Science.gov

Sample records for additivity rule approach

  1. 20 CFR 901.72 - Additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional rules. 901.72 Section 901.72... Additional rules. The Joint Board may, in notice or other guidance of general applicability, provide additional rules regarding the enrollment of actuaries. Effective Date Note: At 76 FR 17776, Mar. 31,...

  2. 5 CFR 960.108 - Additional rules and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional rules and directives. 960.108 Section 960.108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.108 Additional rules and directives. The Director may, from time to time, issue further rules...

  3. 5 CFR 960.108 - Additional rules and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional rules and directives. 960.108 Section 960.108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.108 Additional rules and directives. The Director may, from time to time, issue further rules...

  4. 40 CFR 52.583 - Additional rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.583 Additional rules and... more stringent than those otherwise applicable under the currently approved Georgia regulations....

  5. 40 CFR 52.583 - Additional rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia § 52.583 Additional rules and... more stringent than those otherwise applicable under the currently approved Georgia regulations....

  6. 40 CFR 52.583 - Additional rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional rules and regulations. 52.583 Section 52.583 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.583 Additional rules...

  7. 40 CFR 52.583 - Additional rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional rules and regulations. 52.583 Section 52.583 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia § 52.583 Additional rules...

  8. 40 CFR 52.583 - Additional rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional rules and regulations. 52.583 Section 52.583 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia § 52.583 Additional rules...

  9. 5 CFR 960.108 - Additional rules and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional rules and directives. 960.108 Section 960.108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.108 Additional rules and directives. The Director...

  10. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-8 - Additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... aggregation rule. For purposes of section 410(b), and in accordance with section 414(q)(6), a highly... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional rules. 1.410(b)-8 Section 1.410(b)-8...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(b)-8 Additional...

  11. 5 CFR 960.108 - Additional rules and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional rules and directives. 960.108 Section 960.108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.108 Additional rules and directives. The Director...

  12. 78 FR 6273 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax Correction In proposed rule document 2012-29237, appearing on pages 72268- 72277 in the issue of...

  13. Relative Stabilities of Organic Compounds Using Benson's Additivity Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Dale E.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the structure-energy principle can be presented in organic chemistry (without having to resort to quantum mechanics) by use of Benson's Additive Rules. Examples of the application to several major classes of organic compounds are given.

  14. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-8 - Additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional rules. 1.410(b)-8 Section 1.410(b)-8...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(b)-8 Additional rules. (a) Testing methods—(1) In general. A plan must satisfy section 410(b) for a plan year using one of the...

  15. 33 CFR 403.6 - Additional information. [Rule 6

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information. 403.6 Section 403.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.6 Additional information. The Board...

  16. 33 CFR 403.6 - Additional information. [Rule 6

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information. 403.6 Section 403.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.6 Additional information. The Board...

  17. 78 FR 6272 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ..., December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72268). The proposed regulations are relating to Additional Hospital Insurance Tax... proposed rulemaking and notice of public hearing (REG-130074-11), that was the subject of FR Doc. 2012... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax;...

  18. 75 FR 81543 - Additional Rules Regarding Hybrid Retirement Plans; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...) that was published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64197) providing... publication of the notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-132554-08), which was the subject of FR Doc. 2010-25942... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI16 Additional Rules Regarding Hybrid Retirement...

  19. Unconscious Addition: When We Unconsciously Initiate and Follow Arithmetic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ric, Francois; Muller, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research shows that people can unconsciously initiate and follow arithmetic rules (e.g., addition). Participants were asked to detect whether a symbol was a digit. This symbol was preceded by 2 digits and a subliminal instruction: "add" or a control instruction. Participants were faster at identifying a symbol as a number when the symbol was…

  20. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional performance rules for inspections. 43.15 Section 43.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Airworthiness of the manufacturer concerned: (1) The drive shafts or similar systems. (2) The main...

  1. 49 CFR 389.25 - Additional rule making proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 389.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULEMAKING PROCEDURES-FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 389.25 Additional...

  2. 49 CFR 389.25 - Additional rule making proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 389.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULEMAKING PROCEDURES-FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 389.25 Additional...

  3. Additional corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    SciTech Connect

    Londergan, J. T.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate some QCD corrections that contribute to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule but have not been included in previous analyses of it. We first review the techniques by which the xF{sub 3} structure function is extracted from combinations of neutrino and antineutrino cross sections. Next we investigate corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule, with particular attention to contributions arising from strange quark distributions and from charge symmetry violating parton distributions. We find that additional corrections from strange quarks and parton charge symmetry violation are likely to have a small but potentially significant role in decreasing the current discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical estimates of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule.

  4. 5 CFR 3101.109 - Additional rules for Office of Thrift Supervision employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional rules for Office of Thrift... rules for Office of Thrift Supervision employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Office of Thrift Supervision and are in addition to §§ 3101.101 through 3101.104: (a) Covered...

  5. 5 CFR 3101.109 - Additional rules for Office of Thrift Supervision employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional rules for Office of Thrift... rules for Office of Thrift Supervision employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Office of Thrift Supervision and are in addition to §§ 3101.101 through 3101.104: (a) Covered...

  6. 75 FR 64197 - Additional Rules Regarding Hybrid Retirement Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Plan No. 4 of 1978 (43 FR 47713), the Secretary of the Treasury has interpretive jurisdiction over the... April 11, 1988 (53 FR 11876), as part of a package of regulations that also included proposed... cross-testing rules applicable to cash balance plans (67 FR 76123). The 2002 proposed regulations...

  7. 5 CFR 3101.106 - Additional rules for Internal Revenue Service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... constitute a conflict with the employee's official duties pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.802: (1) Performance of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional rules for Internal Revenue... rules for Internal Revenue Service employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the...

  8. 38 CFR 20.709 - Rule 709. Procurement of additional evidence following a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 709. Procurement of additional evidence following a hearing. 20.709 Section 20.709 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Hearings on Appeal § 20.709 Rule 709. Procurement...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3102-4 - Special rules regarding Additional Medicare Tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special rules regarding Additional Medicare Tax... Employees § 31.3102-4 Special rules regarding Additional Medicare Tax. (a) Collection of tax from employee...) (Additional Medicare Tax) with respect to wages for employment performed for the employer by the employee...

  10. Rule based fuzzy logic approach for classification of fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Evren; Yildiz, Sedat; Albayrak, Yalcin; Koklukaya, Etem

    2016-06-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic muscle and skeletal system disease observed generally in women, manifesting itself with a widespread pain and impairing the individual's quality of life. FMS diagnosis is made based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. However, recently the employability and sufficiency of ACR criteria are under debate. In this context, several evaluation methods, including clinical evaluation methods were proposed by researchers. Accordingly, ACR had to update their criteria announced back in 1990, 2010 and 2011. Proposed rule based fuzzy logic method aims to evaluate FMS at a different angle as well. This method contains a rule base derived from the 1990 ACR criteria and the individual experiences of specialists. The study was conducted using the data collected from 60 inpatient and 30 healthy volunteers. Several tests and physical examination were administered to the participants. The fuzzy logic rule base was structured using the parameters of tender point count, chronic widespread pain period, pain severity, fatigue severity and sleep disturbance level, which were deemed important in FMS diagnosis. It has been observed that generally fuzzy predictor was 95.56 % consistent with at least of the specialists, who are not a creator of the fuzzy rule base. Thus, in diagnosis classification where the severity of FMS was classified as well, consistent findings were obtained from the comparison of interpretations and experiences of specialists and the fuzzy logic approach. The study proposes a rule base, which could eliminate the shortcomings of 1990 ACR criteria during the FMS evaluation process. Furthermore, the proposed method presents a classification on the severity of the disease, which was not available with the ACR criteria. The study was not limited to only disease classification but at the same time the probability of occurrence and severity was classified. In addition, those who were not suffering from FMS were

  11. Development of Watch Schedule Using Rules Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkevicius, Darius; Vasilecas, Olegas

    The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

  12. 48 CFR 6105.503 - Additional submissions [Rule 503].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submit such information within 30 calendar days after receiving the copy of the request for decision and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional submissions . 6105.503 Section 6105.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System CIVILIAN BOARD OF CONTRACT...

  13. 45 CFR 162.930 - Additional rules for health care clearinghouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional rules for health care clearinghouses... Additional rules for health care clearinghouses. When acting as a business associate for another covered entity, a health care clearinghouse may perform the following functions: (a) Receive a...

  14. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  15. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  16. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  17. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  18. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  19. 49 CFR 24.403 - Additional rules governing replacement housing payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional rules governing replacement housing... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Replacement Housing Payments § 24.403 Additional rules governing replacement housing payments. (a) Determining cost...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1031(a)-2 - Additional rules for exchanges of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... underlying property to which the intangible personal property relates. (2) Goodwill and going concern value... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional rules for exchanges of personal... Additional rules for exchanges of personal property. (a) Introduction. Section 1.1031(a)-1(b) provides...

  1. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services. (a... each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time. These activities...

  2. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... the value for each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time....

  3. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services. (a... each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time. These activities...

  4. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... the value for each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time....

  5. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... the value for each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time....

  6. 26 CFR 1.1031(a)-2 - Additional rules for exchanges of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... property. 1.1031(a)-2 Section 1.1031(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...)-2 Additional rules for exchanges of personal property. (a) Introduction. Section 1.1031(a)-1(b... property for property of a different kind or class. This section contains additional rules for...

  7. 5 CFR 3101.108 - Additional rules for Office of the Comptroller of the Currency employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional rules for Office of the Comptroller of the Currency employees. 3101.108 Section 3101.108 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY § 3101.108 Additional rules for Office of...

  8. 5 CFR 3101.109 - Additional rules for Office of Thrift Supervision employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional rules for Office of Thrift Supervision employees. 3101.109 Section 3101.109 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY § 3101.109 Additional rules for Office of Thrift...

  9. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... rules for United States Secret Service employees....

  10. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... rules for United States Secret Service employees....

  11. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... rules for United States Secret Service employees....

  12. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... rules for United States Secret Service employees....

  13. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... rules for United States Secret Service employees....

  14. PRIME: A bottom-up approach to probabilistic rule development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    PRIME is a system to be used by an intelligent machine to allow it to operate in an abstract but uncertain (or stochastic) environment. It maintains a model of the effects of the machine's actions in the form of a rule base, which is induced from experience. This bottom-up approach to rule development allows the model to adapt to changes in the environment. Each rule consists of a condition under which the rule is active, an action, the effect of the action on the environment, and an estimate of the probability of this effect occurring. The effect probabilities are used to model the uncertainty in the environment, permitting multiple possible effects for a single action under a particular set of conditions. The objective of the intelligent machine is to satisfy user-specified goals with maximum probability of success. PRIME fulfills this requirement in two ways: it continuously updates the rule base with the most recent information, to ensure the validity of the model; and it generates plans which have the maximum probability of achieving the goals, based on the probability estimates in the rule base. PRIME is composed of three main processes: exploration, generalization, and planning. In exploration, the machine executes various randomly chosen actions, observes the effects on the environment, and updates the rule base accordingly. This process is used to develop the rule base in simulation, as well as to supplement the current knowledge during normal operation. Generalization is the procedure used to induce general rules from experience, which is encoded in the form of specific rules. These general rules extend the machine's knowledge to situations which have not been encountered yet, thereby increasing the capability of the machine to plan effectively. Planning is the process of constructing an optimal sequence of actions to satisfy a goal, using the rule base to predict the effects of these actions and to determine the probability of success of the plan. The

  15. A new approach for resolving conflicts in actionable behavioral rules.

    PubMed

    Su, Peng; Zhu, Dan; Zeng, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge is considered actionable if users can take direct actions based on such knowledge to their advantage. Among the most important and distinctive actionable knowledge are actionable behavioral rules that can directly and explicitly suggest specific actions to take to influence (restrain or encourage) the behavior in the users' best interest. However, in mining such rules, it often occurs that different rules may suggest the same actions with different expected utilities, which we call conflicting rules. To resolve the conflicts, a previous valid method was proposed. However, inconsistency of the measure for rule evaluating may hinder its performance. To overcome this problem, we develop a new method that utilizes rule ranking procedure as the basis for selecting the rule with the highest utility prediction accuracy. More specifically, we propose an integrative measure, which combines the measures of the support and antecedent length, to evaluate the utility prediction accuracies of conflicting rules. We also introduce a tunable weight parameter to allow the flexibility of integration. We conduct several experiments to test our proposed approach and evaluate the sensitivity of the weight parameter. Empirical results indicate that our approach outperforms those from previous research. PMID:25162054

  16. A New Approach for Resolving Conflicts in Actionable Behavioral Rules

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan; Zeng, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge is considered actionable if users can take direct actions based on such knowledge to their advantage. Among the most important and distinctive actionable knowledge are actionable behavioral rules that can directly and explicitly suggest specific actions to take to influence (restrain or encourage) the behavior in the users' best interest. However, in mining such rules, it often occurs that different rules may suggest the same actions with different expected utilities, which we call conflicting rules. To resolve the conflicts, a previous valid method was proposed. However, inconsistency of the measure for rule evaluating may hinder its performance. To overcome this problem, we develop a new method that utilizes rule ranking procedure as the basis for selecting the rule with the highest utility prediction accuracy. More specifically, we propose an integrative measure, which combines the measures of the support and antecedent length, to evaluate the utility prediction accuracies of conflicting rules. We also introduce a tunable weight parameter to allow the flexibility of integration. We conduct several experiments to test our proposed approach and evaluate the sensitivity of the weight parameter. Empirical results indicate that our approach outperforms those from previous research. PMID:25162054

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-11 - Additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional rules. 1.401(a)(4)-11 Section 1.401(a)(4)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-11 Additional rules. (a) Introduction. This section...

  18. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza. PMID:27101640

  19. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board), and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) (collectively, the agencies) are seeking comment on three notices of proposed rulemaking (NPRs) that would revise and replace the agencies' current capital rules. In this NPR (Advanced Approaches and Market Risk NPR) the......

  20. 77 FR 4654 - Senior Community Service Employment Program; Final Rule, Additional Indicator on Volunteer Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... on September 1, 2010. 75 FR 53786. Previously, an interim final rule (IFR) on performance measures... an Additional Indicator for Volunteer Work, on November 23, 2010. 75 FR 71514. The additional... adult civic engagement, cited a report from the Corporation for National and Community...

  1. 78 FR 17612 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... public hearing that appeared in the Federal Register on Wednesday, December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72268... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax...; relating to the Additional Hospital Insurance Tax on income above threshold amounts as added by...

  2. Rule-governed Approaches to Physics--Newton's Third Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, David P.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an approach to assessing the use of rules in solving problems related to Newton's third law of motion. Discusses the problems used, method of questioning, scoring of problem sets, and a general overview of the use of the technique in aiding the teacher in dealing with student's conceptual levels. (JM)

  3. 39 CFR 777.25 - Additional rules for replacement housing payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional rules for replacement housing payments... replacement housing payments. (a) Multiple Owners. When a single family dwelling is owned by more than one... price differential. (d) Disaster-Related Insurance Proceeds. To the extent necessary to avoid...

  4. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  5. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  6. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  7. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  8. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  9. A rule-based approach for identifying obesity and its comorbidities in medical discharge summaries.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ninad K; Cummo, David M; Arnzen, James J; Bonander, Jason

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the effectiveness of a simple rule-based approach in classifying medical discharge summaries according to indicators for obesity and 15 associated co-morbidities as part of the 2008 i2b2 Obesity Challenge. METHODS The authors applied a rule-based approach that looked for occurrences of morbidity-related keywords and identified the types of assertions in which those keywords occurred. The documents were then classified using a simple scoring algorithm based on a mapping of the assertion types to possible judgment categories. MEASUREMENTS RESULTS for the challenge were evaluated based on macro F-measure. We report micro and macro F-measure results for all morbidities combined and for each morbidity separately. Results Our rule-based approach achieved micro and macro F-measures of 0.97 and 0.77, respectively, ranking fifth out of the entries submitted by 28 teams participating in the classification task based on textual judgments and substantially outperforming the average for the challenge. CONCLUSIONS As shown by its ranking in the challenge results, this approach performed relatively well under conditions in which limited training data existed for some judgment categories. Further, the approach held up well in relation to more complex approaches applied to this classification task. The approach could be enhanced by the addition of expert rules to model more complex medical reasoning. PMID:19390102

  10. 38 CFR 20.304 - Rule 304. Filing additional evidence does not extend time limit for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 304. Filing additional evidence does not extend time limit for appeal. 20.304 Section 20.304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Filing § 20.304 Rule 304. Filing...

  11. A hierarchical fuzzy rule-based approach to aphasia diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Moshtagh-Khorasani, Majid

    2007-10-01

    Aphasia diagnosis is a particularly challenging medical diagnostic task due to the linguistic uncertainty and vagueness, inconsistencies in the definition of aphasic syndromes, large number of measurements with imprecision, natural diversity and subjectivity in test objects as well as in opinions of experts who diagnose the disease. To efficiently address this diagnostic process, a hierarchical fuzzy rule-based structure is proposed here that considers the effect of different features of aphasia by statistical analysis in its construction. This approach can be efficient for diagnosis of aphasia and possibly other medical diagnostic applications due to its fuzzy and hierarchical reasoning construction. Initially, the symptoms of the disease which each consists of different features are analyzed statistically. The measured statistical parameters from the training set are then used to define membership functions and the fuzzy rules. The resulting two-layered fuzzy rule-based system is then compared with a back propagating feed-forward neural network for diagnosis of four Aphasia types: Anomic, Broca, Global and Wernicke. In order to reduce the number of required inputs, the technique is applied and compared on both comprehensive and spontaneous speech tests. Statistical t-test analysis confirms that the proposed approach uses fewer Aphasia features while also presenting a significant improvement in terms of accuracy. PMID:17293167

  12. Teaching medical diagnosis: a rule-based approach.

    PubMed

    Michalowski, W; Rubin, S; Aggarwal, H

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a diagnostic process simulator which teaches medical students to think clinically. This was possible to achieve due to the application of a rule-based approach to represent diagnosis and treatments. Whilst using the simulator, as a result of the student's incorrect and correct decisions, the clinical situation changes accordingly. New diagnostic options result in the ability to choose further clinical and laboratory tests. The simulator is being implemented on Sun workstations and Macintosh computers using Prolog programming language. PMID:8139404

  13. Metal ion adsorption to complexes of humic acid and metal oxides: Deviations from the additivity rule

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeer, A.W.P.; McCulloch, J.K.; Van Riemsdijk, W.H.; Koopal, L.K.

    1999-11-01

    The adsorption of cadmium ions to a mixture of Aldrich humic acid and hematite is investigated. The actual adsorption to the humic acid-hematite complex is compared with the sum of the cadmium ion adsorptivities to each of the isolated components. It is shown that the sum of the cadmium ion adsorptivities is not equal to the adsorption to the complex. In general, the adsorption of a specific metal ion to the complex can be understood and qualitatively predicted using the adsorptivities to each of the pure components and taking into account the effect of the pH on the interaction between humic acid and iron oxide on the metal ion adsorption. Due to the interaction between the negatively charged humic acid and the positively charged iron oxide, the adsorption of metal ions on the mineral oxide in the complex will increase as compared to that on the isolated oxide, whereas the adsorption to the humic acid will decrease as compared to that on the isolated humic acid. As a result, the overall adsorption of a specific metal ion to the complex will be smaller than predicted by the additivity rule when this metal ion has a more pronounced affinity for the humic acid than for the mineral oxide, whereas it will be larger than predicted by the additivity rule when the metal ion has a higher affinity for the oxide than for the humic acid.

  14. A Novel Approach for Evaluating Carbamate Mixtures for Dose Additivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two mathematical approaches were used to test the hypothesis ofdose-addition for a binary and a seven-chemical mixture ofN-methyl carbamates, toxicologically similar chemicals that inhibit cholinesterase (ChE). In the more novel approach, mixture data were not included in the ana...

  15. Rule groupings: An approach towards verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge-based expert systems are playing an increasingly important role in NASA space and aircraft systems. However, many of NASA's software applications are life- or mission-critical and knowledge-based systems do not lend themselves to the traditional verification and validation techniques for highly reliable software. Rule-based systems lack the control abstractions found in procedural languages. Hence, it is difficult to verify or maintain such systems. Our goal is to automatically structure a rule-based system into a set of rule-groups having a well-defined interface to other rule-groups. Once a rule base is decomposed into such 'firewalled' units, studying the interactions between rules would become more tractable. Verification-aid tools can then be developed to test the behavior of each such rule-group. Furthermore, the interactions between rule-groups can be studied in a manner similar to integration testing. Such efforts will go a long way towards increasing our confidence in the expert-system software. Our research efforts address the feasibility of automating the identification of rule groups, in order to decompose the rule base into a number of meaningful units.

  16. 5 CFR 8301.106 - Additional rules for employees of the Office of Inspector General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rules for employees of the Office of Inspector General. Any employee of the Office of Inspector General... (d) Employment involving personnel, procurement, budget, computer, or equal employment...

  17. Teaching the Spin Selection Rule: An Inductive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    In the group exercise described, students are guided through an inductive justification for the spin conservation selection rule ([delta]S = 0). Although the exercise only explicitly involves various states of helium, the conclusion is one of the most widely applicable selection rules for the interaction of light with matter, applying, in various…

  18. A Four-step Approach for Evaluation of Dose Additivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four step approach was developed for evaluating toxicity data on a chemical mixture for consistency with dose addition. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture guidance (EPA 2000), toxicologic interaction for a defined mixture (all components known) is departure from a c...

  19. Concurrent approach for evolving compact decision rule sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmelstein, Robert E.; Hammack, Lonnie P.; Lamont, Gary B.

    1999-02-01

    The induction of decision rules from data is important to many disciplines, including artificial intelligence and pattern recognition. To improve the state of the art in this area, we introduced the genetic rule and classifier construction environment (GRaCCE). It was previously shown that GRaCCE consistently evolved decision rule sets from data, which were significantly more compact than those produced by other methods (such as decision tree algorithms). The primary disadvantage of GRaCCe, however, is its relatively poor run-time execution performance. In this paper, a concurrent version of the GRaCCE architecture is introduced, which improves the efficiency of the original algorithm. A prototype of the algorithm is tested on an in- house parallel processor configuration and the results are discussed.

  20. Approaches to the verification of rule-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems are a highly useful spinoff of artificial intelligence research. One major stumbling block to extended use of expert systems is the lack of well-defined verification and validation (V and V) methodologies. Since expert systems are computer programs, the definitions of verification and validation from conventional software are applicable. The primary difficulty with expert systems is the use of development methodologies which do not support effective V and V. If proper techniques are used to document requirements, V and V of rule-based expert systems is possible, and may be easier than with conventional code. For NASA applications, the flight technique panels used in previous programs should provide an excellent way to verify the rules used in expert systems. There are, however, some inherent differences in expert systems that will affect V and V considerations.

  1. A QCD Sum Rules Approach to Mixing of Hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Ozpineci, A.; Zamiralov, V. S.

    2010-12-28

    A method for the calculation of the hadronic mixing angles using QCD sum rules is proposed. This method is then applied to predict the mixing angle between the heavy cascade hyperons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '} where Q = c or Q = b. It is obtained the {theta}{sub b} = 6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. and {theta}{sub c} = 5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.

  2. MEMS design rule checking: a batch approach for remote operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarberry, Victor R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a design rule checking (DRC) tool developed as an aid for designing microelectromechanical structures (MEMS) using AutoCADTM running on a Windows NT workstation. The application suite, MEMSdrc, consists of a graphical user interface integrated into AutoCADTM to invoke DRC, translation and interface software to communicate with a commercial IC layout design checking software package, and routines to interactively display and review the results. The user interface provides the capability to select a checking window area and specific DRC rules to be applied to the design. The MEMS structures, defined as 2D AutoCADTM geometry are translated first into DXF format, then to GDSII format. A remote process transfers the files to a Unix workstation where Mentor Graphics ICverify is invoked to perform the layout design rule checks. Upon completion, the results are translated into DXF geometry and returned back to the Windows NT workstation to be overlaid onto the original design. A set of icons are provided for the user to interactively review the results inside of AutoCADTM using a first/next/previous technique.

  3. Large approach to Kaon decays and mixing 28 years later: rule, , and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Gérard, Jean-Marc; Bardeen, William A.

    2014-05-01

    We review and update our results for decays and - mixing obtained by us in the 1980s within an analytic approximate approach based on the dual representation of QCD as a theory of weakly interacting mesons for large , where is the number of colors. In our analytic approach the Standard Model dynamics behind the enhancement of and suppression of , the so-called rule for decays, has a simple structure: the usual octet enhancement through the long but slow quark-gluon renormalization group evolution down to the scales is continued as a short but fast meson evolution down to zero momentum scales at which the factorization of hadronic matrix elements is at work. The inclusion of lowest-lying vector meson contributions in addition to the pseudoscalar ones and of Wilson coefficients in a momentum scheme improves significantly the matching between quark-gluon and meson evolutions. In particular, the anomalous dimension matrix governing the meson evolution exhibits the structure of the known anomalous dimension matrix in the quark-gluon evolution. While this physical picture did not yet emerge from lattice simulations, the recent results on and from the RBC-UKQCD collaboration give support for its correctness. In particular, the signs of the two main contractions found numerically by these authors follow uniquely from our analytic approach. Though the current-current operators dominate the rule, working with matching scales we find that the presence of QCD-penguin operator is required to obtain satisfactory result for . At NLO in we obtain which amounts to an order of magnitude enhancement over the strict large limit value . We also update our results for the parameter , finding . The smallness of corrections to the large value results within our approach from an approximate cancelation between pseudoscalar and vector meson one-loop contributions. We also summarize the status of in this approach.

  4. Additional Compensation on Account of Children Adopted Out of Veteran's Family. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-08-13

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its adjudication regulations to clarify that a veteran will not receive the dependent rate of disability compensation for a child who is adopted out of the veteran's family. This action is necessary because applicable VA adjudication regulations are currently construed as permitting a veteran, whose former child was adopted out of the veteran's family, to receive the dependent rate of disability compensation for the adopted-out child, which constitutes an unwarranted award of benefits not supported by the applicable statute and legislative history. This document adopts as a final rule, without change, the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on December 2, 2014. PMID:26292367

  5. Additional approaches to solving the phase problem in optics.

    PubMed

    Zenkova, C Yu; Gorsky, M P; Ryabiy, P A; Angelskaya, A O

    2016-04-20

    The paper presents principal approaches to diagnosing the structure-forming skeleton of a complex optical field. Analysis of optical field singularity algorithms, depending on intensity discretization and image resolution, has been carried out. An optimal approach is chosen, which allows us to get much closer to the solution of the phase problem of localization speckle-field special points. The use of a "window" 2D Hilbert transform for reconstruction of the phase distribution of the intensity of a speckle field is proposed. It is shown that the advantage of this approach consists in the invariance of a phase map to a position change of the kernel of transformation and in a possibility to reconstruct the structure-forming elements of the skeleton of an optical field, including singular points and saddle points. We demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the equi-phase lines within a narrow confidence interval and introduce an additional algorithm for solving the phase problem for random 2D intensity distributions. PMID:27140136

  6. A Novel Rules Based Approach for Estimating Software Birthmark

    PubMed Central

    Binti Alias, Norma; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Software birthmark is a unique quality of software to detect software theft. Comparing birthmarks of software can tell us whether a program or software is a copy of another. Software theft and piracy are rapidly increasing problems of copying, stealing, and misusing the software without proper permission, as mentioned in the desired license agreement. The estimation of birthmark can play a key role in understanding the effectiveness of a birthmark. In this paper, a new technique is presented to evaluate and estimate software birthmark based on the two most sought-after properties of birthmarks, that is, credibility and resilience. For this purpose, the concept of soft computing such as probabilistic and fuzzy computing has been taken into account and fuzzy logic is used to estimate properties of birthmark. The proposed fuzzy rule based technique is validated through a case study and the results show that the technique is successful in assessing the specified properties of the birthmark, its resilience and credibility. This, in turn, shows how much effort will be required to detect the originality of the software based on its birthmark. PMID:25945363

  7. A novel rules based approach for estimating software birthmark.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Shah; Shahzad, Sara; Khan, Sher Afzal; Alias, Norma Binti; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Software birthmark is a unique quality of software to detect software theft. Comparing birthmarks of software can tell us whether a program or software is a copy of another. Software theft and piracy are rapidly increasing problems of copying, stealing, and misusing the software without proper permission, as mentioned in the desired license agreement. The estimation of birthmark can play a key role in understanding the effectiveness of a birthmark. In this paper, a new technique is presented to evaluate and estimate software birthmark based on the two most sought-after properties of birthmarks, that is, credibility and resilience. For this purpose, the concept of soft computing such as probabilistic and fuzzy computing has been taken into account and fuzzy logic is used to estimate properties of birthmark. The proposed fuzzy rule based technique is validated through a case study and the results show that the technique is successful in assessing the specified properties of the birthmark, its resilience and credibility. This, in turn, shows how much effort will be required to detect the originality of the software based on its birthmark. PMID:25945363

  8. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Chylek, Lily A; Harris, Leonard A; Faeder, James R; Hlavacek, William S

    2015-01-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions. PMID:26178138

  9. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K. |; Wolf, D.E. |; Wagner, P. |; Simon, P.

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  10. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chylek, Lily A.; Harris, Leonard A.; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.

    2015-07-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions.

  11. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach.

    PubMed

    Chylek, Lily A; Harris, Leonard A; Faeder, James R; Hlavacek, William S

    2015-07-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions. PMID:26178138

  12. 26 CFR 1.1374-10 - Effective date and additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... file original or amended returns that are consistent with these provisions for taxable years of the S... apply these provisions even if all affected shareholders cannot file consistent returns. In addition...) Effective January 1, 1988, X, a C corporation that is a qualified corporation under section 633(d) of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1374-10 - Effective date and additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... file original or amended returns that are consistent with these provisions for taxable years of the S... apply these provisions even if all affected shareholders cannot file consistent returns. In addition...) Effective January 1, 1988, X, a C corporation that is a qualified corporation under section 633(d) of...

  14. 78 FR 50313 - Final Additional Airworthiness Design Standards: Night Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Code of Federal Regulations and two additional design criteria issued on September 2, 2003 (68 FR 56809... Federal Register on Friday May 31, 2013, 78 FR 32576. No comments were received, and the airworthiness... hazard or carbon monoxide contamination in the personnel compartment. (b) Each exhaust system part with...

  15. Rule-based modeling: a computational approach for studying biomolecular site dynamics in cell signaling systems

    PubMed Central

    Chylek, Lily A.; Harris, Leonard A.; Tung, Chang-Shung; Faeder, James R.; Lopez, Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    Rule-based modeling was developed to address the limitations of traditional approaches for modeling chemical kinetics in cell signaling systems. These systems consist of multiple interacting biomolecules (e.g., proteins), which themselves consist of multiple parts (e.g., domains, linear motifs, and sites of phosphorylation). Consequently, biomolecules that mediate information processing generally have the potential to interact in multiple ways, with the number of possible complexes and post-translational modification states tending to grow exponentially with the number of binary interactions considered. As a result, only large reaction networks capture all possible consequences of the molecular interactions that occur in a cell signaling system, which is problematic because traditional modeling approaches for chemical kinetics (e.g., ordinary differential equations) require explicit network specification. This problem is circumvented through representation of interactions in terms of local rules. With this approach, network specification is implicit and model specification is concise. Concise representation results in a coarse graining of chemical kinetics, which is introduced because all reactions implied by a rule inherit the rate law associated with that rule. Coarse graining can be appropriate if interactions are modular, and the coarseness of a model can be adjusted as needed. Rules can be specified using specialized model-specification languages, and recently developed tools designed for specification of rule-based models allow one to leverage powerful software engineering capabilities. A rule-based model comprises a set of rules, which can be processed by general-purpose simulation and analysis tools to achieve different objectives (e.g., to perform either a deterministic or stochastic simulation). PMID:24123887

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. A Rule Based Approach to ISS Interior Volume Control and Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Maida, Jim; Fitts, David; Dory, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Traditional human factors design involves the development of human factors requirements based on a desire to accommodate a certain percentage of the intended user population. As the product is developed human factors evaluation involves comparison between the resulting design and the specifications. Sometimes performance metrics are involved that allow leniency in the design requirements given that the human performance result is satisfactory. Clearly such approaches may work but they give rise to uncertainty and negotiation. An alternative approach is to adopt human factors design rules that articulate a range of each design continuum over which there are varying outcome expectations and interactions with other variables, including time. These rules are based on a consensus of human factors specialists, designers, managers and customers. The International Space Station faces exactly this challenge in interior volume control, which is based on anthropometric, performance and subjective preference criteria. This paper describes the traditional approach and then proposes a rule-based alternative. The proposed rules involve spatial, temporal and importance dimensions. If successful this rule-based concept could be applied to many traditional human factors design variables and could lead to a more effective and efficient contribution of human factors input to the design process.

  18. Design rules for rational control of polymer glass formation behavior and mechanical properties with small molecular additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalara, Jayachandra Hari; Simmons, David

    Small molecule additives have long been employed to tune polymers' glass formation, mechanical and transport properties. For example, plasticizers are commonly employed to suppress polymer Tg and soften the glassy state, while antiplasticizers, which stiffen the glassy state of a polymer while suppressing its Tg, are employed to enhance protein and tissue preservation in sugar glasses. Recent literature indicates that additives can have a wide range of possible effects, but all of these have not been clearly understood and well appreciated. Here we employ molecular dynamics simulations to establish design rules for the selection of small molecule additives with size, molecular stiffness, and interaction energy chosen to achieve targeted effects on polymer properties. We furthermore find that a given additive's effect on a polymer's Tg can be predicted from its Debye-Waller factor via a function previously found to describe nanoconfinement effects on the glass transition. These results emphasize the potential for a new generation of targeted molecular additives to contribute to more targeted rational design of polymers. We acknowledge the Keck Foundation and the Ohio Supercomputing Center for financial and computational support of this effort, respectively.

