Science.gov

Sample records for additivity rule approach

  1. Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS1): Final Rule Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  2. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  3. 5 CFR 960.108 - Additional rules and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional rules and directives. 960.108 Section 960.108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.108 Additional rules and directives. The Director...

  4. 5 CFR 960.108 - Additional rules and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional rules and directives. 960.108 Section 960.108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.108 Additional rules and directives. The Director...

  5. 5 CFR 960.108 - Additional rules and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional rules and directives. 960.108 Section 960.108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.108 Additional rules and directives. The Director...

  6. 5 CFR 960.108 - Additional rules and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional rules and directives. 960.108 Section 960.108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.108 Additional rules and directives. The Director...

  7. 78 FR 6273 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax Correction In proposed rule document 2012-29237, appearing on pages 72268- 72277 in the issue of...

  8. On the Standard Rounding Rule for Addition and Subtraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wei; Mulliss, Christopher L.; Chu, Hung-Chih

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the commonly suggested rounding rule for addition and subtraction including its derivation from a basic assumption. Uses Monte-Carlo simulations to show that this rule predicts the minimum number of significant digits needed to preserve precision 100% of the time. (Author/KHR)

  9. Relative Stabilities of Organic Compounds Using Benson's Additivity Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Dale E.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the structure-energy principle can be presented in organic chemistry (without having to resort to quantum mechanics) by use of Benson's Additive Rules. Examples of the application to several major classes of organic compounds are given.

  10. 78 FR 6272 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Correction..., December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72268). The proposed regulations are relating to Additional Hospital Insurance Tax on income above threshold amounts (``Additional Medicare Tax''), as added by the Affordable Care...

  11. 75 FR 81543 - Additional Rules Regarding Hybrid Retirement Plans; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI16 Additional Rules Regarding Hybrid Retirement Plans... guidance relating to certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code that apply to hybrid defined...

  12. Leveraging modeling approaches: reaction networks and rules.

    PubMed

    Blinov, Michael L; Moraru, Ion I

    2012-01-01

    We have witnessed an explosive growth in research involving mathematical models and computer simulations of intracellular molecular interactions, ranging from metabolic pathways to signaling and gene regulatory networks. Many software tools have been developed to aid in the study of such biological systems, some of which have a wealth of features for model building and visualization, and powerful capabilities for simulation and data analysis. Novel high-resolution and/or high-throughput experimental techniques have led to an abundance of qualitative and quantitative data related to the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules and complexes, their interactions kinetics, and functional modifications. Based on this information, computational biology researchers are attempting to build larger and more detailed models. However, this has proved to be a major challenge. Traditionally, modeling tools require the explicit specification of all molecular species and interactions in a model, which can quickly become a major limitation in the case of complex networks - the number of ways biomolecules can combine to form multimolecular complexes can be combinatorially large. Recently, a new breed of software tools has been created to address the problems faced when building models marked by combinatorial complexity. These have a different approach for model specification, using reaction rules and species patterns. Here we compare the traditional modeling approach with the new rule-based methods. We make a case for combining the capabilities of conventional simulation software with the unique features and flexibility of a rule-based approach in a single software platform for building models of molecular interaction networks.

  13. Light-Cone Sum Rule Approach for Baryon Form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offen, Nils

    2016-10-01

    We present the state-of-the-art of the light-cone sum rule approach to Baryon form factors. The essence of this approach is that soft Feynman contributions are calculated in terms of small transverse distance quantities using dispersion relations and duality. The form factors are thus expressed in terms of nucleon wave functions at small transverse separations, called distribution amplitudes, without any additional parameters. The distribution amplitudes, therefore, can be extracted from the comparison with the experimental data on form factors and compared to the results of lattice QCD simulations.

  14. 78 FR 50313 - Final Additional Airworthiness Design Standards: Night Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Under the Special Class (JAR-VLA) Regulations; AQUILA Aviation by Excellence... visual flight rules (VFR) expansion and substantiation for the ] Aquila GmbH AT01. These additional... Airworthiness Design Standards: Night visual flight rules (VFR) Under the Special Class (JAR-VLA) Regulations...

  15. Rule based fuzzy logic approach for classification of fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Evren; Yildiz, Sedat; Albayrak, Yalcin; Koklukaya, Etem

    2016-06-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic muscle and skeletal system disease observed generally in women, manifesting itself with a widespread pain and impairing the individual's quality of life. FMS diagnosis is made based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. However, recently the employability and sufficiency of ACR criteria are under debate. In this context, several evaluation methods, including clinical evaluation methods were proposed by researchers. Accordingly, ACR had to update their criteria announced back in 1990, 2010 and 2011. Proposed rule based fuzzy logic method aims to evaluate FMS at a different angle as well. This method contains a rule base derived from the 1990 ACR criteria and the individual experiences of specialists. The study was conducted using the data collected from 60 inpatient and 30 healthy volunteers. Several tests and physical examination were administered to the participants. The fuzzy logic rule base was structured using the parameters of tender point count, chronic widespread pain period, pain severity, fatigue severity and sleep disturbance level, which were deemed important in FMS diagnosis. It has been observed that generally fuzzy predictor was 95.56 % consistent with at least of the specialists, who are not a creator of the fuzzy rule base. Thus, in diagnosis classification where the severity of FMS was classified as well, consistent findings were obtained from the comparison of interpretations and experiences of specialists and the fuzzy logic approach. The study proposes a rule base, which could eliminate the shortcomings of 1990 ACR criteria during the FMS evaluation process. Furthermore, the proposed method presents a classification on the severity of the disease, which was not available with the ACR criteria. The study was not limited to only disease classification but at the same time the probability of occurrence and severity was classified. In addition, those who were not suffering from FMS were

  16. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.15 Additional... inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or Instructions for...

  17. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.15 Additional... inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or Instructions for...

  18. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.15 Additional... inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or Instructions for...

  19. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.15 Additional... inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or Instructions for...

  20. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.15 Additional... inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or Instructions for...

  1. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  2. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  3. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  4. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  5. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  6. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... the value for each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time....

  7. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... the value for each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time....

  8. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... the value for each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time....

  9. 18 CFR 385.705 - Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705). 385.705 Section 385.705 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Decisions § 385.705 Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705)....

  10. 18 CFR 385.705 - Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705). 385.705 Section 385.705 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Decisions § 385.705 Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705)....

  11. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services. (a... each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time. These activities...

  12. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services. (a... each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time. These activities...

  13. Additivity rule for the calculation of electron scattering from polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuhai; Sun, Jinfeng; Wan, Lingde

    2000-12-01

    Total cross sections (TCSs) for electron scattering by polyatomic molecules C2F4, C2F6, C3F6, C3F8, C6F6, and C6H6 are calculated in the incident electron energy range 30-3000 eV employing the 100% additivity rule and energy-dependent geometric additivity rule (EGAR) approaches. The EGAR, proposed by Jiang et al. [J. Phys. B 30, 5025 (1997); Phys. Lett. A 237, 53 (1997)], relates to molecular properties and the energy of incident electrons. Two approaches for the TCS of C2F6, C3F8, C6F6, and C6H6 molecules are compared and the EGAR yields better accord with available experimental measurements in the whole energy region. The new results for C2F4 and C3F6 are also presented although no experimental data are available for comparison. The atoms are presented by spherical complex optical potential, which is composed of static, exchange, polarization, and absorption terms.

  14. Simpson's Rule by Rectangles: A Numerical Approach to Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Martin

    1985-01-01

    Shows that Simpson's rule can be obtained as the average of three simple rectangular approximations and can therefore be introduced to students before they meet any calculus. In addition, the accuracy of the rule (which is for exact cubes) can be exploited to introduce the topic of integration. (JN)

  15. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... rules for United States Secret Service employees....

  16. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... rules for United States Secret Service employees....

  17. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... rules for United States Secret Service employees....

  18. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... rules for United States Secret Service employees....

  19. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... rules for United States Secret Service employees....

  20. 77 FR 76419 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals; Withdrawal of Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...-2011-0363; FRL-9375-3] RIN 2070-AJ89 Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals.... SUMMARY: EPA is withdrawing the final Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 8(d) Health and Safety Data Reporting Rule that it issued on December 3, 2012. The health and safety data reporting rule...

  1. PRIME: A bottom-up approach to probabilistic rule development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    PRIME is a system to be used by an intelligent machine to allow it to operate in an abstract but uncertain (or stochastic) environment. It maintains a model of the effects of the machine's actions in the form of a rule base, which is induced from experience. This bottom-up approach to rule development allows the model to adapt to changes in the environment. Each rule consists of a condition under which the rule is active, an action, the effect of the action on the environment, and an estimate of the probability of this effect occurring. The effect probabilities are used to model the uncertainty in the environment, permitting multiple possible effects for a single action under a particular set of conditions. The objective of the intelligent machine is to satisfy user-specified goals with maximum probability of success. PRIME fulfills this requirement in two ways: it continuously updates the rule base with the most recent information, to ensure the validity of the model; and it generates plans which have the maximum probability of achieving the goals, based on the probability estimates in the rule base. PRIME is composed of three main processes: exploration, generalization, and planning. In exploration, the machine executes various randomly chosen actions, observes the effects on the environment, and updates the rule base accordingly. This process is used to develop the rule base in simulation, as well as to supplement the current knowledge during normal operation. Generalization is the procedure used to induce general rules from experience, which is encoded in the form of specific rules. These general rules extend the machine's knowledge to situations which have not been encountered yet, thereby increasing the capability of the machine to plan effectively. Planning is the process of constructing an optimal sequence of actions to satisfy a goal, using the rule base to predict the effects of these actions and to determine the probability of success of the plan. The

  2. A New Approach for Resolving Conflicts in Actionable Behavioral Rules

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan; Zeng, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge is considered actionable if users can take direct actions based on such knowledge to their advantage. Among the most important and distinctive actionable knowledge are actionable behavioral rules that can directly and explicitly suggest specific actions to take to influence (restrain or encourage) the behavior in the users' best interest. However, in mining such rules, it often occurs that different rules may suggest the same actions with different expected utilities, which we call conflicting rules. To resolve the conflicts, a previous valid method was proposed. However, inconsistency of the measure for rule evaluating may hinder its performance. To overcome this problem, we develop a new method that utilizes rule ranking procedure as the basis for selecting the rule with the highest utility prediction accuracy. More specifically, we propose an integrative measure, which combines the measures of the support and antecedent length, to evaluate the utility prediction accuracies of conflicting rules. We also introduce a tunable weight parameter to allow the flexibility of integration. We conduct several experiments to test our proposed approach and evaluate the sensitivity of the weight parameter. Empirical results indicate that our approach outperforms those from previous research. PMID:25162054

  3. 5 CFR 3101.107 - Additional rules for Legal Division employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY § 3101.107 Additional rules for... interests of the Department of the Treasury which is the client to whom the attorney owes a...

  4. 36 CFR 1280.72 - What additional rules apply for a NARA approved event?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.72 What additional rules apply for a NARA... where original records or historical materials are displayed. National Archives Building, Washington, DC...

  5. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board), and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) (collectively, the agencies) are seeking comment on three notices of proposed rulemaking (NPRs) that would revise and replace the agencies' current capital rules. In this NPR (Advanced Approaches and Market Risk NPR) the......

  6. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  7. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives.

  8. A Rule-Based Approach of Creating and Executing Mashups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascalau, Emilian; Giurca, Adrian

    This paper shows how business rules and particularly how JSON Rules can be used to model mashups together with underlining the advantages of this solution compared to traditional techniques. To achieve this, a concrete use case combining Monster Job Search and Google Maps is developed. In addition, we study the similarities between the conceptual models of mashup and Software as Service and argue towards a common sense by using their common root: the services choreography.

  9. 78 FR 17612 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax...; relating to the Additional Hospital Insurance Tax on income above threshold amounts as added by...

  10. A Rules Approach as a Supplement to Organizational Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Angela

    This paper argues that communication researchers could benefit from incorporating a rules approach as a supplement to more traditional methods of organizational analysis. Two major flaws in the methodology of traditional organizational analysis are noted: failing to account for actor or participant meanings--how the actor interprets relationships,…

  11. Using cloud association rule data mining approach in optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin

    2007-11-01

    In the current DWDM network, one of the critical design issues in the utilization of networks is careful planning to minimize burst dropping resulting from resource contention. The provision of suitable planning before metadata are sent is critical to improve the rate of successful transmission. In this paper, we attempt to adopt a novel data mining approaches to determining a suitable routing path in the OBS network. Instead of using label switching techniques in DWDM, we proposed the hybrid OBS routing planning on the basics of Cloud Association Rules Algorithm, thus reduced the transmission collision rate in OBS routing. This paper searches for the optimal routing path from all the possible routing paths using cloud association rule approach with Apriori-gen algorithm based on the PACNet topology. The heuristic rules discovered by Apriori-gen algorithm are stored in the Knowledge Base (KB) as references for determining the most suitable routing path. The Knowledge Base of the routing path are set up by means of optimal path routing with the highest successful rate which is mined from the database of historical routing paths using cloud association rules. The experiment results show that the successful rates of routing paths obtained by the proposed routing planning approach can effectively improve the successful rates of transmission.

  12. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  13. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  14. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  15. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  16. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-11 - Additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional rules. 1.401(a)(4)-11 Section 1.401(a)(4)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... employee's benefit under Plan B. However, Plan A provides for no similar recognition of service or...

  18. 5 CFR 9401.104 - Additional rules concerning outside employment for covered employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FINANCIAL PROTECTION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION § 9401.104 Additional rules concerning outside employment for covered employees. (a... above or as a senior economist in the Compliance Analysis Section; (4) An employee serving in...

  19. Bragg's rule of stopping power additivity: a compilation and summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Thwaites, D.I.

    1983-09-01

    Stopping power additivity, as expressed by Bragg's rule, is an important concept in many practical situations involving charged particles. Its validity has been investigated in a large number of studies and the wide range of data is confusing and at times conflicting. No previous comprehensive survey of the data has been undertaken. Thus a compilation is attempted here of a hundred or so papers which have included tests of Bragg's rule. Their main results are indicated and a summary is given of the effects of chemical binding and phase on the stopping power of heavy charged particles. Such effects are confirmed on the evidence available. Chemical binding effects become more significant for materials containing low-Z constituents and as energy falls into and through the transition region. Deviations of up to 50% have been observed in atomic stopping cross sections extracted from measurements on hydrocarbons. There is still some conflicting evidence appearing on phase effects. However, in general a broad consensus is emerging indicating significant differences in H/sub 2/O and organic and similar materials. Stopping cross sections in the vapor phase are greater by up to approx. 5 or 10% at energies around those of the stopping power maximum for protons and He ions. The effects decrease as energy increases.

  20. Rule groupings: An approach towards verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge-based expert systems are playing an increasingly important role in NASA space and aircraft systems. However, many of NASA's software applications are life- or mission-critical and knowledge-based systems do not lend themselves to the traditional verification and validation techniques for highly reliable software. Rule-based systems lack the control abstractions found in procedural languages. Hence, it is difficult to verify or maintain such systems. Our goal is to automatically structure a rule-based system into a set of rule-groups having a well-defined interface to other rule-groups. Once a rule base is decomposed into such 'firewalled' units, studying the interactions between rules would become more tractable. Verification-aid tools can then be developed to test the behavior of each such rule-group. Furthermore, the interactions between rule-groups can be studied in a manner similar to integration testing. Such efforts will go a long way towards increasing our confidence in the expert-system software. Our research efforts address the feasibility of automating the identification of rule groups, in order to decompose the rule base into a number of meaningful units.

  1. A Novel Approach for Evaluating Carbamate Mixtures for Dose Additivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two mathematical approaches were used to test the hypothesis ofdose-addition for a binary and a seven-chemical mixture ofN-methyl carbamates, toxicologically similar chemicals that inhibit cholinesterase (ChE). In the more novel approach, mixture data were not included in the ana...

  2. Teaching the Spin Selection Rule: An Inductive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    In the group exercise described, students are guided through an inductive justification for the spin conservation selection rule ([delta]S = 0). Although the exercise only explicitly involves various states of helium, the conclusion is one of the most widely applicable selection rules for the interaction of light with matter, applying, in various…

  3. Final Rule to Identify Additional Fuel Pathways Documents under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final rule describes EPA’s evaluation of biofuels produced from camelina oil, which qualify as biomass-based diesel or advanced biofuel, as well as biofuels from energy cane which qualify as cellulosic biofuel. Find the final rule link here.

  4. Sum Rules, Classical and Quantum - A Pedagogical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstens, William; Smith, David Y.

    2014-03-01

    Sum rules in the form of integrals over the response of a system to an external probe provide general analytical tools for both experiment and theory. For example, the celebrated f-sum rule gives a system's plasma frequency as an integral over the optical-dipole absorption spectrum regardless of the specific spectral distribution. Moreover, this rule underlies Smakula's equation for the number density of absorbers in a sample in terms of the area under their absorption bands. Commonly such rules are derived from quantum-mechanical commutation relations, but many are fundamentally classical (independent of ℏ) and so can be derived from more transparent mechanical models. We have exploited this to illustrate the fundamental role of inertia in the case of optical sum rules. Similar considerations apply to sum rules in many other branches of physics. Thus, the ``attenuation integral theorems'' of ac circuit theory reflect the ``inertial'' effect of Lenz's Law in inductors or the potential energy ``storage'' in capacitors. These considerations are closely related to the fact that the real and imaginary parts of a response function cannot be specified independently, a result that is encapsulated in the Kramers-Kronig relations. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  5. Final Rule for Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Documents under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a supplemental final rule associated with the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program, determining that renewable fuel made from giant reed (Arundo donax) and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) meet the GHG reduction requirements

  6. A Four-step Approach for Evaluation of Dose Additivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four step approach was developed for evaluating toxicity data on a chemical mixture for consistency with dose addition. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture guidance (EPA 2000), toxicologic interaction for a defined mixture (all components known) is departure from a c...

  7. Additional Compensation on Account of Children Adopted Out of Veteran's Family. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-08-13

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its adjudication regulations to clarify that a veteran will not receive the dependent rate of disability compensation for a child who is adopted out of the veteran's family. This action is necessary because applicable VA adjudication regulations are currently construed as permitting a veteran, whose former child was adopted out of the veteran's family, to receive the dependent rate of disability compensation for the adopted-out child, which constitutes an unwarranted award of benefits not supported by the applicable statute and legislative history. This document adopts as a final rule, without change, the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on December 2, 2014.

  8. Approaches to the verification of rule-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems are a highly useful spinoff of artificial intelligence research. One major stumbling block to extended use of expert systems is the lack of well-defined verification and validation (V and V) methodologies. Since expert systems are computer programs, the definitions of verification and validation from conventional software are applicable. The primary difficulty with expert systems is the use of development methodologies which do not support effective V and V. If proper techniques are used to document requirements, V and V of rule-based expert systems is possible, and may be easier than with conventional code. For NASA applications, the flight technique panels used in previous programs should provide an excellent way to verify the rules used in expert systems. There are, however, some inherent differences in expert systems that will affect V and V considerations.

  9. A QCD Sum Rules Approach to Mixing of Hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Ozpineci, A.; Zamiralov, V. S.

    2010-12-28

    A method for the calculation of the hadronic mixing angles using QCD sum rules is proposed. This method is then applied to predict the mixing angle between the heavy cascade hyperons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '} where Q = c or Q = b. It is obtained the {theta}{sub b} = 6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. and {theta}{sub c} = 5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.

  10. An approach to articulating expert system rule bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Ken

    1988-01-01

    A rule-base generation procedure is developed for expert systems used to diagnose anomalies in the performance of mechanical plants and similar engineering systems. The method is based on construction of a failure-mode information-propagation model (FIPM). Details of the FIPM procedure are discussed and illustrated with diagrams; reference is made to a sample application involving the turbopump of the high-pressure oxidizer for the Space Shuttle main engine.

  11. Modified risk graph method using fuzzy rule-based approach.

    PubMed

    Nait-Said, R; Zidani, F; Ouzraoui, N

    2009-05-30

    The risk graph is one of the most popular methods used to determine the safety integrity level for safety instrumented functions. However, conventional risk graph as described in the IEC 61508 standard is subjective and suffers from an interpretation problem of risk parameters. Thus, it can lead to inconsistent outcomes that may result in conservative SILs. To overcome this difficulty, a modified risk graph using fuzzy rule-based system is proposed. This novel version of risk graph uses fuzzy scales to assess risk parameters and calibration may be made by varying risk parameter values. Furthermore, the outcomes which are numerical values of risk reduction factor (the inverse of the probability of failure on demand) can be compared directly with those given by quantitative and semi-quantitative methods such as fault tree analysis (FTA), quantitative risk assessment (QRA) and layers of protection analysis (LOPA).

  12. Additional safeguards for children in clinical investigations of food and drug administration-regulated products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-02-26

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to provide additional safeguards for children enrolled in clinical investigations of FDA-regulated products. This rule finalizes the interim rule published in 2001 to bring FDA regulations into compliance with provisions of the Children's Health Act of 2000 (the Children's Health Act). The Children's Health Act requires that all research involving children that is conducted, supported, or regulated by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) be in compliance with HHS regulations providing additional protections for children involved as subjects in research. FDA is taking this action both to comply with the congressional mandate and because of increases in the enrollment of children in clinical investigations as a result of ongoing pediatric initiatives.

  13. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chylek, Lily A.; Harris, Leonard A.; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.

    2015-07-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions.

  14. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K. |; Wolf, D.E. |; Wagner, P. |; Simon, P.

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  15. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Chylek, Lily A; Harris, Leonard A; Faeder, James R; Hlavacek, William S

    2015-01-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions. PMID:26178138

  16. A novel rules based approach for estimating software birthmark.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Shah; Shahzad, Sara; Khan, Sher Afzal; Alias, Norma Binti; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Software birthmark is a unique quality of software to detect software theft. Comparing birthmarks of software can tell us whether a program or software is a copy of another. Software theft and piracy are rapidly increasing problems of copying, stealing, and misusing the software without proper permission, as mentioned in the desired license agreement. The estimation of birthmark can play a key role in understanding the effectiveness of a birthmark. In this paper, a new technique is presented to evaluate and estimate software birthmark based on the two most sought-after properties of birthmarks, that is, credibility and resilience. For this purpose, the concept of soft computing such as probabilistic and fuzzy computing has been taken into account and fuzzy logic is used to estimate properties of birthmark. The proposed fuzzy rule based technique is validated through a case study and the results show that the technique is successful in assessing the specified properties of the birthmark, its resilience and credibility. This, in turn, shows how much effort will be required to detect the originality of the software based on its birthmark.

  17. A Novel Rules Based Approach for Estimating Software Birthmark

    PubMed Central

    Binti Alias, Norma; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Software birthmark is a unique quality of software to detect software theft. Comparing birthmarks of software can tell us whether a program or software is a copy of another. Software theft and piracy are rapidly increasing problems of copying, stealing, and misusing the software without proper permission, as mentioned in the desired license agreement. The estimation of birthmark can play a key role in understanding the effectiveness of a birthmark. In this paper, a new technique is presented to evaluate and estimate software birthmark based on the two most sought-after properties of birthmarks, that is, credibility and resilience. For this purpose, the concept of soft computing such as probabilistic and fuzzy computing has been taken into account and fuzzy logic is used to estimate properties of birthmark. The proposed fuzzy rule based technique is validated through a case study and the results show that the technique is successful in assessing the specified properties of the birthmark, its resilience and credibility. This, in turn, shows how much effort will be required to detect the originality of the software based on its birthmark. PMID:25945363

  18. Generalised additive modelling approach to the fermentation process of glutamate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Bo; Li, Yun; Pan, Feng; Shi, Zhong-Ping

    2011-03-01

    In this work, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used for the first time to model the fermentation of glutamate (Glu). It was found that three fermentation parameters fermentation time (T), dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) could capture 97% variance of the production of Glu during the fermentation process through a GAM model calibrated using online data from 15 fermentation experiments. This model was applied to investigate the individual and combined effects of T, DO and OUR on the production of Glu. The conditions to optimize the fermentation process were proposed based on the simulation study from this model. Results suggested that the production of Glu can reach a high level by controlling concentration levels of DO and OUR to the proposed optimization conditions during the fermentation process. The GAM approach therefore provides an alternative way to model and optimize the fermentation process of Glu.

  19. Rule-based modeling: a computational approach for studying biomolecular site dynamics in cell signaling systems

    PubMed Central

    Chylek, Lily A.; Harris, Leonard A.; Tung, Chang-Shung; Faeder, James R.; Lopez, Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    Rule-based modeling was developed to address the limitations of traditional approaches for modeling chemical kinetics in cell signaling systems. These systems consist of multiple interacting biomolecules (e.g., proteins), which themselves consist of multiple parts (e.g., domains, linear motifs, and sites of phosphorylation). Consequently, biomolecules that mediate information processing generally have the potential to interact in multiple ways, with the number of possible complexes and post-translational modification states tending to grow exponentially with the number of binary interactions considered. As a result, only large reaction networks capture all possible consequences of the molecular interactions that occur in a cell signaling system, which is problematic because traditional modeling approaches for chemical kinetics (e.g., ordinary differential equations) require explicit network specification. This problem is circumvented through representation of interactions in terms of local rules. With this approach, network specification is implicit and model specification is concise. Concise representation results in a coarse graining of chemical kinetics, which is introduced because all reactions implied by a rule inherit the rate law associated with that rule. Coarse graining can be appropriate if interactions are modular, and the coarseness of a model can be adjusted as needed. Rules can be specified using specialized model-specification languages, and recently developed tools designed for specification of rule-based models allow one to leverage powerful software engineering capabilities. A rule-based model comprises a set of rules, which can be processed by general-purpose simulation and analysis tools to achieve different objectives (e.g., to perform either a deterministic or stochastic simulation). PMID:24123887

  20. A Rule Based Approach to ISS Interior Volume Control and Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Maida, Jim; Fitts, David; Dory, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Traditional human factors design involves the development of human factors requirements based on a desire to accommodate a certain percentage of the intended user population. As the product is developed human factors evaluation involves comparison between the resulting design and the specifications. Sometimes performance metrics are involved that allow leniency in the design requirements given that the human performance result is satisfactory. Clearly such approaches may work but they give rise to uncertainty and negotiation. An alternative approach is to adopt human factors design rules that articulate a range of each design continuum over which there are varying outcome expectations and interactions with other variables, including time. These rules are based on a consensus of human factors specialists, designers, managers and customers. The International Space Station faces exactly this challenge in interior volume control, which is based on anthropometric, performance and subjective preference criteria. This paper describes the traditional approach and then proposes a rule-based alternative. The proposed rules involve spatial, temporal and importance dimensions. If successful this rule-based concept could be applied to many traditional human factors design variables and could lead to a more effective and efficient contribution of human factors input to the design process.

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Assessing Financial Education Methods: Principles vs. Rules-of-Thumb Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skimmyhorn, William L.; Davies, Evan R.; Mun, David; Mitchell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Despite thousands of programs and tremendous public and private interest in improving financial decision-making, little is known about how best to teach financial education. Using an experimental approach, the authors estimated the effects of two different education methodologies (principles-based and rules-of-thumb) on the knowledge,…

  3. 77 FR 52887 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets; Market Discipline and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board), and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) (collectively, the agencies) are seeking comment on three notices of proposed rulemaking (NPRs) that would revise and replace the agencies' current capital rules. This NPR (Standardized Approach NPR) includes proposed changes to......

  4. Design rules for rational control of polymer glass formation behavior and mechanical properties with small molecular additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalara, Jayachandra Hari; Simmons, David

    Small molecule additives have long been employed to tune polymers' glass formation, mechanical and transport properties. For example, plasticizers are commonly employed to suppress polymer Tg and soften the glassy state, while antiplasticizers, which stiffen the glassy state of a polymer while suppressing its Tg, are employed to enhance protein and tissue preservation in sugar glasses. Recent literature indicates that additives can have a wide range of possible effects, but all of these have not been clearly understood and well appreciated. Here we employ molecular dynamics simulations to establish design rules for the selection of small molecule additives with size, molecular stiffness, and interaction energy chosen to achieve targeted effects on polymer properties. We furthermore find that a given additive's effect on a polymer's Tg can be predicted from its Debye-Waller factor via a function previously found to describe nanoconfinement effects on the glass transition. These results emphasize the potential for a new generation of targeted molecular additives to contribute to more targeted rational design of polymers. We acknowledge the Keck Foundation and the Ohio Supercomputing Center for financial and computational support of this effort, respectively.

  5. Regulating geologic sequestration in the United States: early rules take divergent approaches.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Melisa F; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-05-01

    Regulations for geological sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been adopted in the state of Washington and proposed by the state of Kansas and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. These three sets of rules take significantly different approaches to regulating GS of CO2. This paper compares these rules, focusing on elements where their differences highlight the choices that must be made to create a regulatory framework for GS in the United States. Consensus is emerging in some areas, but there is still substantial disagreement regarding the allowable composition of the CO2 stream, the size of the area of review, reservoir performance goals, and management of risks other than those to groundwater. Gaps include issues related to ownership of subsurface pore space, greenhouse gas accounting, and long-term stewardship. The divergent approaches of these rules raise two overarching questions: (1) Should policy makers create GS regulations by modifying and supplementing UIC rules or through new enabling legislation? (2) What should be the relative roles of state and federal governments in GS regulation? We outline trade-offs between the consistency and coordination that federal involvement could offer and the reality that states need to be heavily involved with implementation of GS regulations. We conclude that federal involvement above and beyond the proposed EPA Class VI rules is needed to create effective GS regulation in the United States.

  6. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Sergio I.; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules

  7. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Sergio I; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules.

  8. Analysis of the e + e - → π0γ process using Anomaly Sum Rules approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebtsov, S. P.; Oganesian, A. G.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    The e + e - → γ* → π0γ process was considered using time-like pion transition form factor, obtained in the approach of the Anomaly Sum Rules (ASR). The total cross section and angular distribution of the process was calculated. As the result of the comparison with the data, it was shown that ASR approach provides their good description in the regions far from the pole. Also there was proposed a method allowing a reasonable description of data in the region of pole within the ASR approach. The strong restrictions for the parameters of the modified ASR approach were obtained.

  9. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  10. A rule-based approach to model checking of UML state machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał; Stefanowicz, Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    In the paper a new approach to formal verification of control process specification expressed by means of UML state machines in version 2.x is proposed. In contrast to other approaches from the literature, we use the abstract and universal rule-based logical model suitable both for model checking (using the nuXmv model checker), but also for logical synthesis in form of rapid prototyping. Hence, a prototype implementation in hardware description language VHDL can be obtained that fully reflects the primary, already formally verified specification in form of UML state machines. Presented approach allows to increase the assurance that implemented system meets the user-defined requirements.

  11. Additive Biomanufacturing: An Advanced Approach for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sarah-Sophia D; Costa, Pedro F; Vaquette, Cedryck; Ivanovski, Saso; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is defined as a chronic inflammatory condition, characterized by destruction of the periodontium, composed of hard (i.e. alveolar bone and cementum) and soft tissues (i.e. gingiva and periodontal ligament) surrounding and supporting the teeth. In severe cases, reduced periodontal support can lead to tooth loss, which requires tissue augmentation or procedures that initiate a repair, yet ideally a regenerative response. However, mimicking the three-dimensional complexity and functional integration of the different tissue components via scaffold- and/or matrix-based guided tissue engineering represents a great challenge. Additive biomanufacturing, a manufacturing method in which objects are designed and fabricated in a layer-by-layer manner, has allowed a paradigm shift in the current manufacturing of medical devices and implants. This shift from design-to-manufacture to manufacture-to-design, seen from a translational research point of view, provides the biomedical engineering and periodontology communities a technology with the potential to achieve tissue regeneration instead of repair. In this review, the focus is put on additively biomanufactured scaffolds for periodontal applications. Besides a general overview of the concept of additive biomanufacturing within this field, different developed scaffold designs are described. To conclude, future directions regarding advanced biomaterials and additive biomanufacturing technologies for applications in regenerative periodontology are highlighted.

  12. Approach to design neural cryptography: a generalized architecture and a heuristic rule.

    PubMed

    Mu, Nankun; Liao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Tingwen

    2013-06-01

    Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine (TCM). Furthermore, we carefully study and find that the heuristic rule can improve the security of TSCM-based neural cryptography. Therefore, TSCM and the heuristic rule can guide us to designing a great deal of effective neural cryptography candidates, in which it is possible to achieve the more secure instances. Significantly, in the light of TSCM and the heuristic rule, we further expound that our designed neural cryptography outperforms TPM (the most secure model at present) on security. Finally, a series of numerical simulation experiments are provided to verify validity and applicability of our results.

  13. An Ensemble Rule Learning Approach for Automated Morphological Classification of Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Maity, Maitreya; Mungle, Tushar; Dhane, Dhiraj; Maiti, A K; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of pathophysiological change to erythrocytes is important for early diagnosis of anaemia. The manual assessment of pathology slides is time-consuming and complicated regarding various types of cell identification. This paper proposes an ensemble rule-based decision-making approach for morphological classification of erythrocytes. Firstly, the digital microscopic blood smear images are pre-processed for removal of spurious regions followed by colour normalisation and thresholding. The erythrocytes are segmented from background image using the watershed algorithm. The shape features are then extracted from the segmented image to detect shape abnormality present in microscopic blood smear images. The decision about the abnormality is taken using proposed multiple rule-based expert systems. The deciding factor is majority ensemble voting for abnormally shaped erythrocytes. Here, shape-based features are considered for nine different types of abnormal erythrocytes including normal erythrocytes. Further, the adaptive boosting algorithm is used to generate multiple decision tree models where each model tree generates an individual rule set. The supervised classification method is followed to generate rules using a C4.5 decision tree. The proposed ensemble approach is precise in detecting eight types of abnormal erythrocytes with an overall accuracy of 97.81% and weighted sensitivity of 97.33%, weighted specificity of 99.7%, and weighted precision of 98%. This approach shows the robustness of proposed strategy for erythrocytes classification into abnormal and normal class. The article also clarifies its latent quality to be incorporated in point of care technology solution targeting a rapid clinical assistance.

  14. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory

    DOE PAGES

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; ...

    2015-04-27

    The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish anmore » efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.« less

  15. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

    2015-04-27

    The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.

