93 Research Octane Number (RON)) would enable higher engine efficiency for light-duty vehicles (e.g., through higher compression ratio), facilitating compliance with federal fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. The federal Renewable Fuels Standard calls for increased renewable fuel use in U.S. gasoline, primarily ethanol, a high-octane gasoline component. Linear programming modeling of the U.S. refining sector was used to assess the effects on refining economics, CO2 emissions, and crude oil use of increasing average octane rating by increasing (i) the octane rating of refinery-produced hydrocarbon blendstocks for oxygenate blending (BOBs) and (ii) the volume fraction (Exx) of ethanol in finished gasoline. The analysis indicated the refining sector could produce BOBs yielding finished E20 and E30 gasolines with higher octane ratings at modest additional refining cost, for example, ∼ 1¢/gal for 95-RON E20 or 97-RON E30, and 3-5¢/gal for 95-RON E10, 98-RON E20, or 100-RON E30. Reduced BOB volume (from displacement by ethanol) and lower BOB octane could (i) lower refinery CO2 emissions (e.g., ∼ 3% for 98-RON E20, ∼ 10% for 100-RON E30) and (ii) reduce crude oil use (e.g., ∼ 3% for 98-RON E20, ∼ 8% for 100-RON E30).

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to access the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done on various gasoline blends, The purpose of this study is to compare several gasoline blends of 95 and 98 octaine, that meet the vapour pressure upper limit requirement of 60 kPa. This study accounts for the gasoline losses due to evaporation ...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to ...

  7. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by § 182.460(a)(1)(ii) of this chapter, must be operated prior to starting gasoline engines for the...

  8. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by § 182.460(a)(1)(ii) of this chapter, must be operated prior to starting gasoline engines for the...

  9. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by § 182.460(a)(1)(ii) of this chapter, must be operated prior to starting gasoline engines for the...

  10. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... importer of California gasoline is, with regard to such gasoline, exempt from the independent analysis...'s authorized representative upon request. (h)(1) For the purposes of the batch sampling and analysis... gasoline may use a sampling and/or analysis methodology prescribed in Title 13, California Code...

  11. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... importer of California gasoline is, with regard to such gasoline, exempt from the independent analysis...'s authorized representative upon request. (h)(1) For the purposes of the batch sampling and analysis... gasoline may use a sampling and/or analysis methodology prescribed in Title 13, California Code...

  12. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mixtures of gasoline and alcohol fuels, gasoline used as marine fuel, gasoline service accumulation fuel... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... Deposits—Fuel Detergency Requirements Revisited”, Bill Bitting et al., Society of Automotive Engineers,...

  13. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mixtures of gasoline and alcohol fuels, gasoline used as marine fuel, gasoline service accumulation fuel... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... Deposits—Fuel Detergency Requirements Revisited”, Bill Bitting et al., Society of Automotive Engineers,...

  14. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mixtures of gasoline and alcohol fuels, gasoline used as marine fuel, gasoline service accumulation fuel... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... Deposits—Fuel Detergency Requirements Revisited”, Bill Bitting et al., Society of Automotive Engineers,...

  15. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mixtures of gasoline and alcohol fuels, gasoline used as marine fuel, gasoline service accumulation fuel... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... Deposits—Fuel Detergency Requirements Revisited”, Bill Bitting et al., Society of Automotive Engineers,...

  16. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mixtures of gasoline and alcohol fuels, gasoline used as marine fuel, gasoline service accumulation fuel... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... Deposits—Fuel Detergency Requirements Revisited”, Bill Bitting et al., Society of Automotive Engineers,...

  17. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  18. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  19. 46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each gasoline fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-70 of this chapter (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each gasoline fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-70 of this chapter (b)...

  1. 46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each gasoline fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-70 of this chapter (b)...

  2. 46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each gasoline fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-70 of this chapter (b)...

  3. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  4. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  5. 46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each gasoline fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-70 of this chapter (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  7. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  8. Toxicity of the antimicrobial oxytetracycline to soil organisms in a multi-species-soil system (MS.3) and influence of manure co-addition.