  19. Assessing Financial Education Methods: Principles vs. Rules-of-Thumb Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skimmyhorn, William L.; Davies, Evan R.; Mun, David; Mitchell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Despite thousands of programs and tremendous public and private interest in improving financial decision-making, little is known about how best to teach financial education. Using an experimental approach, the authors estimated the effects of two different education methodologies (principles-based and rules-of-thumb) on the knowledge,…

  20. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  1. Regulating geologic sequestration in the United States: early rules take divergent approaches.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Melisa F; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-05-01

    Regulations for geological sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been adopted in the state of Washington and proposed by the state of Kansas and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. These three sets of rules take significantly different approaches to regulating GS of CO2. This paper compares these rules, focusing on elements where their differences highlight the choices that must be made to create a regulatory framework for GS in the United States. Consensus is emerging in some areas, but there is still substantial disagreement regarding the allowable composition of the CO2 stream, the size of the area of review, reservoir performance goals, and management of risks other than those to groundwater. Gaps include issues related to ownership of subsurface pore space, greenhouse gas accounting, and long-term stewardship. The divergent approaches of these rules raise two overarching questions: (1) Should policy makers create GS regulations by modifying and supplementing UIC rules or through new enabling legislation? (2) What should be the relative roles of state and federal governments in GS regulation? We outline trade-offs between the consistency and coordination that federal involvement could offer and the reality that states need to be heavily involved with implementation of GS regulations. We conclude that federal involvement above and beyond the proposed EPA Class VI rules is needed to create effective GS regulation in the United States. PMID:19534110

  2. Dynamic properties of one-component strongly coupled plasmas: The sum-rule approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Askaruly, A.; Davletov, A. E.; Ballester, D.; Tkachenko, I. M.

    2010-02-15

    The dynamic characteristics of strongly coupled one-component plasmas are studied within the moment approach. Our results on the dynamic structure factor and the dynamic local-field correction satisfy the sum rules and other exact relations automatically. A quantitative agreement is obtained with numerous simulation data on the plasma dynamic properties, including the dispersion and decay of collective modes. Our approach allows us to correct and complement the results previously found with other treatments.

  3. The Miniature Job Training and Evaluation Approach: Additional Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Arthur I.

    1983-01-01

    Describes miniature job training and evaluation situations administered to 1,034 "low aptitude" Navy recruits. Checklist criterion data describing the on-the-job performance of the sample were collected after the recruits were on their fleet assignments. The results confirmed the predictive validity of the miniature job training approach.…

  4. A rule-based systems approach to spacecraft communications configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L.; Wong, Yen F.; Cieplak, James J.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental rule-based system for optimizing user spacecraft communications configurations was developed at NASA to support mission planning for spacecraft that obtain telecommunications services through NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. Designated Expert for Communications Configuration Optimization (ECCO), and implemented in the OPS5 production system language, the system has shown the validity of a rule-based systems approach to this optimization problem. The development of ECCO and the incremental optimizatin method on which it is based are discussed. A test case using hypothetical mission data is included to demonstrate the optimization concept.

  5. A rule-based systems approach to spacecraft communications configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L.; Wong, Yen F.; Cieplak, James J.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental rule-based system for optimizing user spacecraft communications configurations was developed at NASA to support mission planning for spacecraft that obtain telecommunications services through NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. Designated Expert for Communications Configuration Optimization (ECCO), and implemented in the OPS5 production system language, the system has shown the validity of a rule-based systems approach to this optimization problem. The development of ECCO and the incremental optimization method on which it is based are discussed. A test case using hypothetical mission data is included to demonstrate the optimization concept.

  6. A rule-based systems approach to spacecraft communications configuration optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, James L.; Wong, Yen F.; Cieplak, James J.

    An experimental rule-based system for optimizing user spacecraft communications configurations was developed at NASA to support mission planning for spacecraft that obtain telecommunications services through NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. Designated Expert for Communications Configuration Optimization (ECCO), and implemented in the OPS5 production system language, the system has shown the validity of a rule-based systems approach to this optimization problem. The development of ECCO and the incremental optimizatin method on which it is based are discussed. A test case using hypothetical mission data is included to demonstrate the optimization concept.

  7. A dual active-restrictive approach to incorporating environmental flow targets into existing reservoir operation rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Environmental flow schemes may be implemented through active or restrictive strategies. The former may be applied via reservoir releases, and the latter can be executed by reducing water demands. We present a dual active-restrictive approach to devising the optimal reservoir operation rules that aim to secure off-stream water supplies while maximizing environmental benefits. For the active part, a multicomponent environmental flow target (including the minimum and monthly flows) is incorporated in the operation rules. For the restrictive counterpart, we use a novel demands partitioning and prioritizing (DPP) approach to reallocating the demands of various sectors. The DPP approach partitions the existing off-stream demand and newly incorporated environmental demand and reassembles the two as the first- and second-priority demands. Water is reallocated to each demand according to the ratios derived from the prioritized demands. The proposed approach is coupled with a multicriteria optimization framework to seek the optimal operation rules for the existing Feitsui Reservoir system (Taiwan) under various scenarios. The best overall performance is achieved by an optimal dual strategy whose operational parameters are all determined by optimization. The optimal environmental flow target may well be a top-priority constant base flow rather than the variable quantities. The active strategy would outperform the restrictive one. For the former, a top-priority base flow target is essential; for the latter, the off-stream demand can become vanishingly small in compensation for the eliminated base flow target, thus promoting the monthly flow target as nearly the top-priority demand. For either the active or restrictive strategy, a prioritized environmental flow demand would provide a path toward the optimal overall performance. A significantly improved overall performance over the existing operation rules is unlikely if the active and restrictive parameters are both favorable

  8. Approach to design neural cryptography: A generalized architecture and a heuristic rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Nankun; Liao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Tingwen

    2013-06-01

    Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine (TCM). Furthermore, we carefully study and find that the heuristic rule can improve the security of TSCM-based neural cryptography. Therefore, TSCM and the heuristic rule can guide us to designing a great deal of effective neural cryptography candidates, in which it is possible to achieve the more secure instances. Significantly, in the light of TSCM and the heuristic rule, we further expound that our designed neural cryptography outperforms TPM (the most secure model at present) on security. Finally, a series of numerical simulation experiments are provided to verify validity and applicability of our results.

  9. A systematic approach to a self-generating fuzzy rule-table for function approximation.

    PubMed

    Pomares, H; Rojas, I; Ortega, J; Gonzalez, J; Prieto, A

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic design is proposed to determine fuzzy system structure and learning its parameters, from a set of given training examples. In particular, two fundamental problems concerning fuzzy system modeling are addressed: 1) fuzzy rule parameter optimization and 2) the identification of system structure (i.e., the number of membership functions and fuzzy rules). A four-step approach to build a fuzzy system automatically is presented: Step 1 directly obtains the optimum fuzzy rules for a given membership function configuration. Step 2 optimizes the allocation of the membership functions and the conclusion of the rules, in order to achieve a better approximation. Step 3 determines a new and more suitable topology with the information derived from the approximation error distribution; it decides which variables should increase the number of membership functions. Finally, Step 4 determines which structure should be selected to approximate the function, from the possible configurations provided by the algorithm in the three previous steps. The results of applying this method to the problem of function approximation are presented and then compared with other methodologies proposed in the bibliography. PMID:18252375

  10. Enhancement mechanism of the additional absorbent on the absorption of the absorbing composite using a type-based mixing rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-04-01

    A silicone rubber composite filled with carbonyl iron particles and four different carbonous materials (carbon black, graphite, carbon fiber or multi-walled carbon nanotubes) was prepared using a two-roller mixture. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer at the frequency of 2-18 GHz. Then a type-based mixing rule based on the dielectric absorbent and magnetic absorbent was proposed to reveal the enhancing mechanism on the permittivity and permeability. The enforcement effect lies in the decreased percolation threshold and the changing pending parameter as the carbonous materials were added. The reflection loss (RL) result showed the added carbonous materials enhanced the absorption in the lower frequency range, the RL decrement value being about 2 dB at 4-5 GHz with a thickness of 1 mm. All the added carbonous materials reinforced the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composites. The maximum increment value of the SE was about 3.23 dB at 0.5 mm and 4.65 dB at 1 mm, respectively. The added carbonous materials could be effective additives for enforcing the absorption and shielding property of the absorbers.

  11. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

    2015-04-27

    The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish anmore » efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.« less

  12. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

    2015-04-27

    The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.

  13. A DNA-based algorithm for minimizing decision rules: a rough sets approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ikno; Chu, Yu-Yi; Watada, Junzo; Wu, Jui-Yu; Pedrycz, Witold

    2011-09-01

    Rough sets are often exploited for data reduction and classification. While they are conceptually appealing, the techniques used with rough sets can be computationally demanding. To address this obstacle, the objective of this study is to investigate the use of DNA molecules and associated techniques as an optimization vehicle to support algorithms of rough sets. In particular, we develop a DNA-based algorithm to derive decision rules of minimal length. This new approach can be of value when dealing with a large number of objects and their attributes, in which case the complexity of rough-sets-based methods is NP-hard. The proposed algorithm shows how the essential components involved in the minimization of decision rules in data processing can be realized. PMID:22020105

  14. Spatial Queries Entity Recognition and Disambiguation Using Rule-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzei, E.; Hakimpour, F.; Forati, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the digital world, search engines have been proposed as one of challenging research areas. One of the main issues in search engines studies is query processing, which its aim is to understand user's needs. If unsuitable spatial query processing approach is employed, the results will be associated with high degree of ambiguity. To evade such degree of ambiguity, in this paper we present a new algorithm which depends on rule-based systems to process queries. Our algorithm is implemented in the three basic steps including: deductively iterative splitting the query; finding candidates for the location names, the location types and spatial relationships; and finally checking the relationships logically and conceptually using a rule based system. As we finally present in the paper using our proposed method have two major advantages: the search engines can provide the capability of spatial analysis based on the specific process and secondly because of its disambiguation technique, user reaches the more desirable result.

  15. A QCD Sum Rule Approach with an Explicit Di-quark field

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-il; Jido, Daisuke; Lee, Su Houng

    2011-10-21

    In hadron phenomenology, diquark structures can be an important degree of freedom in certain configurations. We investigate the possibility that the diquark structure can be treated as an elementary field in certain configurations. To start with, we assume that {Lambda} is composed of a spectator strange quark and a diquark. We construct a QCD sum rule for {Lambda}, where the input parameters are the diquark mass and its condensate, in addition to other parameters of QCD sum rules. We find good Borel curve for the {Lambda} mass for certain combinations of the diquark mass and condensate, and that smaller diquark condensate is needed when the diquark mass is increased to maintain the good Borel curve. The same sets of diquark mass and condensate are found to work well for {Lambda}{sub c} and {Lambda}{sub b}.

  16. An integrated rule- and case-based approach to AIDS initial assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, L D

    1996-01-01

    The traditional approach to the development of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has been rule-based, where heuristic knowledge is encoded in a set of production rules. A rule-based reasoning (RBR) system needs a well constructed domain theory as its reasoning basis, and it does not make substantial use of the knowledge embedded in previous cases. An RBR system performs relatively well in a knowledge-rich application environment. Although its capability may be limited when previous experiences are not a good representation of the whole population, a case-based reasoning (CBR) system is capable of using past experiences as problem solving tools, therefore, it is appropriate for an experience-rich domain. In recent years, both RBR and CBR have emerged as important and complementary reasoning methodologies in artificial intelligence. For problem solving in AIDS intervention and prevention, it is useful to integrate RBR and CBR. In this paper, a hybrid KBS which integrates a deductive RBR system and an inductive CBR system is proposed to assess AIDS-risky behaviors. PMID:8666473

  17. Limitations of the semirelativistic approach in sum rules and related calculations in atomic physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.

    1988-01-01

    The semirelativistic approach, as applied to sum-rule calculations, can yield very inaccurate results for high-Z systems; the apparently good agreement previously reported is fortuitous, due to the application of an approximate eigenstate of the semirelativistic Hamiltonian. Attention is given to one-electron atomic systems, and the results obtained are discussed with a view to their implications for many-electron systems. The many-electron problem is complicated by a lack of clarity as to the relative importance of contributions due to correlation effects among the electrons, their effect on the E2 oscillator strength, and the retardation correction to the E1 transition.

  18. 5 CFR 1001.101 - In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management employees? 1001.101 Section 1001.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYEES OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OPM...

  19. 5 CFR 1001.101 - In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management employees? 1001.101 Section 1001.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYEES OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OPM...

  20. The molecular basis for the post-translational addition of amino acids by L/F transferase in the N-end rule pathway.

    PubMed

    Fung, Angela Wai S; Fahlman, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    The N-end rule pathway is a conserved targeted proteolytic process observed in organisms ranging from eubacteria to mammals. The N-end rule relates the metabolic stability of a protein to its N-terminal amino acid residue. The identity of the N-terminal amino acid residue is a primary degradation signal, often referred to as an N-degron, which is recognized by the components of the N-end rule when it is a destabilizing N-terminus. N-degrons may be exposed by non-processive proteolytic cleavages or by post-translational modifications. One modification is the post-translational addition of amino acids to the N-termini of proteins, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferases. The aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferase in eubacteria like Escherichia coli is L/F transferase. Recent investigations have reported unexpected observations regarding the L/F transferase catalytic mechanism and its mechanisms of substrate recognition. Additionally, recent proteome-wide identification of putative in vivo substrates facilitates hypothesis into the yet elusive biological functions of the prokaryotic N-end rule pathway. Here we summarize the recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of catalysis and substrate recognition by the E. coli L/F transferase in the prokaryotic N-end rule pathway. PMID:25692952

  1. 49 CFR 391.1 - Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers. 391.1 Section 391.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...-drivers. (a) The rules in this part establish minimum qualifications for persons who drive...

  2. 49 CFR 391.1 - Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers. 391.1 Section 391.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...-drivers. (a) The rules in this part establish minimum qualifications for persons who drive...

  3. 49 CFR 391.1 - Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers. 391.1 Section 391.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...-drivers. (a) The rules in this part establish minimum qualifications for persons who drive...

  4. 49 CFR 391.1 - Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers. 391.1 Section 391.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...-drivers. (a) The rules in this part establish minimum qualifications for persons who drive...

  5. 49 CFR 391.1 - Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers. 391.1 Section 391.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...-drivers. (a) The rules in this part establish minimum qualifications for persons who drive...

  6. Association rule discovery with the train and test approach for heart disease prediction.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, Carlos

    2006-04-01

    Association rules represent a promising technique to improve heart disease prediction. Unfortunately, when association rules are applied on a medical data set, they produce an extremely large number of rules. Most of such rules are medically irrelevant and the time required to find them can be impractical. A more important issue is that, in general, association rules are mined on the entire data set without validation on an independent sample. To solve these limitations, we introduce an algorithm that uses search constraints to reduce the number of rules, searches for association rules on a training set, and finally validates them on an independent test set. The medical significance of discovered rules is evaluated with support, confidence, and lift. Association rules are applied on a real data set containing medical records of patients with heart disease. In medical terms, association rules relate heart perfusion measurements and risk factors to the degree of disease in four specific arteries. Search constraints and test set validation significantly reduce the number of association rules and produce a set of rules with high predictive accuracy. We exhibit important rules with high confidence, high lift, or both, that remain valid on the test set on several runs. These rules represent valuable medical knowledge. PMID:16617622

  7. Potential Implications of Approaches to Climate Change on the Clean Water Rule Definition of "Waters of the United States".

    PubMed

    Faust, Derek R; Moore, Matthew T; Emison, Gerald Andrews; Rush, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    The 1972 Clean Water Act was passed to protect chemical, physical, and biological integrity of United States' waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers codified a new "waters of the United States" rule on June 29, 2015, because several Supreme Court case decisions caused confusion with the existing rule. Climate change could affect this rule through connectivity between groundwater and surface waters; floodplain waters and the 100-year floodplain; changes in jurisdictional status; and sea level rise on coastal ecosystems. Four approaches are discussed for handling these implications: (1) "Wait and see"; (2) changes to the rule; (3) use guidance documents; (4) Congress statutorily defining "waters of the United States." The approach chosen should be legally defensible and achieved in a timely fashion to provide protection to "waters of the United States" in proactive consideration of scientifically documented effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26979963

  8. Rule groupings: A software engineering approach towards verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala

    1991-01-01

    Currently, most expert system shells do not address software engineering issues for developing or maintaining expert systems. As a result, large expert systems tend to be incomprehensible, difficult to debug or modify and almost impossible to verify or validate. Partitioning rule based systems into rule groups which reflect the underlying subdomains of the problem should enhance the comprehensibility, maintainability, and reliability of expert system software. Attempts were made to semiautomatically structure a CLIPS rule base into groups of related rules that carry the same type of information. Different distance metrics that capture relevant information from the rules for grouping are discussed. Two clustering algorithms that partition the rule base into groups of related rules are given. Two independent evaluation criteria are developed to measure the effectiveness of the grouping strategies. Results of the experiment with three sample rule bases are presented.

  9. Beyond Grammar: The Richness of English Language, or the Zero-Tolerance Approach to Rigid Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Edgar H.

    2011-01-01

    Effective writers--professionals and students--break traditionally taught rules frequently. So why teach students rules that writers don't actually follow? English teachers bear the responsibility of offering young writers guidance--of teaching them stylistics "rules." But as thoughtful writing teachers, they are also responsible for observing…

  10. Evolution of Decision Rules Used for IT Portfolio Management: An Inductive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karhade, Prasanna P.; Shaw, Michael J.; Subramanyam, Ramanath

    IT portfolio management and the related planning decisions for IT-dependent initiatives are critical to organizational performance. Building on the logic of appropriateness theoretical framework, we define an important characteristic of decision rules used during IT portfolio planning; rule appropriateness with regards to the risk-taking criterion. We propose that rule appropriateness will be an important factor explaining the evolution of rules over time. Using an inductive learning methodology, we analyze a unique dataset of actual IT portfolio planning decisions spanning two consecutive years within one organization. We present systematic comparative analysis of the evolution of rules used in planning over two years to validate our research proposition. We find that rules that were inappropriate in the first year are being redefined to design appropriate rules for use in the second year. Our work provides empirical evidence demonstrating organizational learning and improvements in IT portfolio planning capabilities.

  11. National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition of Intussusception as Injury for Rotavirus Vaccines to the Vaccine Injury Table. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-06-23

    On July 24, 2013, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) published in the Federal Register a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) proposing changes to the regulations governing the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP). Specifically, the Secretary proposed revisions to the Vaccine Injury Table (Table). The basis for this change is consistent with the Secretary's findings that intussusceptions can reasonably be determined in some circumstances to be caused by rotavirus vaccines. The Secretary is now making this amendment to the Table and to the Qualifications and Aids to Interpretation (QAI), described below under Background Information, as proposed in the NPRM. These regulations will apply only to petitions for compensation under the VICP filed after this final rule becomes effective. PMID:26103742

  12. A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

    2009-04-01

    Key words: Simple Event Correlator, Agent Platform, Ontology, Semantic Web, Distributed Systems, Emergency Management The importance of recognition of emergency's typology to control the critical situation for security of citizens has been always recognized. It follows this aspect is very important for proper management of a hazardous event. In this work we present a solution for the recognition of emergency's typology adopted by an Italian research project, called CI6 (Centro Integrato per Servizi di Emergenza Innovativi). In our approach, CI6 receives alarms by citizen or people involved in the work (for example: police, operator of 112, and so on). CI6 represents any alarm by a set of information, including a text that describes it and obtained when the user points out the danger, and a pair of coordinates for its location. The system realizes an analysis of text and automatically infers information on the type of emergencies by means a set of parsing rules and rules of inference applied by a independent module: a correlator of events based on their log and called Simple Event Correlator (SEC). SEC, integrated in CI6's platform, is an open source and platform independent event correlation tool. SEC accepts input both files and text derived from standard input, making it flexible because it can be matched to any application that is able to write its output to a file stream. The SEC configuration is stored in text files as rules, each rule specifying an event matching condition, an action list, and optionally a Boolean expression whose truth value decides whether the rule can be applied at a given moment. SEC can produce output events by executing user-specified shell scripts or programs, by writing messages to files, and by various other means. SEC has been successfully applied in various domains like network management, system monitoring, data security, intrusion detection, log file monitoring and analysis, etc; it has been used or integrated with many

  13. A linguistic rule-based approach to extract drug-drug interactions from pharmacological documents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A drug-drug interaction (DDI) occurs when one drug influences the level or activity of another drug. The increasing volume of the scientific literature overwhelms health care professionals trying to be kept up-to-date with all published studies on DDI. Methods This paper describes a hybrid linguistic approach to DDI extraction that combines shallow parsing and syntactic simplification with pattern matching. Appositions and coordinate structures are interpreted based on shallow syntactic parsing provided by the UMLS MetaMap tool (MMTx). Subsequently, complex and compound sentences are broken down into clauses from which simple sentences are generated by a set of simplification rules. A pharmacist defined a set of domain-specific lexical patterns to capture the most common expressions of DDI in texts. These lexical patterns are matched with the generated sentences in order to extract DDIs. Results We have performed different experiments to analyze the performance of the different processes. The lexical patterns achieve a reasonable precision (67.30%), but very low recall (14.07%). The inclusion of appositions and coordinate structures helps to improve the recall (25.70%), however, precision is lower (48.69%). The detection of clauses does not improve the performance. Conclusions Information Extraction (IE) techniques can provide an interesting way of reducing the time spent by health care professionals on reviewing the literature. Nevertheless, no approach has been carried out to extract DDI from texts. To the best of our knowledge, this work proposes the first integral solution for the automatic extraction of DDI from biomedical texts. PMID:21489220

  14. Space communications scheduler: A rule-based approach to adaptive deadline scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straguzzi, Nicholas

    1990-01-01

    Job scheduling is a deceptively complex subfield of computer science. The highly combinatorial nature of the problem, which is NP-complete in nearly all cases, requires a scheduling program to intelligently transverse an immense search tree to create the best possible schedule in a minimal amount of time. In addition, the program must continually make adjustments to the initial schedule when faced with last-minute user requests, cancellations, unexpected device failures, quests, cancellations, unexpected device failures, etc. A good scheduler must be quick, flexible, and efficient, even at the expense of generating slightly less-than-optimal schedules. The Space Communication Scheduler (SCS) is an intelligent rule-based scheduling system. SCS is an adaptive deadline scheduler which allocates modular communications resources to meet an ordered set of user-specified job requests on board the NASA Space Station. SCS uses pattern matching techniques to detect potential conflicts through algorithmic and heuristic means. As a result, the system generates and maintains high density schedules without relying heavily on backtracking or blind search techniques. SCS is suitable for many common real-world applications.

  15. Wigner-Racah Algebra Approach to Caselle-Ponzano Fusion Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Masao

    1991-07-01

    Caselle-Ponzano fusion rules, based on graph theory, are investigated in the framework of Wigner-Racah algebras. While in the graph theory parameters of fusion rules are taken over specific values, the restriction of parameters is removed in the present formalism. Formal extension to q-analogs is also given.

  16. Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppner, Frank

    Association rules are rules of the kind "70% of the customers who buy vine and cheese also buy grapes". While the traditional field of application is market basket analysis, association rule mining has been applied to various fields since then, which has led to a number of important modifications and extensions. We discuss the most frequently applied approach that is central to many extensions, the Apriori algorithm, and briefly review some applications to other data types, well-known problems of rule evaluation via support and confidence, and extensions of or alternatives to the standard framework.

  17. A Four Step Approach to Evaluate Mixtures for Consistency with Dose Addition

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a four step approach for evaluating chemical mixture data for consistency with dose addition for use in environmental health risk assessment. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture risk guidance (EPA 2000a,b), toxicological interaction for a defined mixture (...

  18. Approach to verifying completeness and consistency in a rule-based expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Suwa, M.; Scott, A.C.; Shortliffe, E.H.

    1982-08-01

    We describe a program for verifying that a set of rules in an expert system comprehensively spans the knowledge of a specialized domain. The program has been devised and tested within the context of the ONCOCIN System, a rule-based consultant for clinical oncology. The stylized format of ONCOCIN's rules has allowed the automatic detection of a number of common errors as the knowledge base has been developed. This capability suggests a general mechanism for correcting many problems with knowledge base completeness and consistency before they can cause performance errors.

  19. Inclusive gluon production in the dipole approach: Abramovskii-Gribov-Kancheli (AGK) cutting rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Eugene; Prygarin, Alex

    2008-12-01

    We consider single gluon production in the dipole model and reproduce the result of Kovchegov and Tuchin for the adjoint (gluonic) dipole structure of the inclusive cross section. We show the validity of the adjoint dipole structure to any order of evolution by deriving and solving the nonlinear evolution for the nondiagonal cross section of a dipole scattering off the target. The form of the solution to this equation restores the dipole interpretation for nondiagonal cross sections that appear in gluon production. Using this formalism, we analyze the single inclusive production cross section in terms of the contributions of different multiplicities, and we derive the Abramovskii-Gribov-Kancheli (AGK) cutting rules for two-Pomeron exchange. The cutting rules, which were found in this formalism, fully reproduce the original AGK rules for the total cross section. However, for the case of gluon production, the AGK rules are violated already for one-gluon emission from the vertex.

  20. MYCIN and NEOMYCIN: two approaches to generating explanations in rule-based expert systems.

    PubMed

    Sotos, J G

    1990-10-01

    The prototypical rule-based expert system is MYCIN, a computer program developed in the 1970's to diagnose and recommend therapy for serious infections. MYCIN is able to explain its reasoning at any point in a consultation by listing the rules it has under consideration at that moment. However, when MYCIN's rules were used as the subject matter for a computerized infectious disease tutoring system, it became apparent that these rules contained implicit knowledge about how to perform diagnostic tasks and that this knowledge was inaccessible to the explanation system and, therefore, to students. This paper briefly describes NEOMYCIN, an expert system that makes this implicit knowledge explicit, and shows the effect that this reconfiguration of knowledge has on generating explanations. PMID:2241738

  1. An Approach to Extract Informative Rules for Web Page Recommendation by Genetic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Yoon, Kwangho; Lee, Jee-Hyong

    Clickstreams in users' navigation logs have various data which are related to users' web surfing. Those are visit counts, stay times, product types, etc. When we observe these data, we can divide clickstreams into sub-clickstreams so that the pages in a sub-clickstream share more contexts with each other than with the pages in other sub-clickstreams. In this paper, we propose a method which extracts more informative rules from clickstreams for web page recommendation based on genetic programming and association rules. First, we split clickstreams into sub-clickstreams by contexts for generating more informative rules. In order to split clickstreams in consideration of context, we extract six features from users' navigation logs. A set of split rules is generated by combining those features through genetic programming, and then informative rules for recommendation are extracted with the association rule mining algorithm. Through experiments, we verify that the proposed method is more effective than the other methods in various conditions.

  2. Additional criteria and procedures for classifying over-the-counter drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-01-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule establishing additional criteria and procedures by which over-the- counter (OTC) conditions may become eligible for consideration in the OTC drug monograph system. The criteria and procedures address how OTC drugs initially marketed in the United States after the OTC drug review began in 1972, and OTC drugs without any U.S. marketing experience, can meet the statutory definition of marketing to a "material extent" and "for a material time" and become eligible. If found eligible, the condition would be evaluated for general recognition of safety and effectiveness in accordance with FDA's OTC drug monograph regulations. FDA is also changing the current OTC drug monograph procedures to streamline the process and provide additional information in the review. PMID:11820251

  3. Considerations about the theoretically expected crushing strength of tablets from binary powder mixtures: double layer tablets versus arithmetic additivity rule.

    PubMed

    Belda, Petra M; Mielck, Jobst B

    2006-11-01

    The theoretically expected breaking strength of tablets from powder mixtures is often calculated by the weighted arithmetic mean from the breaking strength of the single components, which corresponds to a linear interpolation. The validity of this additivity of fracture strength shall be evaluated by the underlying model of parallel couplings. It assumes the components linked in parallel with respect to the direction of loading during diametrical strength testing. Parallel couplings were experimentally realised by the preparation of double layer tablets from crystalline and spray-dried lactose on the one hand and from maltitol and metamizol-sodium on the other. Constant total true volumes of the single substances and of layered powders in varying ratios of true volume were compressed on an eccentric tabletting machine to constant geometric mean punch force. Simulated crushing profiles of parallel couplings were derived from force-displacement profiles measured during diametrical compression of the one-component tablets. At given finely graded deformation levels, the forces exerted by the components during loading were added in the proportion of the true volume fractions of the components in the coupling. The results from the experiments and from the simulations are in good accordance. They demonstrate that a linear change of the crushing strength in dependence on the true volume fraction of the components can only be assumed if the single components deform to the same extent up to the point of fracture. This behaviour was approximately found with the parallel lactose system. In all other cases it must be expected that the crushing strength of parallel systems will be lowered beneath the weighted arithmetic mean values or even below the crushing strength of the single components. The latter was observed with the maltitol-metamizol combinations. Thus, if tablets from binary powder mixtures exhibit a crushing strength depression, this is not necessarily an indication

  4. Fitting additive hazards models for case-cohort studies: a multiple imputation approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinhyouk; Harel, Ofer; Kang, Sangwook

    2016-07-30

    In this paper, we consider fitting semiparametric additive hazards models for case-cohort studies using a multiple imputation approach. In a case-cohort study, main exposure variables are measured only on some selected subjects, but other covariates are often available for the whole cohort. We consider this as a special case of a missing covariate by design. We propose to employ a popular incomplete data method, multiple imputation, for estimation of the regression parameters in additive hazards models. For imputation models, an imputation modeling procedure based on a rejection sampling is developed. A simple imputation modeling that can naturally be applied to a general missing-at-random situation is also considered and compared with the rejection sampling method via extensive simulation studies. In addition, a misspecification aspect in imputation modeling is investigated. The proposed procedures are illustrated using a cancer data example. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26194861

  5. Control of asymmetry in the radical addition approach to chiral amine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Friestad, Gregory K

    2014-01-01

    The state-of-the-science in asymmetric free radical additions to imino compounds is presented, beginning with an overview of methods involving stereocontrol by various chiral auxiliary approaches. Chiral N-acylhydrazones are discussed with respect to their use as radical acceptors for Mn-mediated intermolecular additions, from design to scope surveys to applications to biologically active targets. A variety of aldehydes and ketones serve as viable precursors for the chiral hydrazones, and a variety of alkyl iodides may be employed as radical precursors, as discussed in a critical review of the functional group compatibility of the reaction. Applications to amino acid and alkaloid synthesis are presented to illustrate the synthetic potential of these versatile stereocontrolled carbon-carbon bond construction reactions. Asymmetric catalysis is discussed, from seminal work on the stereocontrol of radical addition to imino compounds by non-covalent interactions with stoichiometric amounts of catalysts, to more recent examples demonstrating catalyst turnover. PMID:24085561

  6. Control of Asymmetry in the Radical Addition Approach to Chiral Amine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Friestad, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    The state-of-the-science in asymmetric free radical additions to imino compounds is presented, beginning with an overview of methods involving stereocontrol by various chiral auxiliary approaches. Chiral N-acylhydrazones are discussed with respect to their use as radical acceptors for Mn-mediated intermolecular additions, from design to scope surveys to applications to biologically active targets. A variety of aldehydes and ketones serve as viable precursors for the chiral hydrazones, and a variety of alkyl iodides may be employed as radical precursors, as discussed in a critical review of the functional group compatibility of the reaction. Applications to amino acid and alkaloid synthesis are presented to illustrate the synthetic potential of these versatile stereocontrolled carbon–carbon bond construction reactions. Asymmetric catalysis is discussed, from seminal work on the stereocontrol of radical addition to imino compounds by non-covalent interactions with stoichiometric amounts of catalysts, to more recent examples demonstrating catalyst turnover. PMID:24085561

  7. UMLS as Knowledge Base-A Rule-Based Expert System Approach to Controlled Medical Vocabulary Management

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Hripcsak, George; Johnson, Stephen B.; Friedman, Carol; Fink, Daniel J.; Clayton, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine is developing a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) which addresses the need for integration of several large, nationally accepted vocabularies. This is important to the clinical information system under development at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC). We are using UMLS components as the core of our effort to integrate existing local CPMC vocabularies which are not among the source vocabularies of the UMLS. We are also using the UMLS to build a knowledge base of vocabulary structure and content such that logical rules can be developed to assist in the management of our integrated vocabularies. At present, the UMLS Semantic Network is used to organize terms which describe laboratory procedures. We have developed a set of rules for identifying undesirable conditions in our vocabulary. We have applied these rules to 526 laboratory test terms and have found ten cases (2%) of definite redundancy and sixty-eight cases (13%) of potential redundancy. The rules have also been used to organize the terminology in new ways that facilitate its management. Using the UMLS model as a vocabulary knowledge base allows us to apply an expert system approach to vocabulary integration and management.

  8. Rule-based approach to operating system selection: RMS vs. UNIX

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.S.; Sadlowe, A.R.; Emrich, M.L.; Gadagkar, H.P.

    1988-10-01

    A rule-based system is under development for choosing computer operating systems. Following a brief historical account, this paper compares and contrasts the essential features of two operating systems highlighting particular applications. ATandT's UNIX System and Datapoint Corporations's Resource Management System (RMS) are used as illustrative examples. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Rule-Directed Interactive Transaction Agents: An Approach to Knowledge Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, D. A.

    This report describes the development of computer programs called user agents, which, through interaction with users, can either learn new facts and store them in a data base or learn new procedures for data manipulation and represent them as programs. These programs are written in RITA, the Rule-directed Interactive Transaction Agent system, and…

  10. [Practical approach to complex acid-base disorders using a slide rule].

    PubMed

    Rives, E; Grimaud, D

    1986-01-01

    Diagnosis of mixed acid-base disturbances is often difficult. Nowadays it depends on biochemical and statistical interpretation, coupled with clinical data. The acid-base slide-rule is a useful tool to carry out this five step procedure, which it simplifies, giving rapidly at the patient's bed-side an objective support for the diagnosis of acid-base disturbances. PMID:3777572

  11. The INTELLIGENT RuleTutor: A Structured Approach to Intelligent Tutoring. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Alice B.