  16. Enhancement mechanism of the additional absorbent on the absorption of the absorbing composite using a type-based mixing rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-04-01

    A silicone rubber composite filled with carbonyl iron particles and four different carbonous materials (carbon black, graphite, carbon fiber or multi-walled carbon nanotubes) was prepared using a two-roller mixture. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer at the frequency of 2-18 GHz. Then a type-based mixing rule based on the dielectric absorbent and magnetic absorbent was proposed to reveal the enhancing mechanism on the permittivity and permeability. The enforcement effect lies in the decreased percolation threshold and the changing pending parameter as the carbonous materials were added. The reflection loss (RL) result showed the added carbonous materials enhanced the absorption in the lower frequency range, the RL decrement value being about 2 dB at 4-5 GHz with a thickness of 1 mm. All the added carbonous materials reinforced the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composites. The maximum increment value of the SE was about 3.23 dB at 0.5 mm and 4.65 dB at 1 mm, respectively. The added carbonous materials could be effective additives for enforcing the absorption and shielding property of the absorbers.

  17. An automatic rules extraction approach to support OSA events detection in an mHealth system.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Giovanna; De Falco, Ivanoe; De Pietro, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Detection and real time monitoring of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) episodes are very important tasks in healthcare. To suitably face them, this paper proposes an easy-to-use, cheap mobile-based approach relying on three steps. First, single-channel ECG data from a patient are collected by a wearable sensor and are recorded on a mobile device. Second, the automatic extraction of knowledge about that patient takes place offline, and a set of IF…THEN rules containing heart-rate variability (HRV) parameters is achieved. Third, these rules are used in our real-time mobile monitoring system: the same wearable sensor collects the single-channel ECG data and sends them to the same mobile device, which now processes those data online to compute HRV-related parameter values. If these values activate one of the rules found for that patient, an alarm is immediately produced. This approach has been tested on a literature database with 35 OSA patients. A comparison against five well-known classifiers has been carried out.

  18. A majority rule approach for region-of-interest-guided streamline fiber tractography.

    PubMed

    Colon-Perez, L M; Triplett, W; Bohsali, A; Corti, M; Nguyen, P T; Patten, C; Mareci, T H; Price, C C

    2016-12-01

    Hand-drawn gray matter regions of interest (ROI) are often used to guide the estimation of white matter tractography, obtained from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), in healthy and in patient populations. However, such ROIs are vulnerable to rater bias of the individual segmenting the ROIs, scan variability, and individual differences in neuroanatomy. In this report, a "majority rule" approach is introduced for ROI segmentation used to guide streamline tractography in white matter structures. DWI of one healthy participant was acquired in ten separate sessions using a 3 T scanner over the course of a month. Four raters identified ROIs within the left hemisphere [Cerebral Peduncle (CPED); Internal Capsule (IC); Hand Portion of the Motor Cortex, or Hand Bump, (HB)] using a group-established standard operating procedure for ROI definition to guide the estimation of streamline tracts within the corticospinal tract (CST). Each rater traced the ROIs twice for each scan session. The overlap of each rater's two ROIs was used to define a representative ROI for each rater. These ROIs were combined to create a "majority rules" ROI, in which the rule requires that each voxel is selected by at least three of four raters. Reproducibility for ROIs and CST segmentations were analyzed with the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). Intra-rater reliability for each ROI was high (DSCs ≥ 0.83). Inter-rater reliability was moderate to adequate (DSC range 0.54-0.75; lowest for IC). Using intersected majority rules ROIs, the resulting CST showed improved overlap (DSC = 0.82) in the estimated streamline tracks for the ten sessions. Despite high intra-rater reliability, there was lower inter-rater reliability consistent with the expectation of rater bias. Employing the majority rules method improved reliability in the overlap of the CST.

  19. Spatial Queries Entity Recognition and Disambiguation Using Rule-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzei, E.; Hakimpour, F.; Forati, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the digital world, search engines have been proposed as one of challenging research areas. One of the main issues in search engines studies is query processing, which its aim is to understand user's needs. If unsuitable spatial query processing approach is employed, the results will be associated with high degree of ambiguity. To evade such degree of ambiguity, in this paper we present a new algorithm which depends on rule-based systems to process queries. Our algorithm is implemented in the three basic steps including: deductively iterative splitting the query; finding candidates for the location names, the location types and spatial relationships; and finally checking the relationships logically and conceptually using a rule based system. As we finally present in the paper using our proposed method have two major advantages: the search engines can provide the capability of spatial analysis based on the specific process and secondly because of its disambiguation technique, user reaches the more desirable result.

  20. Fuzzy OLAP association rules mining-based modular reinforcement learning approach for multiagent systems.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet; Alhajj, Reda

    2005-04-01

    Multiagent systems and data mining have recently attracted considerable attention in the field of computing. Reinforcement learning is the most commonly used learning process for multiagent systems. However, it still has some drawbacks, including modeling other learning agents present in the domain as part of the state of the environment, and some states are experienced much less than others, or some state-action pairs are never visited during the learning phase. Further, before completing the learning process, an agent cannot exhibit a certain behavior in some states that may be experienced sufficiently. In this study, we propose a novel multiagent learning approach to handle these problems. Our approach is based on utilizing the mining process for modular cooperative learning systems. It incorporates fuzziness and online analytical processing (OLAP) based mining to effectively process the information reported by agents. First, we describe a fuzzy data cube OLAP architecture which facilitates effective storage and processing of the state information reported by agents. This way, the action of the other agent, not even in the visual environment. of the agent under consideration, can simply be predicted by extracting online association rules, a well-known data mining technique, from the constructed data cube. Second, we present a new action selection model, which is also based on association rules mining. Finally, we generalize not sufficiently experienced states, by mining multilevel association rules from the proposed fuzzy data cube. Experimental results obtained on two different versions of a well-known pursuit domain show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy OLAP mining based modular learning approach. Finally, we tested the scalability of the approach presented in this paper and compared it with our previous work on modular-fuzzy Q-learning and ordinary Q-learning.

  1. A QCD Sum Rule Approach with an Explicit Di-quark field

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-il; Jido, Daisuke; Lee, Su Houng

    2011-10-21

    In hadron phenomenology, diquark structures can be an important degree of freedom in certain configurations. We investigate the possibility that the diquark structure can be treated as an elementary field in certain configurations. To start with, we assume that {Lambda} is composed of a spectator strange quark and a diquark. We construct a QCD sum rule for {Lambda}, where the input parameters are the diquark mass and its condensate, in addition to other parameters of QCD sum rules. We find good Borel curve for the {Lambda} mass for certain combinations of the diquark mass and condensate, and that smaller diquark condensate is needed when the diquark mass is increased to maintain the good Borel curve. The same sets of diquark mass and condensate are found to work well for {Lambda}{sub c} and {Lambda}{sub b}.

  2. Medicare program; establishing additional Medicare durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) supplier enrollment safeguards. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-08-27

    This final rule will clarify, expand, and add to the existing enrollment requirements that Durable Medical Equipment and Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) suppliers must meet to establish and maintain billing privileges in the Medicare program.

  3. 5 CFR 1001.101 - In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management employees? 1001.101 Section 1001.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYEES OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OPM EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 1001.101 In addition to this...

  4. 5 CFR 1001.101 - In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management employees? 1001.101 Section 1001.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYEES OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OPM EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 1001.101 In addition to this...

  5. 5 CFR 1001.101 - In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management employees? 1001.101 Section 1001.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYEES OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OPM EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 1001.101 In addition to this...

  6. 5 CFR 1001.101 - In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management employees? 1001.101 Section 1001.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYEES OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OPM EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 1001.101 In addition to this...

  7. 5 CFR 1001.101 - In addition to this part, what other rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rules of conduct apply to Office of Personnel Management employees? 1001.101 Section 1001.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYEES OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OPM EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 1001.101 In addition to this...

  8. 49 CFR 391.1 - Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers. 391.1 Section 391.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...-drivers. (a) The rules in this part establish minimum qualifications for persons who drive...

  9. 49 CFR 391.1 - Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers. 391.1 Section 391.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...-drivers. (a) The rules in this part establish minimum qualifications for persons who drive...

  10. 49 CFR 391.1 - Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers. 391.1 Section 391.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...-drivers. (a) The rules in this part establish minimum qualifications for persons who drive...

  11. 49 CFR 391.1 - Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers. 391.1 Section 391.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...-drivers. (a) The rules in this part establish minimum qualifications for persons who drive...

  12. 49 CFR 391.1 - Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... qualifications; duties of carrier-drivers. 391.1 Section 391.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...-drivers. (a) The rules in this part establish minimum qualifications for persons who drive...

  13. Non-additive interactions involving two distinct elements mediate sloppy-paired regulation by pair-rule transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Prazak, Lisa; Fujioka, Miki; Gergen, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    The relatively simple combinatorial rules responsible for establishing the initial metameric expression of sloppy-paired-1 (slp1) in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo make this system an attractive model for investigating the mechanism of regulation by pair rule transcription factors. This investigation of slp1 cis-regulatory architecture identifies two distinct elements, a proximal early stripe element (PESE) and a distal early stripe element (DESE) located from −3.1 kb to −2.5 kb and from −8.1 kb to −7.1 kb upstream of the slp1 promoter, respectively, that mediate this early regulation. The proximal element expresses only even-numbered stripes and mediates repression by Even-skipped (Eve) as well as by the combination of Runt and Fushi-tarazu (Ftz). A 272 basepair sub-element of PESE retains Eve-dependent repression, but is expressed throughout the even-numbered parasegments due to the loss of repression by Runt and Ftz. In contrast, the distal element expresses both odd and even-numbered stripes and also drives inappropriate expression in the anterior half of the odd-numbered parasegments due to an inability to respond to repression by Eve. Importantly, a composite reporter gene containing both early stripe elements recapitulates pair-rule gene-dependent regulation in a manner beyond what is expected from combining their individual patterns. These results indicate interactions involving distinct cis-elements contribute to the proper integration of pair-rule regulatory information. A model fully accounting for these results proposes that metameric slp1 expression is achieved through the Runt-dependent regulation of interactions between these two pair-rule response elements and the slp1 promoter. PMID:20435028

  14. Potential Implications of Approaches to Climate Change on the Clean Water Rule Definition of "Waters of the United States".

    PubMed

    Faust, Derek R; Moore, Matthew T; Emison, Gerald Andrews; Rush, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    The 1972 Clean Water Act was passed to protect chemical, physical, and biological integrity of United States' waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers codified a new "waters of the United States" rule on June 29, 2015, because several Supreme Court case decisions caused confusion with the existing rule. Climate change could affect this rule through connectivity between groundwater and surface waters; floodplain waters and the 100-year floodplain; changes in jurisdictional status; and sea level rise on coastal ecosystems. Four approaches are discussed for handling these implications: (1) "Wait and see"; (2) changes to the rule; (3) use guidance documents; (4) Congress statutorily defining "waters of the United States." The approach chosen should be legally defensible and achieved in a timely fashion to provide protection to "waters of the United States" in proactive consideration of scientifically documented effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Rule groupings: A software engineering approach towards verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala

    1991-01-01

    Currently, most expert system shells do not address software engineering issues for developing or maintaining expert systems. As a result, large expert systems tend to be incomprehensible, difficult to debug or modify and almost impossible to verify or validate. Partitioning rule based systems into rule groups which reflect the underlying subdomains of the problem should enhance the comprehensibility, maintainability, and reliability of expert system software. Attempts were made to semiautomatically structure a CLIPS rule base into groups of related rules that carry the same type of information. Different distance metrics that capture relevant information from the rules for grouping are discussed. Two clustering algorithms that partition the rule base into groups of related rules are given. Two independent evaluation criteria are developed to measure the effectiveness of the grouping strategies. Results of the experiment with three sample rule bases are presented.

  16. Evolution of Decision Rules Used for IT Portfolio Management: An Inductive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karhade, Prasanna P.; Shaw, Michael J.; Subramanyam, Ramanath

    IT portfolio management and the related planning decisions for IT-dependent initiatives are critical to organizational performance. Building on the logic of appropriateness theoretical framework, we define an important characteristic of decision rules used during IT portfolio planning; rule appropriateness with regards to the risk-taking criterion. We propose that rule appropriateness will be an important factor explaining the evolution of rules over time. Using an inductive learning methodology, we analyze a unique dataset of actual IT portfolio planning decisions spanning two consecutive years within one organization. We present systematic comparative analysis of the evolution of rules used in planning over two years to validate our research proposition. We find that rules that were inappropriate in the first year are being redefined to design appropriate rules for use in the second year. Our work provides empirical evidence demonstrating organizational learning and improvements in IT portfolio planning capabilities.

  17. National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition of Intussusception as Injury for Rotavirus Vaccines to the Vaccine Injury Table. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-06-23

    On July 24, 2013, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) published in the Federal Register a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) proposing changes to the regulations governing the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP). Specifically, the Secretary proposed revisions to the Vaccine Injury Table (Table). The basis for this change is consistent with the Secretary's findings that intussusceptions can reasonably be determined in some circumstances to be caused by rotavirus vaccines. The Secretary is now making this amendment to the Table and to the Qualifications and Aids to Interpretation (QAI), described below under Background Information, as proposed in the NPRM. These regulations will apply only to petitions for compensation under the VICP filed after this final rule becomes effective.

  18. A fuzzy approach for mining association rules in a probabilistic database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Bin; Chen, Dingjie; Zhao, Suyun; Chen, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Association rule mining is an essential knowledge discovery method that can find associations in database. Previous studies on association rule mining focus on finding quantitative association rules from certain data, or finding Boolean association rules from uncertain data. Unfortunately, due to instrument errors, imprecise of sensor monitoring systems and so on, real-world data tend to be quantitative data with inherent uncertainty. In our paper, we study the discovery of association rules from probabilistic database with quantitative attributes. Once we convert quantitative attributes into fuzzy sets, we get a probabilistic database with fuzzy sets in the database. This is theoretical challenging, since we need to give appropriate interest measures to define support and confidence degree of fuzzy events with probability. We propose a Shannon-like Entropy to measure the information of such event. After that, an algorithm is proposed to find fuzzy association rules from probabilistic database. Finally, an illustrated example is given to demonstrate the procedure of the algorithm.

  19. Approaches to Streamline Air Permitting for Combined Heat and Power: Permits by Rule and General Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This factsheet provides information about permit by rule (PBR) and general permit (GP) processes, including the factors that contributed to their development and lessons learned from their implementation.

  20. World Trade Center Health Program requirements for the addition of new WTC-related health conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-04-25

    Title I of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 amended the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) to establish the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program. Sections 3311, 3312, and 3321 of Title XXXIII of the PHS Act require that the WTC Program Administrator develop regulations to implement portions of the WTC Health Program established within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The WTC Health Program, which is administered by the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provides medical monitoring and treatment to eligible firefighters and related personnel, law enforcement officers, and rescue, recovery and cleanup workers who responded to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, Shanksville, PA, and at the Pentagon, and to eligible survivors of the New York City attacks. This final rule establishes the processes by which the WTC Program Administrator may add a new condition to the list of WTC-related health conditions through rulemaking, including a process for considering petitions by interested parties to add a new condition.

  1. 5 CFR 7501.106 - Additional rules for certain Department employees involved in the regulation or oversight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Association (FNMA) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC). This section is in addition to... Offices of Investigation, Program Standards and Evaluation, and Regulatory Initiatives and Federal... programs are administered. (3) Mortgage institution means mortgage bankers, mortgage brokers,...

  2. 5 CFR 7501.106 - Additional rules for certain Department employees involved in the regulation or oversight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Association (FNMA) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC). This section is in addition to... Offices of Investigation, Program Standards and Evaluation, and Regulatory Initiatives and Federal... programs are administered. (3) Mortgage institution means mortgage bankers, mortgage brokers,...

  3. 5 CFR 7501.106 - Additional rules for certain Department employees involved in the regulation or oversight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Association (FNMA) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC). This section is in addition to... Offices of Investigation, Program Standards and Evaluation, and Regulatory Initiatives and Federal... programs are administered. (3) Mortgage institution means mortgage bankers, mortgage brokers,...

  4. A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

    2009-04-01

    Key words: Simple Event Correlator, Agent Platform, Ontology, Semantic Web, Distributed Systems, Emergency Management The importance of recognition of emergency's typology to control the critical situation for security of citizens has been always recognized. It follows this aspect is very important for proper management of a hazardous event. In this work we present a solution for the recognition of emergency's typology adopted by an Italian research project, called CI6 (Centro Integrato per Servizi di Emergenza Innovativi). In our approach, CI6 receives alarms by citizen or people involved in the work (for example: police, operator of 112, and so on). CI6 represents any alarm by a set of information, including a text that describes it and obtained when the user points out the danger, and a pair of coordinates for its location. The system realizes an analysis of text and automatically infers information on the type of emergencies by means a set of parsing rules and rules of inference applied by a independent module: a correlator of events based on their log and called Simple Event Correlator (SEC). SEC, integrated in CI6's platform, is an open source and platform independent event correlation tool. SEC accepts input both files and text derived from standard input, making it flexible because it can be matched to any application that is able to write its output to a file stream. The SEC configuration is stored in text files as rules, each rule specifying an event matching condition, an action list, and optionally a Boolean expression whose truth value decides whether the rule can be applied at a given moment. SEC can produce output events by executing user-specified shell scripts or programs, by writing messages to files, and by various other means. SEC has been successfully applied in various domains like network management, system monitoring, data security, intrusion detection, log file monitoring and analysis, etc; it has been used or integrated with many

  5. A linguistic rule-based approach to extract drug-drug interactions from pharmacological documents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A drug-drug interaction (DDI) occurs when one drug influences the level or activity of another drug. The increasing volume of the scientific literature overwhelms health care professionals trying to be kept up-to-date with all published studies on DDI. Methods This paper describes a hybrid linguistic approach to DDI extraction that combines shallow parsing and syntactic simplification with pattern matching. Appositions and coordinate structures are interpreted based on shallow syntactic parsing provided by the UMLS MetaMap tool (MMTx). Subsequently, complex and compound sentences are broken down into clauses from which simple sentences are generated by a set of simplification rules. A pharmacist defined a set of domain-specific lexical patterns to capture the most common expressions of DDI in texts. These lexical patterns are matched with the generated sentences in order to extract DDIs. Results We have performed different experiments to analyze the performance of the different processes. The lexical patterns achieve a reasonable precision (67.30%), but very low recall (14.07%). The inclusion of appositions and coordinate structures helps to improve the recall (25.70%), however, precision is lower (48.69%). The detection of clauses does not improve the performance. Conclusions Information Extraction (IE) techniques can provide an interesting way of reducing the time spent by health care professionals on reviewing the literature. Nevertheless, no approach has been carried out to extract DDI from texts. To the best of our knowledge, this work proposes the first integral solution for the automatic extraction of DDI from biomedical texts. PMID:21489220

  6. Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppner, Frank

    Association rules are rules of the kind "70% of the customers who buy vine and cheese also buy grapes". While the traditional field of application is market basket analysis, association rule mining has been applied to various fields since then, which has led to a number of important modifications and extensions. We discuss the most frequently applied approach that is central to many extensions, the Apriori algorithm, and briefly review some applications to other data types, well-known problems of rule evaluation via support and confidence, and extensions of or alternatives to the standard framework.

  7. Alternative Approaches for the Communication Theorist: Problems in the Laws-Rules-Systems Trichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronen, Vernon E.; Davis, Leslie K.

    1978-01-01

    Argues against the laws-system-rules trichotomy which Cushman and Pearce use to organize theoretical options in the communication field, and offers in place of the laws-rule-systems trichotomy a multilevel analytic framework for organizing theoretical alternatives in communication. (Authors)

  8. Space communications scheduler: A rule-based approach to adaptive deadline scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straguzzi, Nicholas

    1990-01-01

    Job scheduling is a deceptively complex subfield of computer science. The highly combinatorial nature of the problem, which is NP-complete in nearly all cases, requires a scheduling program to intelligently transverse an immense search tree to create the best possible schedule in a minimal amount of time. In addition, the program must continually make adjustments to the initial schedule when faced with last-minute user requests, cancellations, unexpected device failures, quests, cancellations, unexpected device failures, etc. A good scheduler must be quick, flexible, and efficient, even at the expense of generating slightly less-than-optimal schedules. The Space Communication Scheduler (SCS) is an intelligent rule-based scheduling system. SCS is an adaptive deadline scheduler which allocates modular communications resources to meet an ordered set of user-specified job requests on board the NASA Space Station. SCS uses pattern matching techniques to detect potential conflicts through algorithmic and heuristic means. As a result, the system generates and maintains high density schedules without relying heavily on backtracking or blind search techniques. SCS is suitable for many common real-world applications.

  9. Listing of color additives for coloring sutures; [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper in coloring nonabsorbable sutures for general and ophthalmic surgery made from a blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene). This action responds to a petition filed by Ethicon, Inc.

  10. Mining pinyin-to-character conversion rules from large-scale corpus: a rough set approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Yeung, Daniel S

    2004-04-01

    This paper introduces a rough set technique for solving the problem of mining Pinyin-to-character (PTC) conversion rules. It first presents a text-structuring method by constructing a language information table from a corpus for each pinyin, which it will then apply to a free-form textual corpus. Data generalization and rule extraction algorithms can then be used to eliminate redundant information and extract consistent PTC conversion rules. The design of our model also addresses a number of important issues such as the long-distance dependency problem, the storage requirements of the rule base, and the consistency of the extracted rules, while the performance of the extracted rules as well as the effects of different model parameters are evaluated experimentally. These results show that by the smoothing method, high precision conversion (0.947) and recall rates (0.84) can be achieved even for rules represented directly by pinyin rather than words. A comparison with the baseline tri-gram model also shows good complement between our method and the tri-gram language model.

  11. A Four Step Approach to Evaluate Mixtures for Consistency with Dose Addition

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a four step approach for evaluating chemical mixture data for consistency with dose addition for use in environmental health risk assessment. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture risk guidance (EPA 2000a,b), toxicological interaction for a defined mixture (...

  12. A macrocyclic approach to tetracycline natural products. Investigation of transannular alkylations and Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Wzorek, Joseph S; Knöpfel, Thomas F; Sapountzis, Ioannis; Evans, David A

    2012-12-07

    A new approach to the tetracycline core structure is presented. The pivotal intermediate is identified as macrocycle III. The two interior bonds (C4a-C12a and C5a-C11a) are to be constructed through sequential transannular Michael additions (III-II) and compression-promoted transannular isoxazole alkylations from intermediate II.

  13. Automatic de-identification of French clinical records: comparison of rule-based and machine-learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comparison of two approaches to automatically de-identify medical records written in French: a rule-based system and a machine-learning based system using a conditional random fields (CRF) formalism. Both systems have been designed to process nine identifiers in a corpus of medical records in cardiology. We performed two evaluations: first, on 62 documents in cardiology, and on 10 documents in foetopathology - produced by optical character recognition (OCR) - to evaluate the robustness of our systems. We achieved a 0.843 (rule-based) and 0.883 (machine-learning) exact match overall F-measure in cardiology. While the rule-based system allowed us to achieve good results on nominative (first and last names) and numerical data (dates, phone numbers, and zip codes), the machine-learning approach performed best on more complex categories (postal addresses, hospital names, medical devices, and towns). On the foetopathology corpus, although our systems have not been designed for this corpus and despite OCR character recognition errors, we obtained promising results: a 0.681 (rule-based) and 0.638 (machine-learning) exact-match overall F-measure. This demonstrates that existing tools can be applied to process new documents of lower quality.

  14. A Novel Processing Approach for Additive Manufacturing of Commercial Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Christopher E.; Bourell, David; Watt, Trevor; Cohen, Julien

    Aluminum 6061 is of great commercial interest due to its ubiquitous use in manufacturing, advantageous mechanical properties, and its successful certification in aerospace applications. However, as an off-eutectic with accompanying large freezing range, attempts to process the material by additive manufacturing have resulted in part cracking and diminished mechanical properties. A unique approach using mixed powders is presented to process this historically difficult-to-process material. Expansion of this combined-powder approach to other materials systems not typically compatible with additive manufacturing is possible. Dense parts without solidification cracking have been produced by the SLM process, as verified using SEM and EDS. An overview of this approach is presented along with test results using an Al-Si mixture.

  15. Additional criteria and procedures for classifying over-the-counter drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-01-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule establishing additional criteria and procedures by which over-the- counter (OTC) conditions may become eligible for consideration in the OTC drug monograph system. The criteria and procedures address how OTC drugs initially marketed in the United States after the OTC drug review began in 1972, and OTC drugs without any U.S. marketing experience, can meet the statutory definition of marketing to a "material extent" and "for a material time" and become eligible. If found eligible, the condition would be evaluated for general recognition of safety and effectiveness in accordance with FDA's OTC drug monograph regulations. FDA is also changing the current OTC drug monograph procedures to streamline the process and provide additional information in the review.

  16. A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Yosif A; Khalil, Rabah A

    2006-10-01

    A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method has been introduced. Three general nitrogen-15 NMR chemical shift additivity parameters with physical significance for aliphatic amines in methanol and cyclohexane and their hydrochlorides in methanol have been derived. A characteristic feature of these additivity parameters is the individual equation can be applied to both open-chain and rigid systems. The factors that influence the (15)N chemical shift of these substances have been determined. A new method for evaluating conformational equilibria at nitrogen in these compounds using the derived additivity parameters has been developed. Conformational analyses of these substances have been worked out. In general, the results indicate that there are four factors affecting the (15)N chemical shift of aliphatic amines; paramagnetic term (p-character), lone pair-proton interactions, proton-proton interactions, symmetry of alkyl substituents and molecular association.

  17. A Three-Step Approach with Adaptive Additive Magnitude Selection for the Sharpening of Images

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tien-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Aimed to find the additive magnitude automatically and adaptively, we propose a three-step and model-based approach for the sharpening of images in this paper. In the first pass, a Grey prediction model is applied to find a global maximal additive magnitude so that the condition of oversharpening in images to be sharpened can be avoided. During the second pass, edge pixels are picked out with our previously proposed edge detection mechanism. In this pass, a low-pass filter is also applied so that isolated pixels will not be regarded as around an edge. In the final pass, those pixels detected as around an edge are adjusted adaptively based on the local statistics, and those nonedge pixels are kept unaltered. Extensive experiments on natural images as well as medical images with subjective and objective evaluations will be given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach. PMID:25309951

  18. A Bayesian Approach to User Stopping Rules for Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Donald H.; Waller, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a dynamic model of user behavior when scanning an information storage and retrieval system output list, compares rules for determining the user's optimum stopping point, presents an algorithm for implementing the Bayesian model, and discusses implications for retrieval system design. Provided are 13 figures and 15 references. (Author/RBF)

  19. Rule-based approach to operating system selection: RMS vs. UNIX

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.S.; Sadlowe, A.R.; Emrich, M.L.; Gadagkar, H.P.

    1988-10-01

    A rule-based system is under development for choosing computer operating systems. Following a brief historical account, this paper compares and contrasts the essential features of two operating systems highlighting particular applications. ATandT's UNIX System and Datapoint Corporations's Resource Management System (RMS) are used as illustrative examples. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  20. A Social Domain Approach to Informant Discrepancies in Parental Solicitation and Family Rules.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Aaron; Babskie, Elizabeth; Olson, Rebecca; Romm, Katelyn

    2016-10-01

    An extensive body of research has explored the effects of parental monitoring on adolescent outcomes, but studies consistently find substantial discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of different monitoring behaviors. Little research has examined whether parents and adolescents are more or less discrepant when reporting on parents' rules or solicitation for different adolescent problem and health risk behaviors and few studies have explored potential explanatory variables to explicate individual variability in parent-adolescent discrepant reporting. To address this gap in the literature, the current study examined discrepancies in mother-adolescent reports of family rules and solicitation across five distinct adolescent behaviors: personal behaviors and four different risk behaviors (alcohol-related, cyber, over- and under-eating). Participants were 143 mother-adolescent dyads (Adolescent M age  = 14.42, SD = 1.73, range = 12-18, 81 % white, 60 % female). Mean-level discrepancies between maternal and adolescent reports significantly differed by category of adolescent behavior and also varied as a function of reported parental monitoring behavior (rules vs. solicitation). Discrepancies in mother-adolescent reports of behavior-specific rules and solicitation were positively associated with discrepancies in mother and adolescent judgments of the harmfulness of the activities. The results demonstrate that discrepancies in mother-adolescent reports of family process differ by category of adolescent behavior and may be undergirded by differences in mother and adolescent informational assumptions about the potential harm involved with different activities.

  1. The INTELLIGENT RuleTutor: A Structured Approach to Intelligent Tutoring. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Alice B.

    This final report describes a general purpose system for developing intelligent tutors based on the Structural Learning Theory. The report opens with a discussion of the rules and related constructs that underlie cognitive constructs in all structural learning theories. The remainder of the text provides: (1) an introduction to the Structural…

  2. Simple rules for a "simple" nervous system? Molecular and biomathematical approaches to enteric nervous system formation and malformation.

    PubMed

    Newgreen, Donald F; Dufour, Sylvie; Howard, Marthe J; Landman, Kerry A

    2013-10-01

    We review morphogenesis of the enteric nervous system from migratory neural crest cells, and defects of this process such as Hirschsprung disease, centering on cell motility and assembly, and cell adhesion and extracellular matrix molecules, along with cell proliferation and growth factors. We then review continuum and agent-based (cellular automata) models with rules of cell movement and logistical proliferation. Both movement and proliferation at the individual cell level are modeled with stochastic components from which stereotyped outcomes emerge at the population level. These models reproduced the wave-like colonization of the intestine by enteric neural crest cells, and several new properties emerged, such as colonization by frontal expansion, which were later confirmed biologically. These models predict a surprising level of clonal heterogeneity both in terms of number and distribution of daughter cells. Biologically, migrating cells form stable chains made up of unstable cells, but this is not seen in the initial model. We outline additional rules for cell differentiation into neurons, axon extension, cell-axon and cell-cell adhesions, chemotaxis and repulsion which can reproduce chain migration. After the migration stage, the cells re-arrange as a network of ganglia. Changes in cell adhesion molecules parallel this, and we describe additional rules based on Steinberg's Differential Adhesion Hypothesis, reflecting changing levels of adhesion in neural crest cells and neurons. This was able to reproduce enteric ganglionation in a model. Mouse mutants with disturbances of enteric nervous system morphogenesis are discussed, and these suggest future refinement of the models. The modeling suggests a relatively simple set of cell behavioral rules could account for complex patterns of morphogenesis. The model has allowed the proposal that Hirschsprung disease is mostly an enteric neural crest cell proliferation defect, not a defect of cell migration. In addition

  3. In Search of Golden Rules: Comment on Hypothesis-Testing Approaches to Setting Cutoff Values for Fit Indexes and Dangers in Overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler's (1999) Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, Kit-Tai; Wen, Zhonglin

    2004-01-01

    Goodness-of-fit (GOF) indexes provide "rules of thumb"?recommended cutoff values for assessing fit in structural equation modeling. Hu and Bentler (1999) proposed a more rigorous approach to evaluating decision rules based on GOF indexes and, on this basis, proposed new and more stringent cutoff values for many indexes. This article discusses…

  4. Production Rule Systems as an Approach to Interpretation of Ground Sensor Information.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    34 blackboard (that part of the blackboard whic is able to be accessed by a particular level of production rules). Many of the propram , constants establish... propram constraints and operatinp characteristics; for example, NPER’AAP, a proiram constant defined on line 34 of the file p.mver.c in the program...in the example, althouph simplified, are similiar to the structures of the actual propram nodes. For the example presented, a "standard" situation was

  5. A Three-Threshold Learning Rule Approaches the Maximal Capacity of Recurrent Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Alemi, Alireza; Baldassi, Carlo; Brunel, Nicolas; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the theoretical foundations of how memories are encoded and retrieved in neural populations is a central challenge in neuroscience. A popular theoretical scenario for modeling memory function is the attractor neural network scenario, whose prototype is the Hopfield model. The model simplicity and the locality of the synaptic update rules come at the cost of a poor storage capacity, compared with the capacity achieved with perceptron learning algorithms. Here, by transforming the perceptron learning rule, we present an online learning rule for a recurrent neural network that achieves near-maximal storage capacity without an explicit supervisory error signal, relying only upon locally accessible information. The fully-connected network consists of excitatory binary neurons with plastic recurrent connections and non-plastic inhibitory feedback stabilizing the network dynamics; the memory patterns to be memorized are presented online as strong afferent currents, producing a bimodal distribution for the neuron synaptic inputs. Synapses corresponding to active inputs are modified as a function of the value of the local fields with respect to three thresholds. Above the highest threshold, and below the lowest threshold, no plasticity occurs. In between these two thresholds, potentiation/depression occurs when the local field is above/below an intermediate threshold. We simulated and analyzed a network of binary neurons implementing this rule and measured its storage capacity for different sizes of the basins of attraction. The storage capacity obtained through numerical simulations is shown to be close to the value predicted by analytical calculations. We also measured the dependence of capacity on the strength of external inputs. Finally, we quantified the statistics of the resulting synaptic connectivity matrix, and found that both the fraction of zero weight synapses and the degree of symmetry of the weight matrix increase with the number of stored

  6. A Three-Threshold Learning Rule Approaches the Maximal Capacity of Recurrent Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Alemi, Alireza; Baldassi, Carlo; Brunel, Nicolas; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the theoretical foundations of how memories are encoded and retrieved in neural populations is a central challenge in neuroscience. A popular theoretical scenario for modeling memory function is the attractor neural network scenario, whose prototype is the Hopfield model. The model simplicity and the locality of the synaptic update rules come at the cost of a poor storage capacity, compared with the capacity achieved with perceptron learning algorithms. Here, by transforming the perceptron learning rule, we present an online learning rule for a recurrent neural network that achieves near-maximal storage capacity without an explicit supervisory error signal, relying only upon locally accessible information. The fully-connected network consists of excitatory binary neurons with plastic recurrent connections and non-plastic inhibitory feedback stabilizing the network dynamics; the memory patterns to be memorized are presented online as strong afferent currents, producing a bimodal distribution for the neuron synaptic inputs. Synapses corresponding to active inputs are modified as a function of the value of the local fields with respect to three thresholds. Above the highest threshold, and below the lowest threshold, no plasticity occurs. In between these two thresholds, potentiation/depression occurs when the local field is above/below an intermediate threshold. We simulated and analyzed a network of binary neurons implementing this rule and measured its storage capacity for different sizes of the basins of attraction. The storage capacity obtained through numerical simulations is shown to be close to the value predicted by analytical calculations. We also measured the dependence of capacity on the strength of external inputs. Finally, we quantified the statistics of the resulting synaptic connectivity matrix, and found that both the fraction of zero weight synapses and the degree of symmetry of the weight matrix increase with the number of stored

  7. An integrated systems biology approach to understanding the rules of keratinocyte colony formation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; McMinn, Phil; Coakley, Simon; Holcombe, Mike; Smallwood, Rod; Macneil, Sheila

    2007-12-22

    Closely coupled in vitro and in virtuo models have been used to explore the self-organization of normal human keratinocytes (NHK). Although it can be observed experimentally, we lack the tools to explore many biological rules that govern NHK self-organization. An agent-based computational model was developed, based on rules derived from literature, which predicts the dynamic multicellular morphogenesis of NHK and of a keratinocyte cell line (HaCat cells) under varying extracellular Ca++ concentrations. The model enables in virtuo exploration of the relative importance of biological rules and was used to test hypotheses in virtuo which were subsequently examined in vitro. Results indicated that cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesions were critically important to NHK self-organization. In contrast, cell cycle length and the number of divisions that transit-amplifying cells could undergo proved non-critical to the final organization. Two further hypotheses, to explain the growth behaviour of HaCat cells, were explored in virtuo-an inability to differentiate and a differing sensitivity to extracellular calcium. In vitro experimentation provided some support for both hypotheses. For NHKs, the prediction was made that the position of stem cells would influence the pattern of cell migration post-wounding. This was then confirmed experimentally using a scratch wound model.