    PubMed

    Boleas, Sara; Alonso, Carmen; Pro, Javier; Fernández, Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Tarazona, Jose V

    2005-07-15

    The effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on soil organisms have been studied using a multi-species-soil system (MS.3). Oxytetracycline concentrations of 0.01 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg soil were added to the 20 cm top arable soil layer, with and without horse/cow manure (0.15 g organic N/kg soil) co-addition. No mortality was observed for Eisenia foetida S. but significant effects on soil microbial enzymatic activities (phosphatase, dehydrogenase) were observed. The effects on soil microorganism were observed earlier but then recovered in systems with manure co-addition. More important, OTC related plant inhibition was observed in the manured but not in the non-manured systems. Oxytetracycline reached 0.19 and 1.85 mg/l in the leachate of the soil spiked with 1 and 100 mg OTC/kg, respectively and 0.05 and 1.14 mg/l for the same OTC concentrations in the manured systems. The results confirm that manure can modify both the fate and the effects of OTC and that the multi-species-soil systems can reproduce the conditions for a realistic effect estimation of veterinary medicines.

  9. Study of health hazards in use of methanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Kasparov, A.A.; Golovkova, N.P.; Shirokov, Yu.G.

    1986-07-01

    The hygienic evaluation of mehanol for use as an additive to gasoline was performed under conditions of city driving of automotive vehicles operating on the blends MGB and BM 15-93 (the gasoline base stock had an octane number of 66). The workers handling MGB were examined for personality traits, emotional and volitional state, and anxiety level; also, certain features of psychic activity were evaluated (mental capability, attention, memory). The results show that a situation peceding the start of work with MGB was responsible for most of the freases in subjective indexes characterizing the emotion state, and the mobility and rate of occurence of psychic functions in comparison to background activity. The results indicate the possibility of using MGB to replace leaded and unleaded gasoline, since such replacement will reduce the environmental pollution by fuel combustion products, and the level of air pollution in the workplace will remain low.

  10. Proton NMR analysis of octane number for motor gasoline: Part V

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, M.; Nonaka, N.; Amano, H.; Takada, I.; Ishimori, S.; Andoh, H.; Kumamoto, K.

    1992-10-01

    A method to predict the octane number of automobile gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectrometry was studied. Samples of gasoline whose octane numbers had been identified according to the ASTM standards (commercially available premium gasoline to which MTBE was added at rates of 7 vol % and 14 vol %) were used in this investigation of the effect of MTBE on the octane number. The findings were utilized to introduce a term regarding MTBE into the previously reported linear regression equation for estimating the octane number from the PMR spectrum, and the appropriateness of the linear regression equation was assessed. As a result the MTBE contents in the sample were determined with satisfactory accuracy by using a standard addition method, and a linear regression equation reflecting the effect of MTBE was obtained. These achievements are reported. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    The activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of June 1970 through May 1971 reviewed. Modification of the animal exposure facilities primarily for improved human safety but also for experimental integrity and continuity are discussed. Acute toxicity experiments were conducted on hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) both singly and in combination with carbon dioxide (CO). Additional acute toxicity experiments were conducted on oxygen difluoride (OF2) and chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5). Subacute toxicity studies were conducted on methylisobutylketone and dichloromethane (methylene dichloride). The interim results of further chronic toxicity experiments on monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are also described.

  12. 40 CFR 80.335 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur... certify that the procedures meet the requirements of the ASTM procedures required under 40 CFR 80.330. (d... plus a sample of the ethanol used to conduct the handblend testing pursuant to § 80.69 must be retained....

  13. 40 CFR 80.28 - Liability for violations of gasoline volatility controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Controls and....27 is detected at a refinery that is not an ethanol blending plant or at an importer's facility, the... refiner (if he is not an ethanol blender) at whose refinery the gasoline was produced or the importer...

  14. 40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase..., the transferor shall provide to the transferee documents that include the following information: (i... or sold for use outside the geographic phase-in area. (2) Except for transfers to truck...

  15. 40 CFR 80.162 - Additive compositional data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for the use of parties which are subsidiaries of, or share common ownership with, the blender, and the... the additive for the purpose of ensuring proper detergent flow in cold weather; and (C) Gasoline...

  16. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  17. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110 Section 21.110 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  18. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110 Section 21.110 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  19. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110 Section 21.110 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  20. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110 Section 21.110 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...