    This final report describes a general purpose system for developing intelligent tutors based on the Structural Learning Theory. The report opens with a discussion of the rules and related constructs that underlie cognitive constructs in all structural learning theories. The remainder of the text provides: (1) an introduction to the Structural…

  12. A four-step approach to evaluate mixtures for consistency with dose addition.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Richard C; Pan, Yi; Li, Ruosha; Haber, Lynne T; Lyles, Robert H; Herr, David W; Moser, Virginia C; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2013-11-16

    Mixture risk assessment is often hampered by the lack of dose-response information on the mixture being assessed, forcing reliance on component formulas such as dose addition. We present a four-step approach for evaluating chemical mixture data for consistency with dose addition for use in supporting a component based mixture risk assessment. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture risk guidance (U.S. EPA, 2000a,b), toxicological interaction for a defined mixture (all components known) is departure from a clearly articulated definition of component additivity. For the common approach of dose additivity, the EPA guidance identifies three desirable characteristics, foremost of which is that the component chemicals are toxicologically similar. The other two characteristics are empirical: the mixture components have toxic potencies that are fixed proportions of each other (throughout the dose range of interest), and the mixture dose term in the dose additive prediction formula, which we call the combined prediction model (CPM), can be represented by a linear combination of the component doses. A consequent property of the proportional toxic potencies is that the component chemicals must share a common dose-response model, where only the dose coefficients depend on the chemical components. A further consequence is that the mixture data must be described by the same mathematical function ("mixture model") as the components, but with a distinct coefficient for the total mixture dose. The mixture response is predicted from the component dose-response curves by using the dose additive CPM and the prediction is then compared with the observed mixture results. The four steps are to evaluate: (1) toxic proportionality by determining how well the CPM matches the single chemical models regarding mean and variance; (2) fit of the mixture model to the mixture data; (3) agreement between the mixture data and the CPM prediction; and (4) consistency between the CPM and the

  13. The Wnt and Delta-Notch signalling pathways interact to direct pair-rule gene expression via caudal during segment addition in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    PubMed

    Schönauer, Anna; Paese, Christian L B; Hilbrant, Maarten; Leite, Daniel J; Schwager, Evelyn E; Feitosa, Natália Martins; Eibner, Cornelius; Damen, Wim G M; McGregor, Alistair P

    2016-07-01

    In short-germ arthropods, posterior segments are added sequentially from a segment addition zone (SAZ) during embryogenesis. Studies in spiders such as Parasteatoda tepidariorum have provided insights into the gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying segment addition, and revealed that Wnt8 is required for dynamic Delta (Dl) expression associated with the formation of new segments. However, it remains unclear how these pathways interact during SAZ formation and segment addition. Here, we show that Delta-Notch signalling is required for Wnt8 expression in posterior SAZ cells, but represses the expression of this Wnt gene in anterior SAZ cells. We also found that these two signalling pathways are required for the expression of the spider orthologues of even-skipped (eve) and runt-1 (run-1), at least in part via caudal (cad). Moreover, it appears that dynamic expression of eve in this spider does not require a feedback loop with run-1, as is found in the pair-rule circuit of the beetle Tribolium Taken together, our results suggest that the development of posterior segments in Parasteatoda is directed by dynamic interactions between Wnt8 and Delta-Notch signalling that are read out by cad, which is necessary but probably not sufficient to regulate the expression of eve and run-1 Our study therefore provides new insights towards better understanding the evolution and developmental regulation of segmentation in other arthropods, including insects. PMID:27287802

  14. A Hybrid Approach Using Case-Based Reasoning and Rule-Based Reasoning to Support Cancer Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Renata M; Bezerra, João; Perkusich, Mirko; Almeida, Hyggo; Siebra, Clauirton

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in applying information technology to support the diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach using case-based reasoning (CBR) and rule-based reasoning (RBR) to support cancer diagnosis. We used symptoms, signs, and personal information from patients as inputs to our model. To form specialized diagnoses, we used rules to define the input factors' importance according to the patient's characteristics. The model's output presents the probability of the patient having a type of cancer. To carry out this research, we had the approval of the ethics committee at Napoleão Laureano Hospital, in João Pessoa, Brazil. To define our model's cases, we collected real patient data at Napoleão Laureano Hospital. To define our model's rules and weights, we researched specialized literature and interviewed health professional. To validate our model, we used K-fold cross validation with the data collected at Napoleão Laureano Hospital. The results showed that our approach is an effective CBR system to diagnose cancer. PMID:26262174

  15. Knowledge-based systems as decision support tools in an ecosystem approach to fisheries: Comparing a fuzzy-logic and a rule-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarre, Astrid; Paterson, Barbara; Moloney, Coleen L.; Miller, David C. M.; Field, John G.; Starfield, Anthony M.

    2008-10-01

    In an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF), management must draw on information of widely different types, and information addressing various scales. Knowledge-based systems assist in the decision-making process by summarising this information in a logical, transparent and reproducible way. Both rule-based Boolean and fuzzy-logic models have been used successfully as knowledge-based decision support tools. This study compares two such systems relevant to fisheries management in an EAF developed for the southern Benguela. The first is a rule-based system for the prediction of anchovy recruitment and the second is a fuzzy-logic tool to monitor implementation of an EAF in the sardine fishery. We construct a fuzzy-logic counterpart to the rule-based model, and a rule-based counterpart to the fuzzy-logic model, compare their results, and include feedback from potential users of these two decision support tools in our evaluation of the two approaches. With respect to the model objectives, no method clearly outperformed the other. The advantages of numerically processing continuous variables, and interpreting the final output, as in fuzzy-logic models, can be weighed up against the advantages of using a few, qualitative, easy-to-understand categories as in rule-based models. The natural language used in rule-based implementations is easily understood by, and communicated among, users of these systems. Users unfamiliar with fuzzy-set theory must “trust” the logic of the model. Graphical visualization of intermediate and end results is an important advantage of any system. Applying the two approaches in parallel improved our understanding of the model as well as of the underlying problems. Even for complex problems, small knowledge-based systems such as the ones explored here are worth developing and using. Their strengths lie in (i) synthesis of the problem in a logical and transparent framework, (ii) helping scientists to deliberate how to apply their science to

  16. A new approach to handle additive and multiplicative uncertainties in the measurement for ? LPV filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, Márcio J.; Tognetti, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Ricardo C. L. F.; Peres, Pedro L. D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a general framework to cope with full-order ? linear parameter-varying (LPV) filter design subject to inexactly measured parameters. The main novelty is the ability of handling additive and multiplicative uncertainties in the measurements, for both continuous and discrete-time LPV systems, in a unified approach. By conveniently modelling scheduling parameters and uncertainties affecting the measurements, the ? filter design problem can be expressed in terms of robust matrix inequalities that become linear when two scalar parameters are fixed. Therefore, the proposed conditions can be efficiently solved through linear matrix inequality relaxations based on polynomial solutions. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the improved efficiency of the proposed approach when compared to other methods and, more important, its capability to deal with scenarios where the available strategies in the literature cannot be used.

  17. Identification of Xenoestrogens in Food Additives by an Integrated in Silico and in Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Amadasi, Alessio; Mozzarelli, Andrea; Meda, Clara; Maggi, Adriana; Cozzini, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    In the search for xenoestrogens within food additives, we have analyzed the Joint FAO-WHO expert committee database, containing 1500 compounds, using an integrated in silico and in vitro approach. This analysis identified 31 potential estrogen receptor α ligands that were reduced to 13 upon applying a stringent filter based on ligand volume and binding mode. Among the 13 potential xenoestrogens, four were already known to exhibit an estrogenic activity, and the other nine were assayed in vitro, determining the binding affinity to the receptor and biological effects. Propyl gallate was found to act as an antagonist, and 4-hexylresorcinol was found to act as a potent transactivator; both ligands were active at nanomolar concentrations, as predicted by the in silico analysis. Some caution should be issued for the use of propyl gallate and 4-hexylresorcinol as food additives. PMID:19063592

  18. Rule extraction from support vector machines using ensemble learning approach: an application for diagnosis of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Longfei; Luo, Senlin; Yu, Jianmin; Pan, Limin; Chen, Songjing

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and a worldwide public health challenge. It has been shown that 50-80% proportion of T2DM is undiagnosed. In this paper, support vector machines are utilized to screen diabetes, and an ensemble learning module is added, which turns the "black box" of SVM decisions into comprehensible and transparent rules, and it is also useful for solving imbalance problem. Results on China Health and Nutrition Survey data show that the proposed ensemble learning method generates rule sets with weighted average precision 94.2% and weighted average recall 93.9% for all classes. Furthermore, the hybrid system can provide a tool for diagnosis of diabetes, and it supports a second opinion for lay users. PMID:24860043

  19. A Three-Threshold Learning Rule Approaches the Maximal Capacity of Recurrent Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Alemi, Alireza; Baldassi, Carlo; Brunel, Nicolas; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the theoretical foundations of how memories are encoded and retrieved in neural populations is a central challenge in neuroscience. A popular theoretical scenario for modeling memory function is the attractor neural network scenario, whose prototype is the Hopfield model. The model simplicity and the locality of the synaptic update rules come at the cost of a poor storage capacity, compared with the capacity achieved with perceptron learning algorithms. Here, by transforming the perceptron learning rule, we present an online learning rule for a recurrent neural network that achieves near-maximal storage capacity without an explicit supervisory error signal, relying only upon locally accessible information. The fully-connected network consists of excitatory binary neurons with plastic recurrent connections and non-plastic inhibitory feedback stabilizing the network dynamics; the memory patterns to be memorized are presented online as strong afferent currents, producing a bimodal distribution for the neuron synaptic inputs. Synapses corresponding to active inputs are modified as a function of the value of the local fields with respect to three thresholds. Above the highest threshold, and below the lowest threshold, no plasticity occurs. In between these two thresholds, potentiation/depression occurs when the local field is above/below an intermediate threshold. We simulated and analyzed a network of binary neurons implementing this rule and measured its storage capacity for different sizes of the basins of attraction. The storage capacity obtained through numerical simulations is shown to be close to the value predicted by analytical calculations. We also measured the dependence of capacity on the strength of external inputs. Finally, we quantified the statistics of the resulting synaptic connectivity matrix, and found that both the fraction of zero weight synapses and the degree of symmetry of the weight matrix increase with the number of stored

  20. In Search of Golden Rules: Comment on Hypothesis-Testing Approaches to Setting Cutoff Values for Fit Indexes and Dangers in Overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler's (1999) Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, Kit-Tai; Wen, Zhonglin

    2004-01-01

    Goodness-of-fit (GOF) indexes provide "rules of thumb"?recommended cutoff values for assessing fit in structural equation modeling. Hu and Bentler (1999) proposed a more rigorous approach to evaluating decision rules based on GOF indexes and, on this basis, proposed new and more stringent cutoff values for many indexes. This article discusses…

  1. Space and the complexity of European rules and policies: The common projects Galileo and GMES—precedence for a new European legal approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlich, Annette

    2010-04-01

    The two European flagship space projects, Galileo and GMES, clearly show that the current existing legal rules of the two organisations involved (European Union and European Space Agency) are not compatible. Moreover, it is quite impossible to implement a common project if every single organisation insists on the application of its own rules strictu sensu. Nevertheless, due to the political desire to advance these projects rapidly and to make them a success, legal obstacles were to be overcome. Consequently, recently concluded agreements between ESA and the EU-Commission concerning the financial and governmental matters of the Galileo and GMES implementation feature a new approach to cooperation between these two organisations. However, the question remains if they can be taken as precedence for a future institutionalised cooperation? It follows that the agreements have to be analysed in order to understand how a mutually acceptable agreement was reached despite the disparity in the rules of both organisations. In this regard, especially the financial decision agreement concerning Galileo in December 2007 shows a very interesting and unique way in applying EU-competition law. In the same way, the GMES-Delegation Agreement of spring 2008 is a good example of how two different legal systems can be applied to make a project success. Additionally, the reasons and arguments of both organisations have to be considered, especially once the Treaty of Lisbon will be in force. As these two main projects of the European Space Policy are characterized by the desire for a successful European cooperation, they can be regarded as an important step forward for a new legal approach. A new system emerges which could be taken into consideration for further common projects undertaken by ESA and the EU.

  2. A rule based approach for pattern recognition in planar geometric figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvisi, L.; Odorico, R.

    1988-11-01

    An OPS5 expert system has been developed, allowing the recognition of an arbitrary subpattern in a complex planar geometric figure under analysis. For this sake a syntactic representation for images is used by the expert system as a relational data base. The expert system looks for consistent mappings of the set of topological elements/relations representing the given subpattern into a corresponding subset of the topological elements/relations representing the geometric figure under analysis. The basic core of the expert system consists of 30 OPS5 rules.

  3. Planning additional drilling campaign using two-space genetic algorithm: A game theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Ozer, Umit

    2013-03-01

    Grade and tonnage are the most important technical uncertainties in mining ventures because of the use of estimations/simulations, which are mostly generated from drill data. Open pit mines are planned and designed on the basis of the blocks representing the entire orebody. Each block has different estimation/simulation variance reflecting uncertainty to some extent. The estimation/simulation realizations are submitted to mine production scheduling process. However, the use of a block model with varying estimation/simulation variances will lead to serious risk in the scheduling. In the medium of multiple simulations, the dispersion variances of blocks can be thought to regard technical uncertainties. However, the dispersion variance cannot handle uncertainty associated with varying estimation/simulation variances of blocks. This paper proposes an approach that generates the configuration of the best additional drilling campaign to generate more homogenous estimation/simulation variances of blocks. In other words, the objective is to find the best drilling configuration in such a way as to minimize grade uncertainty under budget constraint. Uncertainty measure of the optimization process in this paper is interpolation variance, which considers data locations and grades. The problem is expressed as a minmax problem, which focuses on finding the best worst-case performance i.e., minimizing interpolation variance of the block generating maximum interpolation variance. Since the optimization model requires computing the interpolation variances of blocks being simulated/estimated in each iteration, the problem cannot be solved by standard optimization tools. This motivates to use two-space genetic algorithm (GA) approach to solve the problem. The technique has two spaces: feasible drill hole configuration with minimization of interpolation variance and drill hole simulations with maximization of interpolation variance. Two-space interacts to find a minmax solution

  4. Phylogeny of Eunicida (Annelida) and exploring data congruence using a partition addition bootstrap alteration (PABA) approach.

    PubMed

    Struck, Torsten H; Purschke, Günter; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2006-02-01

    Even though relationships within Annelida are poorly understood, Eunicida is one of only a few major annelid lineages well supported by morphology. The seven recognized eunicid families possess sclerotized jaws that include mandibles and a maxillary apparatus. The maxillary apparatuses vary in shape and number of elements, and three main types are recognized in extant taxa: ctenognath, labidognath, and prionognath. Ctenognath jaws are usually considered to represent the plesiomorphic state of Eunicida, whereas taxa with labidognath and prionognath are thought to form a derived monophyletic assemblage. However, this hypothesis has never been tested in a statistical framework even though it holds considerable importance for understanding annelid phylogeny and possibly lophotrochozoan evolution because Eunicida has the best annelid fossil record. Therefore, we used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference approaches to reconstruct Eunicida phylogeny using sequence data from nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA genes and mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes. Additionally, we conducted three different tests to investigate suitability of combining data sets. Incongruence length difference (ILD) and Shimodaira-Hasegawa (SH) test comparisons of resultant trees under different data partitions have been widely used previously but do not give a good indication as to which nodes may be causing the conflict. Thus, we developed a partition addition bootstrap alteration (PABA) approach that evaluates congruence or conflict for any given node by determining how bootstrap scores are altered when different data partitions are added. PABA shows the contribution of each partition to the phylogeny obtained in the combined analysis. Generally, the ILD test performed worse than the other approaches in detecting incongruence. Both PABA and the SH approach indicated the 28S and COI data sets add conflicting signal, but PABA is more informative for elucidating which data

  5. Automated detection of pain from facial expressions: a rule-based approach using AAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhanli; Ansari, Rashid; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we examine the problem of using video analysis to assess pain, an important problem especially for critically ill, non-communicative patients, and people with dementia. We propose and evaluate an automated method to detect the presence of pain manifested in patient videos using a unique and large collection of cancer patient videos captured in patient homes. The method is based on detecting pain-related facial action units defined in the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) that is widely used for objective assessment in pain analysis. In our research, a person-specific Active Appearance Model (AAM) based on Project-Out Inverse Compositional Method is trained for each patient individually for the modeling purpose. A flexible representation of the shape model is used in a rule-based method that is better suited than the more commonly used classifier-based methods for application to the cancer patient videos in which pain-related facial actions occur infrequently and more subtly. The rule-based method relies on the feature points that provide facial action cues and is extracted from the shape vertices of AAM, which have a natural correspondence to face muscular movement. In this paper, we investigate the detection of a commonly used set of pain-related action units in both the upper and lower face. Our detection results show good agreement with the results obtained by three trained FACS coders who independently reviewed and scored the action units in the cancer patient videos.

  6. An approach for environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy inference rules.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Emel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-01-01

    The usage of Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer products is relatively new and there is a need to conduct environmental risk assessment (ERA) to evaluate their impacts on the environment. However, alternative approaches are required for ERA of ENPs because of the huge gap in data and knowledge compared to conventional pollutants and their unique properties that make it difficult to apply existing approaches. This study aims to propose an ERA approach for ENPs by integrating Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy inference models which provide a systematic evaluation of risk factors and reducing uncertainty about the data and information, respectively. Risk is assumed to be the combination of occurrence likelihood, exposure potential and toxic effects in the environment. A hierarchy was established to evaluate the sub factors of these components. Evaluation was made with fuzzy numbers to reduce uncertainty and incorporate the expert judgements. Overall score of each component was combined with fuzzy inference rules by using expert judgements. Proposed approach reports the risk class and its membership degree such as Minor (0.7). Therefore, results are precise and helpful to determine the risk management strategies. Moreover, priority weights calculated by comparing the risk factors based on their importance for the risk enable users to understand which factor is effective on the risk. Proposed approach was applied for Ag (two nanoparticles with different coating) and TiO2 nanoparticles for different case studies. Results verified the proposed benefits of the approach. PMID:27131016

  7. Fuzzy rule-based approach to segment the menisci regions from MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Hata, Yutaka; Ando, Yoshiro; Ishikawa, Makato; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    1999-05-01

    Injuries of the menisci are one of the most common internal derangement of the knee. To examine them with noninvasive, we propose an automated segmentation method of the menisci region from MR image. The method is composed of two steps based on fuzzy logic. First, we segment the cartilage region by thresholding of the intensity. We then extract the candidate region of the menisci as the region between the cartilages. Second, we segment the menisci voxels from the candidate region based on fuzzy if-then rules obtained from knowledge of location and intensity. We applied our method to five MR data sets. Three of them are the normal knees and the others are with some injuries. Quantitative evaluation by a physician shows that this method can successfully segment the menisci for the all. The generated visualizations will help medical doctor to diagnose the menisci with noninvasive.

  8. The concurrent multiplicative-additive approach for gauge-radar/satellite multisensor precipitation estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Pintado, J.; Barberá, G. G.; Erena Arrabal, M.; Castillo, V. M.

    2010-12-01

    Objective analysis schemes (OAS), also called ``succesive correction methods'' or ``observation nudging'', have been proposed for multisensor precipitation estimation combining remote sensing data (meteorological radar or satellite) with data from ground-based raingauge networks. However, opposite to the more complex geostatistical approaches, the OAS techniques for this use are not optimized. On the other hand, geostatistical techniques ideally require, at the least, modelling the covariance from the rain gauge data at every time step evaluated, which commonly cannot be soundly done. Here, we propose a new procedure (concurrent multiplicative-additive objective analysis scheme [CMA-OAS]) for operational rainfall estimation using rain gauges and meteorological radar, which does not require explicit modelling of spatial covariances. On the basis of a concurrent multiplicative-additive (CMA) decomposition of the spatially nonuniform radar bias, within-storm variability of rainfall and fractional coverage of rainfall are taken into account. Thus both spatially nonuniform radar bias, given that rainfall is detected, and bias in radar detection of rainfall are handled. The interpolation procedure of CMA-OAS is built on the OAS, whose purpose is to estimate a filtered spatial field of the variable of interest through a successive correction of residuals resulting from a Gaussian kernel smoother applied on spatial samples. The CMA-OAS, first, poses an optimization problem at each gauge-radar support point to obtain both a local multiplicative-additive radar bias decomposition and a regionalization parameter. Second, local biases and regionalization parameters are integrated into an OAS to estimate the multisensor rainfall at the ground level. The approach considers radar estimates as background a priori information (first guess), so that nudging to observations (gauges) may be relaxed smoothly to the first guess, and the relaxation shape is obtained from the sequential

  9. Modeling particulate matter concentrations measured through mobile monitoring in a deletion/substitution/addition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jason G.; Hopke, Philip K.; Tian, Yilin; Baldwin, Nichole; Thurston, Sally W.; Evans, Kristin; Rich, David Q.

    2015-12-01

    Land use regression modeling (LUR) through local scale circular modeling domains has been used to predict traffic-related air pollution such as nitrogen oxides (NOX). LUR modeling for fine particulate matters (PM), which generally have smaller spatial gradients than NOX, has been typically applied for studies involving multiple study regions. To increase the spatial coverage for fine PM and key constituent concentrations, we designed a mobile monitoring network in Monroe County, New York to measure pollutant concentrations of black carbon (BC, wavelength at 880 nm), ultraviolet black carbon (UVBC, wavelength at 3700 nm) and Delta-C (the difference between the UVBC and BC concentrations) using the Clarkson University Mobile Air Pollution Monitoring Laboratory (MAPL). A Deletion/Substitution/Addition (D/S/A) algorithm was conducted, which used circular buffers as a basis for statistics. The algorithm maximizes the prediction accuracy for locations without measurements using the V-fold cross-validation technique, and it reduces overfitting compared to other approaches. We found that the D/S/A LUR modeling approach could achieve good results, with prediction powers of 60%, 63%, and 61%, respectively, for BC, UVBC, and Delta-C. The advantage of mobile monitoring is that it can monitor pollutant concentrations at hundreds of spatial points in a region, rather than the typical less than 100 points from a fixed site saturation monitoring network. This research indicates that a mobile saturation sampling network, when combined with proper modeling techniques, can uncover small area variations (e.g., 10 m) in particulate matter concentrations.

  10. Quantum calculations of the carrier mobility: Methodology, Matthiessen's rule, and comparison with semi-classical approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Niquet, Yann-Michel Nguyen, Viet-Hung; Duchemin, Ivan; Nier, Olivier; Rideau, Denis

    2014-02-07

    We discuss carrier mobilities in the quantum Non-Equilibrium Green's Functions (NEGF) framework. We introduce a method for the extraction of the mobility that is free from contact resistance contamination and with minimal needs for ensemble averages. We focus on silicon thin films as an illustration, although the method can be applied to various materials such as semiconductor nanowires or carbon nanostructures. We then introduce a new paradigm for the definition of the partial mobility μ{sub M} associated with a given elastic scattering mechanism “M,” taking phonons (PH) as a reference (μ{sub M}{sup −1}=μ{sub PH+M}{sup −1}−μ{sub PH}{sup −1}). We argue that this definition makes better sense in a quantum transport framework as it is free from long range interference effects that can appear in purely ballistic calculations. As a matter of fact, these mobilities satisfy Matthiessen's rule for three mechanisms [e.g., surface roughness (SR), remote Coulomb scattering (RCS) and phonons] much better than the usual, single mechanism calculations. We also discuss the problems raised by the long range spatial correlations in the RCS disorder. Finally, we compare semi-classical Kubo-Greenwood (KG) and quantum NEGF calculations. We show that KG and NEGF are in reasonable agreement for phonon and RCS, yet not for SR. We discuss the reasons for these discrepancies.

  11. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of spirocyclic azlactones by a double Michael-addition approach.

    PubMed

    Weber, Manuel; Frey, Wolfgang; Peters, René

    2013-06-17

    Spirocyclic azlactones are shown to be useful precursors of cyclic quaternary amino acids, such as the constrained cyclohexane analogues of phenylalanine. These compounds are of interest as building blocks for the synthesis of artificial peptide analogues with controlled folds in the peptide backbone. They were prepared in the present study by a step- and atom-economic catalytic asymmetric tandem approach, requiring two steps starting from N-benzoyl glycine and divinylketones. The key of this protocol is the enantioselective formation of the azlactone spirocycles, which involves a PdII-catalyzed double 1,4-addition of an in situ generated azlactone intermediate to the dienone (a formal [5+1] cycloaddition). As the catalyst, a planar chiral ferrocene bispalladacycle was used. Mechanistic studies suggest a monometallic reaction pathway. Although the diastereoselectivity was found to be moderate, the enantioselectivity is usually high for the formation of the azlactone spirocycles, which contain up to three contiguous stereocenters. Spectroscopic studies have shown that the spirocycles often prefer a twist over a chair conformation of the cyclohexanone moiety. PMID:23613333

  12. A Minimal Rule Approach to Teaching First-Year Russian Conjugation and Verb Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, David K.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a modification of the two-stem approach to teaching conjugation and verb stress in Russian which eliminates dictionary look-up for forms not predictable from the infinitive. Appendix A is an outline of Russian conjugation and verb stress. Appendix B is a verb list from Kostomarov's "Russkij jazyk dlja vsex." (Author/LMO)

  13. Developing a discrimination rule between breast cancer patients and controls using proteomics mass spectrometric data: a three-step approach.

    PubMed

    Heidema, A Geert; Nagelkerke, Nico

    2008-01-01

    To discriminate between breast cancer patients and controls, we used a three-step approach to obtain our decision rule. First, we ranked the mass/charge values using random forests, because it generates importance indices that take possible interactions into account. We observed that the top ranked variables consisted of highly correlated contiguous mass/charge values, which were grouped in the second step into new variables. Finally, these newly created variables were used as predictors to find a suitable discrimination rule. In this last step, we compared three different methods, namely Classification and Regression Tree (CART), logistic regression and penalized logistic regression. Logistic regression and penalized logistic regression performed equally well and both had a higher classification accuracy than CART. The model obtained with penalized logistic regression was chosen as we hypothesized that this model would provide a better classification accuracy in the validation set. The solution had a good performance on the training set with a classification accuracy of 86.3%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 86.8% and 85.7%, respectively. PMID:18312219

  14. Modeling of DNA single stage splicing language via Yusof-Goode approach: One string with two rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wen Li; Yusof, Yuhani; Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-02-01

    Splicing system plays a pivotal role in attempts to recombine sets of double-stranded DNA molecules when acted by restriction enzymes and ligase. Traditional method of finding the result of DNA recombination through experiment is both time and money consuming. Hence, finding the number of patterns of DNA single stage splicing language through formalism of splicing system is a way to optimize the searching process. From the biological perspective, it predicts the number of types of molecules that will exist in the system under existence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some theorems, corollaries and examples that lead to the predictions of single stage splicing languages involving one pattern string and two rules are presented via Yusof-Goode approach.

  15. Order Batching in Warehouses by Minimizing Total Tardiness: A Hybrid Approach of Weighted Association Rule Mining and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Shahrooz; Mat Saman, Muhamad Zameri; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2013-01-01

    One of the cost-intensive issues in managing warehouses is the order picking problem which deals with the retrieval of items from their storage locations in order to meet customer requests. Many solution approaches have been proposed in order to minimize traveling distance in the process of order picking. However, in practice, customer orders have to be completed by certain due dates in order to avoid tardiness which is neglected in most of the related scientific papers. Consequently, we proposed a novel solution approach in order to minimize tardiness which consists of four phases. First of all, weighted association rule mining has been used to calculate associations between orders with respect to their due date. Next, a batching model based on binary integer programming has been formulated to maximize the associations between orders within each batch. Subsequently, the order picking phase will come up which used a Genetic Algorithm integrated with the Traveling Salesman Problem in order to identify the most suitable travel path. Finally, the Genetic Algorithm has been applied for sequencing the constructed batches in order to minimize tardiness. Illustrative examples and comparisons are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and solution quality of the proposed approach. PMID:23864823

  16. Medicare and state health care programs: fraud and abuse; clarification of the initial OIG safe harbor provisions and establishment of additional safe harbor provisions under the anti-kickback statute. Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-11-19

    This final rule serves both to add new safe harbor provisions under the Federal and State health care programs' anti-kickback statute, as authorized under section 14 of Public Law 100-93, the Medicare and Medicaid Patient and Program Protection Act of 1987, and to clarify various aspects of the original safe harbor provisions now codified in 42 CFR part 1001 (originally proposed in RIN 0991-AA74). Specifically, this final rule modifies the original set of final safe harbor provisions codified in 42 CFR 1001.952 to give greater clarity to that rulemaking's original intent. In addition, this final rule sets forth an expanded set of safe harbor provisions designed to protect additional payment and business practices from criminal prosecution or civil sanctions under the anti-kickback provisions of the statute. PMID:11010662

  17. ISOLATING CONTENT AND METADATA FROM WEBLOGS USING CLASSIFICATION AND RULE-BASED APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Eric J.; Bell, Eric B.

    2011-09-04

    The emergence and increasing prevalence of social media, such as internet forums, weblogs (blogs), wikis, etc., has created a new opportunity to measure public opinion, attitude, and social structures. A major challenge in leveraging this information is isolating the content and metadata in weblogs, as there is no standard, universally supported, machine-readable format for presenting this information. We present two algorithms for isolating this information. The first uses web block classification, where each node in the Document Object Model (DOM) for a page is classified according to one of several pre-defined attributes from a common blog schema. The second uses a set of heuristics to select web blocks. These algorithms perform at a level suitable for initial use, validating this approach for isolating content and metadata from blogs. The resultant data serves as a starting point for analytical work on the content and substance of collections of weblog pages.

  18. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  19. 5 CFR 1001.101 - In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Management at 5 CFR part 4501; (g) The Employee Responsibilities and Conduct regulations at 5 CFR part 735... rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management employees? 1001.101 Section 1001.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYEES OF THE...

  20. 5 CFR 1001.101 - In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Management at 5 CFR part 4501; (g) The Employee Responsibilities and Conduct regulations at 5 CFR part 735... rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management employees? 1001.101 Section 1001.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYEES OF THE...

  1. 5 CFR 1001.101 - In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Management at 5 CFR part 4501; (g) The Employee Responsibilities and Conduct regulations at 5 CFR part 735... rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management employees? 1001.101 Section 1001.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYEES OF THE...

  2. A novel approach for phosphorus recovery and no wasted sludge in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process with external COD addition.

    PubMed

    Xia, Cheng-Wang; Ma, Yun-Jie; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    In enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, phosphorus (P) in wastewater is removed via wasted sludge without actual recovery. A novel approach to realize phosphorus recovery with special external chemical oxygen demand (COD) addition in EBPR process was proposed. During the new operating approach period, it was found that (1) no phosphorus was detected in the effluent; (2) with an external addition of 10 % of influent COD amount, 79 % phosphorus in the wastewater influent was recovered; (3) without wasted sludge, the MLVSS concentration in the system increased from 2,010 to 3,400 mg/L and kept stable after day 11 during 24-day operating period. This demonstrates that the novel approach is feasible to realize phosphorus recovery with no wasted sludge discharge in EBPR process. Furthermore, this approach decouples P removal and sludge age, which may enhance the application of membrane bioreactor for P removal. PMID:24122666

  3. Logical-Rule Models of Classification Response Times: A Synthesis of Mental-Architecture, Random-Walk, and Decision-Bound Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fific, Mario; Little, Daniel R.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We formalize and provide tests of a set of logical-rule models for predicting perceptual classification response times (RTs) and choice probabilities. The models are developed by synthesizing mental-architecture, random-walk, and decision-bound approaches. According to the models, people make independent decisions about the locations of stimuli…

  4. Curricular Approaches to Connecting Subtraction to Addition and Fostering Fluency with Basic Differences in Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    Six widely used US Grade 1 curricula do not adequately address the following three developmental prerequisites identified by a proposed learning trajectory for the meaningful learning of the subtraction-as-addition strategy (e.g., for 13-8 think "what + 8 = 13?"): (a) reverse operations (adding 8 is undone by subtracting 8); (b) common…

  5. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  6. An Approach to the Classification of Potential Reserve Additions of Giant Oil Fields of the World

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains slides and notes for slides for a presentation given to the Committee on Sustainable Energy and the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Harmonization of Fossil Energy and Mineral Resources Terminology on 17 October 2007 in Geneva, Switzerland. The presentation describes the U.S. Geological Survey study to characterize and quantify petroleum-reserve additions, and the application of this study to help classify the quantities.

  7. Large $N$ approach to kaon decays and mixing 28 years later: $\\Delta I = 1/2$ rule, $\\hat B_K$ and $\\Delta M_K$

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Gérard, Jean -Marc; Bardeen, William A.

    2014-05-20

    We review and update our results for K → π π decays and K⁰- K¯⁰ mixing obtained by us in the 1980s within an approach based on the dual representation of QCD as a theory of weakly interacting mesons for large N colours. In our analytic approach the dynamics behind the enhancement of ReA0 and suppression of ReA2, the so-called ΔI = 1/2 rule for K → π π decays, has a simple structure: the usual octet enhancement through quark-gluon renormalization group evolution down to the scales O(1 GeV) is continued as a meson evolution down to zero momentum scales at which the factorization of hadronic matrix elements is at work. The inclusion of lowest-lying vector meson contributions in addition to the pseudoscalar ones and of Wilson coefficients in a momentum scheme improves significantly the matching between quark-gluon and meson evolutions. In particular, the anomalous dimension matrix governing the meson evolution exhibits the structure of the known anomalous dimension matrix in the quark-gluon evolution. The recent results on ReA2 and ReA0 from the RBC-UKQC collaboration give support for our approach. In particular, the signs of the two main contractions found numerically by these authors follow uniquely from our analytic approach. At NLO in 1/N we obtain R = ReA0/ReA2= 16.0±1.5 which amounts to an order of magnitude enhancement over the strict large N limit value √2. QCD penguins contribute at 15% level to this result. We also find B^K = 0.73± 0.02, with the smallness of 1/N corrections to the large N value B^K = 3/4 resulting within our approach from an approximate cancellation between pseudoscalar and vector meson one-loop contributions. We summarize the status of ΔMK in this approach.

  8. Large $N$ approach to kaon decays and mixing 28 years later: $$\\Delta I = 1/2$$ rule, $$\\hat B_K$$ and $$\\Delta M_K$$

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Gérard, Jean -Marc; Bardeen, William A.