  8. Rule generation from neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.

    1994-08-01

    The neural network approach has proven useful for the development of artificial intelligence systems. However, a disadvantage with this approach is that the knowledge embedded in the neural network is opaque. In this paper, we show how to interpret neural network knowledge in symbolic form. We lay down required definitions for this treatment, formulate the interpretation algorithm, and formally verify its soundness. The main result is a formalized relationship between a neural network and a rule-based system. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the neural network generates rules of better performance than the decision tree approach in noisy conditions. 7 refs.

  9. A new approach to handle additive and multiplicative uncertainties in the measurement for ? LPV filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, Márcio J.; Tognetti, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Ricardo C. L. F.; Peres, Pedro L. D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a general framework to cope with full-order ? linear parameter-varying (LPV) filter design subject to inexactly measured parameters. The main novelty is the ability of handling additive and multiplicative uncertainties in the measurements, for both continuous and discrete-time LPV systems, in a unified approach. By conveniently modelling scheduling parameters and uncertainties affecting the measurements, the ? filter design problem can be expressed in terms of robust matrix inequalities that become linear when two scalar parameters are fixed. Therefore, the proposed conditions can be efficiently solved through linear matrix inequality relaxations based on polynomial solutions. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the improved efficiency of the proposed approach when compared to other methods and, more important, its capability to deal with scenarios where the available strategies in the literature cannot be used.

  10. Identification of Xenoestrogens in Food Additives by an Integrated in Silico and in Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Amadasi, Alessio; Mozzarelli, Andrea; Meda, Clara; Maggi, Adriana; Cozzini, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    In the search for xenoestrogens within food additives, we have analyzed the Joint FAO-WHO expert committee database, containing 1500 compounds, using an integrated in silico and in vitro approach. This analysis identified 31 potential estrogen receptor α ligands that were reduced to 13 upon applying a stringent filter based on ligand volume and binding mode. Among the 13 potential xenoestrogens, four were already known to exhibit an estrogenic activity, and the other nine were assayed in vitro, determining the binding affinity to the receptor and biological effects. Propyl gallate was found to act as an antagonist, and 4-hexylresorcinol was found to act as a potent transactivator; both ligands were active at nanomolar concentrations, as predicted by the in silico analysis. Some caution should be issued for the use of propyl gallate and 4-hexylresorcinol as food additives. PMID:19063592

  11. An additive approach to low temperature zero pressure sintering of bismuth antimony telluride thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlin, Glenn C.; Tripathi, Rajesh; Nunes, Geoffrey; Lynch, Philip B.; Jones, Howard D.; Schmitt, Devin C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an additive-based approach to the formulation of thermoelectric materials suitable for screen printing. Such printing processes are a likely route to such thermoelectric applications as micro-generators for wireless sensor networks and medical devices, but require the development of materials that can be sintered at ambient pressure and low temperatures. Using a rapid screening process, we identify the eutectic combination of antimony and tellurium as an additive for bismuth-antimony-telluride that enables good thermoelectric performance without a high pressure step. An optimized composite of 15 weight percent Sb7.5Te92.5 in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is scaled up and formulated into a screen-printable paste. Samples fabricated from this paste achieve a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.74 using a maximum processing temperature of 748 K and a total thermal processing budget of 12 K-hours.

  12. Tabulated pressure measurements of a NASA supercritical-wing research airplane model with and without fuselage area-rule additions at Mach 0.25 to 1.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.; Bartlett, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Basic pressure measurements were made on a 0.087-scale model of a supercritical wing research airplane in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.00 to determine the effects on the local aerodynamic loads over the wing and rear fuselage of area-rule additions to the sides of the fuselage. In addition, pressure measurements over the surface of the area-rule additions themselves were obtained at angles of sideslip of approximately - 5 deg, 0 deg, and 5 deg to aid in the structural design of the additions. Except for representative figures, results are presented in tabular form without analysis.

  13. The Use of Rule-Based and QSPR Approaches in ADME Profiling: A Case Study on Caco-2 Permeability.

    PubMed

    Pham-The, Hai; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival; Garrigues, Teresa; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong; Cabrera-Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-06-01

    During the early ADME profiling the development of simple, interpretable and reliable in silico tools is very important. In this study, rule-based and QSPR approaches were investigated using a large Caco-2 permeability database. Three permeability classes were determined: high (H), moderate (M) and low (L). The main physicochemical properties related with permeability were ranked as follows: Polar Surface Area (PSA)>Lipophilicity (logP/logD)>Molecular Weight (MW)>number of Hydrogen Bond donors and acceptors>Ionization State>number of Rotatable Bonds>number of Rings. The best rule, based on the combination of PSA-MW-logD (3PRule), was able to identify the H, M and L classes with accuracy of 72.2, 72.9 and 70.6 %, respectively. Subsequently, a consensus system based on three voting binary classification trees was constructed. It accurately predicted 78.4/76.1/79.1 % of H/M/L compounds on training and 78.6/71.1/77.6 % on test set. Finally, the 3PRule and multiclassifier were validated with 23 drugs in a Caco-2 assay. The rule is very useful to improve assay design and prioritize the high absorption candidates. Meanwhile the QSPR model exhibits appropriate classification performance. Due to the simplicity, easy interpretation and accuracy, the 3PRule and consensus model developed here can be used in early ADME profiling.

  14. Automated detection of pain from facial expressions: a rule-based approach using AAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhanli; Ansari, Rashid; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we examine the problem of using video analysis to assess pain, an important problem especially for critically ill, non-communicative patients, and people with dementia. We propose and evaluate an automated method to detect the presence of pain manifested in patient videos using a unique and large collection of cancer patient videos captured in patient homes. The method is based on detecting pain-related facial action units defined in the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) that is widely used for objective assessment in pain analysis. In our research, a person-specific Active Appearance Model (AAM) based on Project-Out Inverse Compositional Method is trained for each patient individually for the modeling purpose. A flexible representation of the shape model is used in a rule-based method that is better suited than the more commonly used classifier-based methods for application to the cancer patient videos in which pain-related facial actions occur infrequently and more subtly. The rule-based method relies on the feature points that provide facial action cues and is extracted from the shape vertices of AAM, which have a natural correspondence to face muscular movement. In this paper, we investigate the detection of a commonly used set of pain-related action units in both the upper and lower face. Our detection results show good agreement with the results obtained by three trained FACS coders who independently reviewed and scored the action units in the cancer patient videos.

  15. An approach for environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy inference rules.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Emel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-01-01

    The usage of Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer products is relatively new and there is a need to conduct environmental risk assessment (ERA) to evaluate their impacts on the environment. However, alternative approaches are required for ERA of ENPs because of the huge gap in data and knowledge compared to conventional pollutants and their unique properties that make it difficult to apply existing approaches. This study aims to propose an ERA approach for ENPs by integrating Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy inference models which provide a systematic evaluation of risk factors and reducing uncertainty about the data and information, respectively. Risk is assumed to be the combination of occurrence likelihood, exposure potential and toxic effects in the environment. A hierarchy was established to evaluate the sub factors of these components. Evaluation was made with fuzzy numbers to reduce uncertainty and incorporate the expert judgements. Overall score of each component was combined with fuzzy inference rules by using expert judgements. Proposed approach reports the risk class and its membership degree such as Minor (0.7). Therefore, results are precise and helpful to determine the risk management strategies. Moreover, priority weights calculated by comparing the risk factors based on their importance for the risk enable users to understand which factor is effective on the risk. Proposed approach was applied for Ag (two nanoparticles with different coating) and TiO2 nanoparticles for different case studies. Results verified the proposed benefits of the approach.

  16. Planning additional drilling campaign using two-space genetic algorithm: A game theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Ozer, Umit

    2013-03-01

    Grade and tonnage are the most important technical uncertainties in mining ventures because of the use of estimations/simulations, which are mostly generated from drill data. Open pit mines are planned and designed on the basis of the blocks representing the entire orebody. Each block has different estimation/simulation variance reflecting uncertainty to some extent. The estimation/simulation realizations are submitted to mine production scheduling process. However, the use of a block model with varying estimation/simulation variances will lead to serious risk in the scheduling. In the medium of multiple simulations, the dispersion variances of blocks can be thought to regard technical uncertainties. However, the dispersion variance cannot handle uncertainty associated with varying estimation/simulation variances of blocks. This paper proposes an approach that generates the configuration of the best additional drilling campaign to generate more homogenous estimation/simulation variances of blocks. In other words, the objective is to find the best drilling configuration in such a way as to minimize grade uncertainty under budget constraint. Uncertainty measure of the optimization process in this paper is interpolation variance, which considers data locations and grades. The problem is expressed as a minmax problem, which focuses on finding the best worst-case performance i.e., minimizing interpolation variance of the block generating maximum interpolation variance. Since the optimization model requires computing the interpolation variances of blocks being simulated/estimated in each iteration, the problem cannot be solved by standard optimization tools. This motivates to use two-space genetic algorithm (GA) approach to solve the problem. The technique has two spaces: feasible drill hole configuration with minimization of interpolation variance and drill hole simulations with maximization of interpolation variance. Two-space interacts to find a minmax solution

  17. Fuzzy rule-based approach to segment the menisci regions from MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Hata, Yutaka; Ando, Yoshiro; Ishikawa, Makato; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    1999-05-01

    Injuries of the menisci are one of the most common internal derangement of the knee. To examine them with noninvasive, we propose an automated segmentation method of the menisci region from MR image. The method is composed of two steps based on fuzzy logic. First, we segment the cartilage region by thresholding of the intensity. We then extract the candidate region of the menisci as the region between the cartilages. Second, we segment the menisci voxels from the candidate region based on fuzzy if-then rules obtained from knowledge of location and intensity. We applied our method to five MR data sets. Three of them are the normal knees and the others are with some injuries. Quantitative evaluation by a physician shows that this method can successfully segment the menisci for the all. The generated visualizations will help medical doctor to diagnose the menisci with noninvasive.

  18. Fridel sum rules for one- and two-channel Kondo models and unitarity paradox via bosonization-refermionization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, Maxim; Andrei, Natan; Coleman, Piers

    2013-03-01

    We calculate the single-particle Green's functions and scattering amplitudes of the one-channel and channel-anisotropic two-channel Kondo models at the Toulouse and Emery-Kivelson lines, respectively, where exact solutions via the bosonization-refermionization approach are admitted. We demonstrate that in this approach the Friedel sum rules - the relations between the trapped spin and ``flavor'' moments and the scattering phase shifts in the Fermi-liquid regime - arise naturally and elucidate on their subtleties. We also recover the ``unitarity paradox'' - the vanishing of the single-particle scattering amplitude at the channel-symmetric point of the two-channel Kondo model - stemming from non-Fermi-liquid behavior. We discuss the implications of these results for the development of composite pairing in heavy fermion systems. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants DMR 0907179 (MK, PC) and DMR 1006684 (NA).

  19. Selectivity descriptors for the Michael addition reaction as obtained from density functional based approaches.

    PubMed

    Madjarova, G; Tadjer, A; Cholakova, Tz P; Dobrev, A A; Mineva, T

    2005-01-20

    Density functional (DF) based numerical approaches for computing orbital and atomic reactivity indices were employed in the study of selectivity descriptors for the 1,4 Michael addition reaction. To this aim, atomic and orbital Fukui indices and atomic softnesses for 2-arylmethylene-1,4-butanolides and N,N-disubstituted phenylacetamides were computed. Further on, these local selectivity descriptors have been rationalized in terms of the Pearson's hard-soft-acid-base principle to explain the observed regioselectivity. It is shown that the methods employed for local (atomic and orbital) reactivity index computations are useful and reliable for prediction of the regioselectivity upon conjugate addition of ambident nucleophiles to 2,3-unsaturated carboxylic esters. All the results reveal similar degree of localization/hardness of the 1,4-butanolides C4 and active alpha-carbon belonging to the N,N-dimethyl-phenylacetamide, while the soft alpha-carbon in LiCH2CN reacts with the soft C2 1,4-butanolide center.

  20. The concurrent multiplicative-additive approach for gauge-radar/satellite multisensor precipitation estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Pintado, J.; Barberá, G. G.; Erena Arrabal, M.; Castillo, V. M.

    2010-12-01

    Objective analysis schemes (OAS), also called ``succesive correction methods'' or ``observation nudging'', have been proposed for multisensor precipitation estimation combining remote sensing data (meteorological radar or satellite) with data from ground-based raingauge networks. However, opposite to the more complex geostatistical approaches, the OAS techniques for this use are not optimized. On the other hand, geostatistical techniques ideally require, at the least, modelling the covariance from the rain gauge data at every time step evaluated, which commonly cannot be soundly done. Here, we propose a new procedure (concurrent multiplicative-additive objective analysis scheme [CMA-OAS]) for operational rainfall estimation using rain gauges and meteorological radar, which does not require explicit modelling of spatial covariances. On the basis of a concurrent multiplicative-additive (CMA) decomposition of the spatially nonuniform radar bias, within-storm variability of rainfall and fractional coverage of rainfall are taken into account. Thus both spatially nonuniform radar bias, given that rainfall is detected, and bias in radar detection of rainfall are handled. The interpolation procedure of CMA-OAS is built on the OAS, whose purpose is to estimate a filtered spatial field of the variable of interest through a successive correction of residuals resulting from a Gaussian kernel smoother applied on spatial samples. The CMA-OAS, first, poses an optimization problem at each gauge-radar support point to obtain both a local multiplicative-additive radar bias decomposition and a regionalization parameter. Second, local biases and regionalization parameters are integrated into an OAS to estimate the multisensor rainfall at the ground level. The approach considers radar estimates as background a priori information (first guess), so that nudging to observations (gauges) may be relaxed smoothly to the first guess, and the relaxation shape is obtained from the sequential

  1. Quantum calculations of the carrier mobility: Methodology, Matthiessen's rule, and comparison with semi-classical approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Niquet, Yann-Michel Nguyen, Viet-Hung; Duchemin, Ivan; Nier, Olivier; Rideau, Denis

    2014-02-07

    We discuss carrier mobilities in the quantum Non-Equilibrium Green's Functions (NEGF) framework. We introduce a method for the extraction of the mobility that is free from contact resistance contamination and with minimal needs for ensemble averages. We focus on silicon thin films as an illustration, although the method can be applied to various materials such as semiconductor nanowires or carbon nanostructures. We then introduce a new paradigm for the definition of the partial mobility μ{sub M} associated with a given elastic scattering mechanism “M,” taking phonons (PH) as a reference (μ{sub M}{sup −1}=μ{sub PH+M}{sup −1}−μ{sub PH}{sup −1}). We argue that this definition makes better sense in a quantum transport framework as it is free from long range interference effects that can appear in purely ballistic calculations. As a matter of fact, these mobilities satisfy Matthiessen's rule for three mechanisms [e.g., surface roughness (SR), remote Coulomb scattering (RCS) and phonons] much better than the usual, single mechanism calculations. We also discuss the problems raised by the long range spatial correlations in the RCS disorder. Finally, we compare semi-classical Kubo-Greenwood (KG) and quantum NEGF calculations. We show that KG and NEGF are in reasonable agreement for phonon and RCS, yet not for SR. We discuss the reasons for these discrepancies.

  2. Quantum calculations of the carrier mobility: Methodology, Matthiessen's rule, and comparison with semi-classical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niquet, Yann-Michel; Nguyen, Viet-Hung; Triozon, François; Duchemin, Ivan; Nier, Olivier; Rideau, Denis

    2014-02-01

    We discuss carrier mobilities in the quantum Non-Equilibrium Green's Functions (NEGF) framework. We introduce a method for the extraction of the mobility that is free from contact resistance contamination and with minimal needs for ensemble averages. We focus on silicon thin films as an illustration, although the method can be applied to various materials such as semiconductor nanowires or carbon nanostructures. We then introduce a new paradigm for the definition of the partial mobility μM associated with a given elastic scattering mechanism "M," taking phonons (PH) as a reference (μM-1=μPH+M-1-μPH-1). We argue that this definition makes better sense in a quantum transport framework as it is free from long range interference effects that can appear in purely ballistic calculations. As a matter of fact, these mobilities satisfy Matthiessen's rule for three mechanisms [e.g., surface roughness (SR), remote Coulomb scattering (RCS) and phonons] much better than the usual, single mechanism calculations. We also discuss the problems raised by the long range spatial correlations in the RCS disorder. Finally, we compare semi-classical Kubo-Greenwood (KG) and quantum NEGF calculations. We show that KG and NEGF are in reasonable agreement for phonon and RCS, yet not for SR. We discuss the reasons for these discrepancies.

  3. Segmentation of the fractured foot CT image: a fuzzy-rule-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Shoji; Hata, Yutaka; Matsui, Nobuyuki; Ando, Yoshiro; Ishikawa, Makato

    2000-06-01

    This paper presents an automated method for segmenting CT images of the fractured foot. Segmentation boundary is determined by fuzzy inference with two types of knowledge acquired from orthopedic surgeons. Knowledge of joint is used to determine the boundary of adjacent normal bones. It gives higher degree to the articular cartilage according to local structure (parallelity) and intensity distribution around a joint part. Knowledge of fragment is used to find a contact place of fragments. It evaluates Euclidian distance map (EDM) of the contact place and gives higher degree to the narrow part. Each of the knowledge is represented by fuzzy if-then rules, which can provide degrees for segmentation boundary. By evaluating the degrees in region growing process, a whole foot bone is decomposed into each of anatomically meaningful bones and fragments. An experiment was done on CT images of the subjects who have depressed fractures on their calcanei. The method could effectively give higher degrees on the essential boundary, suppressing generation of useless boundary caused by the internal cavities in the bone. Each of the normal bones and fragments were correctly segmented.

  4. A resolution amending the Standing Rules of the Senate to provide for cloture to be invoked with less than a three-fifths majority after additional debate.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2010-02-11

    09/22/2010 Committee on Rules and Administration. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 111-706. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. A Minimal Rule Approach to Teaching First-Year Russian Conjugation and Verb Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, David K.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a modification of the two-stem approach to teaching conjugation and verb stress in Russian which eliminates dictionary look-up for forms not predictable from the infinitive. Appendix A is an outline of Russian conjugation and verb stress. Appendix B is a verb list from Kostomarov's "Russkij jazyk dlja vsex." (Author/LMO)

  6. Modeling particulate matter concentrations measured through mobile monitoring in a deletion/substitution/addition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jason G.; Hopke, Philip K.; Tian, Yilin; Baldwin, Nichole; Thurston, Sally W.; Evans, Kristin; Rich, David Q.

    2015-12-01

    Land use regression modeling (LUR) through local scale circular modeling domains has been used to predict traffic-related air pollution such as nitrogen oxides (NOX). LUR modeling for fine particulate matters (PM), which generally have smaller spatial gradients than NOX, has been typically applied for studies involving multiple study regions. To increase the spatial coverage for fine PM and key constituent concentrations, we designed a mobile monitoring network in Monroe County, New York to measure pollutant concentrations of black carbon (BC, wavelength at 880 nm), ultraviolet black carbon (UVBC, wavelength at 3700 nm) and Delta-C (the difference between the UVBC and BC concentrations) using the Clarkson University Mobile Air Pollution Monitoring Laboratory (MAPL). A Deletion/Substitution/Addition (D/S/A) algorithm was conducted, which used circular buffers as a basis for statistics. The algorithm maximizes the prediction accuracy for locations without measurements using the V-fold cross-validation technique, and it reduces overfitting compared to other approaches. We found that the D/S/A LUR modeling approach could achieve good results, with prediction powers of 60%, 63%, and 61%, respectively, for BC, UVBC, and Delta-C. The advantage of mobile monitoring is that it can monitor pollutant concentrations at hundreds of spatial points in a region, rather than the typical less than 100 points from a fixed site saturation monitoring network. This research indicates that a mobile saturation sampling network, when combined with proper modeling techniques, can uncover small area variations (e.g., 10 m) in particulate matter concentrations.

  7. Simulating pulmonary vein activity leading to atrial fibrillation using a rule-based approach on realistic anatomical data.

    PubMed

    Reumann, M; Bohnert, J; Doessel, O

    2006-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia leading to a high rate of stroke. The underlying mechanisms of initiation and maintenance of AF are not fully understood. Several findings suggest a multitude of factors to leave the atria vulnerable to AF. In this work, a rule-based approach is taken to simulate the initiation of AF in a computer model for the purpose of generating a model with which the influence of anatomical structures, electrophysiological properties of the atria and arrhythmogenic activity can be evaluated. Pulmonary vein firing has been simulated leading to AF in 65.7 % of all simulations. The excitation pattern generated resemble chaotic excitation behavior, which is characteristic for AF as well as stable reentrant circuits responsible for atrial flutter. The findings compare well with literature. In future, the presented computer model of AF can be used in therapy planning such as ablation therapy or overdrive pacing.

  8. Modeling of DNA single stage splicing language via Yusof-Goode approach: One string with two rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wen Li; Yusof, Yuhani; Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-02-01

    Splicing system plays a pivotal role in attempts to recombine sets of double-stranded DNA molecules when acted by restriction enzymes and ligase. Traditional method of finding the result of DNA recombination through experiment is both time and money consuming. Hence, finding the number of patterns of DNA single stage splicing language through formalism of splicing system is a way to optimize the searching process. From the biological perspective, it predicts the number of types of molecules that will exist in the system under existence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some theorems, corollaries and examples that lead to the predictions of single stage splicing languages involving one pattern string and two rules are presented via Yusof-Goode approach.

  9. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of spirocyclic azlactones by a double Michael-addition approach.

    PubMed

    Weber, Manuel; Frey, Wolfgang; Peters, René

    2013-06-17

    Spirocyclic azlactones are shown to be useful precursors of cyclic quaternary amino acids, such as the constrained cyclohexane analogues of phenylalanine. These compounds are of interest as building blocks for the synthesis of artificial peptide analogues with controlled folds in the peptide backbone. They were prepared in the present study by a step- and atom-economic catalytic asymmetric tandem approach, requiring two steps starting from N-benzoyl glycine and divinylketones. The key of this protocol is the enantioselective formation of the azlactone spirocycles, which involves a PdII-catalyzed double 1,4-addition of an in situ generated azlactone intermediate to the dienone (a formal [5+1] cycloaddition). As the catalyst, a planar chiral ferrocene bispalladacycle was used. Mechanistic studies suggest a monometallic reaction pathway. Although the diastereoselectivity was found to be moderate, the enantioselectivity is usually high for the formation of the azlactone spirocycles, which contain up to three contiguous stereocenters. Spectroscopic studies have shown that the spirocycles often prefer a twist over a chair conformation of the cyclohexanone moiety.

  10. Order Batching in Warehouses by Minimizing Total Tardiness: A Hybrid Approach of Weighted Association Rule Mining and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Shahrooz; Mat Saman, Muhamad Zameri; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2013-01-01

    One of the cost-intensive issues in managing warehouses is the order picking problem which deals with the retrieval of items from their storage locations in order to meet customer requests. Many solution approaches have been proposed in order to minimize traveling distance in the process of order picking. However, in practice, customer orders have to be completed by certain due dates in order to avoid tardiness which is neglected in most of the related scientific papers. Consequently, we proposed a novel solution approach in order to minimize tardiness which consists of four phases. First of all, weighted association rule mining has been used to calculate associations between orders with respect to their due date. Next, a batching model based on binary integer programming has been formulated to maximize the associations between orders within each batch. Subsequently, the order picking phase will come up which used a Genetic Algorithm integrated with the Traveling Salesman Problem in order to identify the most suitable travel path. Finally, the Genetic Algorithm has been applied for sequencing the constructed batches in order to minimize tardiness. Illustrative examples and comparisons are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and solution quality of the proposed approach. PMID:23864823

  11. Order batching in warehouses by minimizing total tardiness: a hybrid approach of weighted association rule mining and genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Azadnia, Amir Hossein; Taheri, Shahrooz; Ghadimi, Pezhman; Saman, Muhamad Zameri Mat; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2013-01-01

    One of the cost-intensive issues in managing warehouses is the order picking problem which deals with the retrieval of items from their storage locations in order to meet customer requests. Many solution approaches have been proposed in order to minimize traveling distance in the process of order picking. However, in practice, customer orders have to be completed by certain due dates in order to avoid tardiness which is neglected in most of the related scientific papers. Consequently, we proposed a novel solution approach in order to minimize tardiness which consists of four phases. First of all, weighted association rule mining has been used to calculate associations between orders with respect to their due date. Next, a batching model based on binary integer programming has been formulated to maximize the associations between orders within each batch. Subsequently, the order picking phase will come up which used a Genetic Algorithm integrated with the Traveling Salesman Problem in order to identify the most suitable travel path. Finally, the Genetic Algorithm has been applied for sequencing the constructed batches in order to minimize tardiness. Illustrative examples and comparisons are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and solution quality of the proposed approach.

  12. ISOLATING CONTENT AND METADATA FROM WEBLOGS USING CLASSIFICATION AND RULE-BASED APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Eric J.; Bell, Eric B.

    2011-09-04

    The emergence and increasing prevalence of social media, such as internet forums, weblogs (blogs), wikis, etc., has created a new opportunity to measure public opinion, attitude, and social structures. A major challenge in leveraging this information is isolating the content and metadata in weblogs, as there is no standard, universally supported, machine-readable format for presenting this information. We present two algorithms for isolating this information. The first uses web block classification, where each node in the Document Object Model (DOM) for a page is classified according to one of several pre-defined attributes from a common blog schema. The second uses a set of heuristics to select web blocks. These algorithms perform at a level suitable for initial use, validating this approach for isolating content and metadata from blogs. The resultant data serves as a starting point for analytical work on the content and substance of collections of weblog pages.

  13. The thermodynamics of mixtures and the corresponding mixing rules in the SAFT-VR approach for potentials of variable range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo Lowri, Amparo; Davies, A.; Gil-Villegas, George Jackson

    The statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) has been extended recently to describe the thermodynamic properties of chain molecules formed from monomeric segments interacting with attractive potentials of variable range (VR) (Gil-Villegas, A., Galindo, A., Whitehead, P. J., Mills, S. J., Jackson, G., and Burgess, A. N., 1997, J. chem. Phys. , 106 , 4168). The SAFTVR approach is based on an accurate and compact representation of the free energy of chain molecules in terms of the contact value of the radial distribution function of the monomer reference system. This paper takes advantage of the SAFT-VR approach to focus on the nature of the expressions for mixtures of non-conformal molecules. A number of mixing rules are proposed, from the usual van der Waals one-fluid prescription to a complete description in terms of the pair distribution functions of the pair interactions that goes beyond the one-fluid level. As a first test of the adequacy of the theory for mixtures the SAFT-VR prediction is compared with Gibbs ensemble simulation data for the vapour-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of two prototype mixtures containing square-well molecules.

  14. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  15. Tank mixture additives approach to improve efficiency of bentazon against broadleaf weeds in peas.

    PubMed

    Balah, Mohamed A; Hanafi, Ahmad; Ghani, Sherif B Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of different tank-mixed additives with bentazon at half rate was investigated on (Malva parviflora) and other broad leaf weeds compared with bentazon at the full recommended rate without additives in peas in open field. All the tested additives enhanced the efficiency of bentazon at the half rate. Nonyl phenol and toximol S proved to be the most effective additives in comparison with the full rate treatment. The tested treatments did not show any significant effect on chlorophyll content and soil microorganisms. Bentazon residues were determined in certain treatments to investigate the effect of the tested additives on bentazon deposition. Samples were extracted using QuEChERS method and residues were determined using LC-MS/MS. Residues after 24 hours in the half rate treatment reached 4 times lower than the Maximum Residues Limit (MRL) (0.11 mg kg(-1)), compared to the full rate treatment (0.51 mg kg(-1)), that was slightly above the MRL.

  16. Logical-Rule Models of Classification Response Times: A Synthesis of Mental-Architecture, Random-Walk, and Decision-Bound Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fific, Mario; Little, Daniel R.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We formalize and provide tests of a set of logical-rule models for predicting perceptual classification response times (RTs) and choice probabilities. The models are developed by synthesizing mental-architecture, random-walk, and decision-bound approaches. According to the models, people make independent decisions about the locations of stimuli…

  17. A novel approach for phosphorus recovery and no wasted sludge in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process with external COD addition.

    PubMed

    Xia, Cheng-Wang; Ma, Yun-Jie; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    In enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, phosphorus (P) in wastewater is removed via wasted sludge without actual recovery. A novel approach to realize phosphorus recovery with special external chemical oxygen demand (COD) addition in EBPR process was proposed. During the new operating approach period, it was found that (1) no phosphorus was detected in the effluent; (2) with an external addition of 10 % of influent COD amount, 79 % phosphorus in the wastewater influent was recovered; (3) without wasted sludge, the MLVSS concentration in the system increased from 2,010 to 3,400 mg/L and kept stable after day 11 during 24-day operating period. This demonstrates that the novel approach is feasible to realize phosphorus recovery with no wasted sludge discharge in EBPR process. Furthermore, this approach decouples P removal and sludge age, which may enhance the application of membrane bioreactor for P removal.

  18. A Micro-Developmental Approach to Studying Young Children's Problem Solving Behavior in Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voutsina, Chronoula

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study that investigated the process of change in 5-6-year-old children's successful problem-solving approaches when tackling a multiple-step task in elementary arithmetic. Micro-developmental changes in children's successful problem-solving behavior were analyzed using Karmiloff-Smith's model of representational redescription…

  19. Large $N$ approach to kaon decays and mixing 28 years later: $\\Delta I = 1/2$ rule, $\\hat B_K$ and $\\Delta M_K$

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Gérard, Jean -Marc; Bardeen, William A.

    2014-05-20

    We review and update our results for K → π π decays and K⁰- K¯⁰ mixing obtained by us in the 1980s within an approach based on the dual representation of QCD as a theory of weakly interacting mesons for large N colours. In our analytic approach the dynamics behind the enhancement of ReA0 and suppression of ReA2, the so-called ΔI = 1/2 rule for K → π π decays, has a simple structure: the usual octet enhancement through quark-gluon renormalization group evolution down to the scales O(1 GeV) is continued as a meson evolution down to zero momentum scales at which the factorization of hadronic matrix elements is at work. The inclusion of lowest-lying vector meson contributions in addition to the pseudoscalar ones and of Wilson coefficients in a momentum scheme improves significantly the matching between quark-gluon and meson evolutions. In particular, the anomalous dimension matrix governing the meson evolution exhibits the structure of the known anomalous dimension matrix in the quark-gluon evolution. The recent results on ReA2 and ReA0 from the RBC-UKQC collaboration give support for our approach. In particular, the signs of the two main contractions found numerically by these authors follow uniquely from our analytic approach. At NLO in 1/N we obtain R = ReA0/ReA2= 16.0±1.5 which amounts to an order of magnitude enhancement over the strict large N limit value √2. QCD penguins contribute at 15% level to this result. We also find B^K = 0.73± 0.02, with the smallness of 1/N corrections to the large N value B^K = 3/4 resulting within our approach from an approximate cancellation between pseudoscalar and vector meson one-loop contributions. We summarize the status of ΔMK in this approach.

  20. Large $N$ approach to kaon decays and mixing 28 years later: $$\\Delta I = 1/2$$ rule, $$\\hat B_K$$ and $$\\Delta M_K$$

    DOE PAGES

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Gérard, Jean -Marc; Bardeen, William A.

    2014-05-20

    We review and update our results for K → π π decays and K⁰- K¯⁰ mixing obtained by us in the 1980s within an approach based on the dual representation of QCD as a theory of weakly interacting mesons for large N colours. In our analytic approach the dynamics behind the enhancement of ReA0 and suppression of ReA2, the so-called ΔI = 1/2 rule for K → π π decays, has a simple structure: the usual octet enhancement through quark-gluon renormalization group evolution down to the scales O(1 GeV) is continued as a meson evolution down to zero momentum scalesmore » at which the factorization of hadronic matrix elements is at work. The inclusion of lowest-lying vector meson contributions in addition to the pseudoscalar ones and of Wilson coefficients in a momentum scheme improves significantly the matching between quark-gluon and meson evolutions. In particular, the anomalous dimension matrix governing the meson evolution exhibits the structure of the known anomalous dimension matrix in the quark-gluon evolution. The recent results on ReA2 and ReA0 from the RBC-UKQC collaboration give support for our approach. In particular, the signs of the two main contractions found numerically by these authors follow uniquely from our analytic approach. At NLO in 1/N we obtain R = ReA0/ReA2= 16.0±1.5 which amounts to an order of magnitude enhancement over the strict large N limit value √2. QCD penguins contribute at 15% level to this result. We also find B^K = 0.73± 0.02, with the smallness of 1/N corrections to the large N value B^K = 3/4 resulting within our approach from an approximate cancellation between pseudoscalar and vector meson one-loop contributions. We summarize the status of ΔMK in this approach.« less

  1. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  2. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  3. An evaluation of atomic and molecular mixture rules and group additivity concepts for the estimation of radiation absorption by long-chained, saturated hydrocarbons at vacuum UV and soft X-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Jennifer W.; Cooper, Glyn; Burton, Gordon R.; Brion, C. E.