    2014-05-20

    We review and update our results for K → π π decays and K⁰- K¯⁰ mixing obtained by us in the 1980s within an approach based on the dual representation of QCD as a theory of weakly interacting mesons for large N colours. In our analytic approach the dynamics behind the enhancement of ReA0 and suppression of ReA2, the so-called ΔI = 1/2 rule for K → π π decays, has a simple structure: the usual octet enhancement through quark-gluon renormalization group evolution down to the scales O(1 GeV) is continued as a meson evolution down to zero momentum scalesmore » at which the factorization of hadronic matrix elements is at work. The inclusion of lowest-lying vector meson contributions in addition to the pseudoscalar ones and of Wilson coefficients in a momentum scheme improves significantly the matching between quark-gluon and meson evolutions. In particular, the anomalous dimension matrix governing the meson evolution exhibits the structure of the known anomalous dimension matrix in the quark-gluon evolution. The recent results on ReA2 and ReA0 from the RBC-UKQC collaboration give support for our approach. In particular, the signs of the two main contractions found numerically by these authors follow uniquely from our analytic approach. At NLO in 1/N we obtain R = ReA0/ReA2= 16.0±1.5 which amounts to an order of magnitude enhancement over the strict large N limit value √2. QCD penguins contribute at 15% level to this result. We also find B^K = 0.73± 0.02, with the smallness of 1/N corrections to the large N value B^K = 3/4 resulting within our approach from an approximate cancellation between pseudoscalar and vector meson one-loop contributions. We summarize the status of ΔMK in this approach.« less

  9. Rainfall estimation by rain gauge-radar combination: A concurrent multiplicative-additive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GarcíA-Pintado, Javier; Barberá, Gonzalo G.; Erena, Manuel; Castillo, Victor M.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure (concurrent multiplicative-additive objective analysis scheme [CMA-OAS]) is proposed for operational rainfall estimation using rain gauges and radar data. On the basis of a concurrent multiplicative-additive (CMA) decomposition of the spatially nonuniform radar bias, within-storm variability of rainfall and fractional coverage of rainfall are taken into account. Thus both spatially nonuniform radar bias, given that rainfall is detected, and bias in radar detection of rainfall are handled. The interpolation procedure of CMA-OAS is built on Barnes' objective analysis scheme (OAS), whose purpose is to estimate a filtered spatial field of the variable of interest through a successive correction of residuals resulting from a Gaussian kernel smoother applied on spatial samples. The CMA-OAS, first, poses an optimization problem at each gauge-radar support point to obtain both a local multiplicative-additive radar bias decomposition and a regionalization parameter. Second, local biases and regionalization parameters are integrated into an OAS to estimate the multisensor rainfall at the ground level. The procedure is suited to relatively sparse rain gauge networks. To show the procedure, six storms are analyzed at hourly steps over 10,663 km2. Results generally indicated an improved quality with respect to other methods evaluated: a standard mean-field bias adjustment, a spatially variable adjustment with multiplicative factors, and ordinary cokriging.

  10. Early object rule acquisition.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D E

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a grounded theory of early object rule acquisition. The grounded theory approach and computer coding were used to analyze videotaped samples of an infant's and a toddler's independent object play, which produced the categories descriptive of three primary types of object rules; rules of object properties, rules of object action, and rules of object affect. This occupational science theory offers potential for understanding the role of objects in human occupations, for development of instruments, and for applications in occupational therapy early intervention. PMID:2048625

  11. Searching for additional endocrine functions of the skeleton: genetic approaches and implications for therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianwen; Flaherty, Stephen; Karsenty, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of whole organism physiology has greatly advanced in the past decades through mouse genetics. In particular, genetic studies have revealed that most organs interact with one another through hormones in order to maintain normal physiological functions and the homeostasis of the entire organism. Remarkably, through these studies many unexpected novel endocrine means to regulate physiological functions have been uncovered. The skeletal system is one example. In this article, we review a series of studies that over the years have identified bone as an endocrine organ. The mechanism of action, pathological relevance, and therapeutic implications of the functions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin are discussed. In the last part of this review we discuss the possibility that additional endocrine functions of the skeleton may exist.

  12. Correction of an active space telescope mirror using a gradient approach and an additional deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2015-09-01

    High development cost is a challenge for space telescopes and imaging satellites. One of the primary reasons for this high cost is the development of the primary mirror, which must meet diffraction limit surface figure requirements. Recent efforts to develop lower cost, lightweight, replicable primary mirrors include development of silicon carbide actuated hybrid mirrors and carbon fiber mirrors. The silicon carbide actuated hybrid mirrors at the Naval Postgraduate School do not meet the surface quality required for an optical telescope due to high spatial frequency residual surface errors. A technique under investigation at the Naval Postgraduate School is to correct the residual surface figure error using a deformable mirror in the optical path. We present a closed loop feedback gradient controller to actively control a SMT active segment and an additional deformable mirror to reduce residual wavefront error. The simulations and experimental results show that the gradient controller reduces the residual wavefront error more than an integral controller.

  13. World Trade Center Health Program; addition of certain types of cancer to the list of WTC-related health conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-12

    Title I of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 amended the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) to establish the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program. The WTC Health Program, which is administered by the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provides medical monitoring and treatment to eligible firefighters and related personnel, law enforcement officers, and rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers who responded to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, at the Pentagon, and in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, and to eligible survivors of the New York City attacks. In accordance with WTC Health Program regulations, which establish procedures for adding a new condition to the list of covered health conditions, this final rule adds to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions the types of cancer proposed for inclusion by the notice of proposed rulemaking. PMID:22970452

  14. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprows, David

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  15. Predicting the relatiave vulnerability of near-coastal species to climate change using a rule-based ecoinformatics approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Questions/Methods Near-coastal species are threatened by multiple climate change drivers, including temperature increases, ocean acidification, and sea level rise. To identify vulnerable habitats, geographic regions, and species, we developed a sequential, rule-based...

  16. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Conjugate Additions to Cyclopent-1-enecarbaldehyde: A Critical Assessment of Organocatalytic Approaches towards the Telaprevir Bicyclic Core.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Luca; Fochi, Mariafrancesca; Carbone, Riccardo; Martinelli, Ada; Fox, Martin E; Cobley, Christopher J; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Dahanukar, Vilas H; Carlone, Armando

    2015-12-21

    In the context of a programme directed at the manufacture of telaprevir, eight possible approaches to its bicyclic α-amino acid core, based on organocatalytic enantioselective conjugate additions to cyclopent-1-enecarbaldehyde, were identified and preliminarily explored. Four reactions, delivering advanced intermediates en route to the target amino acid, were selected for a thorough optimisation. Three of this reactions involved iminium ion catalysis with a prolinol catalyst (addition of nitromethane, nitroacetate and acetamidomalonate) and one was based on a Cinchona-derived phase-transfer catalyst (addition of glycine imines). A careful choice of additives allowed lowering of the catalyst loading to 0.5 mol% in some cases. The preparation of intermediates that would give access to the core of telaprevir in good yields and enantioselectivities by exploiting readily available substrates and catalysts, highlights the potential of organocatalytic technology for a cost-effective preparation of pharmaceuticals. PMID:26602867

  17. Empirical Approach to Understanding the Fatigue Behavior of Metals Made Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David B.; Albright, Thomas V.; Patel, Dhruv N.

    2016-04-01

    High-cycle fatigue measurements were performed on alloys prepared by powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing techniques. Selective laser melted (SLM) nickel-based superalloy 625 and electron beam melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V specimens were prepared as round fatigue specimens and tested with as-built surfaces at stress ratios of -1, 0.1 and 0.5. Data collected at R = -1 were used to construct Goodman diagrams that correspond closely to measured experimental data collected at R > 0. A second way to interpret the HCF data is based on the influence of surface roughness on fatigue, and approximate the surface feature size as a notch. On this basis, the data were interpreted using the fatigue notch factor k f and average stress models relating k f and stress concentration factor K t. The depth and root radius of surface features associated with fatigue crack initiation were used to estimate a K t of 2.8 for SLM 625. For Ti-6Al-4V, a direct estimate of K t from HCF data was not possible, but approximate values of k f based on HCF data and K t from crack initiation site geometry are found to explain other published EBM Ti-6Al-4V.

  18. Biomechanical investigation into the structural design of porous additive manufactured cages using numerical and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-I; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Chen, San-Yuan; Wu, Tsung-Han; Huang, Chih-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Traditional solid cages have been widely used in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. However, solid cages significantly affect the loading mechanism of the human spine due to their extremely high structural stiffness. Previous studies proposed and investigated porous additive manufactured (AM) cages; however, their biomechanical performances were analyzed using oversimplified bone-implant numerical models. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the outer shape and inner porous structure of the AM cages. The outer shape of the AM cages was discovered using a simulation-based genetic algorithm; their inner porous structure was subsequently analyzed parametrically using T10-S1 multilevel spine models. Finally, six types of the AM cages, which were manufactured using selective laser melting, were tested to validate the numerical outcomes. The subsidence resistance of the optimum design was superior to the conventional cage designs. A porous AM cage with a pillar diameter of 0.4mm, a pillar angle of 40°, and a porosity of between 69% and 80% revealed better biomechanical performances. Both the numerical and experimental outcomes can help surgeons to understand the biomechanics of PLIF surgery combined with the use of AM cages. PMID:27392226

  19. Acidic ionic liquids as sustainable approach of cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass conversion without additional catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lopes, André M da Costa; Bogel-Łukasik, Rafał

    2015-03-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) for biomass processing has attracted considerable attention recently as it provides distinct features for pre-treated biomass and fractionated materials in comparison to conventional processes. Process intensification through integration of dissolution, fractionation, hydrolysis and/or conversion in one pot should be accomplished to maximise economic and technological feasibility. The possibility of using alternative ILs capable not only of dissolving and deconstructing selectively biomass but also of catalysing reactions simultaneously are a potential solution of this problem. In this Review a critical overview of the state of the art and perspectives of the hydrolysis and conversion of cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass using acidic ILs using no additional catalyst are provided. The efficiency of the process is mainly considered with regard to the hydrolysis and conversion yields obtained and the selectivity of each reaction. The process conditions can be easily tuned to obtain sugars and/or platform chemicals, such as furans and organic acids. On the other hand, product recovery from the IL and its purity are the main challenges for the acceptance of this technology as a feasible alternative to conventional processes. PMID:25703380

  20. Empirical Approach to Understanding the Fatigue Behavior of Metals Made Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David B.; Albright, Thomas V.; Patel, Dhruv N.

    2016-08-01

    High-cycle fatigue measurements were performed on alloys prepared by powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing techniques. Selective laser melted (SLM) nickel-based superalloy 625 and electron beam melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V specimens were prepared as round fatigue specimens and tested with as-built surfaces at stress ratios of -1, 0.1 and 0.5. Data collected at R = -1 were used to construct Goodman diagrams that correspond closely to measured experimental data collected at R > 0. A second way to interpret the HCF data is based on the influence of surface roughness on fatigue, and approximate the surface feature size as a notch. On this basis, the data were interpreted using the fatigue notch factor k f and average stress models relating k f and stress concentration factor K t. The depth and root radius of surface features associated with fatigue crack initiation were used to estimate a K t of 2.8 for SLM 625. For Ti-6Al-4V, a direct estimate of K t from HCF data was not possible, but approximate values of k f based on HCF data and K t from crack initiation site geometry are found to explain other published EBM Ti-6Al-4V.

  1. A sustainable and resilient approach through biochar addition in wood polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-15

    Biocomposites have been used for sustainability for a few years now and considerable advancements have been made to perfect the physical and mechanical properties. However, there still remain some considerable disadvantages (such as inferior mechanical strength, thickness swell, and rotting) which restrict their proper utilization in wider markets. Attempts have been made to remedy these drawbacks but still further investigation is required to address all the issues and alleviate as many shortcomings as possible. Additionally, concerns related to landfill gas emission prompted the necessity for effective utilization of organic wastes. Lignocellulosic wastes can be valorized by thermo-chemical conversion to form a carbonaceous and renewable material called biochar. Keeping these two problems in mind, a relatively novel idea is recommended for the manufacture of biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste could be added with wood and plastic. It is expected to mitigate the general disadvantages of conventional wood plastic composites (WPCs) and at the same time manage landfill wastes giving rise to a potential new breed of improved next generation biocomposites. Furthermore, a 'resilient' perspective is conferred where the long term viability of the state-of-the-art product could be ensured. PMID:25634737

  2. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite's tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications. PMID:25677179

  3. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  4. Born Rule(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Urbasi

    2011-09-01

    This paper is based on work published in [1]. It describes a triple slit experiment using single photons that has been used to provide a bound on one of the most fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics i.e. Born's rule for probabilities [2]. In spite of being one of the most successful theories which describes various natural phenomena, quantum mechanics has enough intricacies and "weirdness" associated with it which makes many physicists believe that it may not be the final theory and hints towards the possibility of more generalized versions. Quantum interference as shown by a double slit diffraction experiment only occurs from pairs of paths. Even in multi-slit versions, interference can only occur between pairs of possibilities and increasing the number of slits does not increase the complexity of the theory that still remains second-order. However, more generalized versions of quantum mechanics may allow for multi-path i.e. higher than second order interference. This experiment also provides a bound on the magnitude of such higher order interference. We have been able to bound the magnitude of three-path interference to less than 10-2 of the expected two-path interference, thus ruling out third and higher order interference and providing a bound on the accuracy of Born's rule.

  5. Superposition-additive approach: thermodynamic parameters of clusterization of monosubstituted alkanes at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Vysotsky, Yu B; Belyaeva, E A; Fomina, E S; Fainerman, V B; Aksenenko, E V; Vollhardt, D; Miller, R

    2011-12-21

    The applicability of the superposition-additive approach for the calculation of the thermodynamic parameters of formation and atomization of conjugate systems, their dipole electric polarisabilities, molecular diamagnetic susceptibilities, π-electron circular currents, as well as for the estimation of the thermodynamic parameters of substituted alkanes, was demonstrated earlier. Now the applicability of the superposition-additive approach for the description of clusterization of fatty alcohols, thioalcohols, amines, carboxylic acids at the air/water interface is studied. Two superposition-additive schemes are used that ensure the maximum superimposition of the graphs of the considered molecular structures including the intermolecular CH-HC interactions within the clusters. The thermodynamic parameters of clusterization are calculated for dimers, trimers and tetramers. The calculations are based on the values of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs' energy of clusterization calculated earlier using the semiempirical quantum chemical PM3 method. It is shown that the proposed approach is capable of the reproduction with sufficiently enough accuracy of the values calculated previously. PMID:22042000

  6. Additional disturbances as a beneficial tool for restoration of post-mining sites: a multi-taxa approach.

    PubMed

    Řehounková, Klára; Čížek, Lukáš; Řehounek, Jiří; Šebelíková, Lenka; Tropek, Robert; Lencová, Kamila; Bogusch, Petr; Marhoul, Pavel; Máca, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Open interior sands represent a highly threatened habitat in Europe. In recent times, their associated organisms have often found secondary refuges outside their natural habitats, mainly in sand pits. We investigated the effects of different restoration approaches, i.e. spontaneous succession without additional disturbances, spontaneous succession with additional disturbances caused by recreational activities, and forestry reclamation, on the diversity and conservation values of spiders, beetles, flies, bees and wasps, orthopterans and vascular plants in a large sand pit in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Out of 406 species recorded in total, 112 were classified as open sand specialists and 71 as threatened. The sites restored through spontaneous succession with additional disturbances hosted the largest proportion of open sand specialists and threatened species. The forestry reclamations, in contrast, hosted few such species. The sites with spontaneous succession without disturbances represent a transition between these two approaches. While restoration through spontaneous succession favours biodiversity in contrast to forestry reclamation, additional disturbances are necessary to maintain early successional habitats essential for threatened species and open sand specialists. Therefore, recreational activities seem to be an economically efficient restoration tool that will also benefit biodiversity in sand pits. PMID:27053054

  7. Remote sensing and GIS-based landslide risk assessment using a linguistic rule-based fuzzy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, Debi Prasanna; Arora, Manoj Kumar; Sarkar, Shantanu; Gupta, Ravi Prakash

    2006-12-01

    It is well known that natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides, floods, etc. cause enormous damage to lives and property. The assessment of risk as a potential for adverse consequences, loss, harm to human population due to the occurrence of natural disasters, particularly the landslides in Himalayan region therefore becomes imperative. Landslide risk assessment (LRA) techniques can be applied at different stages in the decision-making process, starting from developmental planning on a regional scale to a particular site evaluation at local scale. The LRA depends on the probability of landslide hazard and the vulnerability of risk elements. The landslide probability depends on both the preparatory (i.e., inherent ground characteristics) and triggering (i.e., earthquake and rainfall) factors. Vulnerability may be defined as the level of potential damage, or degree of loss, of risk elements subjected to landslide occurrences. The assessment of vulnerability is somewhat subjective and on a regional scale it is largely based on the importance of risk elements in human society. Hence, the appropriate vulnerability factor may be assessed systematically by expert judgment. In the present study, a linguistic rule based fuzzy approach is developed and implemented to prepare the landslide risk assessment (LRA) of Darjeeling Himalayas. The LRA has been considered as a function of landslide potential (LP) and resource damage potential (RDP), which have been characterized by the landslide susceptibility zonation (LSZ) map and the resource map (i.e., land use land cover map including the road network) of the area respectively. Fuzzy membership values representing LP and RDP have been assigned to different categories of LSZ and resource maps based on the criteria developed on a linguistic scale. Landslide risk assessment matrix (LRAM) has been generated as a function of the fuzzy membership values, which reflects the relative risk values for different combinations of

  8. A rule-of-thumb approach to estimate annual deep percolation and runoff in irrigated landscapes at field to farm scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selle, B.; Githui, F.; Thayalakumaran, T.

    2009-04-01

    The rootzone of a field or farm in irrigated landscapes is the logical unit that can be managed or influenced by farmers, catchment managers and water authorities. Increasing scarcity, variability and expensive nature of water supplies necessitates better understanding of the rootzone water balance in irrigated landscapes. The major terms of the annual water balance in the rootzone include rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration, deep percolation below the rootzone and runoff. While information on annual rainfall, irrigation and evapotranspiration can often be readily obtained at field to farm scales, deep percolation and runoff are typically unavailable as their continuous measurement is difficult and/or uneconomical. Consequently, these terms are often calculated using models that are able to simulate the rootzone water balance. In this case study, we developed a rule-of-thumb approach to estimate annual deep percolation and runoff for the Barr Creek catchment in northern Victoria, Australia. Firstly, annual deep percolation and runoff were calculated at field to farm scales using an integrated SWAT-MODFLOW model calibrated against a comprehensive data set including drain flows and salinity, remotely sensed evapotranspiration and watertable levels. Secondly, a rule-of-thumb approach was developed to approximate annual deep percolation and runoff from readily available information on annual irrigation, rainfall, evapotranspiration, soils, watertable levels and landuse. This rule-of-thumb approach can be applied to continuously estimate deep percolation and runoff.

  9. UNDERSTANDING THE SLIDE RULE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, RONALD E.; AND OTHERS

    A BOOKLET DESIGNED FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TO BE USED INDEPENDENTLY FROM AND IN ADDITION TO THE REGULAR CLASSROOM CURRICULUM IN MATHEMATICS IS GIVEN. THE FIFTH- OR SIXTH-GRADE STUDENT IS PRESENTED WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE APPLICATIONS OF THE SLIDE RULE AND WITH A BACKGROUND REVIEW OF NECESSARY CONCEPTS. THE CONCEPTS OF THE SLIDE RULE ARE…

  10. [Hospital pharmacist has a rule for best practice use and French hospital activity tariffs. Example of a pharmaceutical quality control for drugs reimbursed in addition of DRGs].

    PubMed

    Hedoux, S; Dode, X; Pivot, C; Couray-Targe, S; Aulagner, G

    2012-07-01

    The best practice contract has given a new objective to the hospital pharmacists for the reimbursement in addition to Diagnosis Related Groups' (DRGs) tariffs. We built our pharmaceutical quality control for the administration traceability follow-up regarding the DRGs and the cost of care, for two reasons: the nominal drugs dispensation in link with the prescription made by pharmacist and the important expenditure of these drugs. Our organization depends on the development level of the informatized drugs circuit and minimizes the risk of financial shortfalls or wrong benefits, possible causes of economic penalties for our hospital. On the basis of this follow-up, we highlighted our activity and identified problems of management and drugs circuit organization. The quality of the administration traceability impacts directly on the quality of the medical records and the reimbursements of the expensive drugs. A better knowledge of prescription software is also required for a better quality and security of the medical data used in the medical informatic systems. The drugs management and the personal treatment in and between the care units need to be improved too. We have to continue and improve our organization with the future financial model for ATU drugs and the FIDES project. The health personnel awareness and the development of best informatic tools are also required. PMID:22818260

  11. Rule mining and classification in a situation assessment application: a belief-theoretic approach for handling data imperfections.

    PubMed

    Rohitha, K K; Hewawasam, G K; Premaratne, Kamal; Shyu, Mei-Ling

    2007-12-01

    Management of data imprecision and uncertainty has become increasingly important, especially in situation awareness and assessment applications where reliability of the decision-making process is critical (e.g., in military battlefields). These applications require the following: 1) an effective methodology for modeling data imperfections and 2) procedures for enabling knowledge discovery and quantifying and propagating partial or incomplete knowledge throughout the decision-making process. In this paper, using a Dempster-Shafer belief-theoretic relational database (DS-DB) that can conveniently represent a wider class of data imperfections, an association rule mining (ARM)-based classification algorithm possessing the desirable functionality is proposed. For this purpose, various ARM-related notions are revisited so that they could be applied in the presence of data imperfections. A data structure called belief itemset tree is used to efficiently extract frequent itemsets and generate association rules from the proposed DS-DB. This set of rules is used as the basis on which an unknown data record, whose attributes are represented via belief functions, is classified. These algorithms are validated on a simplified situation assessment scenario where sensor observations may have caused data imperfections in both attribute values and class labels. PMID:18179065

  12. Modeling the Impact of School-Based Universal Depression Screening on Additional Service Capacity Needs: A System Dynamics Approach.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Aaron R; Maras, Melissa A; Pate, Christina M; Igusa, Takeru; Vander Stoep, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Although it is widely known that the occurrence of depression increases over the course of adolescence, symptoms of mood disorders frequently go undetected. While schools are viable settings for conducting universal screening to systematically identify students in need of services for common health conditions, particularly those that adversely affect school performance, few school districts routinely screen their students for depression. Among the most commonly referenced barriers are concerns that the number of students identified may exceed schools' service delivery capacities, but few studies have evaluated this concern systematically. System dynamics (SD) modeling may prove a useful approach for answering questions of this sort. The goal of the current paper is therefore to demonstrate how SD modeling can be applied to inform implementation decisions in communities. In our demonstration, we used SD modeling to estimate the additional service demand generated by universal depression screening in a typical high school. We then simulated the effects of implementing "compensatory approaches" designed to address anticipated increases in service need through (1) the allocation of additional staff time and (2) improvements in the effectiveness of mental health interventions. Results support the ability of screening to facilitate more rapid entry into services and suggest that improving the effectiveness of mental health services for students with depression via the implementation of an evidence-based treatment protocol may have a limited impact on overall recovery rates and service availability. In our example, the SD approach proved useful in informing systems' decision-making about the adoption of a new school mental health service. PMID:25601192

  13. Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Eszlinger, Markus; Hegedüs, László; Paschke, Ralf

    2014-08-01

    Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET/PTC rearrangements) has been investigated by several groups with overall reproducible results. Moreover, molecular screening for point mutations and rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried FNA smears, offering several advantages over obtaining additional fresh FNA material. The current panel of somatic mutations (rule in approach) for indeterminate FNAs clarifies only a subgroup of indeterminate FNAs. Therefore, further markers are urgently needed that can reliably identify the malignant, but mutation negative and especially the many benign nodules, among the indeterminate FNAs. miRNA markers and the targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) technology do have the potential to identify those nodules that are mutation negative by current approaches. PMID:25047205

  14. Atomic electron affinities and the role of symmetry between electron addition and subtraction in a corrected Koopmans approach.

    PubMed

    Teale, A M; De Proft, F; Geerlings, P; Tozer, D J

    2014-07-28

    The essential aspects of zero-temperature grand-canonical ensemble density-functional theory are reviewed in the context of spin-density-functional theory and are used to highlight the assumption of symmetry between electron addition and subtraction that underlies the corrected Koopmans approach of Tozer and De Proft (TDP) for computing electron affinities. The issue of symmetry is then investigated in a systematic study of atomic electron affinities, comparing TDP affinities with those from a conventional Koopmans evaluation and electronic energy differences. Although it cannot compete with affinities determined from energy differences, the TDP expression yields results that are a significant improvement over those from the conventional Koopmans expression. Key insight into the results from both expressions is provided by an analysis of plots of the electronic energy as a function of the number of electrons, which highlight the extent of symmetry between addition and subtraction. The accuracy of the TDP affinities is closely related to the nature of the orbitals involved in the electron addition and subtraction, being particularly poor in cases where there is a change in principal quantum number, but relatively accurate within a single manifold of orbitals. The analysis is then extended to a consideration of the ground state Mulliken electronegativity and chemical hardness. The findings further emphasize the key role of symmetry in determining the quality of the results. PMID:24406854

  15. A mathematical approach to optimal selection of dose values in the additive dose method of ERP dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.B.; Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Additive dose methods commonly used in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry are time consuming and labor intensive. We have developed a mathematical approach for determining optimal spacing of applied doses and the number of spectra which should be taken at each dose level. Expected uncertainitites in the data points are assumed to be normally distributed with a fixed standard deviation and linearity of dose response is also assumed. The optimum spacing and number of points necessary for the minimal error can be estimated, as can the likely error in the resulting estimate. When low doses are being estimated for tooth enamel samples the optimal spacing is shown to be a concentration of points near the zero dose value with fewer spectra taken at a single high dose value within the range of known linearity. Optimization of the analytical process results in increased accuracy and sample throughput.

  16. Parameter Estimation for a Physically-Based Model Using Multi-Objective Approach Constrained With Additional Internal States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Fenicia, F.; Savenije, H. H.

    2007-12-01

    Parameter estimation (i.e. model calibration) is a critical procedure for not only determining a successful model application, but also assessing model uncertainties, thus helping improve model development. Physically-based distributed hydrological models are increasingly used as required in water management because of the complexity of the processes to be represented. Given the fact that the distributed catchment characteristics, represented by parameters, could not be directly measured in most cases, model calibration is therefore inevitable. Calibration and uncertainty assessment for such complex models are more challenging than for those simpler ones due to the large number of parameters associated with integrated multiple processes description and large computing resources demands. There is ample literature on the approaches to model parameter estimation and applications of such approaches. Multi-objective Pareto-optimality approaches, such as MOSCEM-UA, are amongst the state-the-art approaches in modeling practices. The multi-objective optimization approaches, however, have not yet widely applied to physically-based distributed models, due to the aforementioned challenging issues. This work presents an application of MOSCEM-UA algorithm to a newly developed physically-based model REWASH. REWASH is a model based on the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) concept that describes hydrological processes at the watershed scale, using the basic physical conservation laws. The elementary watersheds, i.e. the sub-watersheds are the hydrological response units of a catchment when using REWASH model. In this study, REWASH model was applied to simulate rainfall-runoff relation for the Hesperange catchment in Luxembourg. Due to its physically-based and semi-distributed nature, the applied hydrological model reproduces not only stream flows at the catchment outlet and the sub-watersheds' outlets, but subsurface flows and groundwater table variations as well

  17. An analytical approach to the problem of inverse optimization with additive objective functions: an application to human prehension

    PubMed Central

    Pesin, Yakov B.; Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of what is being optimized in human actions with respect to various aspects of human movements and different motor tasks. From the mathematical point of view this problem consists of finding an unknown objective function given the values at which it reaches its minimum. This problem is called the inverse optimization problem. Until now the main approach to this problems has been the cut-and-try method, which consists of introducing an objective function and checking how it reflects the experimental data. Using this approach, different objective functions have been proposed for the same motor action. In the current paper we focus on inverse optimization problems with additive objective functions and linear constraints. Such problems are typical in human movement science. The problem of muscle (or finger) force sharing is an example. For such problems we obtain sufficient conditions for uniqueness and propose a method for determining the objective functions. To illustrate our method we analyze the problem of force sharing among the fingers in a grasping task. We estimate the objective function from the experimental data and show that it can predict the force-sharing pattern for a vast range of external forces and torques applied to the grasped object. The resulting objective function is quadratic with essentially non-zero linear terms. PMID:19902213

  18. Knowledge base rule partitioning design for CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainardi, Joseph D.; Szatkowski, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    This describes a knowledge base (KB) partitioning approach to solve the problem of real-time performance using the CLIPS AI shell when containing large numbers of rules and facts. This work is funded under the joint USAF/NASA Advanced Launch System (ALS) Program as applied research in expert systems to perform vehicle checkout for real-time controller and diagnostic monitoring tasks. The Expert System advanced development project (ADP-2302) main objective is to provide robust systems responding to new data frames of 0.1 to 1.0 second intervals. The intelligent system control must be performed within the specified real-time window, in order to meet the demands of the given application. Partitioning the KB reduces the complexity of the inferencing Rete net at any given time. This reduced complexity improves performance but without undo impacts during load and unload cycles. The second objective is to produce highly reliable intelligent systems. This requires simple and automated approaches to the KB verification & validation task. Partitioning the KB reduces rule interaction complexity overall. Reduced interaction simplifies the V&V testing necessary by focusing attention only on individual areas of interest. Many systems require a robustness that involves a large number of rules, most of which are mutually exclusive under different phases or conditions. The ideal solution is to control the knowledge base by loading rules that directly apply for that condition, while stripping out all rules and facts that are not used during that cycle. The practical approach is to cluster rules and facts into associated 'blocks'. A simple approach has been designed to control the addition and deletion of 'blocks' of rules and facts, while allowing real-time operations to run freely. Timing tests for real-time performance for specific machines under R/T operating systems have not been completed but are planned as part of the analysis process to validate the design.

  19. A hybrid, auto-adaptive and rule-based multi-agent approach using evolutionary algorithms for improved searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Joaquín; Montalvo, Idel; Campbell, Enrique; Pérez-García, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    Selecting the most appropriate heuristic for solving a specific problem is not easy, for many reasons. This article focuses on one of these reasons: traditionally, the solution search process has operated in a given manner regardless of the specific problem being solved, and the process has been the same regardless of the size, complexity and domain of the problem. To cope with this situation, search processes should mould the search into areas of the search space that are meaningful for the problem. This article builds on previous work in the development of a multi-agent paradigm using techniques derived from knowledge discovery (data-mining techniques) on databases of so-far visited solutions. The aim is to improve the search mechanisms, increase computational efficiency and use rules to enrich the formulation of optimization problems, while reducing the search space and catering to realistic problems.

  20. Identifying users of traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas: An association rule learning approach.

    PubMed

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg L; Levin, Aron; LeVangie, Kristie; Brick, Timothy R

    2016-08-01

    Increasing home cooking while decreasing the consumption of food prepared away from home is a commonly recommended weight management strategy, however research on where individuals obtain ideas about meals to cook at home is limited. This study examined the characteristics of individuals who reported using traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas. 583 participants who were ≥50% responsible for household meal planning were recruited to approximate the 2014 United States Census distribution on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Participants reported demographic characteristics, home cooking frequency, and their use of 4 traditional resources for meal ideas (e.g., cookbooks), and 7 Internet-based resources for meal ideas (e.g., Pinterest) in an online survey. Independent samples t-tests compared home cooking frequency by resource use. Association rule learning identified those demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with resource use. Family and friends (71%), food community websites (45%), and cookbooks (41%) were the most common resources reported. Cookbook users reported preparing more meals at home per week (M = 9.65, SD = 5.28) compared to non-cookbook users (M = 8.11, SD = 4.93; t = -3.55, p < 0.001). Resource use was generally higher among parents and varied systematically with demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that home cooking interventions may benefit by modifying resources used by their target population. PMID:27067739

  1. Consumers that are not 'ideal' or 'free' can still approach the ideal free distribution using simple patch-leaving rules.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D

    2009-09-01

    1. The ideal free distribution (IFD) has been widely used to determine whether consumers distribute themselves optimally. However, this theory is based on three assumptions that are clearly violated in many systems. The theory assumes that all individuals know the quality of each available site, are equally free to move between all sites, and have equal competitive abilities. 2. I examine the utility of this theory to predict the distribution of the invasive European green crab Carcinus maenas, a species that likely violates all of these assumptions. I demonstrate three main findings. 3. First, understanding how density-dependent interference and size alter individual foraging behaviour is important for understanding the density and biomass distribution of C. maenas in invaded habitats. 4. Second, once behavioural mechanisms of crab foraging are accurately included in the model, the IFD does a good job of predicting the distribution of C. maenas, even though C. maenas violates the theory's fundamental assumptions. 5. Third, C. maenas' distribution can be obtained using simple decision rules and reasonable movement patterns. PMID:19486205

  2. "Bunched Black Swans" in Complex Geosystems: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches to the Additive and Multiplicative Modelling of Correlated Extreme Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, N. W.; Rypdal, M.; Lovsletten, O.

    2012-12-01

    -stationarity explicitly built in. In record breaking statistics, a record is defined in the sense used in everyday language, to be the largest value yet recorded in a time series, for example, the 2004 Sumatran Boxing Day earthquake was at the time the largest to be digitally recorded. The third group of approaches (e.g. avalanches) are explicitly spatiotemporal and so also include spatial structure. This presentation will discuss two examples of our recent work on the burst problem. We will show numerical results extending the preliminary results presented in [Watkins et al, PRE, 2009] using a standard additive model, linear fractional stable motion (LFSM). LFSM explicitly includes both heavy tails and long range dependence, allowing us to study how these 2 effects compete in determining the burst duration and size exponent probability distributions. We will contrast these simulations with new analytical studies of bursts in a multiplicative process, the multifractal random walk (MRW). We will present an analytical derivation for the scaling of the burst durations and make a preliminary comparison with data from the AE index from solar-terrestrial physics. We believe our result is more generally applicable than the MRW model, and that it applies to a broad class of multifractal processes.

  3. Fusing Horizons -- A Grammatical Design Approach for the Arts and Humanities: Using Rules, Contingency and Hermeneutics in Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Dean

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that grammatical thinking within a framework of phenomenological hermeneutics assists designing and may properly be used as a fundamental teaching approach for an interdisciplinary art and design studio. Furthermore, it argues that the theme of grammatical design awareness could be considered as a generic issue across all…

  4. Application of object-oriented method for classification of VHR satellite images using rule-based approach and texture measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewinski, S.; Bochenek, Z.; Turlej, K.

    2010-01-01

    New approach for classification of high-resolution satellite images is presented in the article. That approach has been developed at the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw, within the Geoland 2 project - SATChMo Core Mapping Service. Classification algorithm, aimed at recognition of generic land cover categories, has been elaborated using the object-oriented approach. Its functionality was tested on the basis of KOMPSAT-2 satellite images, recorded in four multispectral bands (4 m ground resolution) and in panchromatic mode (1 m ground resolution). The structure of the algorithm resembles decision tree and consists of a sequence of processes. The main assumption of the presented approach is to divide image contents into objects characterized by high and low texture measures. The texture measures are generated on the basis of a panchromatic image transformed by Sigma filters. Objects belonging to the so-called high texture are classified at first steps. In the following steps the classification of the remaining objects takes place. Applying parametric criteria of recognition at the first group of objects four generic land cover classes are classified: forests, sparse woody vegetation, urban / artificial areas and bare ground. Non-classified areas are automatically assigned to the second group of objects, which contains water and agricultural land. In the course of classification process a few segmentations are performed, which are dedicated to particular land cover categories. Classified objects, smaller than 0.25 ha are removed in the process of generalization.

  5. Multiple Assembly Rules Drive the Co-occurrence of Orthopteran and Plant Species in Grasslands: Combining Network, Functional and Phylogenetic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Bertrand; Mouly, Arnaud; Gillet, François

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors underlying the co-occurrence of multiple species remains a challenge in ecology. Biotic interactions, environmental filtering and neutral processes are among the main mechanisms evoked to explain species co-occurrence. However, they are most often studied separately or even considered as mutually exclusive. This likely hampers a more global understanding of species assembly. Here, we investigate the general hypothesis that the structure of co-occurrence networks results from multiple assembly rules and its potential implications for grassland ecosystems. We surveyed orthopteran and plant communities in 48 permanent grasslands of the French Jura Mountains and gathered functional and phylogenetic data for all species. We constructed a network of plant and orthopteran species co-occurrences and verified whether its structure was modular or nested. We investigated the role of all species in the structure of the network (modularity and nestedness). We also investigated the assembly rules driving the structure of the plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network by using null models on species functional traits, phylogenetic relatedness and environmental conditions. We finally compared our results to abundance-based approaches. We found that the plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network had a modular organization. Community assembly rules differed among modules for plants while interactions with plants best explained the distribution of orthopterans into modules. Few species had a disproportionately high positive contribution to this modular organization and are likely to have a key importance to modulate future changes. The impact of agricultural practices was restricted to some modules (3 out of 5) suggesting that shifts in agricultural practices might not impact the entire plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network. These findings support our hypothesis that multiple assembly rules drive the modular structure of the plant-orthopteran network. This

  6. Multiple Assembly Rules Drive the Co-occurrence of Orthopteran and Plant Species in Grasslands: Combining Network, Functional and Phylogenetic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Bertrand; Mouly, Arnaud; Gillet, François

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors underlying the co-occurrence of multiple species remains a challenge in ecology. Biotic interactions, environmental filtering and neutral processes are among the main mechanisms evoked to explain species co-occurrence. However, they are most often studied separately or even considered as mutually exclusive. This likely hampers a more global understanding of species assembly. Here, we investigate the general hypothesis that the structure of co-occurrence networks results from multiple assembly rules and its potential implications for grassland ecosystems. We surveyed orthopteran and plant communities in 48 permanent grasslands of the French Jura Mountains and gathered functional and phylogenetic data for all species. We constructed a network of plant and orthopteran species co-occurrences and verified whether its structure was modular or nested. We investigated the role of all species in the structure of the network (modularity and nestedness). We also investigated the assembly rules driving the structure of the plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network by using null models on species functional traits, phylogenetic relatedness and environmental conditions. We finally compared our results to abundance-based approaches. We found that the plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network had a modular organization. Community assembly rules differed among modules for plants while interactions with plants best explained the distribution of orthopterans into modules. Few species had a disproportionately high positive contribution to this modular organization and are likely to have a key importance to modulate future changes. The impact of agricultural practices was restricted to some modules (3 out of 5) suggesting that shifts in agricultural practices might not impact the entire plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network. These findings support our hypothesis that multiple assembly rules drive the modular structure of the plant-orthopteran network. This

  7. Prediction of ground water quality index to assess suitability for drinking purposes using fuzzy rule-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, A. K.; Hasni, S. A.; Iqbal, Jawed

    2014-11-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource for drinking water to many people around the world, especially in rural areas where the supply of treated water is not available. Drinking water resources cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality of water is properly assessed. To this end, an attempt has been made to develop a suitable methodology for the assessment of drinking water quality on the basis of 11 physico-chemical parameters. The present study aims to select the fuzzy aggregation approach for estimation of the water quality index of a sample to check the suitability for drinking purposes. Based on expert's opinion and author's judgement, 11 water quality (pollutant) variables (Alkalinity, Dissolved Solids (DS), Hardness, pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Fluoride, As, Sulphate, Nitrates) are selected for the quality assessment. The output results of proposed methodology are compared with the output obtained from widely used deterministic method (weighted arithmetic mean aggregation) for the suitability of the developed methodology.

  8. Terminology and nomenclature in colonic surgery: universal application of a rule-based approach derived from updates on mesenteric anatomy.

    PubMed

    Coffey, J C; Sehgal, R; Culligan, K; Dunne, C; McGrath, D; Lawes, N; Walsh, D

    2014-09-01

    Recent developments in colonic surgery generate exciting opportunities for surgeons and trainees. In the first instance, the anatomy of the entire mesenteric organ has been clarified and greatly simplified. No longer is it regarded as fragmented and complex. Rather it is continuous from duodenojejunal flexure to mesorectum, spanning the gastrointestinal tract between. Recent histologic findings have demonstrated that although apposed to the retroperitoneum, the mesenteric organ is separated from this via Toldt's fascia. These fundamentally important observations underpin the principles of complete mesocolic excision, where the mesocolic package is maintained intact, following extensive mesenterectomy. More importantly, they provide the first opportunity to apply a canonical approach to the development of nomenclature in resectional colonic surgery. In this review, we demonstrate how the resultant nomenclature is entirely anatomic based, and for illustrative purposes, we apply it to the procedure conventionally referred to as right hemicolectomy, or ileocolic resection. PMID:24968936

  9. Persistency and permanency of two stages DNA splicing languages with respect to one initial string and two rules via Yusof-Goode (Y-G) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan; Yusof, Yuhani; Mohamad, Mohd Sham; Lim, Wen Li

    2015-02-01

    The notion of Yusof-Goode (Y-G) splicing system was first schemed by Yusof to study the relationship between formal language theory and molecular biology. The splicing languages that are produced by splicing system have some important characteristics called persistent and permanent. In biological perspective, the recombinant DNA molecules can be manipulated by recombination action if they have persistent property. Thus, the persistency as well as permanency of splicing languages (recombinant DNA molecules) is considered to be an interesting topic in the field of DNA recombination, particularly when the recombination process is accomplished at second stage. Conducting a wet-lab experiment to show the mentioned properties of splicing languages are time consuming and expensive. Therefore, to overcome this problem, mathematical approach is chosen to investigate the persistency and permanency of splicing languages which will be then given as theorem and corollary. Thus, an initial string (with two recognition sites) and two rules are considered for introducing the above characteristics using Y-G approach.

  10. A review of approaches to the study of turbulence modification by means of non-Newtonian additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Schowalter, William R.

    1987-12-01

    The addition of small amounts of polymers to Newtonian liquids under conditions of turbulent flow results in substantial reduction of skin friction. This phenomenon has been observed experimentally. It can be attributed to the unusual behavior of dilute polymer solutions in turbulent flows. A condensed review of topics relevent to theoretical study of drag reduction by non-Newtonian additives is presented. In addition, the techniques and results of experimental investigations of this phenomenon are examined. It is proposed that dilute solutions of polymers or surfactants can be rheologically characterized by measuring the secondary flow characteristics that occur in the neighborhood of an oscillating cylinder. Plans for conducting these measurements are presented.

  11. Error Analysis of Quadrature Rules. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2004-01-01

    Approaches to the determination of the error in numerical quadrature rules are discussed and compared. This article considers the problem of the determination of errors in numerical quadrature rules, taking Simpson's rule as the principal example. It suggests an approach based on truncation error analysis of numerical schemes for differential…

  12. The Verbal Behavior Approach to Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Autism: A Call for Additional Empirical Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James E.; Firth, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has been firmly established and disseminated as one of the most effective treatments for early childhood autism. Recently, a number of practitioners have employed a variant of this approach in which the language curriculum is organized and taught according to Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal…

  13. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  15. Combining silver catalysis and organocatalysis: a sequential Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation one-pot approach to annulated coumarins.

    PubMed

    Hack, Daniel; Chauhan, Pankaj; Deckers, Kristina; Hermann, Gary N; Mertens, Lucas; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    A highly stereoselective one-pot procedure for the synthesis of five-membered annulated hydroxycoumarins has been developed. By merging primary amine catalysis with silver catalysis, a series of functionalized coumarin derivatives were obtained in good yields (up to 91%) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) via a Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction. Depending on the substituents on the enynone, the synthesis of annulated six-membered rings is also feasible. PMID:25250728

  16. Preventing Aggregation of Recombinant Interferon beta-1b in Solution by Additives: Approach to an Albumin-Free Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoubi, Najmeh; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Fazeli, Ahmad; Taghavian, Mohammad; Rastegar, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Aggregation suppressing additives have been used to stabilize proteins during manufacturing and storage. Interferonβ-1b is prone to aggregation because of being non-glycosylated. Aggregation behavior of albumin-free formulations of recombinant IFNβ-1b was explored using additives such as n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, Tween 20, arginine, glycine, trehalose and sucrose at different pH. Methods: Fractional factorial design was applied to select major factors affecting aggregation in solutions. Box-Behnken technique was used to optimize the best concentration of additives and protein. Results: Quadratic model was the best fitted model for particle size, OD350 and OD280/OD260. The optimal conditions of 0.2% n-Dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, 70 mM arginine, 189 mM trehalose and protein concentration of 0.50 mg/ml at pH 4 were achieved. A potency value of 91% ± 5% was obtained for the optimized formulation. Conclusion: This study shows that the combination of n-Dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, arginine and trehalose would demonstrate a significant stabilizing and anti-aggregating effect on the liquid formulation of interferonβ-1b. It can not only reduce the manufacturing costs but will also ease patient compliance. PMID:26819922

  17. Instruction of Keyboarding Skills: A Whole Language Approach to Teaching Functional Literacy Skills to Students Who are Blind and Have Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an unconventional method to teach un-contracted braille reading and writing skills to students who are blind and have additional disabilities. It includes a keyboarding curriculum that focuses on the whole language approach to literacy. A special feature is the keyboard that is adapted with braille symbols. Un-contracted…

  18. Degradation of magenta dye using different approaches based on ultrasonic and ultraviolet irradiations: Comparison of effectiveness and effect of additives for intensification.

    PubMed

    Karnjkar, Yogesh S; Dinde, Raveena M; Dinde, Nikita M; Bawankar, Kanchan N; Hinge, Shruti P; Mohod, Ashish V; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The conventional chemical oxidation methods have not been very successful for the treatment of dyes due to higher stability against the oxidizing agents. The present work investigates the application of an improved treatment approach based on the ultrasonic and ultraviolet irradiations for treatment of dye containing wastewaters. Magenta dye, which is commonly used in textile industries, has been used as a model compound. Initially, the experiments have been performed using individual operation of ultrasonic and ultraviolet irradiations. Studies related to effect of concentration revealed that the extent of degradation increased with an increase in the concentration of dye solution till an optimum loading. Intensification of the extent of degradation using ultrasonic irradiation has been investigated using different additives such as NaCl, TiO2, air and starch. Also the efficacy of combined treatment approaches based on different approaches involving ultrasound, ultraviolet irradiation and additives for the removal of magenta dye from the aqueous solution have been evaluated. For the use of additives, maximum intensification was achieved for TiO2 followed by use of NaCl and least effect was observed for starch. For the combined treatment approaches, the maximum extent of degradation (98.8%) and maximum COD removal (94.0%) has been obtained for the combination of ultrasound with 1 g/L TiO2 and air. The present work has clearly demonstrated the efficacy of combined treatment approaches for removal of dyes from the wastewater. PMID:26186828

  19. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  20. Collaboration rules.

    PubMed

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies. PMID

  1. 33 CFR 83.12 - Sailing vessels (Rule 12).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sailing vessels (Rule 12). 83.12... NAVIGATION RULES RULES Steering and Sailing Rules Conduct of Vessels in Sight of One Another § 83.12 Sailing vessels (Rule 12). (a) Keeping out of the way. When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so...

  2. 33 CFR 83.12 - Sailing vessels (Rule 12).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sailing vessels (Rule 12). 83.12... NAVIGATION RULES RULES Steering and Sailing Rules Conduct of Vessels in Sight of One Another § 83.12 Sailing vessels (Rule 12). (a) Keeping out of the way. When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so...

  3. An Empirically Derived Approach to the Latent Structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Marks, Michael J.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Building on studies examining the latent structure of attachment-related individual differences as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) via Principal Components Analysis, the current report further explores the validity of four AAI dimensions reported by Haydon, Roisman, and Burt (in press): dismissing states of mind, preoccupied states of mind, and inferred negative experience with maternal and paternal caregivers. Study 1 reports evidence of distinctive cognitive correlates of dismissing v. preoccupied states of mind with reaction time in an attachment Stroop task and the valence of endorsed self-descriptors, respectively. Study 2 replicates prior meta-analytic findings of generally trivial convergence between state of mind dimensions and self-reported avoidance and anxiety (i.e., Roisman, Holland, et al., 2007). Study 3 contrastively demonstrates moderate empirical overlap between inferred experience—but not state of mind—AAI scales and self-reported avoidance and anxiety when the latter were assessed at the level of specific caregivers. Taken together, these findings add to accumulating evidence that an empirically-driven approach to scaling adults on AAI dimensions (Haydon et al., in press; Roisman et al., 2007) aids in identifying theoretically anticipated and distinctive affective, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of dismissing versus preoccupied states of mind. PMID:21838649

  4. An approach towards risk assessment for the use of a synergistic metallic diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S. L.; Richards, P. J.

    The motivations for legislation to set diesel emissions limits requiring the use of diesel particulate filters (DPF) are summarised. If the DPF is to be used, demonstration of regeneration (combustion of collected carbonaceous material) without additional emission problems is important. Potential metal emissions resulting from use of a synergistic Fe/Sr fuel-borne DPF regeneration catalyst are evaluated. Measurements over legislated drive cycle estimate the metals to comprise 1-2% of the solid material emitted, and the DPF to collect >99% of such material. Diesel particulate matter is used as a marker, and from existing air quality and emission inventory measurements, maximum conceivable increases of <1 ng m -3 and <250 pg m -3 for iron and strontium, respectively, are calculated. From environmental assessment levels, derived from occupational exposure limits, these are not significant. For humans, daily ingress of airborne Sr is estimated at 3.5 ng. This is small compared to the known Sr contents of lungs, blood and the daily diet. In the context of reductions of other metals, particulate matter and pollutant emissions, the overall assessment is that the use of these metals to enable use of a DPF allows significant net environmental benefit to be obtained.

  5. Systems Biological Approaches Reveal Non-additive Responses and Multiple Crosstalk Mechanisms between TLR and GPCR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Jayalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    A variety of ligands differ in their capacity to bind the receptor, elicit gene expression, and modulate physiological responses. Such receptors include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize various patterns of pathogens and lead to primary innate immune activation against invaders, and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), whose interaction with their cognate ligands activates heterotrimeric G proteins and regulates specific downstream effectors, including immuno-stimulating molecules. Once TLRs are activated, they lead to the expression of hundreds of genes together and bridge the arm of innate and adaptive immune responses. We characterized the gene expression profile of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in RAW 264.7 cells when it bound with its ligand, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO), the active part of lipopolysaccharide. In addition, to determine the network communications among the TLR, Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), and GPCR, we tested RAW 264.7 cells with KDO, interferon-β, or cAMP analog 8-Br. The ligands were also administered as a pair of double and triple combinations. PMID:23166526

  6. Random Forests approach for identifying additive and epistatic single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; VandeHaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A

    2013-10-01

    ancestor-descendant SNP pairs can be explored as possible epistatic effects for further study. The importance scores generated by RF can be used effectively to identify large additive or epistatic SNP and informative QTL. The consistency in results of our study and previous studies in beef cattle indicates that the genetic architecture of RFI in dairy cattle might be similar to that of beef cattle. PMID:23932129

  7. 77 FR 59294 - Rules of Practice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...The FTC is adopting revised rules governing the process of its investigations and attorney discipline. These rules, located in the Commission's Rules of Practice, are intended to promote fairness, transparency, and efficiency in all FTC investigations; and to provide additional guidance about appropriate standards of conduct for attorneys practicing before the...

  8. Single-particle spectral density of the unitary Fermi gas: Novel approach based on the operator product expansion, sum rules and the maximum entropy method

    SciTech Connect

    Gubler, Philipp; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Nishida, Yusuke

    2015-05-15

    Making use of the operator product expansion, we derive a general class of sum rules for the imaginary part of the single-particle self-energy of the unitary Fermi gas. The sum rules are analyzed numerically with the help of the maximum entropy method, which allows us to extract the single-particle spectral density as a function of both energy and momentum. These spectral densities contain basic information on the properties of the unitary Fermi gas, such as the dispersion relation and the superfluid pairing gap, for which we obtain reasonable agreement with the available results based on quantum Monte-Carlo simulations.

  9. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  10. Democratic Education and the "Strategy of Material Obstacles": A Pedagogical Approach to the Enforcement of Traffic Rules in a Greek Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benincasa, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about people's relationship to laws, rules and regulations in a Greek town. The aim is to describe specific traffic policies, point out the underlying pedagogical assumptions and assess their potential effect in relation to the goals of a democratic education. The study springs from the author's experience as a non-native inhabitant…

  11. National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: addition of vaccines against rotavirus to the program. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-07-27

    This final rule amends the existing regulations governing the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) by adding vaccines against rotavirus to the Table of Injuries, which lists the vaccines covered under the VICP. This action is taken under section 2114(e) of the Public Health Service Act (the Act). The VICP provides a system of no-fault compensation for certain individuals who have been injured by specific childhood vaccines. The two prerequisites for adding vaccines against rotavirus to the VICP have been satisfied. An excise tax of 75 cents per dose was enacted on October 21, 1998, and took effect for sales of the vaccines after October 21, 1998. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended to the Secretary of HHS that this vaccine be routinely administered to children. Thus, vaccines against rotavirus are now included in the VICP. PMID:10558598

  12. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program. PMID:27382662

  13. Rhinoceros Feet Step Out of a Rule-of-Thumb: A Wildlife Imaging Pioneering Approach of Synchronized Computed Tomography-Digital Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Saragusty, Joseph; Göritz, Frank; Potier, Romain; Mulot, Baptiste; Maillot, Alexis; Etienne, Pascal; Bernardino, Rui; Fernandes, Teresa; Mews, Jurgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Currently, radiography is the only imaging technique used to diagnose bone pathology in wild animals situated under “field conditions”. Nevertheless, while chronic foot disease in captive mega-herbivores is widely reported, foot radiographic imaging is confronted with scarcity of studies. Numerous hindrances lead to such limited numbers and it became very clear that the traditional perspective on bone imaging in domestic animals based on extensive studies and elaborated statistical evaluations cannot be extrapolated to their non-domestic relatives. For these reasons, the authors initiated a multi-modality imaging study and established a pioneering approach of synchronized computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR), based on X-ray projections derived from three-dimensional CT reconstructed images. Whereas this approach can be applied in any clinical field, as a case of outstanding importance and great concern for zoological institutions, we selected foot bone pathologies in captive rhinoceroses to demonstrate the manifold applications of the method. Several advances were achieved, endowing the wildlife clinician with all-important tools: prototype DR exposure protocols and a modus operandi for foot positioning, advancing both traditional projections and, for the first-time, species-related radiographic views; assessment of radiographic diagnostic value for the whole foot and, in premiere, for each autopodial bone; together with additional insights into radiographic appearance of bone anatomy and pathology with a unique, simultaneous CT-DR correlation. Based on its main advantages in availing a wide range of keystone data in wildlife imaging from a limited number of examined subjects and combining advantages of CT as the golden standard method for bone diseases' diagnostic with DR's clinical feasibility under field conditions, synchronized CT-DR presents a new perspective on wildlife's health management. With this we hope to provide veterinary

  14. Rules to acquire by.

    PubMed

    Nolop, Bruce

    2007-09-01

    When Bruce Nolop was an investment banker, he saw only the glamorous side of acquisitions. Since becoming executive vice president and chief financial officer of Pitney Bowes, however, he's learned how hard it is to pull them off. In this article, he shares the lessons his organization has learned throughout its successful six-year acquisition campaign, which comprised more than 70 deals: Stick to adjacent spaces, take a portfolio approach, have a business sponsor, know how to judge an acquisition, and don't shop when you're hungry. Pitney Bowes's management and board of directors now use these five basic rules to chart the company's growth course. For example, when evaluating a potential acquisition, Pitney Bowes distinguishes between "platform" and "bolt-on" acquisitions to set expectations and guide integration efforts; the company applies different criteria, depending on the type. According to Nolop, any company can improve its acquisition track record if it is able to learn from experience, and he suspects that Pitney Bowes's rules apply just as well to other organizations. Buying a company should be treated like any other business process, he maintains. It should be approached deliberately and reviewed and improved constantly. That means mapping a complex chain of actions; paying attention to what can go right or wrong at different stages; and using standard, constantly honed, approaches and tools. PMID:17886488

  15. Machine Learning of Maritime Fog Forecast Rules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tag, Paul M.; Peak, James E.

    1996-05-01

    In recent years, the field of artificial intelligence has contributed significantly to the science of meteorology, most notably in the now familiar form of expert systems. Expert systems have focused on rules or heuristics by establishing, in computer code, the reasoning process of a weather forecaster predicting, for example, thunderstorms or fog. In addition to the years of effort that goes into developing such a knowledge base is the time-consuming task of extracting such knowledge and experience from experts. In this paper, the induction of rules directly from meteorological data is explored-a process called machine learning. A commercial machine learning program called C4.5, is applied to a meteorological problem, forecasting maritime fog, for which a reliable expert system has been previously developed. Two detasets are used: 1) weather ship observations originally used for testing and evaluating the expert system, and 2) buoy measurements taken off the coast of California. For both datasets, the rules produced by C4.5 are reasonable and make physical sense, thus demonstrating that an objective induction approach can reveal physical processes directly from data. For the ship database, the machine-generated rules are not as accurate as those from the expert system but are still significantly better than persistence forecasts. For the buoy data, the forecast accuracies are very high, but only slightly superior to persistence. The results indicate that the machine learning approach is a viable tool for developing meteorological expertise, but only when applied to reliable data with sufficient cases of known outcome. In those instances when such databases are available, the use of machine learning can provide useful insight that otherwise might take considerable human analysis to produce.

  16. Decision-tree and rule-induction approach to integration of remotely sensed and GIS data in mapping vegetation in disturbed or hilly environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, Brian G.; Ritman, Kim

    1991-11-01

    The integration of Landsat TM and environmental GIS data sets using artificial intelligence rule-induction and decision-tree analysis is shown to facilitate the production of vegetation maps with both floristic and structural information. This technique is particularly suited to vegetation mapping in disturbed or hilly environments that are unsuited to either conventional remote sensing methods or GIS modeling using environmental data bases.

  17. Sequential decision rules for failure detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, E. Y.; Willsky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The formulation of the decision making of a failure detection process as a Bayes sequential decision problem (BSDP) provides a simple conceptualization of the decision rule design problem. As the optimal Bayes rule is not computable, a methodology that is based on the Baysian approach and aimed at a reduced computational requirement is developed for designing suboptimal rules. A numerical algorithm is constructed to facilitate the design and performance evaluation of these suboptimal rules. The result of applying this design methodology to an example shows that this approach is a useful one.

  18. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  19. Analysis, Simulation, and Verification of Knowledge-Based, Rule-Based, and Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Mike; Rash, James; Erickson, John; Gracanin, Denis; Rouff, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Mathematically sound techniques are used to view a knowledge-based system (KBS) as a set of processes executing in parallel and being enabled in response to specific rules being fired. The set of processes can be manipulated, examined, analyzed, and used in a simulation. The tool that embodies this technology may warn developers of errors in their rules, but may also highlight rules (or sets of rules) in the system that are underspecified (or overspecified) and need to be corrected for the KBS to operate as intended. The rules embodied in a KBS specify the allowed situations, events, and/or results of the system they describe. In that sense, they provide a very abstract specification of a system. The system is implemented through the combination of the system specification together with an appropriate inference engine, independent of the algorithm used in that inference engine. Viewing the rule base as a major component of the specification, and choosing an appropriate specification notation to represent it, reveals how additional power can be derived from an approach to the knowledge-base system that involves analysis, simulation, and verification. This innovative approach requires no special knowledge of the rules, and allows a general approach where standardized analysis, verification, simulation, and model checking techniques can be applied to the KBS.

  20. Superposition-additive approach in the description of thermodynamic parameters of formation and clusterization of substituted alkanes at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Vysotsky, Yu B; Belyaeva, E A; Fomina, E S; Vasylyev, A O; Vollhardt, D; Fainerman, V B; Aksenenko, E V; Miller, R

    2012-12-01

    The superposition-additive approach developed previously was shown to be applicable for the calculations of the thermodynamic parameters of formation and atomization of conjugate systems, their dipole polarizability, molecular diamagnetic susceptibility, π-electronic ring currents, etc. In the present work, the applicability of this approach for the calculation of the thermodynamic parameters of formation and clusterization at the water/air interface of alkanes, fatty alcohols, thioalcohols, amines, nitriles, fatty acids (C(n)H(2n+1)X, X is the functional group) and cis-unsaturated carboxylic acids (C(n)H(2n-1)COOH) is studied. Using the proposed approach the thermodynamic quantities determined agree well with the available data, either calculated using the semiempirical (PM3) quantum chemical method, or obtained in experiments. In particular, for enthalpy and Gibbs' energy of the formation of substituted alkane monomers from the elementary substances, and their absolute entropy, the standard deviations of the values calculated according to the superposition-additive scheme with the mutual superimposition domain C(n-2)H(2n-4) (n is the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain) from the results of PM3 calculations for alkanes, alcohols, thioalcohols, amines, fatty acids, nitriles and cis-unsaturated carboxylic acids are respectively: 0.05, 0.004, 2.87, 0.02, 0.01, 0.77, and 0.01 kJ/mol for enthalpy; 2.32, 5.26, 4.49, 0.53, 1.22, 1.02, 5.30 J/(molK) for absolute entropy; 0.69, 1.56, 3.82, 0.15, 0.37, 0.69, 1.58 kJ/mol for Gibbs' energy, whereas the deviations from the experimental data are: 0.52, 5.75, 1.40, 1.00, 4.86 kJ/mol; 0.52, 0.63, 1.40, 6.11, 2.21 J/(molK); 2.52, 5.76, 1.58, 1.78, 4.86 kJ/mol, respectively (for nitriles and cis-unsaturated carboxylic acids experimental data are not available). The proposed approach provides also quite accurate estimates of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs' energy of boiling and melting, critical temperatures and standard heat

  1. 38 CFR 20.306 - Rule 306. Legal holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 306. Legal holidays... (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Filing § 20.306 Rule 306. Legal holidays. For the purpose of Rule 305 (§ 20.305 of this part), the legal holidays, in addition to any other day appointed...

  2. Mindset Changes Lead to Drastic Impairments in Rule Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ErEl, Hadas; Meiran, Nachshon

    2011-01-01

    Rule finding is an important aspect of human reasoning and flexibility. Previous studies associated rule finding "failure" with past experience with the test stimuli and stable personality traits. We additionally show that rule finding performance is severely impaired by a mindset associated with applying an instructed rule. The mindset was…

  3. Moving beyond Rules: The Development of a Central Nervous System Multiparameter Optimization (CNS MPO) Approach To Enable Alignment of Druglike Properties

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The interplay among commonly used physicochemical properties in drug design was examined and utilized to create a prospective design tool focused on the alignment of key druglike attributes. Using a set of six physicochemical parameters ((a) lipophilicity, calculated partition coefficient (ClogP); (b) calculated distribution coefficient at pH = 7.4 (ClogD); (c) molecular weight (MW); (d) topological polar surface area (TPSA); (e) number of hydrogen bond donors (HBD); (f) most basic center (pKa)), a druglikeness central nervous system multiparameter optimization (CNS MPO) algorithm was built and applied to a set of marketed CNS drugs (N = 119) and Pfizer CNS candidates (N = 108), as well as to a large diversity set of Pfizer proprietary compounds (N = 11 303). The novel CNS MPO algorithm showed that 74% of marketed CNS drugs displayed a high CNS MPO score (MPO desirability score ≥ 4, using a scale of 0−6), in comparison to 60% of the Pfizer CNS candidates. This analysis suggests that this algorithm could potentially be used to identify compounds with a higher probability of successfully testing hypotheses in the clinic. In addition, a relationship between an increasing CNS MPO score and alignment of key in vitro attributes of drug discovery (favorable permeability, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux, metabolic stability, and safety) was seen in the marketed CNS drug set, the Pfizer candidate set, and the Pfizer proprietary diversity set. The CNS MPO scoring function offers advantages over hard cutoffs or utilization of single parameters to optimize structure−activity relationships (SAR) by expanding medicinal chemistry design space through a holistic assessment approach. Based on six physicochemical properties commonly used by medicinal chemists, the CNS MPO function may be used prospectively at the design stage to accelerate the identification of compounds with increased probability of success. PMID:22778837

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. Multi-site study of additive genetic effects on fractional anisotropy of cerebral white matter: comparing meta and mega analytical approaches for data pooling

    PubMed Central

    Kochunov, Peter; Jahanshad, Neda; Sprooten, Emma; Nichols, Thomas E.; Mandl, René C.; Almasy, Laura; Booth, Tom; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Curran, Joanne E.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dimitrova, Rali; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T.; Hong, L. Elliot; Landman, Bennett A.; Lemaitre, Hervé; Lopez, Lorna; Martin, Nicholas G.; McMahon, Katie L.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Olvera, Rene L.; Peterson, Charles P.; Starr, John M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Toga, Arthur W.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wright, Susan N.; Bastin, Mark E.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, René S.; den Braber, Anouk; de Geus, Eco JC; Deary, Ian J.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Blangero, John; van ’t Ent, Dennis; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Combining datasets across independent studies can boost statistical power by increasing the numbers of observations and can achieve more accurate estimates of effect sizes. This is especially important for genetic studies where a large number of observations are required to obtain sufficient power to detect and replicate genetic effects. There is a need to develop and evaluate methods for joint-analytical analyses of rich datasets collected in imaging genetics studies. The ENIGMA-DTI consortium is developing and evaluating approaches for obtaining pooled estimates of heritability through meta-and mega-genetic analytical approaches, to estimate the general additive genetic contributions to the intersubject variance in fractional anisotropy (FA) measured from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We used the ENIGMA-DTI data harmonization protocol for uniform processing of DTI data from multiple sites. We evaluated this protocol in five family-based cohorts providing data from a total of 2248 children and adults (ages: 9–85) collected with various imaging protocols. We used the imaging genetics analysis tool, SOLAR-Eclipse, to combine twin and family data from Dutch, Australian and Mexican-American cohorts into one large “mega-family”. We showed that heritability estimates may vary from one cohort to another. We used two meta-analytical (the sample-size and standard-error weighted) approaches and a mega-genetic analysis to calculate heritability estimates across-population. We performed leave-one-out analysis of the joint estimates of heritability, removing a different cohort each time to understand the estimate variability. Overall, meta- and mega-genetic analyses of heritability produced robust estimates of heritability. PMID:24657781

  6. Multi-site study of additive genetic effects on fractional anisotropy of cerebral white matter: Comparing meta and megaanalytical approaches for data pooling.

    PubMed

    Kochunov, Peter; Jahanshad, Neda; Sprooten, Emma; Nichols, Thomas E; Mandl, René C; Almasy, Laura; Booth, Tom; Brouwer, Rachel M; Curran, Joanne E; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dimitrova, Rali; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T; Hong, L Elliot; Landman, Bennett A; Lemaitre, Hervé; Lopez, Lorna M; Martin, Nicholas G; McMahon, Katie L; Mitchell, Braxton D; Olvera, Rene L; Peterson, Charles P; Starr, John M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Toga, Arthur W; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wright, Margaret J; Wright, Susan N; Bastin, Mark E; McIntosh, Andrew M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; den Braber, Anouk; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Williamson, Douglas E; Blangero, John; van 't Ent, Dennis; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C

    2014-07-15

    Combining datasets across independent studies can boost statistical power by increasing the numbers of observations and can achieve more accurate estimates of effect sizes. This is especially important for genetic studies where a large number of observations are required to obtain sufficient power to detect and replicate genetic effects. There is a need to develop and evaluate methods for joint-analytical analyses of rich datasets collected in imaging genetics studies. The ENIGMA-DTI consortium is developing and evaluating approaches for obtaining pooled estimates of heritability through meta-and mega-genetic analytical approaches, to estimate the general additive genetic contributions to the intersubject variance in fractional anisotropy (FA) measured from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We used the ENIGMA-DTI data harmonization protocol for uniform processing of DTI data from multiple sites. We evaluated this protocol in five family-based cohorts providing data from a total of 2248 children and adults (ages: 9-85) collected with various imaging protocols. We used the imaging genetics analysis tool, SOLAR-Eclipse, to combine twin and family data from Dutch, Australian and Mexican-American cohorts into one large "mega-family". We showed that heritability estimates may vary from one cohort to another. We used two meta-analytical (the sample-size and standard-error weighted) approaches and a mega-genetic analysis to calculate heritability estimates across-population. We performed leave-one-out analysis of the joint estimates of heritability, removing a different cohort each time to understand the estimate variability. Overall, meta- and mega-genetic analyses of heritability produced robust estimates of heritability. PMID:24657781

  7. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  8. FeynRules - Feynman rules made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Neil D.; Duhr, Claude

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we present FeynRules, a new Mathematica package that facilitates the implementation of new particle physics models. After the user implements the basic model information ( e.g., particle content, parameters and Lagrangian), FeynRules derives the Feynman rules and stores them in a generic form suitable for translation to any Feynman diagram calculation program. The model can then be translated to the format specific to a particular Feynman diagram calculator via FeynRules translation interfaces. Such interfaces have been written for CalcHEP/CompHEP, FeynArts/FormCalc, MadGraph/MadEvent and Sherpa, making it possible to write a new model once and have it work in all of these programs. In this paper, we describe how to implement a new model, generate the Feynman rules, use a generic translation interface, and write a new translation interface. We also discuss the details of the FeynRules code.