    1994-10-01

    The feasibility of using atomic and molecular mixture rules as well as group additivity concepts for predicting valence shell photoabsorption oscillator strengths (cross sections) for long-chained alkane molecules has been investigated over a wide energy range from 18 to 220 eV. The predictions are discussed with reference to recently reported experimental measurements (Chem. Phys. 173 (1993) 209) for normal alkanes, C nH 2 n+2 ( n=1-8). Atomic mixture rules based on either theoretical or experimental atomic oscillator strength sums are found to be unsatisfactory, giving very large errors at most photon energies. A wide range of molecular mixture rules based on linear combinations of measured oscillator strength values for small 'component' alkane molecules and molecular hydrogen have also been evaluated. Although good agreement with experiment is obtained with some linear combinations, many others result in substantial errors. Molecular mixture rules constructed using oscillator strength for larger component alkanes generally give better estimates of the experimentally measured data; however, since no other a priori physical or chemical reasons can be advanced for any particular choice of molecular mixture rule, this procedure is unsatisfactory for general application. In contrast, a group additivity procedure based on oscillator strength estimates for the methylene (CH 2) and methyl (CH 3) alkane group fragments, derived entirely from the photoabsorption measurements for lower alkanes, provides excellent agreement with the measured oscillator strengths for C 8H 18 over the entire energy range studied (18-220 eV). The absolute photoabsorption group oscillator strengths derived for the CH 2 and CH 3 fragments should be applicable to assessing the contributions from saturated hydrocarbon groupings to vacuum UV and soft X-ray absorption in larger chemical and biochemical systems.

  4. A multiple imputation approach to the analysis of clustered interval-censored failure time data with the additive hazards model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Sun, Jianguo; Xiong, Chengjie

    2016-01-01

    Clustered interval-censored failure time data can occur when the failure time of interest is collected from several clusters and known only within certain time intervals. Regression analysis of clustered interval-censored failure time data is discussed assuming that the data arise from the semiparametric additive hazards model. A multiple imputation approach is proposed for inference. A major advantage of the approach is its simplicity because it avoids estimating the correlation within clusters by implementing a resampling-based method. The presented approach can be easily implemented by using the existing software packages for right-censored failure time data. Extensive simulation studies are conducted, indicating that the proposed imputation approach performs well for practical situations. The proposed approach also performs well compared to the existing methods and can be more conveniently applied to various types of data representation. The proposed methodology is further demonstrated by applying it to a lymphatic filariasis study. PMID:27773956

  5. Rules for Thesaurus Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Panel on Educational Terminology.

    This is a revision of the "Rules for Thesaurus Preparation," published in October 1966. These rules are designed to help the Central ERIC staff and the staffs of the ERIC Clearinghouses make similar decisions related to the addition and modification of terms in the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors," Second Edition. In addition to…

  6. Quasi-chemical approach for adsorption of mixtures with non-additive lateral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, O. A.; Pasinetti, P. M.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    The statistical thermodynamics of binary mixtures with non-additive lateral interactions was developed on a generalization in the spirit of the lattice-gas model and the classical quasi-chemical approximation (QCA). The traditional assumption of a strictly pairwise additive nearest-neighbors interaction is replaced by a more general one, namely that the bond linking a certain atom with any of its neighbors depends considerably on how many of them are actually present (or absent) on the sites in the first coordination shell of the atom. The total and partial adsorption isotherms are given for both attractive and repulsive lateral interactions between the adsorbed species. Interesting behaviors are observed and discussed in terms of the low-temperature phases formed in the system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations are performed in order to test the validity of the theoretical model.

  7. An Approach to the Classification of Potential Reserve Additions of Giant Oil Fields of the World

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains slides and notes for slides for a presentation given to the Committee on Sustainable Energy and the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Harmonization of Fossil Energy and Mineral Resources Terminology on 17 October 2007 in Geneva, Switzerland. The presentation describes the U.S. Geological Survey study to characterize and quantify petroleum-reserve additions, and the application of this study to help classify the quantities.

  8. Rainfall estimation by rain gauge-radar combination: A concurrent multiplicative-additive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GarcíA-Pintado, Javier; Barberá, Gonzalo G.; Erena, Manuel; Castillo, Victor M.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure (concurrent multiplicative-additive objective analysis scheme [CMA-OAS]) is proposed for operational rainfall estimation using rain gauges and radar data. On the basis of a concurrent multiplicative-additive (CMA) decomposition of the spatially nonuniform radar bias, within-storm variability of rainfall and fractional coverage of rainfall are taken into account. Thus both spatially nonuniform radar bias, given that rainfall is detected, and bias in radar detection of rainfall are handled. The interpolation procedure of CMA-OAS is built on Barnes' objective analysis scheme (OAS), whose purpose is to estimate a filtered spatial field of the variable of interest through a successive correction of residuals resulting from a Gaussian kernel smoother applied on spatial samples. The CMA-OAS, first, poses an optimization problem at each gauge-radar support point to obtain both a local multiplicative-additive radar bias decomposition and a regionalization parameter. Second, local biases and regionalization parameters are integrated into an OAS to estimate the multisensor rainfall at the ground level. The procedure is suited to relatively sparse rain gauge networks. To show the procedure, six storms are analyzed at hourly steps over 10,663 km2. Results generally indicated an improved quality with respect to other methods evaluated: a standard mean-field bias adjustment, a spatially variable adjustment with multiplicative factors, and ordinary cokriging.

  9. World Trade Center Health Program; addition of certain types of cancer to the list of WTC-related health conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-12

    Title I of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 amended the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) to establish the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program. The WTC Health Program, which is administered by the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provides medical monitoring and treatment to eligible firefighters and related personnel, law enforcement officers, and rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers who responded to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, at the Pentagon, and in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, and to eligible survivors of the New York City attacks. In accordance with WTC Health Program regulations, which establish procedures for adding a new condition to the list of covered health conditions, this final rule adds to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions the types of cancer proposed for inclusion by the notice of proposed rulemaking.

  10. Predicting the relatiave vulnerability of near-coastal species to climate change using a rule-based ecoinformatics approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Questions/Methods Near-coastal species are threatened by multiple climate change drivers, including temperature increases, ocean acidification, and sea level rise. To identify vulnerable habitats, geographic regions, and species, we developed a sequential, rule-based...

  11. Efficacy of lipase from Aspergillus niger as an additive in detergent formulations: a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Saisubramanian, N; Edwinoliver, N G; Nandakumar, N; Kamini, N R; Puvanakrishnan, R

    2006-08-01

    The efficacy of lipase from Aspergillus niger MTCC 2594 as an additive in laundry detergent formulations was assessed using response surface methodology (RSM). A five-level four-factorial central composite design was chosen to explain the washing protocol with four critical factors, viz. detergent concentration, lipase concentration, buffer pH and washing temperature. The model suggested that all the factors chosen had a significant impact on oil removal and the optimal conditions for the removal of olive oil from cotton fabric were 1.0% detergent, 75 U of lipase, buffer pH of 9.5 and washing temperature of 25 degrees C. Under optimal conditions, the removal of olive oil from cotton fabric was 33 and 17.1% at 25 and 49 degrees C, respectively, in the presence of lipase over treatment with detergent alone. Hence, lipase from A. niger could be effectively used as an additive in detergent formulation for the removal of triglyceride soil both in cold and warm wash conditions.

  12. Marginal regression approach for additive hazards models with clustered current status data.

    PubMed

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chi, Yunchan

    2014-01-15

    Current status data arise naturally from tumorigenicity experiments, epidemiology studies, biomedicine, econometrics and demographic and sociology studies. Moreover, clustered current status data may occur with animals from the same litter in tumorigenicity experiments or with subjects from the same family in epidemiology studies. Because the only information extracted from current status data is whether the survival times are before or after the monitoring or censoring times, the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of survival function converges at a rate of n(1/3) to a complicated limiting distribution. Hence, semiparametric regression models such as the additive hazards model have been extended for independent current status data to derive the test statistics, whose distributions converge at a rate of n(1/2) , for testing the regression parameters. However, a straightforward application of these statistical methods to clustered current status data is not appropriate because intracluster correlation needs to be taken into account. Therefore, this paper proposes two estimating functions for estimating the parameters in the additive hazards model for clustered current status data. The comparative results from simulation studies are presented, and the application of the proposed estimating functions to one real data set is illustrated.

  13. Effect of additional warning sounds on pedestrians' detection of electric vehicles: An ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Sylvain; Jamet, Éric; Roussarie, Vincent; Bosc, Laure; Chamard, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Virtually silent electric vehicles (EVs) may pose a risk for pedestrians. This paper describes two studies that were conducted to assess the influence of different types of external sounds on EV detectability. In the first study, blindfolded participants had to detect an approaching EV with either no warning sounds at all or one of three types of sound we tested. In the second study, designed to replicate the results of the first one in an ecological setting, the EV was driven along a road and the experimenters counted the number of people who turned their heads in its direction. Results of the first study showed that adding external sounds improve EV detection, and modulating the frequency and increasing the pitch of these sounds makes them more effective. This improvement was confirmed in the ecological context. Consequently, pitch variation and frequency modulation should both be taken into account in future AVAS design.

  14. Additional results for 'Sequential design approaches for bioequivalence studies with crossover designs'.

    PubMed

    Montague, Timothy H; Potvin, Diane; Diliberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Parr, Alan F; Schuirmann, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, this group published a paper on approaches for two-stage crossover bioequivalence (BE) studies that allowed for the reestimation of the second-stage sample size based on the variance estimated from the first-stage results. The sequential methods considered used an assumed GMR of 0.95 as part of the method for determining power and sample size. This note adds results for an assumed GMR = 0.90. Two of the methods recommended for GMR = 0.95 in the earlier paper have some unacceptable increases in Type I error rate when the GMR is changed to 0.90. If a sponsor wants to assume 0.90 for the GMR, Method D is recommended. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of Addition of Fentanyl to Xylocaine Hydrochloride in Brachial Plexus Block by Supraclavicular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Paluvadi, Venkata Raghavendra; Manne, Venkata Sesha Sai Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to quantitatively compare the effects of 1.5% xylocaine with 1.5% xylocaine and fentanyl (1 μg/kg) mixture for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients between the age group of 20–60 and scheduled for upper limb surgery were divided into two groups (xylocaine group and xylocaine plus fentanyl group). After performing supraclavicular brachial plexus block, an assessment was made for onset of analgesia, duration and degree of analgesia, block intensity, and for any other side effects. Results: Mean duration of analgesia is Group I is 2.1 h and in Group II is 8.1 h; a four-fold increase in duration of analgesia. Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl to xylocaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block has no significant effect on onset or quality of analgesia, but duration of analgesia is significantly prolonged. PMID:28298769

  16. Infill Optimization for Additive Manufacturing -- Approaching Bone-like Porous Structures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Aage, Niels; Westermann, Ruediger; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-23

    Porous structures such as trabecular bone are widely seen in nature. These structures are lightweight and exhibit strong mechanical properties. In this paper, we present a method to generate bone-like porous structures as lightweight infill for additive manufacturing. Our method builds upon and extends voxel-wise topology optimization. In particular, for the purpose of generating sparse yet stable structures distributed in the interior of a given shape, we propose upper bounds on the localized material volume in the proximity of each voxel in the design domain. We then aggregate the local per-voxel constraints by their p-norm into an equivalent global constraint, in order to facilitate an efficient optimization process. Implemented on a high-resolution topology optimization framework, our results demonstrate mechanically optimized, detailed porous structures which mimic those found in nature. We further show variants of the optimized structures subject to different design specifications, and we analyze the optimality and robustness of the obtained structures.

  17. Patient-specific in vitro models for hemodynamic analysis of congenital heart disease - Additive manufacturing approach.

    PubMed

    Medero, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Sylvana; François, Christopher J; Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro

    2017-03-21

    Non-invasive hemodynamic assessment of total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is challenging due to the complex anatomy. Additive manufacturing (AM) is a suitable alternative for creating patient-specific in vitro models for flow measurements using four-dimensional (4D) Flow MRI. These in vitro systems have the potential to serve as validation for computational fluid dynamics (CFD), simulating different physiological conditions. This study investigated three different AM technologies, stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), to determine differences in hemodynamics when measuring flow using 4D Flow MRI. The models were created using patient-specific MRI data from an extracardiac TCPC. These models were connected to a perfusion pump circulating water at three different flow rates. Data was processed for visualization and quantification of velocity, flow distribution, vorticity and kinetic energy. These results were compared between each model. In addition, the flow distribution obtained in vitro was compared to in vivo. The results showed significant difference in velocities measured at the outlets of the models that required internal support material when printing. Furthermore, an ultrasound flow sensor was used to validate flow measurements at the inlets and outlets of the in vitro models. These results were highly correlated to those measured with 4D Flow MRI. This study showed that commercially available AM technologies can be used to create patient-specific vascular models for in vitro hemodynamic studies at reasonable costs. However, technologies that do not require internal supports during manufacturing allow smoother internal surfaces, which makes them better suited for flow analyses.

  18. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite's tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  19. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  20. Additional approach to PDT: type III mechanism and the role of native free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Dezso; Kriska, Tamas; Shutova, Tatiana G.; Nemeth, Andras

    2001-04-01

    It has been suggested by us earlier that interactions of excited triplet sensitizer (3PS) and native free radicals compete with Type I (sensitizer radical mediated) and Type II (singlet oxygen mediated) mechanisms during PDT. Evidence such as fall in the overall radical concentration in vivo ( in mice tumors) during PDT and in the life time of 3PS caused by free radicals supported this assumption In addition, following results have been obtained recently. 1.) Excited Photofrin II and m-THPC affected luminol dependent chemiluminescence (CL) generated by respiratory burst of macrophages like free radical inhibitors. 2.) Quantification of spin trapping for chemical and in vitro systems by kinetic ESR spectrometry yielded detailed knowledge of triplet-doublet interactions 3.)Measurements in open systems (tank reactor) yielded data for the interactions between 3PS and peroxy type radicals 4.)Simulation of experimental data based on mechanisms suggested gave fair agreement. Based on experimental results new PS-s called Antioxidant Carrier Sensiters (ACS-s) have been devised, synthesized and tested one of them showing enhanced activity for PDT.

  1. Empirical Approach to Understanding the Fatigue Behavior of Metals Made Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David B.; Albright, Thomas V.; Patel, Dhruv N.

    2016-08-01

    High-cycle fatigue measurements were performed on alloys prepared by powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing techniques. Selective laser melted (SLM) nickel-based superalloy 625 and electron beam melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V specimens were prepared as round fatigue specimens and tested with as-built surfaces at stress ratios of -1, 0.1 and 0.5. Data collected at R = -1 were used to construct Goodman diagrams that correspond closely to measured experimental data collected at R > 0. A second way to interpret the HCF data is based on the influence of surface roughness on fatigue, and approximate the surface feature size as a notch. On this basis, the data were interpreted using the fatigue notch factor k f and average stress models relating k f and stress concentration factor K t. The depth and root radius of surface features associated with fatigue crack initiation were used to estimate a K t of 2.8 for SLM 625. For Ti-6Al-4V, a direct estimate of K t from HCF data was not possible, but approximate values of k f based on HCF data and K t from crack initiation site geometry are found to explain other published EBM Ti-6Al-4V.

  2. A sustainable and resilient approach through biochar addition in wood polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-15

    Biocomposites have been used for sustainability for a few years now and considerable advancements have been made to perfect the physical and mechanical properties. However, there still remain some considerable disadvantages (such as inferior mechanical strength, thickness swell, and rotting) which restrict their proper utilization in wider markets. Attempts have been made to remedy these drawbacks but still further investigation is required to address all the issues and alleviate as many shortcomings as possible. Additionally, concerns related to landfill gas emission prompted the necessity for effective utilization of organic wastes. Lignocellulosic wastes can be valorized by thermo-chemical conversion to form a carbonaceous and renewable material called biochar. Keeping these two problems in mind, a relatively novel idea is recommended for the manufacture of biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste could be added with wood and plastic. It is expected to mitigate the general disadvantages of conventional wood plastic composites (WPCs) and at the same time manage landfill wastes giving rise to a potential new breed of improved next generation biocomposites. Furthermore, a 'resilient' perspective is conferred where the long term viability of the state-of-the-art product could be ensured.

  3. Aquatic toxicity and ecological risk assessment of seven parabens: Individual and additive approach.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tamura, Ikumi; Hirata, Yoshiko; Kato, Jun; Kagota, Keiichiro; Katsuki, Shota; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl(-1) for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using medaka (Oryzias latipes), Daphnia magna, and Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata for four parabens, which was consistent with our previous study on three parabens, n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. The aquatic toxicity on fish, daphnia, and algae was weaker for the parabens with a shorter alkyl chain than those with a longer alkyl chain as predicted by their hydrophobicity. Medaka vitellogenin assays and DNA microarray analysis were carried out for methylparaben and found induction of significant vitellogenin in male medaka at 630μgl(-1) of methylparaben, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as choriogenin and vitellogenin increased for concentrations at 10μgl(-1) of methylparaben. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of seven parabens in Tokushima and Osaka were divided by predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and hazard quotient (MEC/PNEC) was determined for individual parabens. The MEC/PNEC was highest for n-propylparaben and was 0.010 followed by n-butylparaben (max. of 0.0086) and methylparaben (max. of 0.0042). The sum of the MEC/PNEC for the seven parabens was 0.0049. Equivalence factors were assigned for each paraben on the basis of the toxicity of n-butylparaben for each species, and n-butylparaben equivalence was calculated for the measured environmental concentrations. The MEC/PNEC approach was also conducted for the n-butylparaben-based equivalence values. The maximum MEC/PNEC was 0.018, which is lower than the trigger level for further detailed study such as

  4. A Reconceptualization of Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushner, Malcolm

    Recently, communications scholars and theorists have begun formulating rules to describe the workings of language in various situations of everyday use. Theoretically, current rules approaches are in violation of the basic philosophy underlying communication theory--Whitehead's notion of process. The inconsistency is a function of the degree of…

  5. Additional disturbances as a beneficial tool for restoration of post-mining sites: a multi-taxa approach.

    PubMed

    Řehounková, Klára; Čížek, Lukáš; Řehounek, Jiří; Šebelíková, Lenka; Tropek, Robert; Lencová, Kamila; Bogusch, Petr; Marhoul, Pavel; Máca, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Open interior sands represent a highly threatened habitat in Europe. In recent times, their associated organisms have often found secondary refuges outside their natural habitats, mainly in sand pits. We investigated the effects of different restoration approaches, i.e. spontaneous succession without additional disturbances, spontaneous succession with additional disturbances caused by recreational activities, and forestry reclamation, on the diversity and conservation values of spiders, beetles, flies, bees and wasps, orthopterans and vascular plants in a large sand pit in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Out of 406 species recorded in total, 112 were classified as open sand specialists and 71 as threatened. The sites restored through spontaneous succession with additional disturbances hosted the largest proportion of open sand specialists and threatened species. The forestry reclamations, in contrast, hosted few such species. The sites with spontaneous succession without disturbances represent a transition between these two approaches. While restoration through spontaneous succession favours biodiversity in contrast to forestry reclamation, additional disturbances are necessary to maintain early successional habitats essential for threatened species and open sand specialists. Therefore, recreational activities seem to be an economically efficient restoration tool that will also benefit biodiversity in sand pits.

  6. Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Eszlinger, Markus; Hegedüs, László; Paschke, Ralf

    2014-08-01

    Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET/PTC rearrangements) has been investigated by several groups with overall reproducible results. Moreover, molecular screening for point mutations and rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried FNA smears, offering several advantages over obtaining additional fresh FNA material. The current panel of somatic mutations (rule in approach) for indeterminate FNAs clarifies only a subgroup of indeterminate FNAs. Therefore, further markers are urgently needed that can reliably identify the malignant, but mutation negative and especially the many benign nodules, among the indeterminate FNAs. miRNA markers and the targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) technology do have the potential to identify those nodules that are mutation negative by current approaches.

  7. Rule mining and classification in a situation assessment application: a belief-theoretic approach for handling data imperfections.

    PubMed

    Rohitha, K K; Hewawasam, G K; Premaratne, Kamal; Shyu, Mei-Ling

    2007-12-01

    Management of data imprecision and uncertainty has become increasingly important, especially in situation awareness and assessment applications where reliability of the decision-making process is critical (e.g., in military battlefields). These applications require the following: 1) an effective methodology for modeling data imperfections and 2) procedures for enabling knowledge discovery and quantifying and propagating partial or incomplete knowledge throughout the decision-making process. In this paper, using a Dempster-Shafer belief-theoretic relational database (DS-DB) that can conveniently represent a wider class of data imperfections, an association rule mining (ARM)-based classification algorithm possessing the desirable functionality is proposed. For this purpose, various ARM-related notions are revisited so that they could be applied in the presence of data imperfections. A data structure called belief itemset tree is used to efficiently extract frequent itemsets and generate association rules from the proposed DS-DB. This set of rules is used as the basis on which an unknown data record, whose attributes are represented via belief functions, is classified. These algorithms are validated on a simplified situation assessment scenario where sensor observations may have caused data imperfections in both attribute values and class labels.

  8. A simple additive-free approach for the synthesis of uniform manganese monoxide nanorods with large specific surface area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A simple additive-free approach is developed to synthesize uniform manganese monoxide (MnO) one-dimensional nanorods, in which only manganese acetate and ethanol were used as reactants. The as-synthesized MnO nanorods were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including high-resolution TEM and selected-area electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and nitrogen adsorption isotherm measurements. The results indicate that the as-synthesized MnO nanorods present a mesoporous characteristic with large specific surface area (153 m2 g−1), indicating promising applications in catalysis, energy storage, and biomedical image. On the basis of experimental results, the formation mechanism of MnO one-dimensional nanorods in the absence of polymer additives was also discussed. PMID:23578214

  9. Rules on determining hearing appearances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-05-21

    This final rule is another step in our continual efforts to handle workloads more effectively and efficiently. We are publishing final rules for portions of the rules we proposed in October 2007 that relate to persons, other than the claimant or any other party to the hearing, appearing by telephone. We are also clarifying that the administrative law judge (ALJ) will allow the claimant or any other party to a hearing to appear by telephone under certain circumstances when the claimant or other party requests to make his or her appearance in that manner. We expect that these final rules will make the hearings process more efficient and help us continue to reduce the hearings backlog. In addition, we made some minor editorial changes to our regulations that do not have any effect on the rights of claimants or any other parties.

  10. Multiscale approaches for simulation of nucleation, growth, and additive chemistry during electrochemical deposition of thin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ryan Mark

    Molecularly engineered deposition processes require computational algorithms that efficiently capture phenomena present at widely varying length and time scales. In this work, the island dynamics method was applied to simulation of kinetically-limited metal nucleation and growth by electrodeposition in the presence of additives. The model included additive kinetics, surface diffusion of adatoms, nucleation, and growth. The model was demonstrated for copper deposition in acid sulfate electrolyte containing [bis(3-sulfopropyl)disulfide], polyethylene glycol, and chloride. Simulation results were compared with kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) calculations and found to be within 1% for fractional coverage values, and within 10% for nucleation density. The computational time was more than 10X faster than comparable KMC simulations over the range studied. The island dynamics algorithm was applied to the electrodeposition of a metal onto a substrate initially configured with an array of hemispherical seed clusters. It was found that the presence of chloride in the model additive system caused high densities of nuclei on the substrate surrounding the initial seed clusters, which led to the formation of a continuous thin metal film. Simulations carried out under low-chloride conditions resulted in the growth only of the initial seed clusters, without significant nucleation or thin film formation. Additional phenomena were explored by linking the molecular scale island dynamics algorithm to a continuum model that described the migration and diffusion in the diffusion layer near the electrode surface. The multiscale linkage allowed simulation of nucleation, growth, and additive chemistry under mass transport limited conditions, including the formation of nucleation exclusion zones surrounding growing nuclei. A two-step approach was used to calculate the spatial distribution of nucleation events on an electrode undergoing deposition by electrolysis under the influence of mass

  11. A mathematical approach to optimal selection of dose values in the additive dose method of ERP dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.B.; Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Additive dose methods commonly used in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry are time consuming and labor intensive. We have developed a mathematical approach for determining optimal spacing of applied doses and the number of spectra which should be taken at each dose level. Expected uncertainitites in the data points are assumed to be normally distributed with a fixed standard deviation and linearity of dose response is also assumed. The optimum spacing and number of points necessary for the minimal error can be estimated, as can the likely error in the resulting estimate. When low doses are being estimated for tooth enamel samples the optimal spacing is shown to be a concentration of points near the zero dose value with fewer spectra taken at a single high dose value within the range of known linearity. Optimization of the analytical process results in increased accuracy and sample throughput.

  12. A hybrid, auto-adaptive and rule-based multi-agent approach using evolutionary algorithms for improved searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Joaquín; Montalvo, Idel; Campbell, Enrique; Pérez-García, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    Selecting the most appropriate heuristic for solving a specific problem is not easy, for many reasons. This article focuses on one of these reasons: traditionally, the solution search process has operated in a given manner regardless of the specific problem being solved, and the process has been the same regardless of the size, complexity and domain of the problem. To cope with this situation, search processes should mould the search into areas of the search space that are meaningful for the problem. This article builds on previous work in the development of a multi-agent paradigm using techniques derived from knowledge discovery (data-mining techniques) on databases of so-far visited solutions. The aim is to improve the search mechanisms, increase computational efficiency and use rules to enrich the formulation of optimization problems, while reducing the search space and catering to realistic problems.

  13. Concentration addition-based approach for aquatic risk assessment of realistic pesticide mixtures in Portuguese river basins.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emília; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-05-01

    A two-tiered outline for the predictive environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures with effect assessments based on concentration addition (CA) approaches as first tier and consideration of independent action (IA) as the second tier was applied based on realistic pesticide mixtures measured in surface waters from 2002 to 2008 within three important Portuguese river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo'). The CA-based risk quotients, based on acute data and an assessment factor of 100, exceeded 1 in more than 39 % of the 281 samples, indicating a potential risk for the aquatic environment, namely to algae. Seven herbicide compounds and three insecticides were the most toxic compounds in the pesticide mixtures and provided at least 50 % of the mixture's toxicity in almost 100 % of the samples with risk quotients based on the sum of toxic units (RQSTU) above 1. In eight samples, the maximum cumulative ratio (MCR) and the Junghan's ratio values indicated that a chemical-by-chemical approach underestimated the toxicity of the pesticide mixtures, and CA predicted higher mixture toxicity than that of IA. From a risk management perspective, the results pointed out that, by deriving appropriate programmes of measures to a limited number of pesticides with the highest contribution to the total mixture toxicity, relevant benefits also on mixture impact could be produced.

  14. An analytical approach to the problem of inverse optimization with additive objective functions: an application to human prehension.

    PubMed

    Terekhov, Alexander V; Pesin, Yakov B; Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2010-09-01

    We consider the problem of what is being optimized in human actions with respect to various aspects of human movements and different motor tasks. From the mathematical point of view this problem consists of finding an unknown objective function given the values at which it reaches its minimum. This problem is called the inverse optimization problem. Until now the main approach to this problems has been the cut-and-try method, which consists of introducing an objective function and checking how it reflects the experimental data. Using this approach, different objective functions have been proposed for the same motor action. In the current paper we focus on inverse optimization problems with additive objective functions and linear constraints. Such problems are typical in human movement science. The problem of muscle (or finger) force sharing is an example. For such problems we obtain sufficient conditions for uniqueness and propose a method for determining the objective functions. To illustrate our method we analyze the problem of force sharing among the fingers in a grasping task. We estimate the objective function from the experimental data and show that it can predict the force-sharing pattern for a vast range of external forces and torques applied to the grasped object. The resulting objective function is quadratic with essentially non-zero linear terms.

  15. An analytical approach to the problem of inverse optimization with additive objective functions: an application to human prehension

    PubMed Central

    Pesin, Yakov B.; Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of what is being optimized in human actions with respect to various aspects of human movements and different motor tasks. From the mathematical point of view this problem consists of finding an unknown objective function given the values at which it reaches its minimum. This problem is called the inverse optimization problem. Until now the main approach to this problems has been the cut-and-try method, which consists of introducing an objective function and checking how it reflects the experimental data. Using this approach, different objective functions have been proposed for the same motor action. In the current paper we focus on inverse optimization problems with additive objective functions and linear constraints. Such problems are typical in human movement science. The problem of muscle (or finger) force sharing is an example. For such problems we obtain sufficient conditions for uniqueness and propose a method for determining the objective functions. To illustrate our method we analyze the problem of force sharing among the fingers in a grasping task. We estimate the objective function from the experimental data and show that it can predict the force-sharing pattern for a vast range of external forces and torques applied to the grasped object. The resulting objective function is quadratic with essentially non-zero linear terms. PMID:19902213

  16. Evaluation of Machine Learning and Rules-Based Approaches for Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Gram-negative Bacilli from Whole Genome Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Pesesky, Mitchell W; Hussain, Tahir; Wallace, Meghan; Patel, Sanket; Andleeb, Saadia; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    The time-to-result for culture-based microorganism recovery and phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing necessitates initial use of empiric (frequently broad-spectrum) antimicrobial therapy. If the empiric therapy is not optimal, this can lead to adverse patient outcomes and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogens. New, more rapid technologies are emerging to meet this need. Many of these are based on identifying resistance genes, rather than directly assaying resistance phenotypes, and thus require interpretation to translate the genotype into treatment recommendations. These interpretations, like other parts of clinical diagnostic workflows, are likely to be increasingly automated in the future. We set out to evaluate the two major approaches that could be amenable to automation pipelines: rules-based methods and machine learning methods. The rules-based algorithm makes predictions based upon current, curated knowledge of Enterobacteriaceae resistance genes. The machine-learning algorithm predicts resistance and susceptibility based on a model built from a training set of variably resistant isolates. As our test set, we used whole genome sequence data from 78 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, previously identified to represent a variety of phenotypes, from fully-susceptible to pan-resistant strains for the antibiotics tested. We tested three antibiotic resistance determinant databases for their utility in identifying the complete resistome for each isolate. The predictions of the rules-based and machine learning algorithms for these isolates were compared to results of phenotype-based diagnostics. The rules based and machine-learning predictions achieved agreement with standard-of-care phenotypic diagnostics of 89.0 and 90.3%, respectively, across twelve antibiotic agents from six major antibiotic classes. Several sources of disagreement between the algorithms were identified. Novel variants of known resistance factors and

  17. Evaluation of Machine Learning and Rules-Based Approaches for Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Gram-negative Bacilli from Whole Genome Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Pesesky, Mitchell W.; Hussain, Tahir; Wallace, Meghan; Patel, Sanket; Andleeb, Saadia; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    The time-to-result for culture-based microorganism recovery and phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing necessitates initial use of empiric (frequently broad-spectrum) antimicrobial therapy. If the empiric therapy is not optimal, this can lead to adverse patient outcomes and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogens. New, more rapid technologies are emerging to meet this need. Many of these are based on identifying resistance genes, rather than directly assaying resistance phenotypes, and thus require interpretation to translate the genotype into treatment recommendations. These interpretations, like other parts of clinical diagnostic workflows, are likely to be increasingly automated in the future. We set out to evaluate the two major approaches that could be amenable to automation pipelines: rules-based methods and machine learning methods. The rules-based algorithm makes predictions based upon current, curated knowledge of Enterobacteriaceae resistance genes. The machine-learning algorithm predicts resistance and susceptibility based on a model built from a training set of variably resistant isolates. As our test set, we used whole genome sequence data from 78 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, previously identified to represent a variety of phenotypes, from fully-susceptible to pan-resistant strains for the antibiotics tested. We tested three antibiotic resistance determinant databases for their utility in identifying the complete resistome for each isolate. The predictions of the rules-based and machine learning algorithms for these isolates were compared to results of phenotype-based diagnostics. The rules based and machine-learning predictions achieved agreement with standard-of-care phenotypic diagnostics of 89.0 and 90.3%, respectively, across twelve antibiotic agents from six major antibiotic classes. Several sources of disagreement between the algorithms were identified. Novel variants of known resistance factors and

  18. The driver, the road, the rules … and the rest? A systems-based approach to young driver road safety.

    PubMed

    Scott-Parker, B; Goode, N; Salmon, P

    2015-01-01

    The persistent overrepresentation of young drivers in road crashes is universally recognised. A multitude of factors influencing their behaviour and safety have been identified through methods including crash analyses, simulated and naturalistic driving studies, and self-report measures. Across the globe numerous, diverse, countermeasures have been implemented; the design of the vast majority of these has been informed by a driver-centric approach. An alternative approach gaining popularity in transport safety is the systems approach which considers not only the characteristics of the individual, but also the decisions and actions of other actors within the road transport system, along with the interactions amongst them. This paper argues that for substantial improvements to be made in young driver road safety, what has been learnt from driver-centric research needs to be integrated into a systems approach, thus providing a holistic appraisal of the young driver road safety problem. Only then will more effective opportunities and avenues for intervention be realised.

  19. A brief review of Badger-Bauer rule and its validation from a first-principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Ram S.; Iyer, Prasad P.; Dhinojwala, Ali; Tsige, Mesfin

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the acid-base interactions is important in chemistry, biology and material science as it helps to rationalize materials properties such as interfacial properties, wetting, adhesion and adsorption. Quantitative relation between changes in enthalpy (ΔH) and frequency shift (Δν) during the acid-base complexation is particularly important. We investigate ΔH and Δν of twenty-five complexes of acids (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and phenol) with bases (benzene, pyridine, DMSO, Et2O and THF) in CCl4 using intermolecular perturbation theory calculations. ΔH and Δν of complexes of all alcohols with bases except benzene fall in the range from -14 kJ mol-1 to -30 kJ mol-1 and 215 cm-1 to 523 cm-1, respectively. Smaller values of ΔH (-2 kJ mol-1 to -6 kJ mol-1) and Δν (23 cm-1 to 70 cm-1) are estimated for benzene. Linear correlations are found between theoretical and experimental values of ΔH as well as Δν. For all the studied complexes, ΔH varies linearly (R2 ≥ 0.97) with Δν concurrent with the Badger-Bauer rule yielding the average slope and intercept of 0.053(± 0.002) kJ mol-1 cm and 2.15(± 0.56) kJ mol-1, respectively.

  20. Identifying users of traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas: An association rule learning approach.

    PubMed

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg L; Levin, Aron; LeVangie, Kristie; Brick, Timothy R

    2016-08-01

    Increasing home cooking while decreasing the consumption of food prepared away from home is a commonly recommended weight management strategy, however research on where individuals obtain ideas about meals to cook at home is limited. This study examined the characteristics of individuals who reported using traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas. 583 participants who were ≥50% responsible for household meal planning were recruited to approximate the 2014 United States Census distribution on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Participants reported demographic characteristics, home cooking frequency, and their use of 4 traditional resources for meal ideas (e.g., cookbooks), and 7 Internet-based resources for meal ideas (e.g., Pinterest) in an online survey. Independent samples t-tests compared home cooking frequency by resource use. Association rule learning identified those demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with resource use. Family and friends (71%), food community websites (45%), and cookbooks (41%) were the most common resources reported. Cookbook users reported preparing more meals at home per week (M = 9.65, SD = 5.28) compared to non-cookbook users (M = 8.11, SD = 4.93; t = -3.55, p < 0.001). Resource use was generally higher among parents and varied systematically with demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that home cooking interventions may benefit by modifying resources used by their target population.