  9. Administrative simplification: adoption of a standard for a unique health plan identifier; addition to the National Provider Identifier requirements; and a change to the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) medical data code sets. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    This final rule adopts the standard for a national unique health plan identifier (HPID) and establishes requirements for the implementation of the HPID. In addition, it adopts a data element that will serve as an other entity identifier (OEID), or an identifier for entities that are not health plans, health care providers, or individuals, but that need to be identified in standard transactions. This final rule also specifies the circumstances under which an organization covered health care provider must require certain noncovered individual health care providers who are prescribers to obtain and disclose a National Provider Identifier (NPI). Lastly, this final rule changes the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, from October 1, 2013 to October 1, 2014. PMID:22950146

  10. On the efficacy of per-relation basis performance evaluation for PPI extraction and a high-precision rule-based approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most previous Protein Protein Interaction (PPI) studies evaluated their algorithms' performance based on "per-instance" precision and recall, in which the instances of an interaction relation were evaluated independently. However, we argue that this standard evaluation method should be revisited. In a large corpus, the same relation can be described in various different forms and, in practice, correctly identifying not all but a small subset of them would often suffice to detect the given interaction. Methods In this regard, we propose a more pragmatic "per-relation" basis performance evaluation method instead of the conventional per-instance basis method. In the per-relation basis method, only a subset of a relation's instances needs to be correctly identified to make the relation positive. In this work, we also introduce a new high-precision rule-based PPI extraction algorithm. While virtually all current PPI extraction studies focus on improving F-score, aiming to balance the performance on both precision and recall, in many realistic scenarios involving large corpora, one can benefit more from a high-precision algorithm than a high-recall counterpart. Results We show that our algorithm not only achieves better per-relation performance than previous solutions but also serves as a good complement to the existing PPI extraction tools. Our algorithm improves the performance of the existing tools through simple pipelining. Conclusion The significance of this research can be found in that this research brought new perspective to the performance evaluation of PPI extraction studies, which we believe is more important in practice than existing evaluation criteria. Given the new evaluation perspective, we also showed the importance of a high-precision extraction tool and validated the efficacy of our rule-based system as the high-precision tool candidate. PMID:23566263

  11. Rule Difficulty: Teachers' Intuitions and Learners' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The need for some form of explicit grammar instruction is recognised in most current approaches to second language teaching. Since the usefulness of explicit instruction is at least to some extent dependent on the difficulty of the rules that are taught, an important question for teachers is whether their judgements of rule difficulty are…

  12. A Generalized Selection Rule for Pericyclic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Fu-Cheng; Pfeiffer, Gary V.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a convenient procedure, the Odd-Even Rule, for predicting the allowedness of forbiddenness of ground-state, pericyclic reactions. The rule is applied to a number of specific reactions. In contrast to the Woodward-Hoffman approach, the application to each reaction is always the same. (JN)

  13. Random Addition Concatenation Analysis: A Novel Approach to the Exploration of Phylogenomic Signal Reveals Strong Agreement between Core and Shell Genomic Partitions in the Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Narechania, Apurva; Baker, Richard H.; Sit, Ryan; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; DeSalle, Rob; Planet, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent whole-genome approaches to microbial phylogeny have emphasized partitioning genes into functional classes, often focusing on differences between a stable core of genes and a variable shell. To rigorously address the effects of partitioning and combining genes in genome-level analyses, we developed a novel technique called Random Addition Concatenation Analysis (RADICAL). RADICAL operates by sequentially concatenating randomly chosen gene partitions starting with a single-gene partition and ending with the entire genomic data set. A phylogenetic tree is built for every successive addition, and the entire process is repeated creating multiple random concatenation paths. The result is a library of trees representing a large variety of differently sized random gene partitions. This library can then be mined to identify unique topologies, assess overall agreement, and measure support for different trees. To evaluate RADICAL, we used 682 orthologous genes across 13 cyanobacterial genomes. Despite previous assertions of substantial differences between a core and a shell set of genes for this data set, RADICAL reveals the two partitions contain congruent phylogenetic signal. Substantial disagreement within the data set is limited to a few nodes and genes involved in metabolism, a functional group that is distributed evenly between the core and the shell partitions. We highlight numerous examples where RADICAL reveals aspects of phylogenetic behavior not evident by examining individual gene trees or a “‘total evidence” tree. Our method also demonstrates that most emergent phylogenetic signal appears early in the concatenation process. The software is freely available at http://desalle.amnh.org. PMID:22094860

  14. The use of additive and subtractive approaches to examine the nuclear localization sequence of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Brady, J. N.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been identified in the N-terminal (Ala1-Pro-Lys-Arg-Lys-Ser-Gly-Val-Ser-Lys-Cys11) amino acid sequence of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1. The importance of this amino acid sequence for nuclear transport of VP1 protein was demonstrated by a genetic "subtractive" study using the constructs pSG5VP1 (full-length VP1) and pSG5 delta 5'VP1 (truncated VP1, lacking amino acids Ala1-Cys11). These constructs were used to transfect COS-7 cells, and expression and intracellular localization of the VP1 protein was visualized by indirect immunofluorescence. These studies revealed that the full-length VP1 was expressed and localized in the nucleus, while the truncated VP1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm and not transported to the nucleus. These findings were substantiated by an "additive" approach using FITC-labeled conjugates of synthetic peptides homologous to the NLS of VP1 cross-linked to bovine serum albumin or immunoglobulin G. Both conjugates localized in the nucleus after microinjection into the cytoplasm of 3T6 cells. The importance of individual amino acids found in the basic sequence (Lys3-Arg-Lys5) of the NLS was also investigated. This was accomplished by synthesizing three additional peptides in which lysine-3 was substituted with threonine, arginine-4 was substituted with threonine, or lysine-5 was substituted with threonine. It was found that lysine-3 was crucial for nuclear transport, since substitution of this amino acid with threonine prevented nuclear localization of the microinjected, FITC-labeled conjugate.

  15. Segmentation and additive approach: A reliable technique to study noncovalent interactions of large molecules at the surface of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ana M; Scheiner, Steve; Roy, Ajit K; Garay-Tapia, Andrés M; Bustamante, John; Kar, Tapas

    2016-08-01

    This investigation explores a new protocol, named Segmentation and Additive approach (SAA), to study exohedral noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with large molecules, such as polymers and biomolecules, by segmenting the entire system into smaller units to reduce computational cost. A key criterion of the segmentation process is the preservation of the molecular structure responsible for stabilization of the entire system in smaller segments. Noncovalent interaction of linoleic acid (LA, C18 H32 O2 ), a fatty acid, at the surface of a (10,0) zigzag nanotube is considered for test purposes. Three smaller segmented models have been created from the full (10,0)-LA system and interaction energies were calculated for these models and compared with the full system at different levels of theory, namely ωB97XD, LDA. The success of this SAA is confirmed as the sum of the interaction energies is in very good agreement with the total interaction energy. Besides reducing computational cost, another merit of SAA is an estimation of the contributions from different sections of the large system to the total interaction energy which can be studied in-depth using a higher level of theory to estimate several properties of each segment. On the negative side, bulk properties, such as HOMO-LUMO (highest occupied molecular orbital - lowest occupied molecular orbital) gap, of the entire system cannot be estimated by adding results from segment models. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27241227

  16. Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities to Metals and Additional Stressors: DNA-Based Approaches for Assessing “Stress-on-Stress” Responses

    PubMed Central

    Azarbad, Hamed; van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.; Niklińska, Maria; Laskowski, Ryszard; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; van Straalen, Nico M.

    2016-01-01

    Many microbial ecology studies have demonstrated profound changes in community composition caused by environmental pollution, as well as adaptation processes allowing survival of microbes in polluted ecosystems. Soil microbial communities in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination have been shown to maintain their function by developing metal-tolerance mechanisms. In the present work, we review recent experiments, with specific emphasis on studies that have been conducted in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination that also applied DNA-based approaches. We evaluate how the “costs” of adaptation to metals affect the responses of metal-tolerant communities to other stress factors (“stress-on-stress”). We discuss recent studies on the stability of microbial communities, in terms of resistance and resilience to additional stressors, focusing on metal pollution as the initial stress, and discuss possible factors influencing the functional and structural stability of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. There is increasing evidence that the history of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes play central roles in responses of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. PMID:27314330

  17. Predicting the diffusion coefficient of water vapor through glassy HPMC films at different environmental conditions using the free volume additivity approach.

    PubMed

    Laksmana, Fesia Lestari; Hartman Kok, Paul Jean Antoine; Vromans, Herman; Van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2009-07-12

    Prediction of diffusion coefficient of polymer materials is important in the pharmaceutical research and becomes the aim of this paper. This paper bases the prediction method on the estimation of the polymer fractional free volume at different environmental conditions. Focussing on glassy polymers, the free volumes of polymer films were estimated using the model of Vrentas et al. [J.S. Vrentas, J.L. Duda, H.-C. Ling, Antiplasticization and volumetric behavior in glassy polymers, Macromolecules 21 (1988) 1470-1475]. The required data are the moisture sorption and glass transition temperature data, which were measured on various hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (used as a model material) free films at different water activities. The temperature and molecular weight particularly determine the free volume of the polymer, while the sorbed water can either decrease or increase the specific free volume of the polymer. At high water activity, the amount of water sorbed in the film increases to such level that the direct free volume addition by water becomes proportional to the contribution of the polymer itself. This confirms the importance of considering the environmental effect on the diffusivity of polymer during coating material selection. The presented approach enables the prediction of the diffusivity at any given relevant material variable and therefore has the potency to be used as a formulation development tool. PMID:19409985

  18. Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities to Metals and Additional Stressors: DNA-Based Approaches for Assessing "Stress-on-Stress" Responses.

    PubMed

    Azarbad, Hamed; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Niklińska, Maria; Laskowski, Ryszard; Röling, Wilfred F M; van Straalen, Nico M

    2016-01-01

    Many microbial ecology studies have demonstrated profound changes in community composition caused by environmental pollution, as well as adaptation processes allowing survival of microbes in polluted ecosystems. Soil microbial communities in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination have been shown to maintain their function by developing metal-tolerance mechanisms. In the present work, we review recent experiments, with specific emphasis on studies that have been conducted in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination that also applied DNA-based approaches. We evaluate how the "costs" of adaptation to metals affect the responses of metal-tolerant communities to other stress factors ("stress-on-stress"). We discuss recent studies on the stability of microbial communities, in terms of resistance and resilience to additional stressors, focusing on metal pollution as the initial stress, and discuss possible factors influencing the functional and structural stability of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. There is increasing evidence that the history of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes play central roles in responses of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. PMID:27314330

  19. Abortion ruling in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1989-08-01

    Brahams summarizes a 1989 Quebec Court of Appeal decision in an abortion case and places the ruling in the context of worldwide trends in abortion regulation. In Tremblay v. Daigle (1989 Jul 26), the Quebec court upheld a lower court injunction banning a woman from having an abortion. The injunction had been obtained by the woman's former boyfriend, the putative father. Brahams discusses the current legal status of abortion in Canada, the Daigle court's reasoning, and how the British approach to the legal status of fathers and fetuses in abortion disputes differs from the Canadian. She also briefly summarizes recent abortion-related judicial and regulatory developments in the United States, Ireland, and France. PMID:2569146

  20. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  1. 36 CFR 1280.96 - Supplemental rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental rules. 1280.96 Section 1280.96 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Additional Rules Apply for Use of Facilities in Presidential...

  2. 36 CFR 1280.96 - Supplemental rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental rules. 1280.96 Section 1280.96 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Additional Rules Apply for Use of Facilities in Presidential...

  3. 36 CFR 1280.96 - Supplemental rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental rules. 1280.96 Section 1280.96 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Additional Rules Apply for Use of Facilities in Presidential...

  4. 36 CFR 1280.96 - Supplemental rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Supplemental rules. 1280.96 Section 1280.96 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Additional Rules Apply for Use of Facilities in Presidential...

  5. 36 CFR 1280.96 - Supplemental rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental rules. 1280.96 Section 1280.96 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Additional Rules Apply for Use of Facilities in Presidential...

  6. Brainstorming, Brainstorming Rules and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, Vicky L.; Paulus, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of brainstorming experience on the ability of groups to subsequently select the best ideas for implementation. Participants generated ideas either alone or in interactive groups and with either the regular brainstorming rules or with additional rules designed to further increase the number of ideas generated. All…

  7. Comparison of mitotyper rules and phylogenetic-based mtDNA nomenclature systems.

    PubMed

    Polanskey, Deborah; Den Hartog, Bobi K; Elling, John W; Fisher, Constance L; Kepler, Russell B; Budowle, Bruce

    2010-09-01

    A consistent nomenclature scheme is necessary to characterize a forensic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype. A standard nomenclature, called the Mitotyper Rules™, has been developed that applies typing rules in a hierarchical manner reflecting the forensic practitioner's nomenclature preferences. In this work, an empirical comparison between the revised hierarchical nomenclature rules and the phylogenetic approach to mtDNA type description has been conducted on 5173 samples from the phylogenetically typed European Mitochondrial DNA Population database (EMPOP) to identify the degree and significance of any differences. The comparison of the original EMPOP types and the results of retyping these sequences using the Mitotyper Rules demonstrates a high degree of concordance between the two alignment schemes. Differences in types resulted mainly because the Mitotyper Rules selected an alignment with the fewest number of differences compared with the rCRS. In addition, several identical regions were described in more than one way in the EMPOP dataset, demonstrating a limitation of a solely phylogenetic approach in that it may not consistently type nonhaplogroup-specific sites. Using a rule-based approach, commonly occurring as well as private variants are subjected to the same rules for naming, which is particularly advantageous when typing partial sequence data. PMID:20666918

  8. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule

    PubMed Central

    Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158

  9. Returning Evidence at the Appeals Council Level. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    This final rule adopts the notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) that we published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2015. This final rule revises our rules regarding returning evidence at the Appeals Council (AC) level. Under this final rule, the AC will no longer return additional evidence it receives when the AC determines the additional evidence does not relate to the period on or before the date of the administrative law judge (ALJ) decision. PMID:26859901

  10. Modifying Intramural Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    1981-01-01

    Standard sports rules can be altered to improve the game for intramural participants. These changes may improve players' attitudes, simplify rules for officials, and add safety features to a game. Specific rule modifications are given for volleyball, football, softball, floor hockey, basketball, and soccer. (JN)

  11. Two Rules for Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important and most difficult skills of academic leadership is communication. In this column, the author defines what he considers to be the two most important rules for communication. The first rule, which he terms the "Great American Rule," involves trusting that the person on the other end of the line or the fax or the e-mail is…

  12. A Better Budget Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  15. Fuel additive programs at crossroads of regulation, market dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, K.

    1998-01-01

    Fuel additive manufacturers, gasoline marketers and automakers seem to be forgetting about the power of the marketplace in their efforts to use additives to help reduce emissions and improve vehicle performance. Recall that the port fuel injector (PFI) and intake valve deposit (IVD) problems of the 1980s were addressed quickly by the fuels industry. In just a few months after the PFID problem surfaced, additive makers had detergents on the market, and fuel marketers followed up with an effective advertising campaign. Formal regulations came about a decade later. The solution to the BMW IVD problem was similar. BMW provided an enticing incentive for oil companies to differentiate through better additives and many did. Contrast those developments with the command-and-control approach that has been in effect since January 1995. EPA`s additive rule is working almost to perfection - if adherence to strict rules is considered. All gasolines in the US are additized, and a wide variety of packages have been developed that meet the regulatory standards. But by the measure of real-world performance, the circumstances can look quite different. And with industry finalizing a better IVD test and conducting research into the need for a combustion chamber deposit (CCD) regulation, now may be the time to limit the regulatory approach and let refiners and additive suppliers return to creating products that target excellence instead of regulatory minimums.

  16. AdS perturbations, isometries, selection rules and the Higgs oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Nivesvivat, Rongvoram

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of small-amplitude perturbations in the global anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is restricted by selection rules that forbid effective energy transfer between certain sets of normal modes. The selection rules arise algebraically because some integrals of products of AdS mode functions vanish. Here, we reveal the relation of these selection rules to AdS isometries. The formulation we discover through this systematic approach is both simpler and stronger than what has been reported previously. In addition to the selection rule considerations, we develop a number of useful representations for the global AdS mode functions, with connections to algebraic structures of the Higgs oscillator, a superintegrable system describing a particle on a sphere in an inverse cosine-squared potential, where the AdS isometries play the role of a spectrum-generating algebra.

  17. The causal meaning of Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton's rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton's rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher's 'average effect of a gene substitution'. PMID:27069669

  18. Testing the applicability of artificial intelligence techniques to the subject of erythemal ultraviolet solar radiation part one: the applicability of a fuzzy rule based approach.

    PubMed

    Riad, A M; Elminir, Hamdy K; Own, Hala S; Azzam, Yosry A

    2008-02-27

    This work presents the applicability of applying a fuzzy logic approach to the calculation of noontime erythemal UV irradiance for the plain areas of Egypt. When different combinations of data sets were examined from the test performance point of view, it was found that 91% of the whole series was estimated within a deviation of less than +/-10 mW/m(2), and 9% of these deviations lay within the range of +/-15 mW/m(2) to +/-25 mW/m(2). PMID:18249003

  19. 5 CFR 8301.107 - Additional rules for RD employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... not exempt the employee from complying with other applicable programmatic requirements under 7 CFR..., including brokers, sales agents, mortgage lenders, and other financial servers; (ii) Title and...

  20. 5 CFR 8301.107 - Additional rules for RD employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... not exempt the employee from complying with other applicable programmatic requirements under 7 CFR..., including brokers, sales agents, mortgage lenders, and other financial servers; (ii) Title and...

  1. 5 CFR 8301.107 - Additional rules for RD employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... not exempt the employee from complying with other applicable programmatic requirements under 7 CFR..., including brokers, sales agents, mortgage lenders, and other financial servers; (ii) Title and...

  2. 5 CFR 8301.107 - Additional rules for RD employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... not exempt the employee from complying with other applicable programmatic requirements under 7 CFR..., including brokers, sales agents, mortgage lenders, and other financial servers; (ii) Title and...

  3. 77 FR 72268 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... associated with the proposed collection of information; and Estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs... Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr dito Tributario... Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr dito...

  4. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Airworthiness of the manufacturer concerned: (1) The drive shafts or similar systems. (2) The main rotor transmission gear box for obvious defects. (3) The main rotor and center section (or the equivalent area). (4) The auxiliary rotor on helicopters. (c) Annual and 100-hour inspections. (1) Each person performing...

  5. 78 FR 71468 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...-130074-11) was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 72268) on December 5, 2012. A public hearing was... repayment occurs within the period of limitations for refund, the employer can repay or reimburse the social... an interest-free adjustment, for the social security and Medicare tax overwithholding. However,...

  6. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  7. Generating mask inspection rules for advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, Karen; Broadbent, Bill; Dayal, Aditya; Gallagher, Emily; Hsiang, ChingYun; Redding, Vincent

    2005-11-01

    Semiconductor product designs are necessarily constrained by both the wafer and mask lithographic capabilities. When mask image sizes approach the exposure wavelength, optical and resist effects distort the printed images. Applying optical proximity correction (OPC) to design features on the mask compensates for diffraction effects. However, aggressive OPC introduces even smaller minimum features, adds notches and bulges, introduces sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) and generally creates a more challenging mask design with respect to data handling, printing and inspection. Mask defect inspection is a critical part of the mask process, ensuring that the mask pattern matches the intended design. However, the inspection itself imposes constraints on mask patterns that can be inspected with high defect sensitivity but low nuisance defect counts. These additional restrictions are undesirable since they can reduce the effectiveness of the OPC. IBM and KLA-Tencor have developed a test mask methodology to investigate the inspectability limits of the 576 and 516 mask inspection systems. The test mask design contains a variety of rules or features that currently impose inspectability limits on the inspection tools, in a range of sizes. The design also incorporates many features essential for obtaining valid results, such as a user-friendly layout, multiple pattern orientations, and background patterns. The mask was built and inspected in IBM Burlington's mask house. Preliminary inspection results will be presented; they underscore the importance of understanding both the inspection tool and the mask process when restricting mask design rules.

  8. Identification of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients by transcriptome-based rule set generation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Discrimination of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients from patients with other inflammatory or degenerative joint diseases or healthy individuals purely on the basis of genes differentially expressed in high-throughput data has proven very difficult. Thus, the present study sought to achieve such discrimination by employing a novel unbiased approach using rule-based classifiers. Methods Three multi-center genome-wide transcriptomic data sets (Affymetrix HG-U133 A/B) from a total of 79 individuals, including 20 healthy controls (control group - CG), as well as 26 osteoarthritis (OA) and 33 RA patients, were used to infer rule-based classifiers to discriminate the disease groups. The rules were ranked with respect to Kiendl’s statistical relevance index, and the resulting rule set was optimized by pruning. The rule sets were inferred separately from data of one of three centers and applied to the two remaining centers for validation. All rules from the optimized rule sets of all centers were used to analyze their biological relevance applying the software Pathway Studio. Results The optimized rule sets for the three centers contained a total of 29, 20, and 8 rules (including 10, 8, and 4 rules for ‘RA’), respectively. The mean sensitivity for the prediction of RA based on six center-to-center tests was 96% (range 90% to 100%), that for OA 86% (range 40% to 100%). The mean specificity for RA prediction was 94% (range 80% to 100%), that for OA 96% (range 83.3% to 100%). The average overall accuracy of the three different rule-based classifiers was 91% (range 80% to 100%). Unbiased analyses by Pathway Studio of the gene sets obtained by discrimination of RA from OA and CG with rule-based classifiers resulted in the identification of the pathogenetically and/or therapeutically relevant interferon-gamma and GM-CSF pathways. Conclusion First-time application of rule-based classifiers for the discrimination of RA resulted in high performance, with means

  9. LVQ algorithm with instance weighting for generation of prototype-based rules.

    PubMed

    Blachnik, Marcin; Duch, Włodzisław

    2011-10-01

    Crisp and fuzzy-logic rules are used for comprehensible representation of data, but rules based on similarity to prototypes are equally useful and much less known. Similarity-based methods belong to the most accurate data mining approaches. A large group of such methods is based on instance selection and optimization, with the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm being a prominent example. Accuracy of LVQ depends highly on proper initialization of prototypes and the optimization mechanism. This paper introduces prototype initialization based on context dependent clustering and modification of the LVQ cost function that utilizes additional information about class-dependent distribution of training vectors. This approach is illustrated on several benchmark datasets, finding simple and accurate models of data in the form of prototype-based rules. PMID:21726977

  10. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  11. Experiments with rule writer, a tool for building expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Drastal, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses some results of experiments with rule writer, an artificial intelligence system that assists knowledge engineers with the task of writing inference rules for a rule-based expert consultation system. Rule writer (RW) is a tool for building models of medical diagnosis in the expert formalism. RW is used primarily in an early stage of expert system development, to generate a prototype rule base. In addition, RW is a testbed for experimenting with alternative organizations of expert knowledge in an inference rule representation. 4 references.

  12. 40 CFR 197.37 - Can EPA amend this rule?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can EPA amend this rule? 197.37... Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.37 Can EPA amend this rule? Yes. We can amend this rule by conducting another notice-and-comment rulemaking. Such a...

  13. Nonlinear dynamics and global analysis of a heterogeneous Cournot duopoly with a local monopolistic approach versus a gradient rule with endogenous reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad; Tramontana, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    We study a heterogeneous duopolistic Cournotian game, in which the firms, producing a homogeneous good, have reduced rationality and respectively adopt a "Local Monopolistic Approximation" (LMA) and a gradient-based approach with endogenous reactivity, in an economy characterized by isoelastic demand function and linear total costs. We give conditions on reactivity and marginal costs under which the solution converges to the Cournot-Nash equilibrium. Moreover, we compare the stability regions of the proposed oligopoly to a similar one, in which the LMA firm is replaced by a best response firm, which is more rational than the LMA firm. We show that, depending on costs ratio, the equilibrium can lose its stability in two different ways, through both a flip and a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. We show that the nonlinear, noninvertible map describing the model can give rise to several coexisting stable attractors (multistability). We analytically investigate the shape of the basins of attractions, in particular proving the existence of regions known in the literature as lobes.

  14. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. PMID:22478201

  15. Strategy as simple rules.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple. PMID:11189455

  16. Thermal behaviors of light unflavored tensor mesons in the framework of QCD sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, K.; Türkan, A.; Sundu, H.; Veli Veliev, E.; Yazıcı, E.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we investigated the sensitivity of the masses and decay constants of f2(1270) and a2(1320) tensor mesons to the temperature using OCD sum rule approach. In our calculations, we take into account new additional operators appearing in operator product expansion (OPE). At the end of numerical analyses we show that at deconfinement temperature the decay constants and masses decreased by 6% and 96% of their vacuum values, respectively. Our results on the masses and decay constants at zero temperature of the tensor mesons are consistent with the experimental data as well as the vacuum sum rules predictions.

  17. The 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Kids > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A Text Size en español La regla de los 5 segundos Almost everyone has dropped some food on ...

  18. Are Intuitive Rules Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavy, Ruth; Babai, Reuven; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Lin, Fou-Lai; McRobbie, Campbell

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-cultural study on the intuitive rules theory. The study was conducted in Australia (with aboriginal children) in Taiwan and in Israel. Our findings indicate that Taiwanese and Australian Aboriginal students, much like Israeli ones, provided incorrect responses, most of which were in line with the intuitive rules. Also,…

  19. Beyond Rules to Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Rules are not helpful in the adult-child community. They are usually stated in the negative: "No," "Don't," etc. The way they are worded, adults seem to expect children to break them. Even when they are not totally negative, like "Be nice to your friends," rules have an "or else" moral implication that adults carry around in their heads. When…

  20. Understanding of Jeans Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C. Y.

    2002-11-01

    Jeans empirical rule has always been used in planetary physics. From the static equation of atmosphere, the equation of state for ideal gases, the law of gravitation and the law of Maxwell distribution, Jeans empirical rule can be derived. Therefore, it seems that Jeans empirical rule should be called Jeans rule. It can be formulated in three forms: in terms of velocity, height, or energy. These three formulations are completely equivalent. According to concrete situation, any one of these forms can be taken freely and used as a criterion, which define whether the atmospheric composition of a given species of particles at the planet surface will exist "forever" or not. The factor in the energy formulation will be neither too large nor too small. According to statistical theory, taking the viewpoint of energy, Jeans rule can be explained more easily. The condition satisfying Jeans rule is only the necessary condition for a given species of partials to be major atmospheric composition of the planets which have dense atmosphere. Jeans rule is not only applicable for the planets and satellites in the solar system, but also suitable for the asteroids, meteoroids and outer solar system objects, such as Centaurs and Kuiper belt objects. The application scope of Jeans rule can be expressed with nomogram as well as defined by equation or by figures. Having been widely used for a long time, it still has a general practical significance in detecting age of planets in the solar system nowadays, especially for the research of outer solar system objects.

  1. Delayed rule following

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects. PMID:22478363

  2. Core Rules of Netiquette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rules of etiquette for communicating via computer networks, including conversing as politely as you would face-to-face; ethical behavior; becoming familiar with the domain that you are in; rules for discussion groups; quality of writing; sharing appropriate knowledge; and respecting individuals' privacy. (LRW)

  3. 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5-second rule" — that random saying about how food won't become contaminated with bacteria if you pick it up off the floor in 5 seconds or less. The 5-second rule has become such a part of our culture that scientists actually tested it. As you can ...

  4. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  5. Stopping Rules for Turbo Decoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matache, A.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.

    2000-04-01

    Decoders for turbo codes are iterative in nature, i.e., they have to perform a certain number of iterations before reaching a satisfactory degree of confidence regarding a frame to be decoded. Until now standard turbo decoders have used a fixed number of iterations. In this article, we propose some simple "stopping rules" that can be used to reduce the average number of iterations. This technique offers a trade-off between speed and performance and can provide a significant increase in the average decoding speed while not sacrificing decoder performance. We tested several types of stopping rules for turbo decoders. One type is based on comparing decoded bits (hard bit decisions) with previous decoded bits; a second type is based on comparing reliabilities (soft bit decisions) with a threshold; and a third type uses a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code applied to hard decoded bits. We simulated turbo decoder performance using these rules (including several variations of t he first two types) and further required that the decoder cease after 20 iterations if the stopping rule is not yet satisfied. Specifically, we analyzed the decoder-error rates and the average number of iterations for each rule. We found that the average number of iterations was roughly between 4 and 7 for a bit signal-to-noise ratio, E_b/N_0, near the "waterfall" threshold, as compared with the 10 fixed iterations used by the current turbo decoder. In addition, the resulting error rates were noticeably lower than those for 10 fixed iterations, and in fact were very nearly equal to the error rates achieved by a decoder using 20 fixed iterations.

  6. Basic-functionalized recyclable ionic liquid catalyst: A solvent-free approach for Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to nitroalkenes under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Narayanaperumal, Senthil; da Silva, Rodrigo César; Feu, Karla Santos; de la Torre, Alexander Fernández; Corrêa, Arlene G; Paixão, Márcio Weber

    2013-05-01

    A task-specific ionic liquid (TSIL) has been introduced as a recyclable catalyst in Michael addition. A series of nitroalkenes and various C-based nucleophiles were reacted in the presence of 30mol% of recyclable basic-functionalized ionic liquid. Good to excellent yields were obtained in 30min under ultrasound irradiation. PMID:23218731

  7. Developing the Understanding and Practice of Inclusion in Higher Education for International Students with Disabilities/Additional Needs: A Whole Schooling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Briony; Abgenyega, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present research on inclusion in higher education using a whole schooling philosophy. We seek insight into the perspectives of international students with disabilities/additional needs, three of whom from this particular research group are from non-English speaking backgrounds and attending the same university in Melbourne,…

  8. 78 FR 55339 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ...). \\10\\ See 77 FR 52856 (August 30, 2012). The NPR titled ``Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches... Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-weighted Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital Rule;...

  9. Response-time optimization of rule-based expert systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zupan, Blaz; Cheng, Albert M. K.

    1994-03-01

    Real-time rule-based decision systems are embedded AI systems and must make critical decisions within stringent timing constraints. In the case where the response time of the rule- based system is not acceptable, it has to be optimized to meet both timing and integrity constraints. This paper describes a novel approach to reduce the response time of rule-based expert systems. Our optimization method is twofold: the first phase constructs the reduced cycle-free finite state transition system corresponding to the input rule-based system, and the second phase further refines the constructed transition system using the simulated annealing approach. The method makes use of rule-base system decomposition, concurrency, and state- equivalency. The new and optimized system is synthesized from the derived transition system. Compared with the original system, the synthesized system has fewer number of rule firings to reach the fixed point, is inherently stable, and has no redundant rules.

  10. Following the Rules.

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
. PMID:27105186

  11. Metal-assisted addition of a nitrate anion to bis(oxy)enamines. A general approach to the synthesis of α-nitroxy-oxime derivatives from nitronates.

    PubMed

    Naumovich, Yana A; Buckland, Victoria Emily; Sen'ko, Dmitry A; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Khoroshutina, Yulia A; Sukhorukov, Alexey Yu; Ioffe, Sema L

    2016-04-28

    The synthesis of α-nitroxy-substituted oxime derivatives has been achieved by an unprecedented metal-assisted addition of a nitrate anion to bis(oxy)enamines, which are readily available from nitronates or nitroalkanes. The method has a broad scope and provides access to α-nitroxy-oximes and their cyclic ethers including nitroxy-substituted isoxazolines and dihydro-1,2-oxazines, which are of interest as potential NO-donors and intermediates in the synthesis of bioactive molecules. PMID:27050291

  12. Quark counting rules: old and new approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2010-01-01

    I discuss the subject of powerlike asymptotic behavior of hadronic form factors in pre-QCD analyses of soft (Feynman/Drell-Yan) and hard (West) mechanisms, and also recent derivation of $1/Q^2$ asymptotics of meson form factors in AdS/QCD. At the end, I briefly comment on ``light-front holography' ansatz.

  13. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  14. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  15. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition to those established in...

  16. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do not... additional orders in each case as may be deemed necessary....

  17. 47 CFR 74.28 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 74.28 Section 74.28... Services in Part 74 § 74.28 Additional orders. In case the rules contained in this part do not cover all... additional orders in each case as may be deemed necessary....

  18. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  19. The vector ruling protractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    The theory, structure and working of a vector slide rule is presented in this report. This instrument is used for determining a vector in magnitude and position when given its components and its moment about a point in their plane.

  20. (FIELD) SYMMETRIZATION SELECTION RULES

    SciTech Connect

    P. PAGE

    2000-08-01

    QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.