  1. ChemStable: a web server for rule-embedded naïve Bayesian learning approach to predict compound stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihong; Zheng, Minghao; Yan, Xin; Gu, Qiong; Gasteiger, Johann; Tijhuis, Johan; Maas, Peter; Li, Jiabo; Xu, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Predicting compound chemical stability is important because unstable compounds can lead to either false positive or to false negative conclusions in bioassays. Experimental data (COMDECOM) measured from DMSO/H2O solutions stored at 50 °C for 105 days were used to predicted stability by applying rule-embedded naïve Bayesian learning, based upon atom center fragment (ACF) features. To build the naïve Bayesian classifier, we derived ACF features from 9,746 compounds in the COMDECOM dataset. By recursively applying naïve Bayesian learning from the data set, each ACF is assigned with an expected stable probability (p(s)) and an unstable probability (p(uns)). 13,340 ACFs, together with their p(s) and p(uns) data, were stored in a knowledge base for use by the Bayesian classifier. For a given compound, its ACFs were derived from its structure connection table with the same protocol used to drive ACFs from the training data. Then, the Bayesian classifier assigned p(s) and p(uns) values to the compound ACFs by a structural pattern recognition algorithm, which was implemented in-house. Compound instability is calculated, with Bayes' theorem, based upon the p(s) and p(uns) values of the compound ACFs. We were able to achieve performance with an AUC value of 84% and a tenfold cross validation accuracy of 76.5%. To reduce false negatives, a rule-based approach has been embedded in the classifier. The rule-based module allows the program to improve its predictivity by expanding its compound instability knowledge base, thus further reducing the possibility of false negatives. To our knowledge, this is the first in silico prediction service for the prediction of the stabilities of organic compounds.

  2. ChemStable: a web server for rule-embedded naïve Bayesian learning approach to predict compound stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihong; Zheng, Minghao; Yan, Xin; Gu, Qiong; Gasteiger, Johann; Tijhuis, Johan; Maas, Peter; Li, Jiabo; Xu, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Predicting compound chemical stability is important because unstable compounds can lead to either false positive or to false negative conclusions in bioassays. Experimental data (COMDECOM) measured from DMSO/H2O solutions stored at 50 °C for 105 days were used to predicted stability by applying rule-embedded naïve Bayesian learning, based upon atom center fragment (ACF) features. To build the naïve Bayesian classifier, we derived ACF features from 9,746 compounds in the COMDECOM dataset. By recursively applying naïve Bayesian learning from the data set, each ACF is assigned with an expected stable probability ( p s ) and an unstable probability ( p uns ). 13,340 ACFs, together with their p s and p uns data, were stored in a knowledge base for use by the Bayesian classifier. For a given compound, its ACFs were derived from its structure connection table with the same protocol used to drive ACFs from the training data. Then, the Bayesian classifier assigned p s and p uns values to the compound ACFs by a structural pattern recognition algorithm, which was implemented in-house. Compound instability is calculated, with Bayes' theorem, based upon the p s and p uns values of the compound ACFs. We were able to achieve performance with an AUC value of 84 % and a tenfold cross validation accuracy of 76.5 %. To reduce false negatives, a rule-based approach has been embedded in the classifier. The rule-based module allows the program to improve its predictivity by expanding its compound instability knowledge base, thus further reducing the possibility of false negatives. To our knowledge, this is the first in silico prediction service for the prediction of the stabilities of organic compounds.

  3. An Optimal Class Association Rule Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean Claude, Turiho; Sheng, Yang; Chuang, Li; Kaia, Xie

    Classification and association rule mining algorithms are two important aspects of data mining. Class association rule mining algorithm is a promising approach for it involves the use of association rule mining algorithm to discover classification rules. This paper introduces an optimal class association rule mining algorithm known as OCARA. It uses optimal association rule mining algorithm and the rule set is sorted by priority of rules resulting into a more accurate classifier. It outperforms the C4.5, CBA, RMR on UCI eight data sets, which is proved by experimental results.

  4. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jieru; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianyan; Xu, Sanzhong; Zhang, Xinli; Gou, Zhongru

    2011-03-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of 500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO-, HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic-organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  5. Multiple Assembly Rules Drive the Co-occurrence of Orthopteran and Plant Species in Grasslands: Combining Network, Functional and Phylogenetic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Bertrand; Mouly, Arnaud; Gillet, François

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors underlying the co-occurrence of multiple species remains a challenge in ecology. Biotic interactions, environmental filtering and neutral processes are among the main mechanisms evoked to explain species co-occurrence. However, they are most often studied separately or even considered as mutually exclusive. This likely hampers a more global understanding of species assembly. Here, we investigate the general hypothesis that the structure of co-occurrence networks results from multiple assembly rules and its potential implications for grassland ecosystems. We surveyed orthopteran and plant communities in 48 permanent grasslands of the French Jura Mountains and gathered functional and phylogenetic data for all species. We constructed a network of plant and orthopteran species co-occurrences and verified whether its structure was modular or nested. We investigated the role of all species in the structure of the network (modularity and nestedness). We also investigated the assembly rules driving the structure of the plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network by using null models on species functional traits, phylogenetic relatedness and environmental conditions. We finally compared our results to abundance-based approaches. We found that the plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network had a modular organization. Community assembly rules differed among modules for plants while interactions with plants best explained the distribution of orthopterans into modules. Few species had a disproportionately high positive contribution to this modular organization and are likely to have a key importance to modulate future changes. The impact of agricultural practices was restricted to some modules (3 out of 5) suggesting that shifts in agricultural practices might not impact the entire plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network. These findings support our hypothesis that multiple assembly rules drive the modular structure of the plant-orthopteran network. This

  6. "Bunched Black Swans" in Complex Geosystems: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches to the Additive and Multiplicative Modelling of Correlated Extreme Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, N. W.; Rypdal, M.; Lovsletten, O.

    2012-12-01

    -stationarity explicitly built in. In record breaking statistics, a record is defined in the sense used in everyday language, to be the largest value yet recorded in a time series, for example, the 2004 Sumatran Boxing Day earthquake was at the time the largest to be digitally recorded. The third group of approaches (e.g. avalanches) are explicitly spatiotemporal and so also include spatial structure. This presentation will discuss two examples of our recent work on the burst problem. We will show numerical results extending the preliminary results presented in [Watkins et al, PRE, 2009] using a standard additive model, linear fractional stable motion (LFSM). LFSM explicitly includes both heavy tails and long range dependence, allowing us to study how these 2 effects compete in determining the burst duration and size exponent probability distributions. We will contrast these simulations with new analytical studies of bursts in a multiplicative process, the multifractal random walk (MRW). We will present an analytical derivation for the scaling of the burst durations and make a preliminary comparison with data from the AE index from solar-terrestrial physics. We believe our result is more generally applicable than the MRW model, and that it applies to a broad class of multifractal processes.

  7. Postoperative Corneal and Surgically Induced Astigmatism following Superior Approach Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery in Patients with Preoperative Against-the-Rule Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Sadik, Ahmed Abdul; Mireku, Felix Agyemang; Asiedu, Frank Yeboah; Ablordeppey, Reynolds Kwame

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report postoperative corneal and surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in patients with preoperative against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism who underwent superior approach manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS). 58 eyes of 58 cataract patients with preoperative ATR astigmatism were involved in this study. All patients had operable cataracts and underwent superior approach MSICS. Keratometric (K) readings were taken prior to surgery and at 12 weeks after surgery. Centroid values of SIA, preoperative astigmatism, and postoperative astigmatism were calculated using Cartesian coordinates based analysis. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compute statistical significance between mean preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism. Cohen's d was used as effect size measure. Centroid values of 1.42 D × 179, 2.48 D × 0, and 1.07 D × 1 were recorded, respectively, for preoperative astigmatism, postoperative astigmatism, and SIA. Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated that mean ± SD postoperative corneal astigmatism (2.80 ± 1.40 D) was statistically significantly greater than preoperative corneal astigmatism (1.49 ± 1.34 D), Z = −6.263, p < 0.0001. A high Cohen's d of 1.32 was found. Our results suggest statistical and clinically significant greater postoperative corneal astigmatism than preoperative corneal astigmatism for ATR astigmatism cataract patients who underwent superior approach MSICS. PMID:28116142

  8. An Information Processing Approach to the Study of Data Entry Skills: The Effects of Representation Rules and Coordination Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    for a discussion of the general approach; and Karis, Fabiani , & Donchin, 1984, for an illustration of an empirical test of a prediction regarding an...1973. Kantowitz, B.H. & Knight, J.L. On experimenter limited processes. Psychological Review, 1976, 83, 502-507. S * 71 Karis, D., Fabiani , M., & Donchin...Proceedings of the 21st Arnual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, Santa Monica , CTiTornTa,19T;7. I • i ,. . . , ;i _ L jl i ~73 Wickens, C.D., & Kessel

  9. Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    van Veelen, Matthijs; Allen, Benjamin; Hoffman, Moshe; Simon, Burton; Veller, Carl

    2017-02-07

    This paper reviews and addresses a variety of issues relating to inclusive fitness. The main question is: are there limits to the generality of inclusive fitness, and if so, what are the perimeters of the domain within which inclusive fitness works? This question is addressed using two well-known tools from evolutionary theory: the replicator dynamics, and adaptive dynamics. Both are combined with population structure. How generally Hamilton's rule applies depends on how costs and benefits are defined. We therefore consider costs and benefits following from Karlin and Matessi's (1983) "counterfactual method", and costs and benefits as defined by the "regression method" (Gardner et al., 2011). With the latter definition of costs and benefits, Hamilton's rule always indicates the direction of selection correctly, and with the former it does not. How these two definitions can meaningfully be interpreted is also discussed. We also consider cases where the qualitative claim that relatedness fosters cooperation holds, even if Hamilton's rule as a quantitative prediction does not. We furthermore find out what the relation is between Hamilton's rule and Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. We also consider cancellation effects - which is the most important deepening of our understanding of when altruism is selected for. Finally we also explore the remarkable (im)possibilities for empirical testing with either definition of costs and benefits in Hamilton's rule.

  10. Prediction of ground water quality index to assess suitability for drinking purposes using fuzzy rule-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, A. K.; Hasni, S. A.; Iqbal, Jawed

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource for drinking water to many people around the world, especially in rural areas where the supply of treated water is not available. Drinking water resources cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality of water is properly assessed. To this end, an attempt has been made to develop a suitable methodology for the assessment of drinking water quality on the basis of 11 physico-chemical parameters. The present study aims to select the fuzzy aggregation approach for estimation of the water quality index of a sample to check the suitability for drinking purposes. Based on expert's opinion and author's judgement, 11 water quality (pollutant) variables (Alkalinity, Dissolved Solids (DS), Hardness, pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Fluoride, As, Sulphate, Nitrates) are selected for the quality assessment. The output results of proposed methodology are compared with the output obtained from widely used deterministic method (weighted arithmetic mean aggregation) for the suitability of the developed methodology.

  11. Error Analysis of Quadrature Rules. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2004-01-01

    Approaches to the determination of the error in numerical quadrature rules are discussed and compared. This article considers the problem of the determination of errors in numerical quadrature rules, taking Simpson's rule as the principal example. It suggests an approach based on truncation error analysis of numerical schemes for differential…

  12. Persistency and permanency of two stages DNA splicing languages with respect to one initial string and two rules via Yusof-Goode (Y-G) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan; Yusof, Yuhani; Mohamad, Mohd Sham; Lim, Wen Li

    2015-02-01

    The notion of Yusof-Goode (Y-G) splicing system was first schemed by Yusof to study the relationship between formal language theory and molecular biology. The splicing languages that are produced by splicing system have some important characteristics called persistent and permanent. In biological perspective, the recombinant DNA molecules can be manipulated by recombination action if they have persistent property. Thus, the persistency as well as permanency of splicing languages (recombinant DNA molecules) is considered to be an interesting topic in the field of DNA recombination, particularly when the recombination process is accomplished at second stage. Conducting a wet-lab experiment to show the mentioned properties of splicing languages are time consuming and expensive. Therefore, to overcome this problem, mathematical approach is chosen to investigate the persistency and permanency of splicing languages which will be then given as theorem and corollary. Thus, an initial string (with two recognition sites) and two rules are considered for introducing the above characteristics using Y-G approach.

  13. Grammar: Rules and Reasons Working Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that from a pedagogical perspective, there is a cost to associating grammar with rules. Discusses reasons for underlying rules and gives implications for a reason-based approach to teaching grammar. (Author/VWL)

  14. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. A Review of Approaches to the Study of Turbulence Modification by Means of Non-Newtonian Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    interesting class of polymers for drag reduction studies. These polymers ( xanthomonas campestris , guar gum) were found to show long term stability...and their superiority to "typical" drag reducing polymers like polyethylene oxide, was evident. His degradation studies showed that the xanthomonas ... campestris is a better and more durable additive than guar gum. One of the most important biological additives is the DNA. It is actually a random

  16. The scenario approach for countries considering the addition of oral cholera vaccination in cholera preparedness and control plans.

    PubMed

    Deen, Jacqueline; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Luquero, Francisco J; Troeger, Christopher; Reyburn, Rita; Lopez, Anna Lena; Debes, Amanda; Sack, David A

    2016-01-01

    Oral cholera vaccination could be deployed in a diverse range of situations from cholera-endemic areas and locations of humanitarian crises, but no clear consensus exists. The supply of licensed, WHO-prequalified cholera vaccines is not sufficient to meet endemic and epidemic needs worldwide and so prioritisation is needed. We have developed a scenario approach to systematically classify situations in which oral cholera vaccination might be useful. Our scenario approach distinguishes between five types of cholera epidemiology based on experiences from around the world and provides evidence that we hope will spur the development of detailed guidelines on how and where oral cholera vaccines could, and should, be most rationally deployed.

  17. A green chemistry approach to a more efficient asymmetric catalyst: solvent-free and highly concentrated alkyl additions to ketones.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang-Jin; Li, Hongmei; Walsh, Patrick J

    2005-11-30

    There is a great demand for development of catalyst systems that are not only efficient and highly enantioselective but are also environmentally benign. Herein we report investigations into the catalytic asymmetric addition of alkyl and functionalized alkyl groups to ketones under highly concentrated and solvent-free conditions. In comparison with standard reaction conditions employing toluene and hexanes, the solvent-free and highly concentrated conditions permit reduction in catalyst loading by a factor of 2- to 40-fold. These new conditions are general and applicable to a variety of ketones and dialkylzinc reagents to provide diverse tertiary alcohols with high enantioselectivities. Using cyclic conjugated enones, we have performed a tandem asymmetric addition/diastereoselective epoxidation using the solvent-free addition conditions followed by introduction of a 5.5 M decane solution of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to generate epoxy alcohols. This one-pot procedure allows access to syn epoxy alcohols with three contiguous stereocenters with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities and high yields. Both the solvent-free asymmetric additions and asymmetric addition/diastereoselective epoxidation reactions have been conducted on larger scale (5 g substrate) with 0.5 mol % catalyst loadings. In these procedures, enantioselectivities equal to or better than 92% were obtained with isolated yields of 90%. The solvent-free and highly concentrated conditions are a significant improvement over previous solvent-based protocols. Further, this chemistry represents a rare example of a catalytic asymmetric reaction that is highly enantioselective under more environmentally friendly solvent-free conditions.

  18. Olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer based additives: a novel approach for compatibilizing blends of waste polyethylene and crumb rubber.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs; Varga, Csilla; Bartha, László

    2015-04-01

    In our work processing conditions and mechanical properties of waste polyethylene (PE)/crumb rubber (CR) blends have been improved by new types of compatibilizing additives synthesized from experimental olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymers at our laboratory. Compatibilizing additives have been introduced into the PE/CR blends in 0.2 wt% while CR concentration has been varied between 10 and 50 wt%. For comparison of the effects commercially available MA-g-PO type compatibilizing additives have also been applied. Tensile and Charpy impact tests of the compression moulded samples have been carried out. Several experimental additives have enhanced properties of the PE/CR blends either from the point of view of tensile or Charpy impact strength while commercial additives have had improving effects only on one of the abovementioned mechanical properties but not for both of them simultaneously. Since good mechanical properties could be achieved by our experimental compatibilizers good adhesion in the waste PE/CR samples have been considered and was proven by SEM graphs either.

  19. The Verbal Behavior Approach to Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Autism: A Call for Additional Empirical Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James E.; Firth, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has been firmly established and disseminated as one of the most effective treatments for early childhood autism. Recently, a number of practitioners have employed a variant of this approach in which the language curriculum is organized and taught according to Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal…

  20. Combining silver catalysis and organocatalysis: a sequential Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation one-pot approach to annulated coumarins.

    PubMed

    Hack, Daniel; Chauhan, Pankaj; Deckers, Kristina; Hermann, Gary N; Mertens, Lucas; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2014-10-03

    A highly stereoselective one-pot procedure for the synthesis of five-membered annulated hydroxycoumarins has been developed. By merging primary amine catalysis with silver catalysis, a series of functionalized coumarin derivatives were obtained in good yields (up to 91%) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) via a Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction. Depending on the substituents on the enynone, the synthesis of annulated six-membered rings is also feasible.

  1. Combining Silver Catalysis and Organocatalysis: A Sequential Michael Addition/Hydroalkoxylation One-Pot Approach to Annulated Coumarins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A highly stereoselective one-pot procedure for the synthesis of five-membered annulated hydroxycoumarins has been developed. By merging primary amine catalysis with silver catalysis, a series of functionalized coumarin derivatives were obtained in good yields (up to 91%) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) via a Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction. Depending on the substituents on the enynone, the synthesis of annulated six-membered rings is also feasible. PMID:25250728

  2. Collaboration rules.

    PubMed

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  3. Instruction of Keyboarding Skills: A Whole Language Approach to Teaching Functional Literacy Skills to Students Who are Blind and Have Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an unconventional method to teach un-contracted braille reading and writing skills to students who are blind and have additional disabilities. It includes a keyboarding curriculum that focuses on the whole language approach to literacy. A special feature is the keyboard that is adapted with braille symbols. Un-contracted…

  4. Special report. Upgrading security: hospitals opt for new equipment; new approaches; heavy investments in additional patient, employee protection.

    PubMed

    1994-07-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are taking steps to prevent the violence that plagues both urban and rural areas from spilling over into their emergency rooms and nursing units. Four facilities--Duke Medical University Center, Durham, NC; Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH; Ingalls Hospital, Harvey, IL; and University Medical Center, Las Vegas, NV--have recently installed new equipment or implemented innovative security procedures in an effort to better protect patients and employees. Although the price tag for additional protection is often high, officials at the hospitals agree that providing a safe environment is worth the investment.

  5. On Communication Rules from a Social Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Stuart J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses assumptions and criticisms of rule-governed approaches to interpersonal communication research and theory. Outlines a definition of rules that does not require sole reliance on interpersonal actors' statements about their behavior or assumptions of communicator self-awareness. Suggests consideration of rules-based concomitants of…

  6. An approach to engineer paracetamol crystals by antisolvent crystallization technique in presence of various additives for direct compression.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Larhrib, Hassan; Chikwanha, Brian; Shojaee, Saeed; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2014-04-10

    Paracetamol is a popular over-the-counter analgesic and a challenging model drug due to its poor technological and biopharmaceutical properties such as flowability, compressibility, compactibility and wettability. This work was aimed to alter the crystal habit of paracetamol from elongated to polyhedral-angular via particle engineering whilst maintaining the stable polymorphic form (form I: monoclinic form). The engineered paracetamol crystals obtained in the present investigation showed better technological and biopharmaceutical properties in comparison to the commercial paracetamol. Engineered paracetamol crystals were obtained using antisolvent crystallization technique in the presence of various concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1%, w/w) of additives, namely, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Avicel PH 102 (microcrystalline cellulose), Brij 58, methylcellulose (MC) and polyethylene glycol having different molecular weights (PEGs 1500, 6000 and 8000). Paracetamols crystallized in the presence of Avicel (or physically mixed with Avicel), Brij 58 and PEG 6000 demonstrated the best compactibility over a range of compaction pressures. Brij-crystallized paracetamol provided the fastest dissolution rate among all the paracetamol batches. Paracetamols crystallized in the presence of PVA or Avicel, or physically mixed with Avicel demonstrated a reduced degree of crystallinity in comparison to the other paracetamols. This study showed that the type, the grade and the concentration of additives could influence the physical stability such as flow, crystallinity and polymorphic transformation of paracetamol, the technological and biopharmaceutical properties of paracetamol. Stable polymorphic form of paracetamol with optimal tableting characteristics can be achieved through particle engineering.

  7. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  8. Microbial oils as food additives: recent approaches for improving microbial oil production and its polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Stamatia; Triantaphyllidou, Irene-Eva; Aggeli, Dimitra; Elazzazy, Ahmed Mohammed; Baeshen, Mohammed Nabih; Aggelis, George

    2016-02-01

    In this short review, we summarize the latest research in the production of polyunsaturated microbial oils that are of interest in food technology. The current research targets the productivity of oleaginous microorganisms, as well as the biosynthesis of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most important efforts target the efficiency of the oleaginous machinery, via overexpression of key-enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as well as the minimization of lipid degradation, by repressing genes involved in the β-oxidation pathway. The production of specific PUFAs is approached by homologous or heterologous expression of specific desaturases and elongases involved in PUFA biosynthesis in oleaginous microorganisms. New perspectives, such as the production of triacylglycerols of specific structure and the employment of adaptive experimental evolution for creating robust oleaginous strains able to produce PUFAs are also discussed.

  9. Assessment of diurnal systemic dose of agrochemicals in regulatory toxicity testing--an integrated approach without additional animal use.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil A; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; McCoy, Alene T; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Sue Marty, M; Terry, Claire; Bailey, Jason P; Billington, Richard; Bus, James S

    2012-07-01

    Integrated toxicokinetics (TK) data provide information on the rate, extent and duration of systemic exposure across doses, species, strains, gender, and life stages within a toxicology program. While routine for pharmaceuticals, TK assessments of non-pharmaceuticals are still relatively rare, and have never before been included in a full range of guideline studies for a new agrochemical. In order to better understand the relationship between diurnal systemic dose (AUC(24h)) and toxicity of agrochemicals, TK analyses in the study animals is now included in all short- (excluding acute), medium- and long-term guideline mammalian toxicity studies including reproduction/developmental tests. This paper describes a detailed procedure for the implementation of TK in short-, medium- and long-term regulatory toxicity studies, without the use of satellite animals, conducted on three agrochemicals (X11422208, 2,4-D and X574175). In these studies, kinetically-derived maximum doses (KMD) from short-term studies instead of, or along with, maximum tolerated doses (MTD) were used for the selection of the high dose in subsequent longer-term studies. In addition to leveraging TK data to guide dose level selection, the integrated program was also used to select the most appropriate method of oral administration (i.e., gavage versus dietary) of test materials for rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies. The integrated TK data obtained across toxicity studies (without the use of additional/satellite animals) provided data critical to understanding differences in response across doses, species, strains, sexes, and life stages. Such data should also be useful in mode of action studies and to improve human risk assessments.

  10. Gibbs energy additivity approaches to QSRR in generating gas chromatographic retention time for identification of fatty acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Pojjanapornpun, Siriluck; Aryusuk, Kornkanok; Lilitchan, Supathra; Krisnangkura, Kanit

    2017-02-06

    The Gibbs energy additivity method was used to correlate the retention time (t R) of common fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to their chemical structures. The t R of 20 standard FAMEs eluted from three capillary columns of different polarities (ZB-WAXplus, BPX70, and SLB-IL111) under both isothermal gas chromatography and temperature-programmed gas chromatography (TPGC) conditions were accurately predicted. Also, the predicted t R of FAMEs prepared from flowering pak choi seed oil obtained by multistep TPGC with the BPX70 column were within 1.0% of the experimental t R. The predicted t R or mathematical t R (t R(math)) values could possibly be used as references in identification of common FAMEs. Hence, FAMEs prepared from horse mussel and fish oil capsules were chromatographed on the BPX70 and ZB-WAXplus columns in single-step and multistep TPGC. Identification was done by comparison of t R with the t R of standard FAMEs and with t R(math). Both showed correct identifications. The proposed model has six numeric constants. Five of six could be directly transferred to other columns of the same stationary phase. The first numeric constant (a), which contained the column phase ratio, could also be transferred with the adjustment of the column phase ratio to the actual phase ratio of the transferred column. Additionally, the numeric constants could be transferred across laboratories, with similar correction of the first numeric constant. The TPGC t R predicted with the transferred column constants were in good agreement with the reported experimental t R of FAMEs. Moreover, hexane was used in place of the conventional t M marker in the calculation. Hence, the experimental methods were much simplified and practically feasible. The proposed method for using t R(math) as the references would provide an alternative to the uses of real FAMEs as the references. It is simple and rapid and with good accuracy compared with the use of experimental t R as references.

  11. Search for Minimal and Semi-Minimal Rule Sets in Incremental Learning of Context-Free and Definite Clause Grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Keita; Nakamura, Katsuhiko

    This paper describes recent improvements to Synapse system for incremental learning of general context-free grammars (CFGs) and definite clause grammars (DCGs) from positive and negative sample strings. An important feature of our approach is incremental learning, which is realized by a rule generation mechanism called “bridging” based on bottom-up parsing for positive samples and the search for rule sets. The sizes of rule sets and the computation time depend on the search strategies. In addition to the global search for synthesizing minimal rule sets and serial search, another method for synthesizing semi-optimum rule sets, we incorporate beam search to the system for synthesizing semi-minimal rule sets. The paper shows several experimental results on learning CFGs and DCGs, and we analyze the sizes of rule sets and the computation time.

  12. 77 FR 59294 - Rules of Practice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...The FTC is adopting revised rules governing the process of its investigations and attorney discipline. These rules, located in the Commission's Rules of Practice, are intended to promote fairness, transparency, and efficiency in all FTC investigations; and to provide additional guidance about appropriate standards of conduct for attorneys practicing before the...

  13. The electrophysiological signature of deliberate rule violations.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Roland; Wirth, Robert; Schwarz, Katharina A; Foerster, Anna; Steinhauser, Marco; Kunde, Wilfried

    2016-12-01

    Humans follow rules by default, and violating even simple rules induces cognitive conflict for the rule breaker. Previous studies revealed this conflict in various behavioral measures, including response times and movement trajectories. Based on these experiments, we investigated the electrophysiological signature of deliberately violating a simple stimulus-response mapping rule. Such rule violations were characterized by a delayed and attenuated P300 component when evaluating a rule-relevant stimulus, most likely reflecting increased response complexity. This parietal attenuation was followed by a frontal positivity for rule violations relative to correct response trials. Together, these results reinforce previous findings on the need to inhibit automatic S-R translation when committing a rule violation, and they point toward additional factors involved in rule violation. Candidate processes such as negative emotional responses and increased monitoring should be targeted by future investigations.

  14. Standard Addition Quantitative Real-Time PCR (SAQPCR): A Novel Approach for Determination of Transgene Copy Number Avoiding PCR Efficiency Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Weiwei; Grierson, Donald; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been previously applied to estimate transgene copy number in transgenic plants. However, the results can be erroneous owing to inaccurate estimation of PCR efficiency. Here, a novel qPCR approach, named standard addition qPCR (SAQPCR), was devised to accurately determine transgene copy number without the necessity of obtaining PCR efficiency data. The procedures and the mathematical basis for the approach are described. A recombinant plasmid harboring both the internal reference gene and the integrated target gene was constructed to serve as the standard DNA. It was found that addition of suitable amounts of standard DNA to test samples did not affect PCR efficiency, and the guidance for selection of suitable cycle numbers for analysis was established. Samples from six individual T0 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were analyzed by SAQPCR, and the results confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The approach produced accurate results and required only small amounts of plant tissue. It can be generally applied to analysis of different plants and transgenes. In addition, it can also be applied to zygosity analysis. PMID:23308234

  15. Single-particle spectral density of the unitary Fermi gas: Novel approach based on the operator product expansion, sum rules and the maximum entropy method

    SciTech Connect

    Gubler, Philipp; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Nishida, Yusuke

    2015-05-15

    Making use of the operator product expansion, we derive a general class of sum rules for the imaginary part of the single-particle self-energy of the unitary Fermi gas. The sum rules are analyzed numerically with the help of the maximum entropy method, which allows us to extract the single-particle spectral density as a function of both energy and momentum. These spectral densities contain basic information on the properties of the unitary Fermi gas, such as the dispersion relation and the superfluid pairing gap, for which we obtain reasonable agreement with the available results based on quantum Monte-Carlo simulations.

  16. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; additional screening requirements, application fees, temporary enrollment moratoria, payment suspensions and compliance plans for providers and suppliers. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2011-02-02

    This final rule with comment period will implement provisions of the ACA that establish: Procedures under which screening is conducted for providers of medical or other services and suppliers in the Medicare program, providers in the Medicaid program, and providers in the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); an application fee imposed on institutional providers and suppliers; temporary moratoria that may be imposed if necessary to prevent or combat fraud, waste, and abuse under the Medicare and Medicaid programs, and CHIP; guidance for States regarding termination of providers from Medicaid and CHIP if terminated by Medicare or another Medicaid State plan or CHIP; guidance regarding the termination of providers and suppliers from Medicare if terminated by a Medicaid State agency; and requirements for suspension of payments pending credible allegations of fraud in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. This final rule with comment period also discusses our earlier solicitation of comments regarding provisions of the ACA that require providers of medical or other items or services or suppliers within a particular industry sector or category to establish compliance programs. We have identified specific provisions surrounding our implementation of fingerprinting for certain providers and suppliers for which we may make changes if warranted by the public comments received. We expect to publish our response to those comments, including any possible changes to the rule made as a result of them, as soon as possible following the end of the comment period. Furthermore, we clarify that we are finalizing the adoption of fingerprinting pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth herein.

  17. Democratic Education and the "Strategy of Material Obstacles": A Pedagogical Approach to the Enforcement of Traffic Rules in a Greek Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benincasa, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about people's relationship to laws, rules and regulations in a Greek town. The aim is to describe specific traffic policies, point out the underlying pedagogical assumptions and assess their potential effect in relation to the goals of a democratic education. The study springs from the author's experience as a non-native inhabitant…

  18. ADME evaluation in drug discovery. 2. Prediction of partition coefficient by atom-additive approach based on atom-weighted solvent accessible surface areas.

    PubMed

    Hou, T J; Xu, X J

    2003-01-01

    A novel method for the calculations of 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P) of organic molecules has been presented here. The method, SLOGP v1.0, estimates the log P values by summing the contribution of atom-weighted solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) and correction factors. Altogether 100 atom/group types were used to classify atoms with different chemical environments, and two correlation factors were used to consider the intermolecular hydrophobic interactions and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Coefficient values for 100 atom/group and two correction factors have been derived from a training set of 1850 compounds. The parametrization procedure for different kinds of atoms was performed as follows: first, the atoms in a molecule were defined to different atom/group types based on SMARTS language, and the correction factors were determined by substructure searching; then, SASA for each atom/group type was calculated and added; finally, multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to optimize the hydrophobic parameters for different atom/group types and correction factors in order to reproduce the experimental log P. The correlation based on the training set gives a model with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.988, the standard deviation (SD) of 0.368 log units, and the absolute unsigned mean error of 0.261. Comparison of various procedures of log P calculations for the external test set of 138 organic compounds demonstrates that our method bears very good accuracy and is comparable or even better than the fragment-based approaches. Moreover, the atom-additive approach based on SASA was compared with the simple atom-additive approach based on the number of atoms. The calculated results show that the atom-additive approach based on SASA gives better predictions than the simple atom-additive one. Due to the connection between the molecular conformation and the molecular surface areas, the atom-additive model based on SASA may be a more

  19. Object-Driven and Temporal Action Rules Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajja, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I present my complete research work in the field of action rules, more precisely object-driven and temporal action rules. The drive behind the introduction of object-driven and temporally based action rules is to bring forth an adapted approach to extract action rules from a subclass of systems that have a specific nature, in which…

  20. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-05

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program.

  1. Rule-based topology system for spatial databases to validate complex geographic datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Llario, J.; Coll, E.; Núñez-Andrés, M.; Femenia-Ribera, C.

    2017-06-01

    A rule-based topology software system providing a highly flexible and fast procedure to enforce integrity in spatial relationships among datasets is presented. This improved topology rule system is built over the spatial extension Jaspa. Both projects are open source, freely available software developed by the corresponding author of this paper. Currently, there is no spatial DBMS that implements a rule-based topology engine (considering that the topology rules are designed and performed in the spatial backend). If the topology rules are applied in the frontend (as in many GIS desktop programs), ArcGIS is the most advanced solution. The system presented in this paper has several major advantages over the ArcGIS approach: it can be extended with new topology rules, it has a much wider set of rules, and it can mix feature attributes with topology rules as filters. In addition, the topology rule system can work with various DBMSs, including PostgreSQL, H2 or Oracle, and the logic is performed in the spatial backend. The proposed topology system allows users to check the complex spatial relationships among features (from one or several spatial layers) that require some complex cartographic datasets, such as the data specifications proposed by INSPIRE in Europe and the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) for Cadastral data.

  2. Sequential decision rules for failure detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, E. Y.; Willsky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The formulation of the decision making of a failure detection process as a Bayes sequential decision problem (BSDP) provides a simple conceptualization of the decision rule design problem. As the optimal Bayes rule is not computable, a methodology that is based on the Baysian approach and aimed at a reduced computational requirement is developed for designing suboptimal rules. A numerical algorithm is constructed to facilitate the design and performance evaluation of these suboptimal rules. The result of applying this design methodology to an example shows that this approach is a useful one.

  3. Mindset Changes Lead to Drastic Impairments in Rule Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ErEl, Hadas; Meiran, Nachshon

    2011-01-01

    Rule finding is an important aspect of human reasoning and flexibility. Previous studies associated rule finding "failure" with past experience with the test stimuli and stable personality traits. We additionally show that rule finding performance is severely impaired by a mindset associated with applying an instructed rule. The mindset was…

  4. Ranked Multi-Label Rules Associative Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thabtah, Fadi

    Associative classification is a promising approach in data mining, which integrates association rule discovery and classification. In this paper, we present a novel associative classification technique called Ranked Multilabel Rule (RMR) that derives rules with multiple class labels. Rules derived by current associative classification algorithms overlap in their training data records, resulting in many redundant and useless rules. However, RMR removes the overlapping between rules using a pruning heuristic and ensures that rules in the final classifier do not share training records, resulting in more accurate classifiers. Experimental results obtained on twenty data sets show that the classifiers produced by RMR are highly competitive if compared with those generated by decision trees and other popular associative techniques such as CBA, with respect to prediction accuracy.

  5. The 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Kids > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A en español La ... it, he or she might have yelled, "5-second rule!" This so-called rule says food is ...

  6. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  7. Moving beyond Rules: The Development of a Central Nervous System Multiparameter Optimization (CNS MPO) Approach To Enable Alignment of Druglike Properties

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The interplay among commonly used physicochemical properties in drug design was examined and utilized to create a prospective design tool focused on the alignment of key druglike attributes. Using a set of six physicochemical parameters ((a) lipophilicity, calculated partition coefficient (ClogP); (b) calculated distribution coefficient at pH = 7.4 (ClogD); (c) molecular weight (MW); (d) topological polar surface area (TPSA); (e) number of hydrogen bond donors (HBD); (f) most basic center (pKa)), a druglikeness central nervous system multiparameter optimization (CNS MPO) algorithm was built and applied to a set of marketed CNS drugs (N = 119) and Pfizer CNS candidates (N = 108), as well as to a large diversity set of Pfizer proprietary compounds (N = 11 303). The novel CNS MPO algorithm showed that 74% of marketed CNS drugs displayed a high CNS MPO score (MPO desirability score ≥ 4, using a scale of 0−6), in comparison to 60% of the Pfizer CNS candidates. This analysis suggests that this algorithm could potentially be used to identify compounds with a higher probability of successfully testing hypotheses in the clinic. In addition, a relationship between an increasing CNS MPO score and alignment of key in vitro attributes of drug discovery (favorable permeability, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux, metabolic stability, and safety) was seen in the marketed CNS drug set, the Pfizer candidate set, and the Pfizer proprietary diversity set. The CNS MPO scoring function offers advantages over hard cutoffs or utilization of single parameters to optimize structure−activity relationships (SAR) by expanding medicinal chemistry design space through a holistic assessment approach. Based on six physicochemical properties commonly used by medicinal chemists, the CNS MPO function may be used prospectively at the design stage to accelerate the identification of compounds with increased probability of success. PMID:22778837

  8. Superposition-additive approach in the description of thermodynamic parameters of formation and clusterization of substituted alkanes at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Vysotsky, Yu B; Belyaeva, E A; Fomina, E S; Vasylyev, A O; Vollhardt, D; Fainerman, V B; Aksenenko, E V; Miller, R

    2012-12-01

    The superposition-additive approach developed previously was shown to be applicable for the calculations of the thermodynamic parameters of formation and atomization of conjugate systems, their dipole polarizability, molecular diamagnetic susceptibility, π-electronic ring currents, etc. In the present work, the applicability of this approach for the calculation of the thermodynamic parameters of formation and clusterization at the water/air interface of alkanes, fatty alcohols, thioalcohols, amines, nitriles, fatty acids (C(n)H(2n+1)X, X is the functional group) and cis-unsaturated carboxylic acids (C(n)H(2n-1)COOH) is studied. Using the proposed approach the thermodynamic quantities determined agree well with the available data, either calculated using the semiempirical (PM3) quantum chemical method, or obtained in experiments. In particular, for enthalpy and Gibbs' energy of the formation of substituted alkane monomers from the elementary substances, and their absolute entropy, the standard deviations of the values calculated according to the superposition-additive scheme with the mutual superimposition domain C(n-2)H(2n-4) (n is the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain) from the results of PM3 calculations for alkanes, alcohols, thioalcohols, amines, fatty acids, nitriles and cis-unsaturated carboxylic acids are respectively: 0.05, 0.004, 2.87, 0.02, 0.01, 0.77, and 0.01 kJ/mol for enthalpy; 2.32, 5.26, 4.49, 0.53, 1.22, 1.02, 5.30 J/(molK) for absolute entropy; 0.69, 1.56, 3.82, 0.15, 0.37, 0.69, 1.58 kJ/mol for Gibbs' energy, whereas the deviations from the experimental data are: 0.52, 5.75, 1.40, 1.00, 4.86 kJ/mol; 0.52, 0.63, 1.40, 6.11, 2.21 J/(molK); 2.52, 5.76, 1.58, 1.78, 4.86 kJ/mol, respectively (for nitriles and cis-unsaturated carboxylic acids experimental data are not available). The proposed approach provides also quite accurate estimates of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs' energy of boiling and melting, critical temperatures and standard heat

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. Administrative simplification: adoption of a standard for a unique health plan identifier; addition to the National Provider Identifier requirements; and a change to the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) medical data code sets. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    This final rule adopts the standard for a national unique health plan identifier (HPID) and establishes requirements for the implementation of the HPID. In addition, it adopts a data element that will serve as an other entity identifier (OEID), or an identifier for entities that are not health plans, health care providers, or individuals, but that need to be identified in standard transactions. This final rule also specifies the circumstances under which an organization covered health care provider must require certain noncovered individual health care providers who are prescribers to obtain and disclose a National Provider Identifier (NPI). Lastly, this final rule changes the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, from October 1, 2013 to October 1, 2014.

  11. Rule Difficulty: Teachers' Intuitions and Learners' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The need for some form of explicit grammar instruction is recognised in most current approaches to second language teaching. Since the usefulness of explicit instruction is at least to some extent dependent on the difficulty of the rules that are taught, an important question for teachers is whether their judgements of rule difficulty are…

  12. Discovering Trends and Relationships among Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaohai; Hsu, Wynne; Lee, Mong Li

    Data repositories are constantly evolving and techniques are needed to reveal the dynamic behaviors in the data that might be useful to the user. Existing temporal association rules mining algorithms consider time as another dimension and do not describe the behavior of rules over time. In this work, we introduce the notion of trend fragment to facilitate the analysis of relationships among rules. Two algorithms are proposed to find the relationships among rules. Experiment results on both synthetic and real-world datasets indicate that our approach is scalable and effective.

  13. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Productivity-the hallmark of linguistic competence-is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX)-a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  14. The use of additive and subtractive approaches to examine the nuclear localization sequence of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Brady, J. N.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been identified in the N-terminal (Ala1-Pro-Lys-Arg-Lys-Ser-Gly-Val-Ser-Lys-Cys11) amino acid sequence of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1. The importance of this amino acid sequence for nuclear transport of VP1 protein was demonstrated by a genetic "subtractive" study using the constructs pSG5VP1 (full-length VP1) and pSG5 delta 5'VP1 (truncated VP1, lacking amino acids Ala1-Cys11). These constructs were used to transfect COS-7 cells, and expression and intracellular localization of the VP1 protein was visualized by indirect immunofluorescence. These studies revealed that the full-length VP1 was expressed and localized in the nucleus, while the truncated VP1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm and not transported to the nucleus. These findings were substantiated by an "additive" approach using FITC-labeled conjugates of synthetic peptides homologous to the NLS of VP1 cross-linked to bovine serum albumin or immunoglobulin G. Both conjugates localized in the nucleus after microinjection into the cytoplasm of 3T6 cells. The importance of individual amino acids found in the basic sequence (Lys3-Arg-Lys5) of the NLS was also investigated. This was accomplished by synthesizing three additional peptides in which lysine-3 was substituted with threonine, arginine-4 was substituted with threonine, or lysine-5 was substituted with threonine. It was found that lysine-3 was crucial for nuclear transport, since substitution of this amino acid with threonine prevented nuclear localization of the microinjected, FITC-labeled conjugate.

  15. Returning Evidence at the Appeals Council Level. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-02-05

    This final rule adopts the notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) that we published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2015. This final rule revises our rules regarding returning evidence at the Appeals Council (AC) level. Under this final rule, the AC will no longer return additional evidence it receives when the AC determines the additional evidence does not relate to the period on or before the date of the administrative law judge (ALJ) decision.

  16. 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Teens > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A Almost everyone has ... to eat it. Some people apply the "5-second rule" — that random saying about how food won' ...

  17. A Better Budget Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  18. Two Rules for Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important and most difficult skills of academic leadership is communication. In this column, the author defines what he considers to be the two most important rules for communication. The first rule, which he terms the "Great American Rule," involves trusting that the person on the other end of the line or the fax or the e-mail is…

  19. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  20. Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities to Metals and Additional Stressors: DNA-Based Approaches for Assessing “Stress-on-Stress” Responses

    PubMed Central

    Azarbad, Hamed; van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.; Niklińska, Maria; Laskowski, Ryszard; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; van Straalen, Nico M.

    2016-01-01

    Many microbial ecology studies have demonstrated profound changes in community composition caused by environmental pollution, as well as adaptation processes allowing survival of microbes in polluted ecosystems. Soil microbial communities in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination have been shown to maintain their function by developing metal-tolerance mechanisms. In the present work, we review recent experiments, with specific emphasis on studies that have been conducted in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination that also applied DNA-based approaches. We evaluate how the “costs” of adaptation to metals affect the responses of metal-tolerant communities to other stress factors (“stress-on-stress”). We discuss recent studies on the stability of microbial communities, in terms of resistance and resilience to additional stressors, focusing on metal pollution as the initial stress, and discuss possible factors influencing the functional and structural stability of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. There is increasing evidence that the history of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes play central roles in responses of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. PMID:27314330

  1. Segmentation and additive approach: A reliable technique to study noncovalent interactions of large molecules at the surface of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ana M; Scheiner, Steve; Roy, Ajit K; Garay-Tapia, Andrés M; Bustamante, John; Kar, Tapas

    2016-08-05

    This investigation explores a new protocol, named Segmentation and Additive approach (SAA), to study exohedral noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with large molecules, such as polymers and biomolecules, by segmenting the entire system into smaller units to reduce computational cost. A key criterion of the segmentation process is the preservation of the molecular structure responsible for stabilization of the entire system in smaller segments. Noncovalent interaction of linoleic acid (LA, C18 H32 O2 ), a fatty acid, at the surface of a (10,0) zigzag nanotube is considered for test purposes. Three smaller segmented models have been created from the full (10,0)-LA system and interaction energies were calculated for these models and compared with the full system at different levels of theory, namely ωB97XD, LDA. The success of this SAA is confirmed as the sum of the interaction energies is in very good agreement with the total interaction energy. Besides reducing computational cost, another merit of SAA is an estimation of the contributions from different sections of the large system to the total interaction energy which can be studied in-depth using a higher level of theory to estimate several properties of each segment. On the negative side, bulk properties, such as HOMO-LUMO (highest occupied molecular orbital - lowest occupied molecular orbital) gap, of the entire system cannot be estimated by adding results from segment models. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities to Metals and Additional Stressors: DNA-Based Approaches for Assessing "Stress-on-Stress" Responses.

    PubMed

    Azarbad, Hamed; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Niklińska, Maria; Laskowski, Ryszard; Röling, Wilfred F M; van Straalen, Nico M

    2016-06-14

    Many microbial ecology studies have demonstrated profound changes in community composition caused by environmental pollution, as well as adaptation processes allowing survival of microbes in polluted ecosystems. Soil microbial communities in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination have been shown to maintain their function by developing metal-tolerance mechanisms. In the present work, we review recent experiments, with specific emphasis on studies that have been conducted in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination that also applied DNA-based approaches. We evaluate how the "costs" of adaptation to metals affect the responses of metal-tolerant communities to other stress factors ("stress-on-stress"). We discuss recent studies on the stability of microbial communities, in terms of resistance and resilience to additional stressors, focusing on metal pollution as the initial stress, and discuss possible factors influencing the functional and structural stability of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. There is increasing evidence that the history of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes play central roles in responses of microbial communities towards secondary stressors.

  3. 19 CFR 181.98 - Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be... Procedures § 181.98 Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued. (a) General. No advance ruling... issue the requested advance ruling. In addition, no NAFTA advance ruling letter will be issued...

  4. 19 CFR 181.98 - Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be... Procedures § 181.98 Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued. (a) General. No advance ruling... issue the requested advance ruling. In addition, no NAFTA advance ruling letter will be issued...

  5. 19 CFR 181.98 - Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be... Procedures § 181.98 Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued. (a) General. No advance ruling... issue the requested advance ruling. In addition, no NAFTA advance ruling letter will be issued...

  6. 19 CFR 181.98 - Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be... Procedures § 181.98 Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued. (a) General. No advance ruling... issue the requested advance ruling. In addition, no NAFTA advance ruling letter will be issued...

  7. 19 CFR 181.98 - Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be... Procedures § 181.98 Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued. (a) General. No advance ruling... issue the requested advance ruling. In addition, no NAFTA advance ruling letter will be issued...

  8. Fuel additive programs at crossroads of regulation, market dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, K.

    1998-01-01

    Fuel additive manufacturers, gasoline marketers and automakers seem to be forgetting about the power of the marketplace in their efforts to use additives to help reduce emissions and improve vehicle performance. Recall that the port fuel injector (PFI) and intake valve deposit (IVD) problems of the 1980s were addressed quickly by the fuels industry. In just a few months after the PFID problem surfaced, additive makers had detergents on the market, and fuel marketers followed up with an effective advertising campaign. Formal regulations came about a decade later. The solution to the BMW IVD problem was similar. BMW provided an enticing incentive for oil companies to differentiate through better additives and many did. Contrast those developments with the command-and-control approach that has been in effect since January 1995. EPA`s additive rule is working almost to perfection - if adherence to strict rules is considered. All gasolines in the US are additized, and a wide variety of packages have been developed that meet the regulatory standards. But by the measure of real-world performance, the circumstances can look quite different. And with industry finalizing a better IVD test and conducting research into the need for a combustion chamber deposit (CCD) regulation, now may be the time to limit the regulatory approach and let refiners and additive suppliers return to creating products that target excellence instead of regulatory minimums.

  9. A novel approach in the treatment of neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors: Additive antiproliferative effects of interferon-γ and meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    PubMed Central

    Höpfner, Michael; Sutter, Andreas P; Huether, Alexander; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Scherübl, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Background Therapeutic options to effectively inhibit growth and spread of neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors are still limited. As both meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) cause antineoplastic effects in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumor cells, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of the combination of IFNγ and non-radiolabeled MIBG in neuroendocrine gut STC-1 and pancreatic carcinoid BON tumor cells. Methods and results IFNγ receptors were expressed in both models. IFNγ dose- and time-dependently inhibited the growth of both STC-1 and of BON tumor cells with IC50-values of 95 ± 15 U/ml and 135 ± 10 U/ml, respectively. Above 10 U/ml IFNγ induced apoptosis-specific caspase-3 activity in a time-dependent manner in either cell line and caused a dose-dependent arrest in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, IFNγ induced cytotoxic effects in NE tumor cells. The NE tumor-targeted drug MIBG is selectively taken up via norepinephrine transporters, thereby specifically inhibiting growth in NE tumor cells. Intriguingly, IFNγ treatment induced an upregulation of norepinephrine transporter expression in neuroendocrine tumors cells, as determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Co-application of sub-IC50 concentrations of IFNγ and MIBG led to additive growth inhibitory effects, which were mainly due to increased cytotoxicity and S-phase arrest of the cell cycle. Conclusion Our data show that IFNγ exerts antiproliferative effects on neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumor cells by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and cytotoxicity. The combination of IFNγ with the NE tumor-targeted agent MIBG leads to effective growth control at reduced doses of either drug. Thus, the administration of IFNγ alone and more so, in combination with MIBG, is a promising novel approach in the treatment of neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors. PMID:15154969

  10. Macroecology of North American suckers (Catostomidae): tests of Bergmann's and Rapoport's rules.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Doll, Jason C

    2015-09-01

    Discerning spatial macroecological patterns in freshwater fishes has broad implications for community assembly, ecosystem dynamics, management, and conservation. This study explores the potential interspecific covariation of geographic range (Rapoport's rule) and body size (Bergmann's rule) with latitude in North American sucker fishes (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae). While numerous tests of Rapoport's and Bergmann's rules are documented in the literature, comparatively few of these studies have specifically tested for these patterns, and none have incorporated information reflecting shared ancestry into analyses of North American freshwater fish through a hierarchical model. This study utilized a hierarchical modeling approach with Bayesian inference to evaluate the role that evolution has played in shaping these distributional corollaries. Rapoport's rule was supported at the tribe level but not across family and subfamily groupings. Particularly within the Catostominae subfamily, two tribes reflected strong support for Rapoport's rule while two suggested a pattern was present. Conversely, Bergmann's rule was not supported in Catostomidae. This study provides additional information regarding the pervasiveness of these "rules" by expanding inferences in freshwater fishes and specifically addressing the potential for these macroecological patterns to play a role in the distribution of the understudied group Catostomidae.

  11. Association rule mining on remotely sensed imagery using P-trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qin

    The tremendous growth in data has generated the need for new techniques that can intelligently transform the massive data into useful information and knowledge. Data mining is such a technique that extracts nontrivial, implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data in databases. Association rule mining is one of the important advances in data mining. In this dissertation, we propose a comprehensive model to derive association rules on Remote Sensed Imagery (RSI) data. Discovery of interesting patterns and rules from RSI datasets composed of images and associated ground data can be of importance in precision agriculture and other areas. However, the image data sizes are usually too large to be mined in a reasonable amount of time with existing algorithms. In this dissertation, we use a lossless and compressed structure, called Peano Count Tree (P-tree), to derive association rules on RSI data. Based on P-trees, an efficient association rule mining algorithm, P-ARM, with fast support calculation and significant pruning techniques was proposed. Experiments show that the P-ARM algorithm outperforms other algorithms, such as Apriori and FP-growth. We also introduce an approach to derive high confident rules efficiently using a data cube called Tuple Count Cube (T-cube). In addition, we present a framework for parallel association rule mining on RSI data. In this framework, by using active network and P-trees, both the communication cost and the local execution time are reduced.

  12. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  15. Identification of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients by transcriptome-based rule set generation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Discrimination of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients from patients with other inflammatory or degenerative joint diseases or healthy individuals purely on the basis of genes differentially expressed in high-throughput data has proven very difficult. Thus, the present study sought to achieve such discrimination by employing a novel unbiased approach using rule-based classifiers. Methods Three multi-center genome-wide transcriptomic data sets (Affymetrix HG-U133 A/B) from a total of 79 individuals, including 20 healthy controls (control group - CG), as well as 26 osteoarthritis (OA) and 33 RA patients, were used to infer rule-based classifiers to discriminate the disease groups. The rules were ranked with respect to Kiendl’s statistical relevance index, and the resulting rule set was optimized by pruning. The rule sets were inferred separately from data of one of three centers and applied to the two remaining centers for validation. All rules from the optimized rule sets of all centers were used to analyze their biological relevance applying the software Pathway Studio. Results The optimized rule sets for the three centers contained a total of 29, 20, and 8 rules (including 10, 8, and 4 rules for ‘RA’), respectively. The mean sensitivity for the prediction of RA based on six center-to-center tests was 96% (range 90% to 100%), that for OA 86% (range 40% to 100%). The mean specificity for RA prediction was 94% (range 80% to 100%), that for OA 96% (range 83.3% to 100%). The average overall accuracy of the three different rule-based classifiers was 91% (range 80% to 100%). Unbiased analyses by Pathway Studio of the gene sets obtained by discrimination of RA from OA and CG with rule-based classifiers resulted in the identification of the pathogenetically and/or therapeutically relevant interferon-gamma and GM-CSF pathways. Conclusion First-time application of rule-based classifiers for the discrimination of RA resulted in high performance, with means

  16. Testing the applicability of artificial intelligence techniques to the subject of erythemal ultraviolet solar radiation part one: the applicability of a fuzzy rule based approach.

    PubMed

    Riad, A M; Elminir, Hamdy K; Own, Hala S; Azzam, Yosry A

    2008-02-27

    This work presents the applicability of applying a fuzzy logic approach to the calculation of noontime erythemal UV irradiance for the plain areas of Egypt. When different combinations of data sets were examined from the test performance point of view, it was found that 91% of the whole series was estimated within a deviation of less than +/-10 mW/m(2), and 9% of these deviations lay within the range of +/-15 mW/m(2) to +/-25 mW/m(2).

  17. Logic minimization and rule extraction for identification of functional sites in molecular sequences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Logic minimization is the application of algebraic axioms to a binary dataset with the purpose of reducing the number of digital variables and/or rules needed to express it. Although logic minimization techniques have been applied to bioinformatics datasets before, they have not been used in classification and rule discovery problems. In this paper, we propose a method based on logic minimization to extract predictive rules for two bioinformatics problems involving the identification of functional sites in molecular sequences: transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in DNA and O-glycosylation sites in proteins. TFBS are important in various developmental processes and glycosylation is a posttranslational modification critical to protein functions. Methods In the present study, we first transformed the original biological dataset into a suitable binary form. Logic minimization was then applied to generate sets of simple rules to describe the transformed dataset. These rules were used to predict TFBS and O-glycosylation sites. The TFBS dataset is obtained from the TRANSFAC database, while the glycosylation dataset was compiled using information from OGLYCBASE and the Swiss-Prot Database. We performed the same predictions using two standard classification techniques, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM), and used their sensitivities and positive predictive values as benchmarks for the performance of our proposed algorithm. SVM were also used to reduce the number of variables included in the logic minimization approach. Results For both TFBS and O-glycosylation sites, the prediction performance of the proposed logic minimization method was generally comparable and, in some cases, superior to the standard ANN and SVM classification methods with the advantage of providing intelligible rules to describe the datasets. In TFBS prediction, logic minimization produced a very small set of simple rules. In glycosylation site prediction

  18. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  19. Drug discovery beyond the 'rule-of-five'.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Qiang; Wilkinson, Barrie

    2007-12-01

    Although a very useful guideline for orally bioavailable small-molecule drug design, the 'rule-of-five' (also known as 'Lipinski's rule of drug-likeness') has to some extent been overemphasized. Firstly, only 51% of all FDA-approved small-molecule drugs are both used orally and comply with the 'rule-of-five'. This does not even include the increasing number of biologicals of which several have reached 'blockbuster' status. Secondly, it does not cover natural product and semisynthetic natural product drugs, which constitute over one-third of all marketed small-molecule drugs. A more balanced and programmatic approach to drug discovery should be more productive than to rely on an overemphasis of 'rule-of-five' compliance. Rather it should consider proactively the development of parenteral drugs in parallel to oral drugs and to consider the development of therapeutic antibodies in parallel to small-molecule drugs. These are particularly relevant for efforts against 'first-in-class' and/or particularly challenging targets such as proteases and those involving protein-protein interactions. In addition, more effort should be invested in natural product research. Emerging novel technologies such as synthetic biology (genetic engineering of living organisms to produce small-molecule therapeutics) may address several challenging issues of natural product-based drug discovery including synthetic feasibility and ligand efficiency.

  20. 78 FR 71468 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... the economy of $100 million or more. The commenter contends that the skills equivalent to a junior associate accountant would be needed to comply with the regulations. The commentator contends that, assuming... services of an accountant. Many employers utilize payroll service providers that are equipped to...

  1. 5 CFR 8301.107 - Additional rules for RD employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a utility or public-type facility organization that is an RD program participant does not make the... RD office in which the RD employee serves. Types of entities covered by this section include, but are... zone real estate; (viii) Membership in grazing associations, un-incorporated Economic...

  2. 5 CFR 8301.107 - Additional rules for RD employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a utility or public-type facility organization that is an RD program participant does not make the... RD office in which the RD employee serves. Types of entities covered by this section include, but are... zone real estate; (viii) Membership in grazing associations, un-incorporated Economic...

  3. 5 CFR 8301.107 - Additional rules for RD employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a utility or public-type facility organization that is an RD program participant does not make the... RD office in which the RD employee serves. Types of entities covered by this section include, but are... zone real estate; (viii) Membership in grazing associations, un-incorporated Economic...

  4. 5 CFR 8301.107 - Additional rules for RD employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a utility or public-type facility organization that is an RD program participant does not make the... RD office in which the RD employee serves. Types of entities covered by this section include, but are... zone real estate; (viii) Membership in grazing associations, un-incorporated Economic...

  5. 48 CFR 6105.503 - Additional submissions [Rule 503].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submit such information within 30 calendar days after receiving the copy of the request for decision and supporting material (or within 60 calendar days after receiving the copy, if the affected employee is...

  6. 77 FR 72268 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ....regulations.gov (IRS REG-130074-11). The public hearing will be held in the Auditorium, Internal Revenue... overpayment and shall, subject to certain offsets, refund any balance to such person. A claim for refund under...., in the Auditorium, Internal Revenue Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC. Due...

  7. 75 FR 64197 - Additional Rules Regarding Hybrid Retirement Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... credit (or an equivalent amount) for any plan year at a rate that is greater than a market rate of return... the plan provides that an interest credit (or an equivalent amount) of less than zero can in no event... U.S. 1061 (2001); West v. AK Steel Corp. Ret. Accumulation Pension Plan, 484 F.3d 395 (6th Cir....

  8. 14 CFR 93.129 - Additional operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional operations. 93.129 Section 93.129 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports §...

  9. Active Learning-Based Pedagogical Rule Extraction.

    PubMed

    Junqué de Fortuny, Enric; Martens, David

    2015-11-01

    Many of the state-of-the-art data mining techniques introduce nonlinearities in their models to cope with complex data relationships effectively. Although such techniques are consistently included among the top classification techniques in terms of predictive power, their lack of transparency renders them useless in any domain where comprehensibility is of importance. Rule-extraction algorithms remedy this by distilling comprehensible rule sets from complex models that explain how the classifications are made. This paper considers a new rule extraction technique, based on active learning. The technique generates artificial data points around training data with low confidence in the output score, after which these are labeled by the black-box model. The main novelty of the proposed method is that it uses a pedagogical approach without making any architectural assumptions of the underlying model. It can therefore be applied to any black-box technique. Furthermore, it can generate any rule format, depending on the chosen underlying rule induction technique. In a large-scale empirical study, we demonstrate the validity of our technique to extract trees and rules from artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, on 25 data sets of varying size and dimensionality. Our results show that not only do the generated rules explain the black-box models well (thereby facilitating the acceptance of such models), the proposed algorithm also performs significantly better than traditional rule induction techniques in terms of accuracy as well as fidelity.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics and global analysis of a heterogeneous Cournot duopoly with a local monopolistic approach versus a gradient rule with endogenous reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad; Tramontana, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    We study a heterogeneous duopolistic Cournotian game, in which the firms, producing a homogeneous good, have reduced rationality and respectively adopt a "Local Monopolistic Approximation" (LMA) and a gradient-based approach with endogenous reactivity, in an economy characterized by isoelastic demand function and linear total costs. We give conditions on reactivity and marginal costs under which the solution converges to the Cournot-Nash equilibrium. Moreover, we compare the stability regions of the proposed oligopoly to a similar one, in which the LMA firm is replaced by a best response firm, which is more rational than the LMA firm. We show that, depending on costs ratio, the equilibrium can lose its stability in two different ways, through both a flip and a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. We show that the nonlinear, noninvertible map describing the model can give rise to several coexisting stable attractors (multistability). We analytically investigate the shape of the basins of attractions, in particular proving the existence of regions known in the literature as lobes.

  11. Strategy as simple rules.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  12. Thermal behaviors of light unflavored tensor mesons in the framework of QCD sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, K.; Türkan, A.; Sundu, H.; Veli Veliev, E.; Yazıcı, E.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we investigated the sensitivity of the masses and decay constants of f2(1270) and a2(1320) tensor mesons to the temperature using OCD sum rule approach. In our calculations, we take into account new additional operators appearing in operator product expansion (OPE). At the end of numerical analyses we show that at deconfinement temperature the decay constants and masses decreased by 6% and 96% of their vacuum values, respectively. Our results on the masses and decay constants at zero temperature of the tensor mesons are consistent with the experimental data as well as the vacuum sum rules predictions.

  13. Resolving task rule incongruence during task switching by competitor rule suppression.

    PubMed

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-07-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an experiment involving 2 object classification tasks and 2 location classification tasks, the authors show that irrelevant task rules that generate response conflicts are inhibited. This competitor rule suppression (CRS) is seen in response slowing in subsequent trials, when the competing rules become relevant. CRS is shown to operate on specific rules without affecting similar rules. CRS and backward inhibition, which is another inhibitory phenomenon, produced additive effects on reaction time, suggesting their mutual independence. Implications for current formal theories of task switching as well as for conflict monitoring theories are discussed.

  14. How Rules Shape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emo, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Rules guide and constrain participants' actions as they participate in any educational activity. This ethnographically driven case study examines how organizational rules--the implicit and explicit regulations that constrain actions and interactions--influence children to use science in the experiential educational activity of raising 4-H market…

  15. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  16. Ruling Out Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Houhoula, Dimitra P.; Papadimitriou, Maria; Saroglou, Georgios; Legakis, Nicholas J.

    2004-01-01

    Optimization of methods for ruling out Bacillus anthracis leads to increased yields, faster turnaround times, and a lighter workload. We used 72 environmental non–B. anthracis bacilli to validate methods for ruling out B. anthracis. Most effective were horse blood agar, motility testing after a 2-h incubation in trypticase soy broth, and screening with a B. anthracis–selective agar. PMID:15200872

  17. Are Intuitive Rules Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavy, Ruth; Babai, Reuven; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Lin, Fou-Lai; McRobbie, Campbell

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-cultural study on the intuitive rules theory. The study was conducted in Australia (with aboriginal children) in Taiwan and in Israel. Our findings indicate that Taiwanese and Australian Aboriginal students, much like Israeli ones, provided incorrect responses, most of which were in line with the intuitive rules. Also,…

  18. Beyond Rules to Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Rules are not helpful in the adult-child community. They are usually stated in the negative: "No," "Don't," etc. The way they are worded, adults seem to expect children to break them. Even when they are not totally negative, like "Be nice to your friends," rules have an "or else" moral implication that adults carry around in their heads. When…

  19. Application of the HIPAA privacy rule to employer benefit plans and a compliance theory of statutory interpretation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The application of the federal privacy regulations promulgated pursuantto the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) to employer benefit plans is arguably the most conceptually difficult area of a complex law. A purely textual reading of the Rule, when applied to employer plans, results in varying interpretations on some significant issues and puzzling results on others. This Article offers a practical approach for interpreting the rule when clear-cut answers are not provided by the text and DHHS guidance is nonexistent or unclear. In addition, this approach can be applied to the interpretation of other statutes and regulations.

  20. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  1. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  2. The influence of fiscal rules on healthcare policy in the United States and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schakel, H Christiaan; Jeurissen, Patrick; Glied, Sherry

    2016-09-28

    Governments use fiscal rules to put a framework and limits on how budgetary challenges are addressed, but the rules themselves are still an understudied area among health policy scholars. For a long time, healthcare held a somewhat separate status because of the reliance on entitlements and dedicated revenue streams. However, the combined forces of advocates for integral decision-making, central budget control and the increasing costs might shift healthcare towards budgetary frameworks that currently apply to other spending categories. In this paper, we study fiscal rules that the US and the Netherlands have adopted since 2010 and their impact on healthcare policy. Our analysis shows that fiscal rules can have an impact on the rationing of healthcare. In the studied timeframe, the rules seem to have more impact on budget outcomes than on the budget process itself. In addition, the convergence of fiscal and program policy objectives seems to be better accomplished in a budgetary system that applies enforceable budget ceilings. Budgeting for health entitlements requires a comprehensive and tailor-made approach and the composition of traditional rules might not fully answer to the complexities of healthcare policy. This paper aims to contribute to that debate and the way we think about healthcare budgeting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Following the Rules.

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
.

  4. Intermolecular cross-double-michael addition between nitro and carbonyl activated olefins as a new approach in C-C bond formation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohua; Sengupta, Sujata; Petersen, Jeffrey L; Wang, Hong; Lewis, James P; Shi, Xiaodong

    2007-10-25

    A novel intermolecular cross-double-Michael addition between nitro and carbonyl activated olefins has been developed through Lewis base catalysis. The reaction took place with a large group of beta-alkyl nitroalkenes and alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone/esters, producing an allylic nitro compound in good to excellent yields.

  5. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medication Therapy Management programs Drug plan coverage rules , current page Using your drug plan for the first time Filling a prescription without your new plan card Costs for Medicare drug coverage Joining a health or ...

  6. 6 new buying rules.

    PubMed

    Pasternack, A

    1998-02-20

    Times change--and so does software purchasing. Buying in bulk, paying top dollar for what a system does, trusting a vendor to watch out for you--that's old input. Here are six fresh rules for the buying game.

  7. The 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... to know about the 5-second rule: A clean-looking floor isn't necessarily clean. A floor that looks dirty is usually worse, but even dry floors that look clean can contain bacteria. Why? Some germs can survive ...

  8. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  9. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and..., Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-weighted Assets, Market Discipline...

  10. (FIELD) SYMMETRIZATION SELECTION RULES

    SciTech Connect

    P. PAGE

    2000-08-01

    QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.

  11. Data breaches. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  12. Quark counting rules: old and new approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2010-01-01

    I discuss the subject of powerlike asymptotic behavior of hadronic form factors in pre-QCD analyses of soft (Feynman/Drell-Yan) and hard (West) mechanisms, and also recent derivation of $1/Q^2$ asymptotics of meson form factors in AdS/QCD. At the end, I briefly comment on ``light-front holography' ansatz.

  13. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Whyhave we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at the evolution of significant figures over the last 300 years, from Newton to Millikan to modern authors, sheds some light on their purpose moving forward. While there is much discussion for and against their use, especially in chemistry, a review of earlier versions of the rules suggests that we have lost some items of value, most notably, a significant figure rule for angles. In addition, we have lost the emphasis that the significant figure rules were designed to calculate an approximate (not exact) precision. Now that the significant figure rules are ingrained into our introductory physics sequence, we would be wise to reiterate that these are just general "rules of thumb."

  14. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  15. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  16. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  17. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  18. 76 FR 36596 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change amending CHX Article 12, Rule 8 (Minor Rule Plan) (``MRP'') to incorporate additional violations into the MRP, increase the sanctions for certain violations, add censure authority to the MRP, eliminate the Minor Rule Violation Panel, clarify pleading requirements of...

  19. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura J.; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J.; Paller, Ken A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. PMID:25447376

  20. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input.

  1. Sticky Rules: Integration Between Abstract Rules and Specific Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Bryck, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors manipulated repetitions and/or changes of abstract response rules and the specific stimulus- response (S-R) associations used under these rules. Experiments 1 and 2, assessing trial-to-trial priming effects, showed that repetition of complete S-R couplings produced only benefits when the rule also repeated (i.e., rule-S-R conjunctions)…

  2. Rule-governed behavior: Unifying radical and paradigmatic behaviorism

    PubMed Central

    Burns, G. Leonard; Staats, Arthur W.