  1. Methodologic standards for interpreting clinical decision rules in emergency medicine: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Green, Steven M; Schriger, David L; Yealy, Donald M

    2014-09-01

    Clinical decision rules are increasingly prominent in medicine, particularly in emergency care. The quality, use, and impact of current published decision rules widely vary, requiring clinicians to be critical consumers. We present an approach to assist in the appraisal of clinical decision rules and in judging when to use such rules. PMID:24530108

  2. Pushing the rules: effects and aftereffects of deliberate rule violations.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Robert; Pfister, Roland; Foerster, Anna; Huestegge, Lynn; Kunde, Wilfried

    2016-09-01

    Most of our daily life is organized around rules and social norms. But what makes rules so special? And what if one were to break a rule intentionally? Can we simply free us from the present set of rules or do we automatically adhere to them? How do rule violations influence subsequent behavior? To investigate the effects and aftereffects of violating simple S-R rule, we conducted three experiments that investigated continuous finger-tracking responses on an iPad. Our experiments show that rule violations are distinct from rule-based actions in both response times and movement trajectories, they take longer to initiate and execute, and their movement trajectory is heavily contorted. Data not only show differences between the two types of response (rule-based vs. violation), but also yielded a characteristic pattern of aftereffects in case of rule violations: rule violations do not trigger adaptation effects that render further rule violations less difficult, but every rule violation poses repeated effort on the agent. The study represents a first step towards understanding the signature and underlying mechanisms of deliberate rule violations, they cannot be acted out by themselves, but require the activation of the original rule first. Consequently, they are best understood as reformulations of existing rules that are not accessible on their own, but need to be constantly derived from the original rule, with an add-on that might entail an active tendency to steer away from mental representations that reflect (socially) unwanted behavior. PMID:26245822

  3. Priming of Soil Carbon Decomposition in Two Inner Mongolia Grassland Soils following Sheep Dung Addition: A Study Using 13C Natural Abundance Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Yanfen; Wang, Chengjie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C) sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content) and a heavily degraded Artemisia frigida dominated community (1.3% organic matter content). Dung was collected from sheep either fed on L. chinensis (C3 plant with δ13C = −26.8‰; dung δ13C = −26.2‰) or Cleistogenes squarrosa (C4 plant with δ13C = −14.6‰; dung δ13C = −15.7‰). Fresh C3 and C4 sheep dung was mixed with the two grassland soils and incubated under controlled conditions for analysis of 13C-CO2 emissions. Soil samples were taken at days 17, 43, 86, 127 and 152 after sheep dung addition to detect the δ13C signal in soil and dung components. Analysis revealed that 16.9% and 16.6% of the sheep dung C had decomposed, of which 3.5% and 2.8% was sequestrated in the soils of L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands, respectively, while the remaining decomposed sheep dung was emitted as CO2. The cumulative amounts of C respired from dung treated soils during 152 days were 7–8 times higher than in the un-amended controls. In both grassland soils, ca. 60% of the evolved CO2 originated from the decomposing sheep dung and 40% from the native soil C. Priming effects of soil C decomposition were observed in both soils, i.e. 1.4 g and 1.6 g additional soil C kg−1 dry soil had been emitted as CO2 for the L. chinensis and A. frigida soils, respectively. Hence, the net C losses from L. chinensis and A. frigida soils were 0.6 g and 0.9 g C kg−1 soil, which was 2.6% and 7.0% of the total C in L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands soils, respectively. Our results suggest that grazing of degraded Inner Mongolian pastures may cause a net soil C loss due to the positive priming effect, thereby accelerating soil deterioration. PMID:24236024

  4. Bayesian design of decision rules for failure detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, E. Y.; Willsky, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    The formulation of the decision making process of a failure detection algorithm as a Bayes sequential decision problem provides a simple conceptualization of the decision rule design problem. As the optimal Bayes rule is not computable, a methodology that is based on the Bayesian approach and aimed at a reduced computational requirement is developed for designing suboptimal rules. A numerical algorithm is constructed to facilitate the design and performance evaluation of these suboptimal rules. The result of applying this design methodology to an example shows that this approach is potentially a useful one.

  5. 33 CFR 403.2 - Scope of rules. [Rule 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of rules. 403.2 Section 403.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.2 Scope of rules. These rules...

  6. 33 CFR 403.2 - Scope of rules. [Rule 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of rules. 403.2 Section 403.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.2 Scope of rules. These rules...

  7. 33 CFR 403.2 - Scope of rules. [Rule 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of rules. 403.2 Section 403.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.2 Scope of rules. These rules...

  8. 33 CFR 403.2 - Scope of rules. [Rule 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scope of rules. 403.2 Section 403.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.2 Scope of rules. These rules...

  9. 33 CFR 403.2 - Scope of rules. [Rule 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope of rules. 403.2 Section 403.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.2 Scope of rules. These rules...

  10. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura J.; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J.; Paller, Ken A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. PMID:25447376

  11. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. PMID:25447376

  12. Enhancement of antimicrobial activities of whole and sub-fractionated white tea by addition of copper (II) sulphate and vitamin C against Staphylococcus aureus; a mechanistic approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    . Investigations to establish which WTF component/s and in what proportions additives are most effective against target organisms are warranted. PMID:22093997

  13. Rule-governed behavior: Unifying radical and paradigmatic behaviorism

    PubMed Central

    Burns, G. Leonard; Staats, Arthur W.

    1991-01-01

    Commonalities and differences between Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior and the paradigmatic behaviorism (PB) approach are described as a means of introducing the latter to behavior analysis. The focus is on treating the topic of rule-governed behavior—a topic of current interest in behavior analysis in addressing the challenge of cognitive psychology—within the PB framework. Dealing behaviorally with traditional psychology interests is considered important in PB, and this article aims to advance toward that goal. PB has presented a framework that deals with not only the behavioral description of language but also with language function as well as language acquisition. This includes a treatment of the manner in which verbal stimuli generally can control motor behavior. This framework includes analyses in addition to those present in the behavior analytic framework, along with empirical developments, and these can be used to enhance a behavioral understanding of important parts of verbal behavior and the effects of verbal stimuli on behavior, including rule-governed phenomena. Our purpose is to use the particular topic of rule-governed behavior to argue that a more explicit interaction between radical and paradigmatic behaviorism would advance behaviorism and also enable it to have a stronger impact upon psychology and the scientific community. PMID:22477636

  14. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  15. Rule-based spatial modeling with diffusing, geometrically constrained molecules

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We suggest a new type of modeling approach for the coarse grained, particle-based spatial simulation of combinatorially complex chemical reaction systems. In our approach molecules possess a location in the reactor as well as an orientation and geometry, while the reactions are carried out according to a list of implicitly specified reaction rules. Because the reaction rules can contain patterns for molecules, a combinatorially complex or even infinitely sized reaction network can be defined. For our implementation (based on LAMMPS), we have chosen an already existing formalism (BioNetGen) for the implicit specification of the reaction network. This compatibility allows to import existing models easily, i.e., only additional geometry data files have to be provided. Results Our simulations show that the obtained dynamics can be fundamentally different from those simulations that use classical reaction-diffusion approaches like Partial Differential Equations or Gillespie-type spatial stochastic simulation. We show, for example, that the combination of combinatorial complexity and geometric effects leads to the emergence of complex self-assemblies and transportation phenomena happening faster than diffusion (using a model of molecular walkers on microtubules). When the mentioned classical simulation approaches are applied, these aspects of modeled systems cannot be observed without very special treatment. Further more, we show that the geometric information can even change the organizational structure of the reaction system. That is, a set of chemical species that can in principle form a stationary state in a Differential Equation formalism, is potentially unstable when geometry is considered, and vice versa. Conclusions We conclude that our approach provides a new general framework filling a gap in between approaches with no or rigid spatial representation like Partial Differential Equations and specialized coarse-grained spatial simulation systems like

  16. Sum rules for leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of flavor in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briefly sketch how this happens and discuss briefly the impact of renormalization group corrections to the mass sum rules.

  17. Alternate Rules of Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2014-11-01

    The Weyl correspondence rule (107) is not unique: there are a host of alternate equivalent association rules which specify corresponding representations. All these representations with equivalent formalisms are typified by characteristic quasi-distribution functions and ⋆-products, all systematically inter-convertible among themselves. They have been surveyed comparatively and organized in [Lee95, BJ84], on the basis of seminal classification work by Cohen [Coh66, Coh76]. Like different coordinate transformations, they may be favored by virtue of their different characteristic properties in varying applications...

  18. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions. PMID:26934755

  19. The IUPAC Rules for Naming Organic Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skonieczny, Stanislaw

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to naming polyfunctional organic compounds is presented. Latest IUPAC rules are incorporated and the table of order of precedence for the major functional groups is assembled. The scope of nomenclature is limited to common functional groups that are covered by undergraduate courses in colleges and universities. (Contains 1…

  20. Double Linear Damage Rule for Fatigue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G.; Manson, S.

    1985-01-01

    Double Linear Damage Rule (DLDR) method for use by structural designers to determine fatigue-crack-initiation life when structure subjected to unsteady, variable-amplitude cyclic loadings. Method calculates in advance of service how many loading cycles imposed on structural component before macroscopic crack initiates. Approach eventually used in design of high performance systems and incorporated into design handbooks and codes.

  1. The Quantization Rule and Maslov Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiao-Yan

    Within extensions of the new quantization rule approach in arbitrary dimensions, the Maslov indices and energy spectra of some exactly solvable potentials are presented. We find that the Maslov index for the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions agrees well with those obtained by other methods.

  2. Using a mask rule checker as an electrical rule checker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Design complexity sometimes grows faster than EDA tools performances, and some innovation should be made on the design flow to guarantee the best possible validation in a reasonable time. This was the challenge we were facing for the final layout validation of a 3 billions transistors, multi cores chip designed for a 28nm process. The design backend validation requires multiple tools: the LVS to check connectivity, the DRC to check layout rules and the ERC to check any risk of power drop among the whole chip. While the 2 first tools are able to deal with huge designs by using hierarchical approaches, Electrical Rule Checking is much more complicated as the power routing is generally made flat at the top level of the chip. The classical ERC tools were not able to validate the power distribution at top level. The power distribution was made through a power grid using two metal layers and arrays of vias to connect each block at deeper metal layers. The chip is made of 256 processors and has a quite regular structure so that each module has it own power grid with the same pitch and every thing should be butting or properly connected at top level. It has then been decided to use a very efficient tool dedicated to geometrical verification of flat designs (typically a Mask Rule Checker) to check any interruption on power lines or missing vias in arrays. This paper will describe how this validation was performed as well as the performances obtained on a 28nm, 3 billions transistors design.

  3. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    A new fuzzy set based technique that was developed for decision making is discussed. It is a method to generate fuzzy decision rules automatically for image analysis. This paper proposes a method to generate rule-based approaches to solve problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  4. A search for good lattice rules based on the reciprocal lattice generator matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lyness, J.N.; Newman, W.

    1989-01-01

    The search for cost-effective lattice rules is a time-consuming and difficult process. After a brief overview of some of the lattice theory relevant to these rules, a new approach to this search is suggested. This approach is based on a classification of lattice rules using the upper triangular lattice form'' of the reciprocal lattice generator matrix. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Malott, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly reinforce or punish the cultural practices (e.g., the food increase is too delayed to reinforce the cow worship). Therefore, the molar, materialistic contingencies need the support of molecular, behavioral contingencies. And according to the present theory of rule-governed behavior, the statement of rules describing those molar, materialistic contingencies can establish the needed molecular contingencies. Given the proper behavioral history, such rule statements combine with noncompliance to produce a learned aversive condition (often labeled fear, anxiety, or guilt). The termination of this aversive condition reinforces compliance, just as its presentation punishes noncompliance (e.g., the termination of guilt reinforces the tending to a sick cow). In addition, supernatural rules often supplement these materialistic rules. Furthermore, the production of both materialistic and supernatural rules needs cultural designers who understand the molar, materialistic contingencies. PMID:22478012

  6. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology.

    PubMed

    Malott, R W

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly reinforce or punish the cultural practices (e.g., the food increase is too delayed to reinforce the cow worship). Therefore, the molar, materialistic contingencies need the support of molecular, behavioral contingencies. And according to the present theory of rule-governed behavior, the statement of rules describing those molar, materialistic contingencies can establish the needed molecular contingencies. Given the proper behavioral history, such rule statements combine with noncompliance to produce a learned aversive condition (often labeled fear, anxiety, or guilt). The termination of this aversive condition reinforces compliance, just as its presentation punishes noncompliance (e.g., the termination of guilt reinforces the tending to a sick cow). In addition, supernatural rules often supplement these materialistic rules. Furthermore, the production of both materialistic and supernatural rules needs cultural designers who understand the molar, materialistic contingencies. PMID:22478012

  7. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF...

  8. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF...

  9. 47 CFR 74.28 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional orders. 74.28 Section 74.28 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES General; Rules Applicable to All Services in Part 74 § 74.28 Additional...

  10. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do not cover all phases of operation with...

  11. 46 CFR 502.314 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 502.314 Section 502.314 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.314 Additional information. The administrative law...

  12. 46 CFR 502.314 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information. 502.314 Section 502.314 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.314 Additional information. The administrative law...

  13. 75 FR 6869 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 12/11/2009 (74 FR 65758) and 12/18/2009 (74 FR... rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings...; ] COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions...

  14. 16 CFR 436.9 - Additional prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional prohibitions. 436.9 Section 436.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Prohibitions § 436.9 Additional prohibitions. It is an unfair or deceptive act...

  15. An Airship Slide Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, E R; Pickering, S F

    1924-01-01

    This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant.

  16. Elimination of Social Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Teddy

    The thesis of this document is that arbitrary social rules must be eliminated. Chapters cover: (1) what it is like to be a student whose personal activities are controlled; (2) the necessity of environmental freedom as a prerequisite to successful educational reform; (3) the question of environmental control; (4) the legal history of environmental…

  17. Cramer's Rule Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

  18. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  19. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  20. Willpower and Personal Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  1. Generating Rules and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabinger, R. Scott; Jonassen, David H.

    1989-01-01

    This seventh in a series of articles discussing expert system construction focuses on two ways to create a structure that determines a decision: (1) rule-based, or deductive, implementation; and (2) example-based, or inductive, implementation. Probability factors and confidence levels are discussed, and an example is given for selecting an…

  2. Higher Education: New Models, New Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Louis; Eaton, Judith S.; Smith, Burck

    2013-01-01

    The Internet enables new models. In the commercial world, for example, we have eBay, Amazon.com, and Netflix. These new models operate with a different set of rules than do traditional models. New models are emerging in higher education as well--for example, competency-based programs. In addition, courses that are being provided from outside the…

  3. 42 CFR 412.90 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Hosptials that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs. CMS makes an additional payment for inpatient operating costs to a hospital for indirect medical education costs attributable to an... Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.90 General rules. (a) Sole community...

  4. 76 FR 20233 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... become effective on January 1, 2012. In addition, the July 19, 2011 effective date announced at 75 FR... labeling rules (75 FR 41696). The amendments will only extend the effective date for complying with the new... Association (NEMA), on December 29, ] 2010 (75 FR 81943), the Commission published a Federal Register...

  5. 10 CFR 2.705 - Discovery-additional methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discovery-additional methods. 2.705 Section 2.705 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.705 Discovery-additional methods. (a) Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of...

  6. The vulnerability of rules in complex work environments: dynamism and uncertainty pose problems for cognition.

    PubMed

    Clewley, Richard; Stupple, Edward J N

    2015-01-01

    Many complex work environments rely heavily on cognitive operators using rules. Operators sometimes fail to implement rules, with catastrophic human, social and economic costs. Rule-based error is widely reported, yet the mechanisms of rule vulnerability have received less attention. This paper examines rule vulnerability in the complex setting of airline transport operations. We examined 'the stable approach criteria rule', which acts as a system defence during the approach to land. The study experimentally tested whether system state complexity influenced rule failure. The results showed increased uncertainty and dynamism led to increased likelihood of rule failure. There was also an interaction effect, indicating complexity from different sources can combine to further constrain rule-based response. We discuss the results in relation to recent aircraft accidents and suggest that 'rule-based error' could be progressed to embrace rule vulnerability, fragility and failure. This better reflects the influence that system behaviour and cognitive variety have on rule-based response. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we examined mechanisms of rule vulnerability in the complex setting of airline transport operations. The results suggest work scenarios featuring high uncertainty and dynamism constrain rule-based response, leading to rules becoming vulnerable, fragile or failing completely. This has significant implications for rule-intensive, safety critical work environments. PMID:25588754

  7. Caregivers program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts, with changes, the interim final rule concerning VA's Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers. VA administers this program to provide certain medical, travel, training, and financial benefits to caregivers of certain veterans and servicemembers who were seriously injured during service on or after September 11, 2001. Also addressed in this rulemaking is the Program of General Caregiver Support Services that provides support services to caregivers of veterans from all eras who are enrolled in the VA health care system. Specifically, changes in this final rule include a requirement that Veterans be notified in writing should a Family Caregiver request revocation (to no longer be a Family Caregiver), an extension of the application timeframe from 30 days to 45 days for a Family Caregiver, and a change in the stipend calculation to ensure that Primary Family Caregivers do not experience unexpected decreases in stipend amounts from year to year. PMID:25581943

  8. Two-frequency-dependent Gauss quadrature rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Joong

    2005-02-01

    We construct two-frequency-dependent Gauss quadrature rules which can be applied for approximating the integration of the product of two oscillatory functions with different frequencies [beta]1 and [beta]2 of the forms,yi(x)=fi,1(x) cos([beta]ix)+fi,2(x) sin([beta]ix), i=1,2,where the functions fi,j(x) are smooth. A regularization procedure is presented to avoid the singularity of the Jacobian matrix of nonlinear system of equations which is induced as one frequency approaches the other frequency. We provide numerical results to compare the accuracy of the classical Gauss rule and one- and two-frequency-dependent rules.

  9. 34 CFR 300.166 - Rule of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule of construction. 300.166 Section 300.166 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Additional Eligibility Requirements § 300.166 Rule of construction. In complying... inflation. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1820-0030) (Authority: 20...

  10. 34 CFR 300.166 - Rule of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Rule of construction. 300.166 Section 300.166 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Additional Eligibility Requirements § 300.166 Rule of construction. In complying... inflation. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1820-0030) (Authority: 20...

  11. 34 CFR 300.166 - Rule of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rule of construction. 300.166 Section 300.166 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Additional Eligibility Requirements § 300.166 Rule of construction. In complying... inflation. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1820-0030) (Authority: 20...

  12. 34 CFR 300.166 - Rule of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule of construction. 300.166 Section 300.166 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Additional Eligibility Requirements § 300.166 Rule of construction. In complying... inflation. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1820-0030) (Authority: 20...

  13. 34 CFR 300.166 - Rule of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule of construction. 300.166 Section 300.166 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Additional Eligibility Requirements § 300.166 Rule of construction. In complying... inflation. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1820-0030) (Authority: 20...

  14. 75 FR 47141 - Review of Personal Radio Services Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ...In this document, the Commission proposes to update, reorganize, simplify and streamline its Personal Radio Services rules to reflect technological advances and other changes in the way the American public uses the Personal Radio Services. In addition to improving the clarity of the rules, this document includes proposals intended to reduce unnecessary regulatory burdens on users, improve......

  15. Postmarket surveillance. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is implementing the postmarket surveillance (PS) provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). The purpose of this rule is to provide for the collection of useful data about devices that can reveal unforeseen adverse events or other information necessary to protect the public health. PMID:12053947

  16. Parental Rule Socialization for Preventive Health and Adolescent Rule Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Carma L.; Baxter, Leslie A.; Imes, Rebecca S.; Wolf, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family rules about nutrition, exercise, and sun protection in 164 parent-young adult children dyads. Both parents and their young adult children independently reported on health rules that they perceived throughout their child's adolescent years and the extent to which the rules were articulated, violations sanctioned, and…

  17. 76 FR 33015 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... will be marked as an Intermarket Sweep Order or ``ISO.'' See Exchange Rule 1082. COLA auctions are... auctions in the Fee Schedule to reference Rule 1082 for additional clarity. While changes to the...

  18. Incremental learning of probabilistic rules from clinical databases based on rough set theory.

    PubMed Central

    Tsumoto, S.; Tanaka, H.

    1997-01-01

    Several rule induction methods have been introduced in order to discover meaningful knowledge from databases, including medical domain. However, most of the approaches induce rules from all the data in databases and cannot induce incrementally when new samples are derived. In this paper, a new approach to knowledge acquisition, which induce probabilistic rules incrementally by using rough set technique, is introduced and was evaluated on two clinical databases. The results show that this method induces the same rules as those induced by ordinary non-incremental learning methods, which extract rules from all the datasets, but that the former method requires more computational resources than the latter approach. PMID:9357616

  19. A Categorisation of School Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and describe the content in school rules by developing a category system of school rules, and thus making the logic behind different types of rules in school explicit. Data were derived from an ethnographic study conducted in two primary schools in Sweden. In order to analyse the data, grounded theory…

  20. Morphological Rules in Russian Conjugation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Linda Kopp

    Recent analyses of Russian (Halle 1963, Lightner 1972) have been forced by the criteria of rule "naturalness" and rule "generality" to posit highly abstract underlying forms. These underlying forms and rules are claimed to represent the speaker's competence. Such analyses are now being criticized (Derwing 1973, Hooper 1974) on the following…

  1. Modifications of Team Sports Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    In general, there are two reasons for modifying the rules in sport activities: (1) to meet a specific objective or (2) to solve a perceived problem. The sense of the original game is usually not altered significantly because the number of rule changes is kept to a minimum. Changes in rules may be made for administrative or financial reasons, or to…

  2. SIRE: A Simple Interactive Rule Editor for NICBES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykat, Alex

    1988-12-01

    To support evolution of domain expertise, and its representation in an expert system knowledge base, a user-friendly rule base editor is mandatory. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES), a prototype of an expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope power storage management system, does not provide such an editor. In the following, a description of a Simple Interactive Rule Base Editor (SIRE) for NICBES is described. The SIRE provides a consistent internal representation of the NICBES knowledge base. It supports knowledge presentation and provides a user-friendly and code language independent medium for rule addition and modification. The SIRE is integrated with NICBES via an interface module. This module provides translation of the internal representation to Prolog-type rules (Horn clauses), latter rule assertion, and a simple mechanism for rule selection for its Prolog inference engine.

  3. SIRE: A Simple Interactive Rule Editor for NICBES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykat, Alex

    1988-01-01

    To support evolution of domain expertise, and its representation in an expert system knowledge base, a user-friendly rule base editor is mandatory. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES), a prototype of an expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope power storage management system, does not provide such an editor. In the following, a description of a Simple Interactive Rule Base Editor (SIRE) for NICBES is described. The SIRE provides a consistent internal representation of the NICBES knowledge base. It supports knowledge presentation and provides a user-friendly and code language independent medium for rule addition and modification. The SIRE is integrated with NICBES via an interface module. This module provides translation of the internal representation to Prolog-type rules (Horn clauses), latter rule assertion, and a simple mechanism for rule selection for its Prolog inference engine.

  4. Generalized Sum Rules of the Nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Szczepaniak, Adam

    2008-10-01

    We consider doubly virtual Compton scattering (VVCS) off the nucleon with the photon virtualities q1^2=q2^2=-Q^2 and formulate the low energy theorem (LET) for this process. We show that the LET can only be defined at finite momentum transfer t=-2Q^2 which is at variance with existing studies in the literature. Combining LET with dispersion relations for the forward VVCS amplitude, we obtain the new, correct version of the generalized sum rules of the nucleon that state a correspondence between the low energy constants of VVCS and the moments of the DIS structure functions. We notice that the t-channel unitarity is necessary to translate the forward dispersion relations to the low energy limit. This approach leads to a substantial modification of the generalized GDH sum rule at finite Q^2 that undergoes extensive studies at JLab. For the spin-independent VVCS amplitude, the new sum rule for the generalized magnetic susceptibility β(Q^2) is obtained. Our approach provides a consistent, Lorentz invariant formulation of LET for the most general VVCS process that removes inconsistencies that stain the previous studies of the generalized polarizabilities of virtual Compton scattering and the generalized sum rules of the nucleon.

  5. A combined hydrological and fuzzy rule based model for catchment scale nitrate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R. R.; Bardossy, A.; Rode, M.

    2006-12-01

    The diffuse nitrate pollution in rivers is driven by a complex interaction of hydrological and bio-chemical processes. Due to limited process understanding and restricted data availability, physically based approaches for the simulation of these dynamics are still associated with large uncertainties. Therefore we developed a combined deterministic - data driven approach, which consists of a spatially distributed water balance model WaSiM-ETH for the simulation of the different hydrological flow components and a fuzzy rule based model (FRBM) for the simulation of nitrate concentration in the river. Hydrological flow components are considered as dominant driving variables for the dynamic behaviour of nitrate concentrations in surface water The TOPMODEL approach is used for water balance and simulation of runoff components in the WaSiM-ETH model. The model is calibrated using an automatic parameter estimation program PEST. The simulated subsurface and surface runoff components are taken as input variables for the fuzzy rule based nitrate transport model. In addition to these runoff components, mean air temperature is included as an input variable for the consideration of seasonal variability. The FRBM consists of Mamdani type "IF- THEN" fuzzy rule system with triangular membership function in both the input and the output. 13 rule systems are used for the representation of the dynamics of the nitrate concentration in the river. The fuzzy rules are derived from a combination of expert knowledge and the input - output data using the simulated annealing optimization algorithm. The study was undertaken using 6 years of daily hydrological and nutrient time series data from the Weida catchment, which is a 100 km2 subcatchment of the Weisse Elster in the Elbe river basin, Germany. The results of the study show that the combined deterministic - fuzzy rule based model can give a good simulation of catchment scale nitrate dynamics. The WaSiM-ETH model produced a very good match

  6. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  7. 33 CFR 83.29 - Pilot vessels (Rule 29).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lights in a vertical line, the upper being white and the lower red; (2) When underway, in addition...), the anchor light, lights, or shape prescribed in Rule 30 for anchored vessels. (b) Vessels when...

  8. 33 CFR 83.29 - Pilot vessels (Rule 29).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lights in a vertical line, the upper being white and the lower red; (2) When underway, in addition...), the anchor light, lights, or shape prescribed in Rule 30 for anchored vessels. (b) Vessels when...

  9. 33 CFR 83.29 - Pilot vessels (Rule 29).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lights in a vertical line, the upper being white and the lower red; (2) When underway, in addition...), the anchor light, lights, or shape prescribed in Rule 30 for anchored vessels. (b) Vessels when...

  10. The causal meaning of Hamilton’s rule

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton’s original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton’s rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton’s rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher’s ‘average effect of a gene substitution’. PMID:27069669

  11. Rules for Optical Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task. GUIDING PRINCIPLES 1. Fully Understand the Task 2. Develop an Error Budget 3. Continuous Metrology Coverage 4. Know where you are 5. 'Test like you fly' 6. Independent Cross-Checks 7. Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the in-process optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  12. Rules for Optical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  13. Rules for Optical Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task. GUIDING PRINCIPLES 1.Fully Understand the Task 2.Develop an Error Budget 3.Continuous Metrology Coverage 4.Know where you are 5. 'Test like you fly' 6.Independent Cross-Checks 7.Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the in-process optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  14. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans. PMID:22950145

  15. General solution of the cyclic Leibniz rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoh, Daisuke; Ukita, Naoya

    2015-10-01

    We study the cyclic Leibniz rule (CLR) which was recently proposed as a new approach to the realization of supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the lattice. The CLR has an infinite number of solutions that give the different definitions of the lattice supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We show the general form of the solution for the naive symmetric difference operator and reveal the differences between the lattice models.

  16. Applying negative rule mining to improve genome annotation

    PubMed Central

    Artamonova, Irena I; Frishman, Goar; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2007-01-01

    Background Unsupervised annotation of proteins by software pipelines suffers from very high error rates. Spurious functional assignments are usually caused by unwarranted homology-based transfer of information from existing database entries to the new target sequences. We have previously demonstrated that data mining in large sequence annotation databanks can help identify annotation items that are strongly associated with each other, and that exceptions from strong positive association rules often point to potential annotation errors. Here we investigate the applicability of negative association rule mining to revealing erroneously assigned annotation items. Results Almost all exceptions from strong negative association rules are connected to at least one wrong attribute in the feature combination making up the rule. The fraction of annotation features flagged by this approach as suspicious is strongly enriched in errors and constitutes about 0.6% of the whole body of the similarity-transferred annotation in the PEDANT genome database. Positive rule mining does not identify two thirds of these errors. The approach based on exceptions from negative rules is much more specific than positive rule mining, but its coverage is significantly lower. Conclusion Mining of both negative and positive association rules is a potent tool for finding significant trends in protein annotation and flagging doubtful features for further inspection. PMID:17659089

  17. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  18. Implementation of artificial intelligence rules in a data base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, S.

    1986-01-01

    The intelligent front end prototype was transformed into a RIM-integrated system. A RIM-based expert system was written which demonstrated the developed capability. The use of rules to produce extensibility of the intelligent front end, including the concept of demons and rule manipulation rules were investigated. Innovative approaches such as syntax programming were to be considered.

  19. 17 CFR 37.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... into effect or amending such a rule, (as defined in § 40.1 of this chapter): (1) By electronic... TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.7 Additional requirements. (a) Products. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 5c(c) of the Act and § 40.2 of this chapter, derivatives transaction execution...

  20. 76 FR 27678 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend Rule 4120(a)(11) To Include Additional Securities in the Pilot by Which Such Rule Operates and Amend Rule 4613(a) To Simplify...

  1. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  2. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  3. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  4. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  5. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  6. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  7. The biosphere rules.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them. PMID:18314639

  8. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  9. Converting a rule-based expert system into a belief network.

    PubMed

    Korver, M; Lucas, P J

    1993-01-01

    The theory of belief networks offers a relatively new approach for dealing with uncertain information in knowledge-based (expert) systems. In contrast with the heuristic techniques for reasoning with uncertainty employed in many rule-based expert systems, the theory of belief networks is mathematically sound, based on techniques from probability theory. It therefore seems attractive to convert existing rule-based expert systems into belief networks. In this article we discuss the design of a belief network reformulation of the diagnostic rule-based expert system HEPAR. For the purpose of this experiment we have studied several typical pieces of medical knowledge represented in the HEPAR system. It turned out that, due to the differences in the type of knowledge represented and in the formalism used to represent uncertainty, much of the medical knowledge required for building the belief network concerned could not be extracted from HEPAR. As a consequence, significant additional knowledge acquisition was required. However, the objects and attributes defined in the HEPAR system, as well as the conditions in production rules mentioning these objects and attributes, were useful for guiding the selection of the statistical variables for building the belief network. The mapping of objects and attributes in HEPAR to statistical variables is discussed in detail. PMID:8289533

  10. 19 CFR 102.11 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules. 102.11 Section 102.11 Customs... RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.11 General rules. The following rules shall apply for purposes of... rules are satisfied. (b) Except for a good that is specifically described in the Harmonized System as...

  11. 9 CFR 4.1 - Scope and applicability of rules of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT... of the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2149). In addition, the Supplemental Rules of Practice set forth... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope and applicability of rules...

  12. 9 CFR 4.1 - Scope and applicability of rules of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT... of the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2149). In addition, the Supplemental Rules of Practice set forth... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and applicability of rules...

  13. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that income is under the exceptions in section 954(b)(4). In addition, the marginal costing rules do... purposes of the full costing method. (4) Application of limitation on FSC income (“no loss” rules). The...: (i) 23% of maximum combined taxable income determined under the marginal costing rules, (ii) 23%...

  14. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  16. An updated nuclear criticality slide rule

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.; Broadhead, B.L.

    1998-04-01

    This Volume 2 contains the functional version of the updated nuclear criticality slide rule (more accurately, sliding graphs) that is referenced in An Updated Nuclear Criticality Slide Rule: Technical Basis, NUREG/CR-6504, Vol. 1 (ORNL/TM-13322/V1). This functional slide rule provides a readily usable {open_quotes}in-hand{close_quotes} method for estimating pertinent nuclear criticality accident information from sliding graphs, thereby permitting (1) the rapid estimation of pertinent criticality accident information without laborious or sophisticated calculations in a nuclear criticality emergency situation, (2) the appraisal of potential fission yields and external personnel radiation exposures for facility safety analyses, and (3) a technical basis for emergency preparedness and training programs at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The slide rule permits the estimation of neutron and gamma dose rates and integrated doses based upon estimated fission yields, distance from the fission source, and time-after criticality accidents for five different critical systems. Another sliding graph permits the estimation of critical solution fission yields based upon fissile material concentration, critical vessel geometry, and solution addition rate. Another graph provides neutron and gamma dose-reduction factors for water, steel, and concrete. Graphs from historic documents are provided as references for estimating critical parameters of various fissile material systems. Conversion factors for various English and metric units are provided for quick reference.

  17. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of Rules . 22.1 Section 22.1 Accounts... OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability Office... with the Board on or after October 1, 2007....

  18. Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang

    The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.

  19. Using Rules in an `Intelligent' Information Retrieval Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    The availability of a powerful ‘rule system' is an essential requirement for any implemented methodology intended to make use of querying/inferencing techniques according to a knowledge-based approach. In this chapter, we will supply some information about the rule system of NKRL; NKRL (Narrative Knowledge Representation Language) is a powerful information retrieval environment designed to deal with non-fictional ‘narratives' of an economic interest. Rules in this context correspond to high-level reasoning paradigms like the search for causal relationships or the use of analogical techniques. Given (i) the conceptual complexity of these paradigms and (ii) the sophistication of the underlying representation language, these rules cannot be implemented in a (weak) ‘inference by inheritance' style but must follow a powerful ‘inference by resolution' approach.

  20. Development and validation of a measure of display rule knowledge: the display rule assessment inventory.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David; Yoo, Seung Hee; Hirayama, Satoko; Petrova, Galina

    2005-03-01

    As one component of emotion regulation, display rules, which reflect the regulation of expressive behavior, have been the topic of many studies. Despite their theoretical and empirical importance, however, to date there is no measure of display rules that assesses a full range of behavioral responses that are theoretically possible when emotion is elicited. This article reports the development of a new measure of display rules that surveys 5 expressive modes: expression, deamplification, amplification, qualification, and masking. Two studies provide evidence for its internal and temporal reliability and for its content, convergent, discriminant, external, and concurrent predictive validity. Additionally, Study 1, involving American, Russian, and Japanese participants, demonstrated predictable cultural differences on each of the expressive modes. PMID:15755217

  1. Trapezoidal rule quadrature algorithms for MIMD distributed memory computers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyness, J.N.; Plowman, S.E.

    1994-08-01

    An approach to multi-dimensional quadrature, designed to exploit parallel architectures, is described. This involves transforming the integral in such a way that an accurate result is given by the trapezoidal rule; and by evaluating the resulting sum in a manner which may be efficiently implemented on parallel architectures. This approach is to be implemented in the Liverpool NAG transputer library.