    1991-01-01

    Commonalities and differences between Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior and the paradigmatic behaviorism (PB) approach are described as a means of introducing the latter to behavior analysis. The focus is on treating the topic of rule-governed behavior—a topic of current interest in behavior analysis in addressing the challenge of cognitive psychology—within the PB framework. Dealing behaviorally with traditional psychology interests is considered important in PB, and this article aims to advance toward that goal. PB has presented a framework that deals with not only the behavioral description of language but also with language function as well as language acquisition. This includes a treatment of the manner in which verbal stimuli generally can control motor behavior. This framework includes analyses in addition to those present in the behavior analytic framework, along with empirical developments, and these can be used to enhance a behavioral understanding of important parts of verbal behavior and the effects of verbal stimuli on behavior, including rule-governed phenomena. Our purpose is to use the particular topic of rule-governed behavior to argue that a more explicit interaction between radical and paradigmatic behaviorism would advance behaviorism and also enable it to have a stronger impact upon psychology and the scientific community. PMID:22477636

  3. Optical generation of fuzzy-based rules.

    PubMed

    Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2002-08-10

    In the last third of the 20th century, fuzzy logic has risen from a mathematical concept to an applicable approach in soft computing. Today, fuzzy logic is used in control systems for various applications, such as washing machines, train-brake systems, automobile automatic gear, and so forth. The approach of optical implementation of fuzzy inferencing was given by the authors in previous papers, giving an extra emphasis to applications with two dominant inputs. In this paper the authors introduce a real-time optical rule generator for the dual-input fuzzy-inference engine. The paper briefly goes over the dual-input optical implementation of fuzzy-logic inferencing. Then, the concept of constructing a set of rules from given data is discussed. Next, the authors show ways to implement this procedure optically. The discussion is accompanied by an example that illustrates the transformation from raw data into fuzzy set rules.

  4. Optical Generation of Fuzzy-Based Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2002-08-01

    In the last third of the 20th century, fuzzy logic has risen from a mathematical concept to an applicable approach in soft computing. Today, fuzzy logic is used in control systems for various applications, such as washing machines, train-brake systems, automobile automatic gear, and so forth. The approach of optical implementation of fuzzy inferencing was given by the authors in previous papers, giving an extra emphasis to applications with two dominant inputs. In this paper the authors introduce a real-time optical rule generator for the dual-input fuzzy-inference engine. The paper briefly goes over the dual-input optical implementation of fuzzy-logic inferencing. Then, the concept of constructing a set of rules from given data is discussed. Next, the authors show ways to implement this procedure optically. The discussion is accompanied by an example that illustrates the transformation from raw data into fuzzy set rules.

  5. Diastereodivergent Asymmetric Michael Addition of Cyclic Azomethine Ylides to Nitroalkenes: Direct Approach for the Synthesis of 1,7-Diazaspiro[4.4]nonane Diastereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yan; Yang, Wu-Lin; Luo, Xiaoyan; Deng, Wei-Ping

    2015-12-21

    The first highly diastereoselective and enantioselective catalytic asymmetric Michael addition of cyclic azomethine ylides with nitroalkenes have been developed to diastereodivergently generate either the syn or anti adducts by employing N,O-ligand/Cu(OAc)2 and N,P-ligand/Cu(OAc)2 catalytic systems. Both catalytic systems exhibit broad substrate applicability to afford the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields, with excellent levels of diastereo- (up to 99:1 diastereomeric ratio) and enantioselectivities (up to >99% enantiomeric excess). Importantly, the chiral 1,7-diazaspiro[4.4]nonane diastereomer derivatives can be easily obtained in good yields through facile NaBH4 reduction of the Michael adducts.

  6. Nature and Function of Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Barry A.

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed Year 1 and 2 teachers in Australia about their classroom rules. Found that teachers have about six rules for their classes relating to pupil-pupil relations, completing academic tasks, movement around the classroom, property, safety, and other. Most rules concerned pupil-pupil interactions, and all rules can be seen as a way of…

  7. Priming of soil carbon decomposition in two Inner Mongolia grassland soils following sheep dung addition: a study using ¹³C natural abundance approach.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Yanfen; Wang, Chengjie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C) sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content) and a heavily degraded Artemisia frigida dominated community (1.3% organic matter content). Dung was collected from sheep either fed on L. chinensis (C3 plant with δ¹³C = -26.8‰; dung δ¹³C = -26.2‰) or Cleistogenes squarrosa (C₄ plant with δ¹³C = -14.6‰; dung δ¹³C = -15.7‰). Fresh C₃ and C₄ sheep dung was mixed with the two grassland soils and incubated under controlled conditions for analysis of ¹³C-CO₂ emissions. Soil samples were taken at days 17, 43, 86, 127 and 152 after sheep dung addition to detect the δ¹³C signal in soil and dung components. Analysis revealed that 16.9% and 16.6% of the sheep dung C had decomposed, of which 3.5% and 2.8% was sequestrated in the soils of L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands, respectively, while the remaining decomposed sheep dung was emitted as CO₂. The cumulative amounts of C respired from dung treated soils during 152 days were 7-8 times higher than in the un-amended controls. In both grassland soils, ca. 60% of the evolved CO₂ originated from the decomposing sheep dung and 40% from the native soil C. Priming effects of soil C decomposition were observed in both soils, i.e. 1.4 g and 1.6 g additional soil C kg⁻¹ dry soil had been emitted as CO₂ for the L. chinensis and A. frigida soils, respectively. Hence, the net C losses from L. chinensis and A. frigida soils were 0.6 g and 0.9 g C kg⁻¹ soil, which was 2.6% and 7.0% of the total C in L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands soils, respectively. Our results suggest that grazing of degraded Inner Mongolian pastures may cause a net soil C loss due to the positive priming effect, thereby accelerating soil deterioration.

  8. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    A new fuzzy set based technique that was developed for decision making is discussed. It is a method to generate fuzzy decision rules automatically for image analysis. This paper proposes a method to generate rule-based approaches to solve problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  9. Are C-loss rates from drained peatlands constant over time? The additive value of soil profile based and flux budget approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifeld, J.; Bader, C.; Borraz, E.; Hoffmann, M.; Giebels, M.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2014-08-01

    Drained peatlands are CO2 hotspots and lose important soil functions over time. In contrast to mineral soils, their high carbon density induces long lasting and high emissions. These emissions can be estimated using various approaches which cover different system boundaries in time and space. Here we compare 5 years flux measurements from manual chambers with a soil profile based method to estimate carbon losses from two temperate fens under different management intensity drained at the end of the 19th century. According to the flux measurements, both grassland sites currently lose significant amounts of carbon as CO2 in the order of 7.1 and 9.1 t CO2-C ha-1a-1 when managed non-intensively or intensively, respectively. Profile based estimates, which make use of the difference in ash concentration along the soil profile, reveal a total of 284 and 619 t C ha-1 since the onset of drainage. These substantial losses are accompanied by a sharp decrease in peat quality as measured by NMR spectroscopy, confirming that a large part of former topsoil material is already mineralized. On average, the profile based estimate converts to smaller annual loss rates of 2.2 (non-intensive) and 4.8 t CO2-C ha-1a-1 (intensive) management. Our data, together with historical flux measurements at this site, provide evidence that peat decomposition rates increased over time, despite declining organic matter quality. We suggest that higher management intensities (i.e., higher fertilization and changes in carbon export from the field), including drainage, and increased mean annual temperature may be important factors for higher emissions today. These two methods are complementary in terms of time horizon and system boundary and, in conjunction, confirm the long-term emission potential of temperate drained organic grassland soils.

  10. The IUPAC Rules for Naming Organic Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skonieczny, Stanislaw

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to naming polyfunctional organic compounds is presented. Latest IUPAC rules are incorporated and the table of order of precedence for the major functional groups is assembled. The scope of nomenclature is limited to common functional groups that are covered by undergraduate courses in colleges and universities. (Contains 1…

  11. Generalized Deterministic Traffic Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino

    We study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parameterized by the speed limit m and another parameter k that represents a "degree of aggressiveness" in driving, strictly related to the distance between two consecutive cars. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: "conservative" driving with high speed limit and "aggressive" driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered.

  12. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-02

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  13. Sum rules for leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of flavor in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briefly sketch how this happens and discuss briefly the impact of renormalization group corrections to the mass sum rules.

  14. Sum Rules for Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of avor in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briey sketch how this happens and discuss briey the impact of renormalization group corrections to the mass sum rules.

  15. Additive approach for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella spp. on contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables using bacteriophage cocktail and produce wash.

    PubMed

    Magnone, Joshua P; Marek, Patrick J; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Senecal, Andre G

    2013-08-01

    The incidence of foodborne outbreaks involving fresh produce is of worldwide concern. Lytic bacteriophage cocktails and a levulinic acid produce wash were investigated for their effectiveness against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., and Salmonella on broccoli, cantaloupe, and strawberries. Inoculated samples were treated with bacteriophage cocktails (BC) before storage at 10°C for 24 h, a levulinic acid produce wash (PW) after storage at 10°C for 24 h, or a combination of the washes (BCPW) before and after storage. All three treatments were compared against a 200-ppm free available chlorine wash. Wash solutions were prepared using potable water and water with an increased organic content of 2.5 g/liter total dissolved solids and total organic carbon. BCPW was the most effective treatment, producing the highest log reductions in the pathogens. Produce treated with BCPW in potable water with a PW exposure time of 5 min resulted in the highest reduction of each pathogen for all samples tested. The type of produce and wash solution had significant effects on the efficacy of the individual treatments. The chlorine wash in water with higher organic content was the least effective treatment tested. An additive effect of BCPW was seen in water with higher organic content, resulting in greater than 4.0-log reductions in pathogens. Our findings indicate that the combination of antimicrobial BC with a commercial produce wash is a very effective method for treating produce contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., and Salmonella even in the presence of high loads of organic matter.

  16. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Malott, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly reinforce or punish the cultural practices (e.g., the food increase is too delayed to reinforce the cow worship). Therefore, the molar, materialistic contingencies need the support of molecular, behavioral contingencies. And according to the present theory of rule-governed behavior, the statement of rules describing those molar, materialistic contingencies can establish the needed molecular contingencies. Given the proper behavioral history, such rule statements combine with noncompliance to produce a learned aversive condition (often labeled fear, anxiety, or guilt). The termination of this aversive condition reinforces compliance, just as its presentation punishes noncompliance (e.g., the termination of guilt reinforces the tending to a sick cow). In addition, supernatural rules often supplement these materialistic rules. Furthermore, the production of both materialistic and supernatural rules needs cultural designers who understand the molar, materialistic contingencies. PMID:22478012

  17. Flexible implementations of group sequential stopping rules using constrained boundaries.

    PubMed

    Burington, Bart E; Emerson, Scott S

    2003-12-01

    Group sequential stopping rules are often used during the conduct of clinical trials in order to attain more ethical treatment of patients and to better address efficiency concerns. Because the use of such stopping rules materially affects the frequentist operating characteristics of the hypothesis test, it is necessary to choose an appropriate stopping rule during the planning of the study. It is often the case, however, that the number and timing of interim analyses are not precisely known at the time of trial design, and thus the implementation of a particular stopping rule must allow for flexible determination of the schedule of interim analyses. In this article, we consider the use of constrained stopping boundaries in the implementation of stopping rules. We compare this approach when used on various scales for the test statistic. When implemented on the scale of boundary crossing probabilities, this approach is identical to the error spending function approach of Lan and DeMets (1983).

  18. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  19. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  20. Willpower and Personal Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  1. Cramer's Rule Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

  2. 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel tempted by the 5-second rule: A clean-looking floor isn't necessarily clean. A shiny linoleum floor ... cleaner than a 1970s-era carpet. But even clean, dry floors can harbor bacteria. Newly washed floors are only ...

  3. An Airship Slide Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, E R; Pickering, S F

    1924-01-01

    This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant.

  4. The Antioxidant Additive Approach for Alzheimer's Disease Therapy: New Ferulic (Lipoic) Acid Plus Melatonin Modified Tacrines as Cholinesterases Inhibitors, Direct Antioxidants, and Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-Derived 2)-Like 2 Activators.

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, Mohamed; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; León, Rafael; Michalska, Patrycja; Buendía, Izaskun; Jimeno, María Luisa; Jun, Daniel; Janockova, Jana; Sepsova, Vendula; Soukup, Ondrej; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Refouvelet, Bernard; Ouari, Olivier; Marco-Contelles, José; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2016-11-10

    Novel multifunctional tacrines for Alzheimer's disease were obtained by Ugi-reaction between ferulic (or lipoic acid), a melatonin-like isocyanide, formaldehyde, and tacrine derivatives, according to the antioxidant additive approach in order to modulate the oxidative stress as therapeutic strategy. Compound 5c has been identified as a promising permeable agent showing excellent antioxidant properties, strong cholinesterase inhibitory activity, less hepatotoxicity than tacrine, and the best neuroprotective capacity, being able to significantly activate the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway.

  5. Higher Education: New Models, New Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Louis; Eaton, Judith S.; Smith, Burck

    2013-01-01

    The Internet enables new models. In the commercial world, for example, we have eBay, Amazon.com, and Netflix. These new models operate with a different set of rules than do traditional models. New models are emerging in higher education as well--for example, competency-based programs. In addition, courses that are being provided from outside the…

  6. The canonical forms of a lattice rule

    SciTech Connect

    Lyness, J.N.

    1992-12-31

    Much of the elementary theory of lattice rules may, be presented as an elegant application of classical results. These include Kronecker group representation theorem and the Hermite and Smith normal forms of integer matrices. The theory of the canonical form is a case in point. In this paper, some of this theory is treated in a constructive rather than abstract manner. A step-by-step approach that parallels the group theory is described, leading to an algorithm to obtain a canonical form of a rule of prime power order. The number of possible distinct canonical forms is derived, and this is used to determine the number of integration lattices having specified invariants.

  7. The canonical forms of a lattice rule

    SciTech Connect

    Lyness, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    Much of the elementary theory of lattice rules may, be presented as an elegant application of classical results. These include Kronecker group representation theorem and the Hermite and Smith normal forms of integer matrices. The theory of the canonical form is a case in point. In this paper, some of this theory is treated in a constructive rather than abstract manner. A step-by-step approach that parallels the group theory is described, leading to an algorithm to obtain a canonical form of a rule of prime power order. The number of possible distinct canonical forms is derived, and this is used to determine the number of integration lattices having specified invariants.

  8. Szego-Lobatto quadrature rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagels, Carl; Reichel, Lothar

    2007-03-01

    Gauss-type quadrature rules with one or two prescribed nodes are well known and are commonly referred to as Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature rules, respectively. Efficient algorithms are available for their computation. Szego quadrature rules are analogs of Gauss quadrature rules for the integration of periodic functions; they integrate exactly trigonometric polynomials of as high degree as possible. Szego quadrature rules have a free parameter, which can be used to prescribe one node. This paper discusses an analog of Gauss-Lobatto rules, i.e., Szego quadrature rules with two prescribed nodes. We refer to these rules as Szego-Lobatto rules. Their properties as well as numerical methods for their computation are discussed.

  9. 10 CFR 2.605 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.605 Section 2.605 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Permit § 2.605 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review...

  10. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct...

  11. 10 CFR 71.65 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 71.65 Section 71.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.65 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or...

  12. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  13. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  14. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  15. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  16. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  17. Cubature rules of prescribed merit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyness, J.N.; Sloan, I.H.

    1996-03-01

    We introduce a criterion for the evaluation of multidimensional quadrature, or cubature, rules for the hypercube: this is the merit of a rule, which is closely related to its trigonometric degree, and which reduces to the Zaremba figure of merit in the case of a lattice rule. We derive a family of rules Q{sub k}{sup a} having dimension s and merit 2{sup k}. These rules seem to be competitive with lattice rules with respect to the merit that can be achieved with a given number of abscissas.

  18. Experiments in knowledge refinement for a large rule-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Wilson A., Jr.; Tambe, Milind

    1993-08-01

    Knowledge-refinement is a central problem in the field of expert systems. For rule-based systems, refinement implies the addition, deletion, and modification of rules in the system so as to improve the system's overall performance. The goal of this research effort is to understand the methodology for refining large rule-based systems, as well as to develop tools that will be useful in refining such systems. The vehicle for our investigation is SPAM, a production system (rule-based system) for the interpretation of aerial imagery. Complex and computation-intensive systems like SPAM impose some unique constraints on knowledge refinement. More specifically, the credit/blame assignment problem for locating pieces of knowledge to refine becomes difficult. Given that constraint, we approach the problem in a bottom-up fashion, i.e., begin by refining portions of SPAM's knowledge base and then attempt to understand the interactions between them. We begin by identifying gaps and/or faults in the knowledge base by comparing SPAM's intermediate output to that of an expert, then modifying the knowledge base so that the system's output more accurately matches the expert's output. While this approach leads to some improvements, it also raises some interesting issues concerning the evaluation of refined knowledge at intermediate levels and of interaction between the refinements. This paper presents our initial efforts toward addressing these issues.

  19. A New Stopping Rule for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Grady, Matthew W.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to introduce a new stopping rule for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The predicted standard error reduction (PSER) stopping rule uses the predictive posterior variance to determine the reduction in standard error that would result from the administration of additional items. The performance of the PSER was…

  20. 75 FR 47141 - Review of Personal Radio Services Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ...In this document, the Commission proposes to update, reorganize, simplify and streamline its Personal Radio Services rules to reflect technological advances and other changes in the way the American public uses the Personal Radio Services. In addition to improving the clarity of the rules, this document includes proposals intended to reduce unnecessary regulatory burdens on users, improve......

  1. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  2. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  3. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  4. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  5. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  6. ``Robinson's sum rule'' revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yuri F.

    2010-02-01

    This discussion revisits two articles on synchrotron radiation damping published in 1958, one by this author and Evgeny K. Tarasov [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 34, 651 (1958)ZETFA70044-4510; Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 449 (1958)SPHJAR0038-5646], and one by Kenneth W. Robinson [Phys. Rev. 111, 373 (1958)PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.111.373]. The latter is the source of what is known as “Robinson’s sum rule.” Both present the familiar rule, but with very different proofs and calculations of concrete damping decrements. Comparative analysis of these differences reveals serious flaws in Robinson’s proof and calculations.

  7. Predictivity of neutrino mass sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrlein, Julia; Merle, Alexander; Spinrath, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Correlations between light neutrino observables are arguably the strongest predictions of lepton flavor models based on (discrete) symmetries, except for the very few cases which unambiguously predict the full set of leptonic mixing angles. A subclass of these correlations is neutrino mass sum rules, which connect the three (complex) light neutrino mass eigenvalues among each other. This connection constrains both the light neutrino mass scale and the Majorana phases, so that mass sum rules generically lead to a nonzero value of the lightest neutrino mass and to distinct predictions for the effective mass probed in neutrinoless double beta decay. However, in nearly all cases known, the neutrino mass sum rules are not exact and receive corrections from various sources. We introduce a formalism to handle these corrections perturbatively in a model-independent manner, which overcomes issues present in earlier approaches. Our ansatz allows us to quantify the modification of the predictions derived from neutrino mass sum rules. We show that, in most cases, the predictions are fairly stable: while small quantitative changes can appear, they are generally rather mild. We therefore establish the predictivity of neutrino mass sum rules on a level far more general than previously known.

  8. Disposal of controlled substances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-09

    This rule governs the secure disposal of controlled substances by registrants and ultimate users. These regulations will implement the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 by expanding the options available to collect controlled substances from ultimate users for the purpose of disposal, including: Take-back events, mail-back programs, and collection receptacle locations. These regulations contain specific language allowing law enforcement to voluntarily continue to conduct take-back events, administer mail-back programs, and maintain collection receptacles. These regulations will allow authorized manufacturers, distributors, reverse distributors, narcotic treatment programs (NTPs), hospitals/clinics with an on-site pharmacy, and retail pharmacies to voluntarily administer mail-back programs and maintain collection receptacles. In addition, this rule expands the authority of authorized hospitals/clinics and retail pharmacies to voluntarily maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. This rule also reorganizes and consolidates previously existing regulations on disposal, including the role of reverse distributors.

  9. SIRE: A Simple Interactive Rule Editor for NICBES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykat, Alex

    1988-01-01

    To support evolution of domain expertise, and its representation in an expert system knowledge base, a user-friendly rule base editor is mandatory. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES), a prototype of an expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope power storage management system, does not provide such an editor. In the following, a description of a Simple Interactive Rule Base Editor (SIRE) for NICBES is described. The SIRE provides a consistent internal representation of the NICBES knowledge base. It supports knowledge presentation and provides a user-friendly and code language independent medium for rule addition and modification. The SIRE is integrated with NICBES via an interface module. This module provides translation of the internal representation to Prolog-type rules (Horn clauses), latter rule assertion, and a simple mechanism for rule selection for its Prolog inference engine.

  10. Modifications of Team Sports Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    In general, there are two reasons for modifying the rules in sport activities: (1) to meet a specific objective or (2) to solve a perceived problem. The sense of the original game is usually not altered significantly because the number of rule changes is kept to a minimum. Changes in rules may be made for administrative or financial reasons, or to…

  11. A new stopping rule for surveys.

    PubMed

    Wagner, James; Raghunathan, Trivellore E

    2010-04-30

    Non-response is a problem for most surveys. In the sample design, non-response is often dealt with by setting a target response rate and inflating the sample size so that the desired number of interviews is reached. The decision to stop data collection is based largely on meeting the target response rate. A recent article by Rao, Glickman, and Glynn (RGG) suggests rules for stopping that are based on the survey data collected for the current set of respondents. Two of their rules compare estimates from fully imputed data where the imputations are based on a subset of early responders to fully imputed data where the imputations are based on the combined set of early and late responders. If these two estimates are different, then late responders are changing the estimate of interest. The present article develops a new rule for when to stop collecting data in a sample survey. The rule attempts to use complete interview data as well as covariates available on non-responders to determine when the probability that collecting additional data will change the survey estimate is sufficiently low to justify stopping data collection. The rule is compared with that of RGG using simulations and then is implemented using data from a real survey.

  12. The causal meaning of Hamilton’s rule

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton’s original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton’s rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton’s rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher’s ‘average effect of a gene substitution’. PMID:27069669

  13. 48 CFR 6101.17 - Exhibits [Rule 17].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the hearing in order, for example, to eliminate the introduction of additional exhibits at the hearing. (2) If a party elects to proceed on the record without a hearing pursuant to 6101.19 (Rule...

  14. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  15. Rules for Optical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  16. Applying negative rule mining to improve genome annotation

    PubMed Central

    Artamonova, Irena I; Frishman, Goar; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2007-01-01

    Background Unsupervised annotation of proteins by software pipelines suffers from very high error rates. Spurious functional assignments are usually caused by unwarranted homology-based transfer of information from existing database entries to the new target sequences. We have previously demonstrated that data mining in large sequence annotation databanks can help identify annotation items that are strongly associated with each other, and that exceptions from strong positive association rules often point to potential annotation errors. Here we investigate the applicability of negative association rule mining to revealing erroneously assigned annotation items. Results Almost all exceptions from strong negative association rules are connected to at least one wrong attribute in the feature combination making up the rule. The fraction of annotation features flagged by this approach as suspicious is strongly enriched in errors and constitutes about 0.6% of the whole body of the similarity-transferred annotation in the PEDANT genome database. Positive rule mining does not identify two thirds of these errors. The approach based on exceptions from negative rules is much more specific than positive rule mining, but its coverage is significantly lower. Conclusion Mining of both negative and positive association rules is a potent tool for finding significant trends in protein annotation and flagging doubtful features for further inspection. PMID:17659089

  17. Implementation of artificial intelligence rules in a data base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, S.

    1986-01-01

    The intelligent front end prototype was transformed into a RIM-integrated system. A RIM-based expert system was written which demonstrated the developed capability. The use of rules to produce extensibility of the intelligent front end, including the concept of demons and rule manipulation rules were investigated. Innovative approaches such as syntax programming were to be considered.

  18. A Comment on a Threshold Rule Applied to the Retrieval Decision Model. Technical Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Donald H.

    The retrieval decision problem is considered from the viewpoint of a decision theory approach. A threshold rule based on earlier rules for indexing decisions is considered and analyzed for retrieval decisions as a measure of retrieval performance. The threshold rule is seen as a good descriptive design measure of what a reasonable retrieval system…

  19. 75 FR 479 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving the Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Process and Make Conforming Changes to NYSE Amex Equities Rule 13 and Rule 15 December 28, 2009. I... procedures for its closing process in Rule 123C and make conforming changes to NYSE Amex Equities Rules 13... transparency, the commenter urged the Exchange to adopt additional changes to the closing process,...

  20. A statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provides additional information to models analyzing single dietary factors in relation to type 2 diabetes in danish adults: the Inter99 study.

    PubMed

    Faerch, Kristine; Lau, Cathrine; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Glümer, Charlotte

    2005-05-01

    Most studies analyzing diet-disease relations focus on single dietary factors rather than combining different nutrients into the same statistical model. The objective of this study was to identify dietary factors associated with the probability of having diabetes identified by screening (SDM) in Danish men and women aged 30-60 y. A specific objective was to examine whether an alternative statistical approach could provide additional information to already existing statistical approaches used in nutritional epidemiology. Baseline data from the Danish population-based Inter99 study were used. The dietary intake of 262 individuals with SDM was compared with that of 4627 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) using 2 different types of multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The first model included single dietary factors, whereas the second model was based on substitution of macronutrients. In the models with single dietary factors, high intakes of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and coffee were inversely associated with SDM (P < 0.01), whereas high intakes of total fat and saturated fat were positively associated with SDM (P < 0.05). A modest U-shaped association was found between alcohol consumption and SDM (P = 0.10) [corrected] Results from the substitution model showed that when 3% of energy (En%) as carbohydrate replaced 3 En% fat or alcohol, the probability of having SDM decreased by 9 and 10%, respectively (P < 0.01) [corrected] No other macronutrient substitutions resulted in significant associations. Hence, the statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provided additional information to the model analyzing single dietary factors.

  1. a Research on Spatial Topological Association Rules Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Liu, S.; Zhang, P.; Sha, Z.

    2012-07-01

    Spatial association rules mining is a process of acquiring information and knowledge from large databases. Due to the nature of geographic space and the complexity of spatial objects and relations, the classical association rule mining methods are not suitable for the spatial association rule mining. Classical association rule mining treats all input data as independent, while spatial association rules often show high autocorrelation among nearby objects. The contiguous, adjacent and neighboring relations between spatial objects are important topological relations. In this paper a new approach based on topological predictions to discover spatial association rules is presented. First, we develop a fast method to get the topological relationship of spatial data with its algebraic structure. Then the interested spatial objects are selected. To find the interested spatial objects, topological relations combining with distance were used. In this step, the frequent topological predications are gained. Next, the attribute datasets of the selected interested spatial objects are mined with Apriori algorithm. Last, get the spatial topological association rules. The presented approach has been implemented and tested by the data of GDP per capita, railroads and roads in China in the year of 2005 at county level. The results of the experiments show that the approach is effective and valid.

  2. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  3. Connecting clinical and actuarial prediction with rule-based methods.

    PubMed

    Fokkema, Marjolein; Smits, Niels; Kelderman, Henk; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2015-06-01

    Meta-analyses comparing the accuracy of clinical versus actuarial prediction have shown actuarial methods to outperform clinical methods, on average. However, actuarial methods are still not widely used in clinical practice, and there has been a call for the development of actuarial prediction methods for clinical practice. We argue that rule-based methods may be more useful than the linear main effect models usually employed in prediction studies, from a data and decision analytic as well as a practical perspective. In addition, decision rules derived with rule-based methods can be represented as fast and frugal trees, which, unlike main effects models, can be used in a sequential fashion, reducing the number of cues that have to be evaluated before making a prediction. We illustrate the usability of rule-based methods by applying RuleFit, an algorithm for deriving decision rules for classification and regression problems, to a dataset on prediction of the course of depressive and anxiety disorders from Penninx et al. (2011). The RuleFit algorithm provided a model consisting of 2 simple decision rules, requiring evaluation of only 2 to 4 cues. Predictive accuracy of the 2-rule model was very similar to that of a logistic regression model incorporating 20 predictor variables, originally applied to the dataset. In addition, the 2-rule model required, on average, evaluation of only 3 cues. Therefore, the RuleFit algorithm appears to be a promising method for creating decision tools that are less time consuming and easier to apply in psychological practice, and with accuracy comparable to traditional actuarial methods.

  4. 78 FR 41703 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... unfarmed land in other countries into cropland for energy grass-based renewable fuel production... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR85 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program; Final Rule Approving Renewable...

  5. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  6. 17 CFR 37.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... descriptions, terms and conditions or trading protocols or providing for a new system product functionality, by... conditions or trading protocols. (c) Voluntary request for Commission approval of rules or products. (1) A... TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.7 Additional requirements. (a) Products. Notwithstanding the...

  7. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  8. 77 FR 64915 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... on November 10, 2012. Specifically, this temporary rule extends the 180- day closure of the DMV in fishing year (FY) 2012 for an additional 186 days, through May 13, 2013. DATES: This rule is effective from November 10, 2012, through May 14, 2013. The expiration date of the temporary rule published...

  9. Unanimity rule on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiotte, Renaud; Thurner, Stefan; Hanel, Rudolf

    2007-10-01

    We present a model for innovation, evolution, and opinion dynamics whose spreading is dictated by a unanimity rule. The underlying structure is a directed network, the state of a node is either activated or inactivated. An inactivated node will change only if all of its incoming links come from nodes that are activated, while an activated node will remain activated forever. It is shown that a transition takes place depending on the initial condition of the problem. In particular, a critical number of initially activated nodes is necessary for the whole system to get activated in the long-time limit. The influence of the degree distribution of the nodes is naturally taken into account. For simple network topologies we solve the model analytically; the cases of random and small world are studied in detail. Applications for food-chain dynamics and viral marketing are discussed.

  10. Graphic rule for drug metabolism systems.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2010-05-01

    Using graphic rules to deal with kinetic systems is an elegant approach by combining the graph representation (schematic representation) and rigorous mathematical derivation. It bears the following advantages: (1) providing an intuitive picture or illuminative insights; (2) helping grasp the key points from complicated details; (3) greatly simplifying many tedious, laborious, and error-prone calculations; and (4) able to double-check the final results. In this mini review, the non-steady state graphic rule in enzyme-catalyzed kinetics and protein-folding kinetics was extended to cover drug-metabolic systems. As a demonstration, a step-by-step illustration is presented showing how to use the graphic rule to derive the concentrations of the parent drug and its metabolites vs. time for the seliciclib, vildagliptin, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (AG-024322) metabolic systems, respectively. It can be seen from these paradigms that the graphic rule is particularly useful to analyze complicated drug metabolic systems and ensure the correctness of the derived results. Meanwhile, the intuitive feature of graphic representation may facilitate analyzing and classifying drug metabolic systems; e.g., according to their directed graphs, the metabolism of seliciclib and the metabolism of vildagliptin can be categorized as 0-->5 mechanism while that of AG-024322 as 0-->4-->3 mechanism.

  11. The biosphere rules.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  12. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. 10 CFR 2.705 - Discovery-additional methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discovery-additional methods. 2.705 Section 2.705 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2... 147 and 181 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the presiding officer may issue an...

  14. 10 CFR 2.705 - Discovery-additional methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discovery-additional methods. 2.705 Section 2.705 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2... 147 and 181 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the presiding officer may issue an...

  15. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  16. Anticircumvention rules: threat to science.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, P

    2001-09-14

    Scientists who study encryption or computer security or otherwise reverse engineer technical measures, who make tools enabling them to do this work, and who report the results of their research face new risks of legal liability because of recently adopted rules prohibiting the circumvention of technical measures and manufacture or distribution of circumvention tools. Because all data in digital form can be technically protected, the impact of these rules goes far beyond encryption and computer security research. The scientific community must recognize the harms these rules pose and provide guidance about how to improve the anticircumvention rules.

  17. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  18. An updated nuclear criticality slide rule

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.; Broadhead, B.L.

    1998-04-01

    This Volume 2 contains the functional version of the updated nuclear criticality slide rule (more accurately, sliding graphs) that is referenced in An Updated Nuclear Criticality Slide Rule: Technical Basis, NUREG/CR-6504, Vol. 1 (ORNL/TM-13322/V1). This functional slide rule provides a readily usable {open_quotes}in-hand{close_quotes} method for estimating pertinent nuclear criticality accident information from sliding graphs, thereby permitting (1) the rapid estimation of pertinent criticality accident information without laborious or sophisticated calculations in a nuclear criticality emergency situation, (2) the appraisal of potential fission yields and external personnel radiation exposures for facility safety analyses, and (3) a technical basis for emergency preparedness and training programs at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The slide rule permits the estimation of neutron and gamma dose rates and integrated doses based upon estimated fission yields, distance from the fission source, and time-after criticality accidents for five different critical systems. Another sliding graph permits the estimation of critical solution fission yields based upon fissile material concentration, critical vessel geometry, and solution addition rate. Another graph provides neutron and gamma dose-reduction factors for water, steel, and concrete. Graphs from historic documents are provided as references for estimating critical parameters of various fissile material systems. Conversion factors for various English and metric units are provided for quick reference.

  19. Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang

    The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.

  20. 29 CFR 4219.33 - Plan rules concerning overdue and defaulted withdrawal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... providing reasonable grace periods during which late payments may be made without interest; additional... withdrawal liability; and rules pertaining to acceleration of the outstanding balance on default. Plan...

  1. Modeling decision support rule interactions in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Margarita; Rocha, Beatriz H; Morales, Alfredo A; Maviglia, Saverio M; Oglio, Elisa Dell'Oglio; Fairbanks, Amanda; Aroy, Teal; Dubois, David; Bouyer-Ferullo, Sharon; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, rule interactions are handled at implementation time through rule task properties that control the order in which rules are executed. By doing so, knowledge about the behavior and interactions of decision rules is not captured at modeling time. We argue that this is important knowledge that should be integrated in the modeling phase. In this project, we build upon current work on a conceptual schema to represent clinical knowledge for decision support in the form of if then rules. This schema currently captures provenance of the clinical content, context where such content is actionable (i.e. constraints) and the logic of the rule itself. For this project, we borrowed concepts from both the Semantic Web (i.e., Ontologies) and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), to explore a conceptual approach for modeling rule interactions in an enterprise-wide clinical setting. We expect that a more comprehensive modeling will facilitate knowledge authoring, editing and update; foster consistency in rules implementation and maintenance; and develop authoritative knowledge repositories to promote quality, safety and efficacy of healthcare.

  2. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education.