  2. The FDA's Final Rule on Expedited Safety Reporting: Statistical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wittes, Janet; Crowe, Brenda; Chuang-Stein, Christy; Guettner, Achim; Hall, David; Jiang, Qi; Odenheimer, Daniel; Xia, H. Amy; Kramer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    In March 2011, a Final Rule for expedited reporting of serious adverse events took effect in the United States for studies conducted under an Investigational New Drug (IND) application. In December 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) promulgated a final Guidance describing the operationalization of this Final Rule. The Rule and Guidance clarified that a clinical trial sponsor should have evidence suggesting causality before defining an unexpected serious adverse event as a suspected adverse reaction that would require expedited reporting to the FDA. The Rule's emphasis on the need for evidence suggestive of a causal relation should lead to fewer events being reported but, among those reported, a higher percentage actually being caused by the product being tested. This article reviews the practices that were common before the Final Rule was issued and the approach the New Rule specifies. It then discusses methods for operationalizing the Final Rule with particular focus on relevant statistical considerations. It concludes with a set of recommendations addressed to Sponsors and to the FDA in implementing the Final Rule. PMID:26550466

  3. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education. PMID:24384385

  4. Miner's rule revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, W.; Heuler, P.

    1994-03-01

    In the first sections, the requirements to be met by hypotheses for fatigue life prediction (including those for the crack initiation and crack propagation phases) are discussed in detail. These requirements are shown to be different for 'scientific' and for 'industrial' fatigue life prediction. Aspects with regard to an assessment of fatigue life prediction hypotheses are discussed. The last section presents the results of a large cooperative program between IABG and several automobile manufacturers, in which Miner's Rule in several versions was assessed against spectrum tests with five different actual automobile components: forged steel stub axle; forged steel stub axle, induction hardened; sheet steel welded rear axle (front wheel drive car); cast aluminum wheel; and welded sheet steel wheel. Since up to 80 components each were available, and two different, but typical, automotive stress-time histories were employed, the assessment was very thorough, avoiding many of the drawbacks of previous assessments. It is shown that damage sums to failure were usually far below 1.0; they also depended on the component in question, the aluminum wheel resulting in the lowest damage sums to failure; the damage sums to failure where always lower for a mild spectrum than for a severe one; and the influence of spectrum variation was predicted best - among the hypotheses tested - by use of a recent proposal of Zenner and Liu.

  5. A Rule-Based Framework for Gene Regulation Pathways Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczynski, B; Hvidsten, T; Kryshtafovych, A; Stubbs, L; Komorowski, J; Fidelis, K

    2003-07-21

    We present novel approach to discover the rules that govern gene regulation mechanisms. The method is based on supervised machine learning and is designed to reveal relationships between transcription factors and gene promoters. As the representation of the gene regulatory circuit we have chosen a special form of IF-THEN rules associating certain features (a generalized idea of a Transcription Factor Binding Site) in gene promoters with specific gene expression profiles.

  6. TRICARE; diabetic education. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Defense is publishing this final rule to clarify TRICARE coverage for diabetic education. This rule introduces new definitions and addresses revisions or omissions in policy or procedure inadvertently missed in previous regulatory changes pertaining to diabetic education. PMID:20695037

  7. Developmental Disabilities Program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-07-27

    This rule implements the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000. The previous regulations were completed in 1997 before the current law was passed. The rule will align the regulations and current statute and will provide guidance to AIDD grantees. PMID:26214859

  8. Art as a Singular Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avital, Doron

    2007-01-01

    This paper will examine an unresolved tension inherent in the question of art and argue for the idea of a singular rule as a natural resolution. In so doing, the structure of a singular rule will be fully outlined and its paradoxical constitution will be resolved. The tension I mention above unfolds both as a matter of history and as a product of…

  9. Exemplar Similarity and Rule Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ulrike; Prat-Sala, Merce; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Brumby, Duncan P.

    2010-01-01

    We report four experiments examining effects of instance similarity on the application of simple explicit rules. We found effects of similarity to illustrative exemplars in error patterns and reaction times. These effects arose even though participants were given perfectly predictive rules, the similarity manipulation depended entirely on…

  10. Solar-Cell Slide Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakawa, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    Slide rule relates efficiency, impurity types, impurity concentrations, and process types. Solar cell slide rule calculations are determination of allowable impurity concentration for nonredistributive process, determination of impurity buildup factor for redistributive process and determination of allowable impurity concentration for redistributive process.

  11. TOMML: A Rule Language for Structured Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Moreau, Pierre-Etienne; Reilles, Antoine

    We present the TOM language that extends JAVA with the purpose of providing high level constructs inspired by the rewriting community. TOM bridges thus the gap between a general purpose language and high level specifications based on rewriting. This approach was motivated by the promotion of rule based techniques and their integration in large scale applications. Powerful matching capabilities along with a rich strategy language are among TOM's strong features that make it easy to use and competitive with respect to other rule based languages. TOM is thus a natural choice for querying and transforming structured data and in particular XML documents [1]. We present here its main XML oriented features and illustrate its use on several examples.

  12. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  13. Rule Learning with Probabilistic Smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Gianni; Guarascio, Massimo; Manco, Giuseppe; Ortale, Riccardo; Ritacco, Ettore

    A hierarchical classification framework is proposed for discriminating rare classes in imprecise domains, characterized by rarity (of both classes and cases), noise and low class separability. The devised framework couples the rules of a rule-based classifier with as many local probabilistic generative models. These are trained over the coverage of the corresponding rules to better catch those globally rare cases/classes that become less rare in the coverage. Two novel schemes for tightly integrating rule-based and probabilistic classification are introduced, that classify unlabeled cases by considering multiple classifier rules as well as their local probabilistic counterparts. An intensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework is competitive and often superior in accuracy w.r.t. established competitors, while overcoming them in dealing with rare classes.

  14. Examining Tennessee's collateral source rule.

    PubMed

    Regan, Judith; Hadley, Edward; Regan, William M

    2008-11-01

    The common law collateral source rule was established to prevent the defendant from benefiting from their wrongful actions. Despite a trend in the United States to limit the effects of the collateral source rule, the rule remains in force in courts of the State of Tennessee. However, to assist with the malpractice crisis, the legislature prohibited this rule by statute in regards to the Medical Malpractice Act. Although this statutory prohibition of the collateral source rule worked to lessen verdicts in malpractice cases after passage, the availability of consortium damages resulting from Jordan v. Baptist Three Rivers Hospital in 1999 has worked to drive verdicts substantially higher. Regardless the Medical Malpractice Act has been held as constitutional and has been clarified through several recent Tennessee court decisions. PMID:19024250

  15. Insights from EPRI maintenance rule projects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Worledge, D.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report provides insights and their interpretation from four Tailored Collaboration projects which implemented the NRC Maintenance Rule (10CFR50.65) at nine nuclear generating units. Two of these projects involved full scale implementation of the rule at five units. The insights cover technical and implementation issues and are intended to provide additional input to utilities as they seek to resolve ambiguities in the rule. Additionally, an extensive account is provided of the technical basis for assessing, interpreting, and using, risk significance measures, developing performance criteria, and addressing the balance between reliability and availability. It is felt that with the changing climate of regulation this information will provide a resource that goes well beyond maintenance rule applications.

  16. Jointly handling potency and toxicity of antimicrobial peptidomimetics by simple rules from desirability theory and chemoinformatics.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Borges, Fernanda; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2011-12-27

    Today, emerging and increasing resistance to antibiotics has become a threat to public health worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides have unique action mechanisms making them an attractive therapeutic prospect to be applied against resistant bacteria. However, the major drawback is related with their high hemolytic activity which cancels out the safety requirements for a human antibiotic. Therefore, additional efforts are needed to develop new antimicrobial peptides that possess a greater potency for bacterial cells and less or no toxicity over erythrocytes. In this paper, we introduce a practical approach to simultaneously deal with these two conflicting properties. The convergence of machine learning techniques and desirability theory allowed us to derive a simple, predictive, and interpretable multicriteria classification rule for simultaneously handling the antibacterial and hemolytic properties of a set of cyclic β-hairpin cationic peptidomimetics (Cβ-HCPs). The multicriteria classification rule exhibited a prediction accuracy of about 80% on training and external validation sets. Results from an additional concordance test have shown an excellent agreement between the multicriteria classification rule predictions and the predictions from independent classifiers for complementary antibacterial and hemolytic activities, respectively, evidencing the reliability of the multicriteria classification rule. The rule was also consistent with the general mode of action of cationic peptides pointing out its biophysical relevance. We also propose a multicriteria virtual screening strategy based on the joint use of the multicriteria classification rule, desirability, similarity, and chemometrics concepts. The ability of such a virtual screening strategy to prioritize selective (nonhemolytic) antibacterial Cβ-HCPs was assessed and challenged for their predictivity regarding the training, validation, and overall data. In doing so, we were able to rank a selective

  17. RuleML-Based Learning Object Interoperability on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biletskiy, Yevgen; Boley, Harold; Ranganathan, Girish R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to describe an approach for building the Semantic Web rules for interoperation between heterogeneous learning objects, namely course outlines from different universities, and one of the rule uses: identifying (in)compatibilities between course descriptions. Design/methodology/approach: As proof of concept, a rule…

  18. Superselection rules and quantum protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Kitaev, Alexei; Preskill, John; Mayers, Dominic

    2004-05-01

    We show that superselection rules do not enhance the information-theoretic security of quantum cryptographic protocols. Our analysis employs two quite different methods. The first method uses the concept of a reference system--in a world subject to a superselection rule, unrestricted operations can be simulated by parties who share access to a reference system with suitable properties. By this method, we prove that if an n-party protocol is secure in a world subject to a superselection rule, then the security is maintained even if the superselection rule is relaxed. However, the proof applies only to a limited class of superselection rules, those in which the superselection sectors are labeled by unitary irreducible representations of a compact symmetry group. The second method uses the concept of the format of a message sent between parties--by verifying the format, the recipient of a message can check whether the message could have been sent by a party who performed charge-conserving operations. By this method, we prove that protocols subject to general superselection rules (including those pertaining to non-Abelian anyons in two dimensions) are no more secure than protocols in the unrestricted world. However, the proof applies only to two-party protocols. Our results show in particular that, if no assumptions are made about the computational power of the cheater, then secure quantum bit commitment and strong quantum coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias are impossible in a world subject to superselection rules.

  19. A Response from Golden Rule to "ETS on 'Golden Rule'".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, J. Patrick

    1987-01-01

    This article rebuts comments by G. R. Anrig (1987) on the Settlement Agreement that resolved the racial discrimination suit brought by the Golden Rule Insurance Company against the Educational Testing Service (ETS) and the Illinois Department of Insurance. (TJH)

  20. Universal waste rule: Final rule issued. Environmental Guidance Regulatory Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-14

    On February 11, 1993, EPA proposed to streamline the management requirements for certain hazardous wastes that were generated in large quantities by a variety of generators (i.e., residential, small businesses, industries, etc.). EPA`s intention was to facilitate the environmentally sound collection and disposal of these types of wastes. In this proposed rule, EPA termed these types of hazardous wastes ``universal wastes`` and developed a management system which was less stringent than the existing Subtitle C regulations. EPA proposed that the following three types of hazardous wastes be managed as universal wastes: batteries, certain pesticides, and thermostats. Because EPA believed that the authority to propose the promulgation of the universal waste rule was not significantly linked to HSWA provisions, the Agency proposed the promulgation of the universal waste rule under pre-HSWA authority. On May 11, 1995, at FR 25492, EPA promulgated a pre-HSWA rule that streamlined hazardous waste management regulations for universal wastes.

  1. 76 FR 17569 - Amateur Service Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document revises the Amateur Radio Service rules to amend and clarify the rules with respect to amateur stations transmitting spread spectrum emissions. The rule amendments are necessary...

  2. 75 FR 27272 - Amateur Service Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the amateur radio service rules to facilitate the use of... the amateur service rules by making them conform with other Commission rules, thereby...

  3. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... In a notice published in the Federal Register of April 8, 2010 (75 FR 17928), FDA announced that Nisso America Inc., 45 Broadway, Suite 2120, New York, NY 10006, filed a food additive petition (FAP.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food...

  4. Neural networks supporting switching, hypothesis testing, and rule application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiya; Braunlich, Kurt; Wehe, Hillary S; Seger, Carol A

    2015-10-01

    We identified dynamic changes in recruitment of neural connectivity networks across three phases of a flexible rule learning and set-shifting task similar to the Wisconsin Card Sort Task: switching, rule learning via hypothesis testing, and rule application. During fMRI scanning, subjects viewed pairs of stimuli that differed across four dimensions (letter, color, size, screen location), chose one stimulus, and received feedback. Subjects were informed that the correct choice was determined by a simple unidimensional rule, for example "choose the blue letter". Once each rule had been learned and correctly applied for 4-7 trials, subjects were cued via either negative feedback or visual cues to switch to learning a new rule. Task performance was divided into three phases: Switching (first trial after receiving the switch cue), hypothesis testing (subsequent trials through the last error trial), and rule application (correct responding after the rule was learned). We used both univariate analysis to characterize activity occurring within specific regions of the brain, and a multivariate method, constrained principal component analysis for fMRI (fMRI-CPCA), to investigate how distributed regions coordinate to subserve different processes. As hypothesized, switching was subserved by a limbic network including the ventral striatum, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus, in conjunction with cortical salience network regions including the anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortex. Activity in the ventral striatum was associated with switching regardless of how switching was cued; visually cued shifts were associated with additional visual cortical activity. After switching, as subjects moved into the hypothesis testing phase, a broad fronto-parietal-striatal network (associated with the cognitive control, dorsal attention, and salience networks) increased in activity. This network was sensitive to rule learning speed, with greater extended activity for the slowest

  5. Automated discovery of medical expert system rules from clinical databases based on rought sets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumoto, Shusaku; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    Automated knowledge acquisition is an important research issue to solve the bottleneck problem in developing expert systems. Although many inductive learning methods have been proposed for this purpose, most of the approaches focus only on inducing classification rules. However, medical experts also learn other information important for diagnosis from clinical cases. In this paper, a rule induction method is introduced, which extracts not only classification rules but also other medical knowledge needed for diagnosis. This system is evaluated on a clinical database of headache, whose experimental results show that our proposed method correctly induces diagnostic rules and estimates the statistical measures of rules.

  6. An architecture for rule based system explanation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, T. R.; Johannes, James D.

    1990-01-01

    A system architecture is presented which incorporate both graphics and text into explanations provided by rule based expert systems. This architecture facilitates explanation of the knowledge base content, the control strategies employed by the system, and the conclusions made by the system. The suggested approach combines hypermedia and inference engine capabilities. Advantages include: closer integration of user interface, explanation system, and knowledge base; the ability to embed links to deeper knowledge underlying the compiled knowledge used in the knowledge base; and allowing for more direct control of explanation depth and duration by the user. User models are suggested to control the type, amount, and order of information presented.

  7. Discovering fuzzy spatial association rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacar, Esen; Cicekli, Nihan K.

    2002-03-01

    Discovering interesting, implicit knowledge and general relationships in geographic information databases is very important to understand and use these spatial data. One of the methods for discovering this implicit knowledge is mining spatial association rules. A spatial association rule is a rule indicating certain association relationships among a set of spatial and possibly non-spatial predicates. In the mining process, data is organized in a hierarchical manner. However, in real-world applications it may not be possible to construct a crisp structure for this data, instead some fuzzy structures should be used. Fuzziness, i.e. partial belonging of an item to more than one sub-item in the hierarchy, could be applied to the data itself, and also to the hierarchy of spatial relations. This paper shows that, strong association rules can be mined from large spatial databases using fuzzy concept and spatial relation hierarchies.

  8. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  9. High Level Rule Modeling Language for Airline Crew Pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Erdal; Birbil, Ş. Ilker; Bülbül, Kerem; Yenigün, Hüsnü

    2011-09-01

    The crew pairing problem is an airline optimization problem where a set of least costly pairings (consecutive flights to be flown by a single crew) that covers every flight in a given flight network is sought. A pairing is defined by using a very complex set of feasibility rules imposed by international and national regulatory agencies, and also by the airline itself. The cost of a pairing is also defined by using complicated rules. When an optimization engine generates a sequence of flights from a given flight network, it has to check all these feasibility rules to ensure whether the sequence forms a valid pairing. Likewise, the engine needs to calculate the cost of the pairing by using certain rules. However, the rules used for checking the feasibility and calculating the costs are usually not static. Furthermore, the airline companies carry out what-if-type analyses through testing several alternate scenarios in each planning period. Therefore, embedding the implementation of feasibility checking and cost calculation rules into the source code of the optimization engine is not a practical approach. In this work, a high level language called ARUS is introduced for describing the feasibility and cost calculation rules. A compiler for ARUS is also implemented in this work to generate a dynamic link library to be used by crew pairing optimization engines.

  10. Rule-Based Runtime Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, Howard; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Sen, Koushik

    2003-01-01

    We present a rule-based framework for defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, real-time logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. Our logic, EAGLE, is implemented as a Java library and involves novel techniques for rule definition, manipulation and execution. Monitoring is done on a state-by-state basis, without storing the execution trace.

  11. ∆I = 1/2 Rule and B̂K: 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.

    2014-11-01

    I summarize the status of the ∆I = 1/2 rule in K → ππ decays within an analytic approach based on the dual representation of QCD as a theory of weakly interacting mesons for large N, where N is the number of colours. This approximate approach, developed in the 1980s by William Bardeen, Jean-Marc Gérard and myself, allowed us already 28 years ago to identify the dominant dynamics behind the ∆I = 1/2 rule. However, the recent inclusion of lowest-lying vector meson contributions in addition to the pseudoscalar ones to hadronic matrix elements of current-current operators and the calculation of the corresponding Wilson coefficients in a momentum scheme at the NLO improved significantly the matching between quark-gluon short distance contributions and meson long distance contributions over our results in 1986. We obtain satisfactory description of the ReA2 amplitude and ReA0/ReA2 = 16.0 ± 1.5 to be compared with its experimental value of 22.3. While this difference could be the result of present theoretical uncertainties in our approach, it cannot be excluded that New Physics (NP) is here at work. The analysis by Fulvia De Fazio, Jennifer Girrbach-Noe and myself shows that indeed a tree-level Z' or G' exchanges with masses in the reach of the LHC and special couplings to quarks can significantly improve the theoretical status of the ∆I = 1/2 rule while satisfying constraints from ɛK, ɛ'/ɛ, ∆MK , LEP-II and the LHC. The ratio ɛ'/ɛ plays an important role in these considerations. I stress that our approach allows to understand the physics behind recent numerical results obtained in lattice QCD not only for the ∆I = 1/2 rule but also for the parameter B̂K that enters the evaluation of ɛK. In contrast to the ∆I = 1/2 rule and ɛ'/ɛ the chapter on B̂K in QCD appears to be basically closed.

  12. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  14. Overcoming deficiencies of the rule-based medical expert system.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C A; Gose, E E; Roseman, D L

    1990-05-01

    One of the current deficiencies of the rule-based expert system is its static nature. As these systems are applied to medicine, this shortcoming becomes accentuated by: the rapid speed at which new knowledge is generated, the regional differences associated with the expression of many diseases, and the rate at which patient demographics and disease incidence change over time. This research presents a solution to the static nature of the rule-based expert system by proposing a hybrid system. This system consists of an expert system and a statistical analysis system linked to a patient database. The additional feature of a rule base manager which initiates automatic database analysis to refresh the statistical correlation of each rule ensures a dynamic, current, statistically accurate rule base. The philosophical differences between data and knowledge are also addressed as they apply to this type of hybrid system. The system is then used to generate four rule bases from different knowledge sources. These rule bases are then compared. PMID:2401135

  15. Rules and Self-Rules: Effects of Variation upon Behavioral Sensitivity to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Ana A.; Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele; da Silva Souza, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments compared the effects of self-rules and rules, and varied and specific schedules of reinforcement. Participants were first exposed to either several schedules (varied groups) or to one schedule (specific groups) and either were asked to generate rules (self-rule groups), were provided rules (rule groups), or were not asked nor…

  16. Rule Systems for Runtime Verification: A Short Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus; Rydeheard, David; Groce, Alex

    In this tutorial, we introduce two rule-based systems for on and off-line trace analysis, RuleR and LogScope. RuleR is a conditional rule-based system, which has a simple and easily implemented algorithm for effective runtime verification, and into which one can compile a wide range of temporal logics and other specification formalisms used for runtime verification. Specifications can be parameterized with data, or even with specifications, allowing for temporal logic combinators to be defined. We outline a number of simple syntactic extensions of core RuleR that can lead to further conciseness of specification but still enabling easy and efficient implementation. RuleR is implemented in Java and we will demonstrate its ease of use in monitoring Java programs. LogScope is a derivation of RuleR adding a simple very user-friendly temporal logic. It was developed in Python, specifically for supporting testing of spacecraft flight software for NASA’s next 2011 Mars mission MSL (Mars Science Laboratory). The system has been applied by test engineers to analysis of log files generated by running the flight software. Detailed logging is already part of the system design approach, and hence there is no added instrumentation overhead caused by this approach. While post-mortem log analysis prevents the autonomous reaction to problems possible with traditional runtime verification, it provides a powerful tool for test automation. A new system is being developed that integrates features from both RuleR and LogScope.

  17. Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2011-12-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new “constituent quark model” sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.

  18. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  19. Statistical Mechanics of On-line Ensemble Teacher Learning through a Novel Perceptron Learning Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Miyoshi, Seiji

    2012-06-01

    In ensemble teacher learning, ensemble teachers have only uncertain information about the true teacher, and this information is given by an ensemble consisting of an infinite number of ensemble teachers whose variety is sufficiently rich. In this learning, a student learns from an ensemble teacher that is iteratively selected randomly from a pool of many ensemble teachers. An interesting point of ensemble teacher learning is the asymptotic behavior of the student to approach the true teacher by learning from ensemble teachers. The student performance is improved by using the Hebbian learning rule in the learning. However, the perceptron learning rule cannot improve the student performance. On the other hand, we proposed a perceptron learning rule with a margin. This learning rule is identical to the perceptron learning rule when the margin is zero and identical to the Hebbian learning rule when the margin is infinity. Thus, this rule connects the perceptron learning rule and the Hebbian learning rule continuously through the size of the margin. Using this rule, we study changes in the learning behavior from the perceptron learning rule to the Hebbian learning rule by considering several margin sizes. From the results, we show that by setting a margin of κ>0, the effect of an ensemble appears and becomes significant when a larger margin κ is used.

  20. Developing Novel Reservoir Rule Curves Using Seasonal Inflow Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Hsin-yi; Tung, Ching-pin

    2015-04-01

    Due to significant seasonal rainfall variations, reservoirs and their flexible operational rules are indispensable to Taiwan. Furthermore, with the intensifying impacts of climate change on extreme climate, the frequency of droughts in Taiwan has been increasing in recent years. Drought is a creeping phenomenon, the slow onset character of drought makes it difficult to detect at an early stage, and causes delays on making the best decision of allocating water. For these reasons, novel reservoir rule curves using projected seasonal streamflow are proposed in this study, which can potentially reduce the adverse effects of drought. This study dedicated establishing new rule curves which consider both current available storage and anticipated monthly inflows with leading time of two months to reduce the risk of water shortage. The monthly inflows are projected based on the seasonal climate forecasts from Central Weather Bureau (CWB), which a weather generation model is used to produce daily weather data for the hydrological component of the GWLF. To incorporate future monthly inflow projections into rule curves, this study designs a decision flow index which is a linear combination of current available storage and inflow projections with leading time of 2 months. By optimizing linear relationship coefficients of decision flow index, the shape of rule curves and the percent of water supply in each zone, the best rule curves to decrease water shortage risk and impacts can be developed. The Shimen Reservoir in the northern Taiwan is used as a case study to demonstrate the proposed method. Existing rule curves (M5 curves) of Shimen Reservoir are compared with two cases of new rule curves, including hindcast simulations and historic seasonal forecasts. The results show new rule curves can decrease the total water shortage ratio, and in addition, it can also allocate shortage amount to preceding months to avoid extreme shortage events. Even though some uncertainties in

  1. OMB revises overhead rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    After pressure from university administrators, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has issued a new plan for saving money on research overhead costs, in place of a controversial proposal that was originally published in February 1986 (Eos, May 20, 1986, p. 481). The agency made the new plan more palatable to administrators and faculty by choosing to cap the rate of reimbursement for the activity that researchers say they find among the most difficult to document: the time they spend on administration of federally sponsored grants and contracts. An amendment to a bill signed by President Ronald Reagan on July 2 might force OMB to make additional concessions to colleges and universities.How much money the federal government would save under this policy is a matter of dispute. The agency's revisions to OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions,” call for fixing the reimbursement rate at 3% of modified total direct costs for departmental administration work done by “department heads, directors of divisions faculty, and professional staff.” The 3% figure represents about half of the current national average rate of reimbursement for these costs and would lead to federal government savings of $100 million a year, according to OMB.

  2. An Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Solution Acceptance Rule and Probabilistic Multisearch

    PubMed Central

    Yurtkuran, Alkın

    2016-01-01

    The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a popular swarm based technique, which is inspired from the intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarms. This paper proposes a new variant of ABC algorithm, namely, enhanced ABC with solution acceptance rule and probabilistic multisearch (ABC-SA) to address global optimization problems. A new solution acceptance rule is proposed where, instead of greedy selection between old solution and new candidate solution, worse candidate solutions have a probability to be accepted. Additionally, the acceptance probability of worse candidates is nonlinearly decreased throughout the search process adaptively. Moreover, in order to improve the performance of the ABC and balance the intensification and diversification, a probabilistic multisearch strategy is presented. Three different search equations with distinctive characters are employed using predetermined search probabilities. By implementing a new solution acceptance rule and a probabilistic multisearch approach, the intensification and diversification performance of the ABC algorithm is improved. The proposed algorithm has been tested on well-known benchmark functions of varying dimensions by comparing against novel ABC variants, as well as several recent state-of-the-art algorithms. Computational results show that the proposed ABC-SA outperforms other ABC variants and is superior to state-of-the-art algorithms proposed in the literature. PMID:26819591

  3. An Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Solution Acceptance Rule and Probabilistic Multisearch.

    PubMed

    Yurtkuran, Alkın; Emel, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a popular swarm based technique, which is inspired from the intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarms. This paper proposes a new variant of ABC algorithm, namely, enhanced ABC with solution acceptance rule and probabilistic multisearch (ABC-SA) to address global optimization problems. A new solution acceptance rule is proposed where, instead of greedy selection between old solution and new candidate solution, worse candidate solutions have a probability to be accepted. Additionally, the acceptance probability of worse candidates is nonlinearly decreased throughout the search process adaptively. Moreover, in order to improve the performance of the ABC and balance the intensification and diversification, a probabilistic multisearch strategy is presented. Three different search equations with distinctive characters are employed using predetermined search probabilities. By implementing a new solution acceptance rule and a probabilistic multisearch approach, the intensification and diversification performance of the ABC algorithm is improved. The proposed algorithm has been tested on well-known benchmark functions of varying dimensions by comparing against novel ABC variants, as well as several recent state-of-the-art algorithms. Computational results show that the proposed ABC-SA outperforms other ABC variants and is superior to state-of-the-art algorithms proposed in the literature. PMID:26819591

  4. Generative rules of Drosophila locomotor behavior as a candidate homology across phyla.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Oron, Efrat; Gakamsky, Anna; Dan Valente; Benjamini, Yoav; Golani, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of shared behavioral processes across phyla is a significant step in the establishment of a comparative study of behavior. We use immobility as an origin and reference for the measurement of fly locomotor behavior; speed, walking direction and trunk orientation as the degrees of freedom shaping this behavior; and cocaine as the parameter inducing progressive transitions in and out of immobility. We characterize and quantify the generative rules that shape Drosophila locomotor behavior, bringing about a gradual buildup of kinematic degrees of freedom during the transition from immobility to normal behavior, and the opposite narrowing down into immobility. Transitions into immobility unfold via sequential enhancement and then elimination of translation, curvature and finally rotation. Transitions out of immobility unfold by progressive addition of these degrees of freedom in the opposite order. The same generative rules have been found in vertebrate locomotor behavior in several contexts (pharmacological manipulations, ontogeny, social interactions) involving transitions in-and-out of immobility. Recent claims for deep homology between arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia provide an opportunity to examine whether the rules we report also share common descent. Our approach prompts the discovery of behavioral homologies, contributing to the elusive problem of behavioral evolution. PMID:27271799

  5. Generative rules of Drosophila locomotor behavior as a candidate homology across phyla

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Oron, Efrat; Gakamsky, Anna; Dan Valente; Benjamini, Yoav; Golani, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of shared behavioral processes across phyla is a significant step in the establishment of a comparative study of behavior. We use immobility as an origin and reference for the measurement of fly locomotor behavior; speed, walking direction and trunk orientation as the degrees of freedom shaping this behavior; and cocaine as the parameter inducing progressive transitions in and out of immobility. We characterize and quantify the generative rules that shape Drosophila locomotor behavior, bringing about a gradual buildup of kinematic degrees of freedom during the transition from immobility to normal behavior, and the opposite narrowing down into immobility. Transitions into immobility unfold via sequential enhancement and then elimination of translation, curvature and finally rotation. Transitions out of immobility unfold by progressive addition of these degrees of freedom in the opposite order. The same generative rules have been found in vertebrate locomotor behavior in several contexts (pharmacological manipulations, ontogeny, social interactions) involving transitions in-and-out of immobility. Recent claims for deep homology between arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia provide an opportunity to examine whether the rules we report also share common descent. Our approach prompts the discovery of behavioral homologies, contributing to the elusive problem of behavioral evolution. PMID:27271799

  6. Dynamics of temporal learning rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Patrick D.

    2000-09-01

    The changes of synaptic strength are analyzed on two time scales: the fast local field dynamics, and the slow synaptic modification dynamics. The fast dynamics are determined by the synaptic strengths and background noise in the system. The slow dynamics are determined by the functional form of a temporal learning rule. Temporal learning rules are defined to be functions yielding state dependent changes in synaptic strengths depending on the timing of pre- and postsynaptic states in the network. The evolution of local field dynamics that result from various learning rules are analyzed for a stochastic, discrete time neural model with no relative refractory period that receives a series of delayed adaptive inputs. A fixed point is found in the learning dynamics, and conditions for two types of instabilities are analyzed. Four universality classes of dynamics are found that are independent of the details of the temporal learning rules. Examples are given of biological systems in which these temporal learning rules have been identified, and their functional consequences are discussed.

  7. Rule-based simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Seraphine, Kathleen M.

    1991-01-01

    Procedural modeling systems, rule based modeling systems, and a method for converting a procedural model to a rule based model are described. Simulation models are used to represent real time engineering systems. A real time system can be represented by a set of equations or functions connected so that they perform in the same manner as the actual system. Most modeling system languages are based on FORTRAN or some other procedural language. Therefore, they must be enhanced with a reaction capability. Rule based systems are reactive by definition. Once the engineering system has been decomposed into a set of calculations using only basic algebraic unary operations, a knowledge network of calculations and functions can be constructed. The knowledge network required by a rule based system can be generated by a knowledge acquisition tool or a source level compiler. The compiler would take an existing model source file, a syntax template, and a symbol table and generate the knowledge network. Thus, existing procedural models can be translated and executed by a rule based system. Neural models can be provide the high capacity data manipulation required by the most complex real time models.

  8. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  9. Effect of Temporal Relationships in Associative Rule Mining for Web Log Data

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Khairudin, Nazli; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    The advent of web-based applications and services has created such diverse and voluminous web log data stored in web servers, proxy servers, client machines, or organizational databases. This paper attempts to investigate the effect of temporal attribute in relational rule mining for web log data. We incorporated the characteristics of time in the rule mining process and analysed the effect of various temporal parameters. The rules generated from temporal relational rule mining are then compared against the rules generated from the classical rule mining approach such as the Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms. The results showed that by incorporating the temporal attribute via time, the number of rules generated is subsequently smaller but is comparable in terms of quality. PMID:24587757

  10. On Decision-Making Among Multiple Rule-Bases in Fuzzy Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward; Jamshidi, Mo

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent control of complex multi-variable systems can be a challenge for single fuzzy rule-based controllers. This class of problems cam often be managed with less difficulty by distributing intelligent decision-making amongst a collection of rule-bases. Such an approach requires that a mechanism be chosen to ensure goal-oriented interaction between the multiple rule-bases. In this paper, a hierarchical rule-based approach is described. Decision-making mechanisms based on generalized concepts from single-rule-based fuzzy control are described. Finally, the effects of different aggregation operators on multi-rule-base decision-making are examined in a navigation control problem for mobile robots.

  11. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  12. SPARQLog: SPARQL with Rules and Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bry, François; Furche, Tim; Marnette, Bruno; Ley, Clemens; Linse, Benedikt; Poppe, Olga

    SPARQL has become the gold-standard for RDF query languages. Nevertheless, we believe there is further room for improving RDF query languages. In this chapter, we investigate the addition of rules and quantifier alternation to SPARQL. That extension, called SPARQLog, extends previous RDF query languages by arbitrary quantifier alternation: blank nodes may occur in the scope of all, some, or none of the universal variables of a rule. In addition, SPARQLog is aware of important RDF features such as the distinction between blank nodes, literals and IRIs or the RDFS vocabulary. The semantics of SPARQLog is closed (every answer is an RDF graph), but lifts RDF's restrictions on literal and blank node occurrences for intermediary data. We show how to define a sound and complete operational semantics that can be implemented using existing logic programming techniques. While SPARQLog is Turing complete, we identify a decidable (in fact, polynomial time) fragment SwARQLog ensuring polynomial data-complexity inspired from the notion of super-weak acyclicity in data exchange. Furthermore, we prove that SPARQLog with no universal quantifiers in the scope of existential ones (∀ ∃ fragment) is equivalent to full SPARQLog in presence of graph projection. Thus, the convenience of arbitrary quantifier alternation comes, in fact, for free. These results, though here presented in the context of RDF querying, apply similarly also in the more general setting of data exchange.

  13. 7 CFR 29.1119 - Rule 13.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 13. 29.1119 Section 29.1119 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.1119 Rule 13. Degrees of uniformity shall be expressed in terms of.... (These percentages shall not affect limitations established by other rules.) The minor portion must...

  14. 20 CFR 801.302 - Procedural rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedural rules. 801.302 Section 801.302... Action by the Board § 801.302 Procedural rules. Procedural rules for performance by the Board of its... amendments to the rules as may be necessary from time to time, shall be promulgated by the Deputy...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1119 - Rule 13.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rule 13. 29.1119 Section 29.1119 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.1119 Rule 13. Degrees of uniformity shall be expressed in terms of.... (These percentages shall not affect limitations established by other rules.) The minor portion must...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2391 - Rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules. 29.2391 Section 29.2391 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2391 Rules. The application of these official standard grades shall be in accordance with the following rules....

  17. 7 CFR 29.2391 - Rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rules. 29.2391 Section 29.2391 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2391 Rules. The application of these official standard grades shall be in accordance with the following rules....

  18. 7 CFR 29.6086 - Rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rules. 29.6086 Section 29.6086 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.6086 Rules. The application of these official standard grades shall be in accordance with the following rules....

  19. 7 CFR 29.3103 - Rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rules. 29.3103 Section 29.3103 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3103 Rules. The application of these official standard grades shall be in accordance with the following rules....

  20. 7 CFR 29.2406 - Rule 15.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 15. 29.2406 Section 29.2406 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2406 Rule 15. Uniformity shall be expressed in percentages. These percentages.... Specified percentages of uniformity shall not affect limitations established by other rules....