  3. Comparison of induced rules based on likelihood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumoto, Shusaku

    2002-03-01

    Rule induction methods have been applied to knowledge discovery in databases and data mining, The empirical results obtained show that they are very powerful and that important knowledge has been extracted from datasets. However, comparison and evaluation of rules are based not on statistical evidence but on rather naive indices, such as conditional probabilities and functions of conditional probabilities. In this paper, we introduce two approaches to induced statistical comparison of induced rules. For the statistical evaluation, likelihood ratio test and Fisher's exact test play an important role: likelihood ratio statistic measures statistical information about an information table and it is used to measure the difference between two tables.

  4. Drinking Water Arsenic Rule History

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA published the final arsenic rule on January 22, 2001. In response to the national debate surrounding the arsenic rule related to science and costs, the EPA announced on March 20, 2001 that the agency would reassess the science and cost issues.

  5. Art as a Singular Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avital, Doron

    2007-01-01

    This paper will examine an unresolved tension inherent in the question of art and argue for the idea of a singular rule as a natural resolution. In so doing, the structure of a singular rule will be fully outlined and its paradoxical constitution will be resolved. The tension I mention above unfolds both as a matter of history and as a product of…

  6. RuleML-Based Learning Object Interoperability on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biletskiy, Yevgen; Boley, Harold; Ranganathan, Girish R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to describe an approach for building the Semantic Web rules for interoperation between heterogeneous learning objects, namely course outlines from different universities, and one of the rule uses: identifying (in)compatibilities between course descriptions. Design/methodology/approach: As proof of concept, a rule…

  7. Medicare and Medicaid programs; fire safety requirements for long term care facilities, automatic sprinkler systems. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-08-13

    This final rule requires all long term care facilities to be equipped with sprinkler systems by August 13, 2013. Additionally, this final rule requires affected facilities to maintain their automatic sprinkler systems once they are installed.

  8. English Stress Rules and Native Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, B. O.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study that compares Chomsky and Halle's main stress rule with Guierre's stress rules to discover which rules lead to the same word stress replacement that native speakers would give to totally unfamiliar words. Only five of Chomsky and Halle's rules were as consistently followed as Guierre's suffix rules. (SED)which+that

  9. 77 FR 22200 - Rescission of Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...-Advertising (``MAP-Ad'') Rule and the Mortgage Assistance Relief Services (``MARS'') Rule. \\20\\ Omnibus... Commission is rescinding its MAP-Ad and MARS rules. The CFPB republished these rules on an interim final... The MARS Rule addresses the practices of entities (other than mortgage servicers) who offer...

  10. Revisions to direct fee payment rules. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2015-01-06

    We are adopting, with two revisions, our interim final rules that implemented amendments to the Social Security Act (Act) made by the Social Security Disability Applicants' Access to Professional Representation Act of 2010 (PRA). The interim final rules made permanent the direct fee payment rules for eligible non-attorney representatives under titles II and XVI of the Act and for attorney representatives under title XVI of the Act. They also revised some of our eligibility policies for non-attorney representatives under titles II and XVI of the Act. Based on public comment and subsequent inquiries, we are revising our rules to clarify that an eligible non-attorney representative's liability insurance policy must include malpractice coverage. We are also reaffirming that a business entity legally permitted to provide the required insurance in the States in which the non-attorney representative conducts business must underwrite the policies.

  11. Universal waste rule: Final rule issued. Environmental Guidance Regulatory Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-14

    On February 11, 1993, EPA proposed to streamline the management requirements for certain hazardous wastes that were generated in large quantities by a variety of generators (i.e., residential, small businesses, industries, etc.). EPA`s intention was to facilitate the environmentally sound collection and disposal of these types of wastes. In this proposed rule, EPA termed these types of hazardous wastes ``universal wastes`` and developed a management system which was less stringent than the existing Subtitle C regulations. EPA proposed that the following three types of hazardous wastes be managed as universal wastes: batteries, certain pesticides, and thermostats. Because EPA believed that the authority to propose the promulgation of the universal waste rule was not significantly linked to HSWA provisions, the Agency proposed the promulgation of the universal waste rule under pre-HSWA authority. On May 11, 1995, at FR 25492, EPA promulgated a pre-HSWA rule that streamlined hazardous waste management regulations for universal wastes.

  12. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  13. 75 FR 37733 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ31 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable... direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA published a direct final rule to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard... direct final rule to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program requirements, published on May 10,...

  14. Neural networks supporting switching, hypothesis testing, and rule application

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiya; Braunlich, Kurt; Wehe, Hillary S.; Seger, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    We identified dynamic changes in recruitment of neural connectivity networks across three phases of a flexible rule learning and set-shifting task similar to the Wisconsin Card Sort Task: switching, rule learning via hypothesis testing, and rule application. During fMRI scanning, subjects viewed pairs of stimuli that differed across four dimensions (letter, color, size, screen location), chose one stimulus, and received feedback. Subjects were informed that the correct choice was determined by a simple unidimensional rule, for example “choose the blue letter.” Once each rule had been learned and correctly applied for 4-7 trials, subjects were cued via either negative feedback or visual cues to switch to learning a new rule. Task performance was divided into three phases: Switching (first trial after receiving the switch cue), hypothesis testing (subsequent trials through the last error trial), and rule application (correct responding after the rule was learned). We used both univariate analysis to characterize activity occurring within specific regions of the brain, and a multivariate method, constrained principal component analysis for fMRI (fMRI-CPCA), to investigate how distributed regions coordinate to subserve different processes. As hypothesized, switching was subserved by a limbic network including the ventral striatum, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus, in conjunction with cortical salience network regions including the anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortex. Activity in the ventral striatum was associated with switching regardless of how switching was cued; visually cued shifts were associated with additional visual cortical activity. After switching, as subjects moved into the hypothesis testing phase, a broad fronto-parietal-striatal network (associated with the cognitive control, dorsal attention, and salience networks) increased in activity. This network was sensitive to rule learning speed, with greater extended activity for the slowest

  15. Automated discovery of medical expert system rules from clinical databases based on rought sets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumoto, Shusaku; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    Automated knowledge acquisition is an important research issue to solve the bottleneck problem in developing expert systems. Although many inductive learning methods have been proposed for this purpose, most of the approaches focus only on inducing classification rules. However, medical experts also learn other information important for diagnosis from clinical cases. In this paper, a rule induction method is introduced, which extracts not only classification rules but also other medical knowledge needed for diagnosis. This system is evaluated on a clinical database of headache, whose experimental results show that our proposed method correctly induces diagnostic rules and estimates the statistical measures of rules.

  16. Rule activity related to spatial and numerical magnitudes: comparison of prefrontal, premotor, and cingulate motor cortices.

    PubMed

    Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In everyday situations, quantitative rules, such as "greater than/less than," need to be applied to a multitude of magnitude comparisons, be they sensory, spatial, temporal, or numerical. We have previously shown that rules applied to different magnitudes are encoded in the lateral PFC. To investigate if and how other frontal lobe areas also contribute to the encoding of quantitative rules applied to multiple magnitudes, we trained monkeys to switch between "greater than/less than" rules applied to either line lengths (spatial magnitudes) or dot numerosities (discrete numerical magnitudes). We recorded single-cell activity from the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) and cingulate motor cortex (CMA) and compared it with PFC activity. We found the largest proportion of quantitative rule-selective cells in PFC (24% of randomly selected cells), whereas neurons in dPMC and CMA rarely encoded the rule (6% of the cells). In addition, rule selectivity of individual cells was highest in PFC neurons compared with dPMC and CMA neurons. Rule-selective neurons that simultaneously represented the "greater than/less than" rules applied to line lengths and numerosities ("rule generalists") were exclusively present in PFC. In dPMC and CMA, however, neurons primarily encoded rules applied to only one of the two magnitude types ("rule specialists"). Our data suggest a special involvement of PFC in representing quantitative rules at an abstract level, both in terms of the proportion of neurons engaged and the coding capacities.

  17. An Automatic KANSEI Fuzzy Rule Creating System Using Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Hajime; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose an automatic Kansei fuzzy rule creating system using thesaurus. In general, there are a lot of words that express impressions. However, conventional approaches of Kansei engineering are not suitable to use many impression words because it is difficult to collect enough data. The proposed system is an enhanced algorithm of the conventional method that the authors proposed before. The proposed system extracts fuzzy rules for many words defined in the thesaurus dictionary while the conventional one can extract rules of specified words which user defined. The flow of the system consists of 3 steps: (1) construction of thesaurus networks; (2) data collection by web questionnaire sheets; (3) Extraction of fuzzy rules. In order to extract Kansei fuzzy rules, the system employs enhanced GRNN(general regression neural network) which can treat relative words of the thesaurus network. Using a Japanese thesaurus dictionary in the experiments, the sets of fuzzy rules for 1,195 impression words are extracted, and the fuzzy rules extracted by the proposed system obtained higher accuracy than those extracted by the conventional one.

  18. Dynamic operating rules for water supply reservoirs in La Paz.

    PubMed

    Bender, M J; Hranisavljevic, D; Bernardin, R; Bianchi, R

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic operating rules have been applied to the drought-prone Andean water supply reservoirs near La Paz, Bolivia. The water supply reservoirs are not using conventional reservoir operating rule curves. Instead, dynamic operating rules opportunistically supply surplus water for soft demands, and proactively adjust the water supply before a drought causes a water shortage. The conventional approach of forcing water levels to follow a set rule curve is replaced with notions of tradeoffs between long-term reliability and short-term supply opportunities. Operators can customise the dynamic rules based on their tolerance of shortages, and can choose to operate more aggressively during wet periods. In this way, the dynamic rules offer a flexible tool for making short-term decisions while managing medium and long-term performance goals. In the case of La Paz, it is possible to utilise the water sources more efficiently in the short-term without significantly reducing the long-term water supply reliability. The dynamic rules will reduce the severity of future water shortages (if they occur) by 60%, and provide opportunities to increase the firm water supply by up to 8% without affecting the long-term reliability.

  19. An architecture for rule based system explanation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, T. R.; Johannes, James D.

    1990-01-01

    A system architecture is presented which incorporate both graphics and text into explanations provided by rule based expert systems. This architecture facilitates explanation of the knowledge base content, the control strategies employed by the system, and the conclusions made by the system. The suggested approach combines hypermedia and inference engine capabilities. Advantages include: closer integration of user interface, explanation system, and knowledge base; the ability to embed links to deeper knowledge underlying the compiled knowledge used in the knowledge base; and allowing for more direct control of explanation depth and duration by the user. User models are suggested to control the type, amount, and order of information presented.

  20. 2-Ethylhexanol; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), requiring manufacturers and processors of 2-ethylhexanol (EH: CAS No. 104-76-7) to conduct a 2-year oncogenicity bioassay.

  1. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT, CAS No. 149—30-4) to perform testing.

  2. Toxic Substances; Biphenyl; Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This rule promulgates EPA’s decision to require manufacturers and processors to test biphenyl (CAS No: 92—52—4) for environmental effects and chemical fate under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  3. Proposed Rule (April 18, 2016)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Listings of Substitutes; Changes of Listing Status; Reinterpretation of Unacceptability for Closed Cell Foam Products under the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program; and Revision of Clean Air Ac

  4. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  5. 75 FR 5887 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Paracoccus Pigment; Confirmation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Paracoccus Pigment; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY... rule that appeared in the Federal Register of November 16, 2009. The final rule amended the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of paracoccus pigment as a color additive in the feed...

  6. Rule-Based Runtime Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, Howard; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Sen, Koushik

    2003-01-01

    We present a rule-based framework for defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, real-time logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. Our logic, EAGLE, is implemented as a Java library and involves novel techniques for rule definition, manipulation and execution. Monitoring is done on a state-by-state basis, without storing the execution trace.

  7. ∆I = 1/2 Rule and B̂K: 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.

    2014-11-01

    I summarize the status of the ∆I = 1/2 rule in K → ππ decays within an analytic approach based on the dual representation of QCD as a theory of weakly interacting mesons for large N, where N is the number of colours. This approximate approach, developed in the 1980s by William Bardeen, Jean-Marc Gérard and myself, allowed us already 28 years ago to identify the dominant dynamics behind the ∆I = 1/2 rule. However, the recent inclusion of lowest-lying vector meson contributions in addition to the pseudoscalar ones to hadronic matrix elements of current-current operators and the calculation of the corresponding Wilson coefficients in a momentum scheme at the NLO improved significantly the matching between quark-gluon short distance contributions and meson long distance contributions over our results in 1986. We obtain satisfactory description of the ReA2 amplitude and ReA0/ReA2 = 16.0 ± 1.5 to be compared with its experimental value of 22.3. While this difference could be the result of present theoretical uncertainties in our approach, it cannot be excluded that New Physics (NP) is here at work. The analysis by Fulvia De Fazio, Jennifer Girrbach-Noe and myself shows that indeed a tree-level Z' or G' exchanges with masses in the reach of the LHC and special couplings to quarks can significantly improve the theoretical status of the ∆I = 1/2 rule while satisfying constraints from ɛK, ɛ'/ɛ, ∆MK , LEP-II and the LHC. The ratio ɛ'/ɛ plays an important role in these considerations. I stress that our approach allows to understand the physics behind recent numerical results obtained in lattice QCD not only for the ∆I = 1/2 rule but also for the parameter B̂K that enters the evaluation of ɛK. In contrast to the ∆I = 1/2 rule and ɛ'/ɛ the chapter on B̂K in QCD appears to be basically closed.

  8. 76 FR 30551 - Commission's Ex Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Commission's Ex Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules AGENCY: Federal... Order, Amendment of the Commission's Ex Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules. DATES: The amendments to... rules and other procedural rules contained in information collection OMB Control No: 3060-0430,...

  9. 47 CFR 95.402 - (CB Rule 2) How do I use these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (CB Rule 2) How do I use these rules? 95.402... SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Citizens Band (CB) Radio Service General Provisions § 95.402 (CB Rule 2) How do I use these rules? (a) You must comply with these rules (See CB Rule 21 § 95.421, for...

  10. Counting rules for estimating concentrations of long asbestos fibers.

    PubMed

    Crump, Kenny S; Berman, D Wayne

    2011-08-01

    Mounting evidence that long asbestos fibers (e.g. >20 or even 40 μm) pose the greatest cancer risk underscores the need for accurate measurement of concentrations of such fibers. These fiber lengths are of the same order of magnitude as the size of openings in the grids (typically ≈90 μm per side) used to analyze asbestos samples by transmission electron microscopy. This means that a substantial proportion of long fibers will cross the edge of a grid opening (GO) and therefore not be completely visible. Counting rules generally deal with such fibers by assigning a length equal to twice the visible length. Using both theoretical and simulation methods, we show that this doubling rule introduces bias into estimates of fiber concentrations and the amount of bias increases with fiber length. We investigate an alternative counting rule that counts only fibers that lie completely within a GO and weights those fibers by the reciprocal of the probability that a fiber of that length lies totally within a GO. This approach does not have the bias inherent in the doubling rule and is essentially unbiased if the stopping rule specifies a fixed number of GOs to be scanned. However, a stopping rule based on successively scanning GOs until a fixed number of fibers have been counted will introduce bias into any counting method, although this bias may typically not be large enough to be of practical concern. We recommend use of the weighted approach as a supplement to use of the doubling rule when estimating concentrations of long fibers, irrespective of the stopping rule employed.

  11. Rule Systems for Runtime Verification: A Short Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus; Rydeheard, David; Groce, Alex

    In this tutorial, we introduce two rule-based systems for on and off-line trace analysis, RuleR and LogScope. RuleR is a conditional rule-based system, which has a simple and easily implemented algorithm for effective runtime verification, and into which one can compile a wide range of temporal logics and other specification formalisms used for runtime verification. Specifications can be parameterized with data, or even with specifications, allowing for temporal logic combinators to be defined. We outline a number of simple syntactic extensions of core RuleR that can lead to further conciseness of specification but still enabling easy and efficient implementation. RuleR is implemented in Java and we will demonstrate its ease of use in monitoring Java programs. LogScope is a derivation of RuleR adding a simple very user-friendly temporal logic. It was developed in Python, specifically for supporting testing of spacecraft flight software for NASA’s next 2011 Mars mission MSL (Mars Science Laboratory). The system has been applied by test engineers to analysis of log files generated by running the flight software. Detailed logging is already part of the system design approach, and hence there is no added instrumentation overhead caused by this approach. While post-mortem log analysis prevents the autonomous reaction to problems possible with traditional runtime verification, it provides a powerful tool for test automation. A new system is being developed that integrates features from both RuleR and LogScope.

  12. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  13. In-camera automation of photographic composition rules.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Serene; Evans, Brian L

    2007-07-01

    At the time of image acquisition, professional photographers apply many rules of thumb to improve the composition of their photographs. This paper develops a joint optical-digital processing framework for automating composition rules during image acquisition for photographs with one main subject. Within the framework, we automate three photographic composition rules: repositioning the main subject, making the main subject more prominent, and making objects that merge with the main subject less prominent. The idea is to provide to the user alternate pictures obtained by applying photographic composition rules in addition to the original picture taken by the user. The proposed algorithms do not depend on prior knowledge of the indoor/outdoor setting or scene content. The proposed algorithms are also designed to be amenable to software implementation on fixed-point programmable digital signal processors available in digital still cameras.

  14. Compton Scattering and Photo-absorption Sum Rules on Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2012-03-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new ``constituent quark model'' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition we extract the J=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high energy proton data we find that the J=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman. We discuss phenomenological implications of this new result.

  15. Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2011-12-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new “constituent quark model” sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.

  16. A New Stopping Rule for Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung W; Grady, Matthew W; Dodd, Barbara G

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to introduce a new stopping rule for computerized adaptive testing. The predicted standard error reduction stopping rule (PSER) uses the predictive posterior variance to determine the reduction in standard error that would result from the administration of additional items. The performance of the PSER was compared to that of the minimum standard error stopping rule and a modified version of the minimum information stopping rule in a series of simulated adaptive tests, drawn from a number of item pools. Results indicate that the PSER makes efficient use of CAT item pools, administering fewer items when predictive gains in information are small and increasing measurement precision when information is abundant.

  17. "If You Cannot Live by Our Rules, If You Cannot Adapt to This Place, I Can Show You the Back Door." A Response to "New Forms of Teacher Education: Connections to Charter Schools and Their Approaches"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barrett A.

    2015-01-01

    Stitzlein and West (2014) are primarily concerned with how Relay and Match risk failing to prepare their residents to practice democratic education. My aim is to provide a more thorough account of specific practices employed by Match and their no-excuses approach in order to illustrate and support points made by Stitzlein and West. It is my hope…

  18. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  19. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  20. Andrew meets Rensch: sexual size dimorphism and the inverse of Rensch's rule in Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi).

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen Bo; Liu, Wen Chao; Merilä, Juha

    2015-02-01

    Variation in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon and is commonly attributed to variation in sex-specific patterns of selection. According to Rensch's rule, SSD increases with increasing body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases when females are the larger sex. Using data from 17 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi), we tested whether the patterns of SSD conform to Rensch's rule. Using field experiments, we also evaluated the hypothesis that sexual selection favours large male body size and that fecundity selection favours large female body size. The results revealed that the degree of SSD increased with increasing mean size in females, consistent with the inverse of Rensch's rule. Although experiments revealed evidence for a large-male mating advantage, selection for large male size was weak at best, and hence unlikely to be an important source of variation in SSD. However, fecundity selection favouring large females was evident, and likely to explain the observed inverse of Rensch's rule. After correcting male and female body size for age differences, the patterns of SSD remained the same, suggesting that the intra- and interpopulational variation in SSD is not driven by sex differences in age structure. Hence, these findings suggest that the strong fecundity selection favouring large females drives the evolution of female-biased SSD in B. andrewsi, providing an explanation for the inverse of Rensch's rule. As such, the study provides an important addition to the small body of literature that uses an intraspecific approach to demonstrate the inverse of Rensch's rule.

  1. Generative rules of Drosophila locomotor behavior as a candidate homology across phyla

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Oron, Efrat; Gakamsky, Anna; Dan Valente; Benjamini, Yoav; Golani, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of shared behavioral processes across phyla is a significant step in the establishment of a comparative study of behavior. We use immobility as an origin and reference for the measurement of fly locomotor behavior; speed, walking direction and trunk orientation as the degrees of freedom shaping this behavior; and cocaine as the parameter inducing progressive transitions in and out of immobility. We characterize and quantify the generative rules that shape Drosophila locomotor behavior, bringing about a gradual buildup of kinematic degrees of freedom during the transition from immobility to normal behavior, and the opposite narrowing down into immobility. Transitions into immobility unfold via sequential enhancement and then elimination of translation, curvature and finally rotation. Transitions out of immobility unfold by progressive addition of these degrees of freedom in the opposite order. The same generative rules have been found in vertebrate locomotor behavior in several contexts (pharmacological manipulations, ontogeny, social interactions) involving transitions in-and-out of immobility. Recent claims for deep homology between arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia provide an opportunity to examine whether the rules we report also share common descent. Our approach prompts the discovery of behavioral homologies, contributing to the elusive problem of behavioral evolution. PMID:27271799

  2. An Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Solution Acceptance Rule and Probabilistic Multisearch.

    PubMed

    Yurtkuran, Alkın; Emel, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a popular swarm based technique, which is inspired from the intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarms. This paper proposes a new variant of ABC algorithm, namely, enhanced ABC with solution acceptance rule and probabilistic multisearch (ABC-SA) to address global optimization problems. A new solution acceptance rule is proposed where, instead of greedy selection between old solution and new candidate solution, worse candidate solutions have a probability to be accepted. Additionally, the acceptance probability of worse candidates is nonlinearly decreased throughout the search process adaptively. Moreover, in order to improve the performance of the ABC and balance the intensification and diversification, a probabilistic multisearch strategy is presented. Three different search equations with distinctive characters are employed using predetermined search probabilities. By implementing a new solution acceptance rule and a probabilistic multisearch approach, the intensification and diversification performance of the ABC algorithm is improved. The proposed algorithm has been tested on well-known benchmark functions of varying dimensions by comparing against novel ABC variants, as well as several recent state-of-the-art algorithms. Computational results show that the proposed ABC-SA outperforms other ABC variants and is superior to state-of-the-art algorithms proposed in the literature.

  3. Generative rules of Drosophila locomotor behavior as a candidate homology across phyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Oron, Efrat; Gakamsky, Anna; Dan Valente; Benjamini, Yoav; Golani, Ilan

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of shared behavioral processes across phyla is a significant step in the establishment of a comparative study of behavior. We use immobility as an origin and reference for the measurement of fly locomotor behavior; speed, walking direction and trunk orientation as the degrees of freedom shaping this behavior; and cocaine as the parameter inducing progressive transitions in and out of immobility. We characterize and quantify the generative rules that shape Drosophila locomotor behavior, bringing about a gradual buildup of kinematic degrees of freedom during the transition from immobility to normal behavior, and the opposite narrowing down into immobility. Transitions into immobility unfold via sequential enhancement and then elimination of translation, curvature and finally rotation. Transitions out of immobility unfold by progressive addition of these degrees of freedom in the opposite order. The same generative rules have been found in vertebrate locomotor behavior in several contexts (pharmacological manipulations, ontogeny, social interactions) involving transitions in-and-out of immobility. Recent claims for deep homology between arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia provide an opportunity to examine whether the rules we report also share common descent. Our approach prompts the discovery of behavioral homologies, contributing to the elusive problem of behavioral evolution.

  4. Effect of temporal relationships in associative rule mining for web log data.

    PubMed

    Khairudin, Nazli Mohd; Mustapha, Aida; Ahmad, Mohd Hanif

    2014-01-01

    The advent of web-based applications and services has created such diverse and voluminous web log data stored in web servers, proxy servers, client machines, or organizational databases. This paper attempts to investigate the effect of temporal attribute in relational rule mining for web log data. We incorporated the characteristics of time in the rule mining process and analysed the effect of various temporal parameters. The rules generated from temporal relational rule mining are then compared against the rules generated from the classical rule mining approach such as the Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms. The results showed that by incorporating the temporal attribute via time, the number of rules generated is subsequently smaller but is comparable in terms of quality.

  5. Effect of Temporal Relationships in Associative Rule Mining for Web Log Data

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Khairudin, Nazli; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    The advent of web-based applications and services has created such diverse and voluminous web log data stored in web servers, proxy servers, client machines, or organizational databases. This paper attempts to investigate the effect of temporal attribute in relational rule mining for web log data. We incorporated the characteristics of time in the rule mining process and analysed the effect of various temporal parameters. The rules generated from temporal relational rule mining are then compared against the rules generated from the classical rule mining approach such as the Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms. The results showed that by incorporating the temporal attribute via time, the number of rules generated is subsequently smaller but is comparable in terms of quality. PMID:24587757

  6. Simple and accurate sum rules for highly relativistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, I consider the Bethe and Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rules, which together form the foundation of Bethe's theory of energy loss from fast charged particles to matter. For nonrelativistic target systems, the use of closure leads directly to simple expressions for these quantities. In the case of relativistic systems, on the other hand, the calculation of sum rules is fraught with difficulties. Various perturbative approaches have been used over the years to obtain relativistic corrections, but these methods fail badly when the system in question is very strongly bound. Here, I present an approach that leads to relatively simple expressions yielding accurate sums, even for highly relativistic many-electron systems. I also offer an explanation for the difference between relativistic and nonrelativistic sum rules in terms of the Zitterbewegung of the electrons.

  7. Fuzzification of ASAT's rule based aimpoint selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weight, Thomas H.

    1993-06-01

    The aimpoint algorithms being developed at Dr. Weight and Associates are based on the concept of fuzzy logic. This approach does not require a particular type of sensor data or algorithm type, but allows the user to develop a fuzzy logic algorithm based on existing aimpoint algorithms and models. This provides an opportunity for the user to upgrade an existing system design to achieve higher performance at minimal cost. Many projects have aimpoint algorithms which are based on 'crisp' logic rule based algorithms. These algorithms are sensitive to glint, corner reflectors, or intermittent thruster firings, and to uncertainties in the a priori estimates of angle of attack. If these projects are continued through to a demonstration involving a launch to hit a target, it is quite possible that the crisp logic approaches will need to be upgraded to handle these important error sources.

  8. Rule-based simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Seraphine, Kathleen M.

    1991-01-01

    Procedural modeling systems, rule based modeling systems, and a method for converting a procedural model to a rule based model are described. Simulation models are used to represent real time engineering systems. A real time system can be represented by a set of equations or functions connected so that they perform in the same manner as the actual system. Most modeling system languages are based on FORTRAN or some other procedural language. Therefore, they must be enhanced with a reaction capability. Rule based systems are reactive by definition. Once the engineering system has been decomposed into a set of calculations using only basic algebraic unary operations, a knowledge network of calculations and functions can be constructed. The knowledge network required by a rule based system can be generated by a knowledge acquisition tool or a source level compiler. The compiler would take an existing model source file, a syntax template, and a symbol table and generate the knowledge network. Thus, existing procedural models can be translated and executed by a rule based system. Neural models can be provide the high capacity data manipulation required by the most complex real time models.

  9. On Decision-Making Among Multiple Rule-Bases in Fuzzy Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward; Jamshidi, Mo

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent control of complex multi-variable systems can be a challenge for single fuzzy rule-based controllers. This class of problems cam often be managed with less difficulty by distributing intelligent decision-making amongst a collection of rule-bases. Such an approach requires that a mechanism be chosen to ensure goal-oriented interaction between the multiple rule-bases. In this paper, a hierarchical rule-based approach is described. Decision-making mechanisms based on generalized concepts from single-rule-based fuzzy control are described. Finally, the effects of different aggregation operators on multi-rule-base decision-making are examined in a navigation control problem for mobile robots.

  10. Age and School Experience as Factors in Rule Utilization: Use of a Simple Addition Rule. Final Report, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, L. R.

    This study attempted to investigate the effects of school experience on performance on visual perception tests involving line figures and forms. The subjects were 120 first grade students selected from two public schools in the same community. The experiment involved an Experimental Treatments X Age X Time of Testing factorial design. All subjects…

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  12. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  13. 75 FR 3886 - Amateur Service Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the amateur radio service rules to clarify certain rules and codify existing procedures governing the amateur service vanity call sign system, and to...

  14. Faculty Union Contracts: The New Organizational Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Harold I., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The recent expansion of collective bargaining among faculty unions has led to the establishment of new organizational rules. These new rules eliminate discretion, but unlike traditional rules imposed by superiors to control subordinates, collective bargaining initiates a different format for rule-making--formal joint determination. Collective…

  15. Integration rules for scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-09-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints fo any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  16. Reevaluating the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Collins, Mike

    2010-04-01

    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but further, the ethical principles which themselves justify the dead donor rule are better served by abandoning that rule and instead allowing individuals who have suffered severe and irreversible brain damage to become organ donors, even though they are not yet dead and even though the removal of their organs would be the proximal cause of death.

  17. 78 FR 60352 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... proposes to amend Rule 604 to exclude intra-day add-on series (``Intra-day Adds'') from the Market Makers' continuous quoting obligations on the day such series are added for trading. Additionally, the proposed rule... rule change seeks to exclude Intra-day Adds from these continuous quoting obligations. \\6\\...

  18. International Rules for Pre-College Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Science & the Public, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the rules and guidelines of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair 2011 to be held in Los Angeles, California in May 8-13, 2011. In addition to providing the rules of competition, these rules and guidelines for conducting research were developed to facilitate the following: (1) protect the rights and welfare of…

  19. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? In addition to the rules listed in Subparts...

  20. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? In addition to the rules listed in Subparts...

  1. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? In addition to the rules listed in Subparts...

  2. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? In addition to the rules listed in Subparts...

  3. 75 FR 17818 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... continued listing criteria under NYSE Amex Rule 1602 and that the Fund has represented to the Exchange that... interruption.\\17\\ \\15\\ See NYSE Amex Rule 1602 (a)(ii). \\16\\ See Notice, supra, note 3. \\17\\ See NYSE Amex Rule 1602(b)(ii). In addition, each of the Manager, the Commodity Broker, and the Commodity Sub-Advisor...

  4. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-02

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  5. Rule based classifier for the analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in genetic association studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several methods have been presented for the analysis of complex interactions between genetic polymorphisms and/or environmental factors. Despite the available methods, there is still a need for alternative methods, because no single method will perform well in all scenarios. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of three selected rule based classifier algorithms, RIPPER, RIDOR and PART, for the analysis of genetic association studies. Methods Overall, 42 datasets were simulated with three different case-control models, a varying number of subjects (300, 600), SNPs (500, 1500, 3000) and noise (5%, 10%, 20%). The algorithms were applied to each of the datasets with a set of algorithm-specific settings. Results were further investigated with respect to a) the Model, b) the Rules, and c) the Attribute level. Data analysis was performed using WEKA, SAS and PERL. Results The RIPPER algorithm discovered the true case-control model at least once in >33% of the datasets. The RIDOR and PART algorithm performed poorly for model detection. The RIPPER, RIDOR and PART algorithm discovered the true case-control rules in more than 83%, 83% and 44% of the datasets, respectively. All three algorithms were able to detect the attributes utilized in the respective case-control models in most datasets. Conclusions The current analyses substantiate the utility of rule based classifiers such as RIPPER, RIDOR and PART for the detection of gene-gene/gene-environment interactions in genetic association studies. These classifiers could provide a valuable new method, complementing existing approaches, in the analysis of genetic association studies. The methods provide an advantage in being able to handle both categorical and continuous variable types. Further, because the outputs of the analyses are easy to interpret, the rule based classifier approach could quickly generate testable hypotheses for additional evaluation. Since the algorithms are computationally

  6. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  7. Rules for clinical diagnosis in babies with ambiguous genitalia.

    PubMed

    Low, Y; Hutson, J M

    2003-08-01

    Intersex disorders are rare and complex; yet, in each case of genital ambiguity, accurate and expeditious management is required of the clinician. This article reviews the embryology of sexual differentiation, from which some 'rules' of diagnosis are derived. A simplified approach to the interpretation of clinical signs in ambiguous genitalia is presented and discussed.

  8. A Note On Deletion Rules in Fast Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett, Nigel

    In fast speech, certain segments pronounced in careful speech may be deleted. Rules of a generative phonology have been used to account for fast speech forms. An alternative approach is suggested which views fast speech deletions as merely limiting cases of segment reduction, under conditions of increased tempo and/or casualness. To complement…

  9. From Human Activity to Conceptual Understanding of the Chain Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jojo, Zingiswa Mybert Monica; Maharaj, Aneshkumar; Brijlall, Deonarain

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study which investigated first year university engineering students' construction of the definition of the concept of the chain rule in differential calculus at a University of Technology in South Africa. An APOS (Action-Process-Objects-Schema) approach was used to explore conceptual understanding displayed by students in…

  10. Parallel machine architecture for production rule systems

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Jr., John D.; Butler, Philip L.

    1989-01-01

    A parallel processing system for production rule programs utilizes a host processor for storing production rule right hand sides (RHS) and a plurality of rule processors for storing left hand sides (LHS). The rule processors operate in parallel in the recognize phase of the system recognize -Act Cycle to match their respective LHS's against a stored list of working memory elements (WME) in order to find a self consistent set of WME's. The list of WME is dynamically varied during the Act phase of the system in which the host executes or fires rule RHS's for those rules for which a self-consistent set has been found by the rule processors. The host transmits instructions for creating or deleting working memory elements as dictated by the rule firings until the rule processors are unable to find any further self-consistent working memory element sets at which time the production rule system is halted.

  11. A Short Note on Rules and Higher Order Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    This brief paper argues that structural analysis--an extended form of cognitive task analysis--demonstrates that both domain dependent and domain independent knowledge can be derived from specific content domains. It is noted that the major difference between the two is that lower order rules (specific knowledge) are derived directly from specific…

  12. Division rules for polygonal cells.

    PubMed

    Cowan, R; Morris, V B

    1988-03-07

    A number of fascinating mathematical problems concerning the division of two-dimensional space are formulated from questions about the planes of cell division in embryonic epithelia. Their solution aids in the quantitative description of cellular arrangement in epithelia. Cells, considered as polygons, site their division line according to stochastic rules, eventually forming a tessellation of the plane. The equilibrium distributions for the resulting mix of polygonal types are explored for a range of stochastic rules. We find surprising links with some classical distributions from the theory of probability.

  13. Flight Rules Critical Readiness Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E.; Knudsen, F.; Rice, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increment 23/24 Critical Readiness Review (CRR) flight rules are presented. The topics include: 1) B13-152 Acoustic Constraints; 2) B13-113 IFM/Corrective Action Prioritization Due to Loss of Exercise Capability; 3) B13-116 Constraints on Treadmill VIS Failure; 4) B13-201 Medical Management of ISS Fire/Smoke Response; 5) ARED and T2 Exercise constraints Flight rules (flight and stage specific); 6) FYI: B14 FR to be updated with requirement to sample crew sleep locations prior to receiving a "recommendation" from SRAG on where to sleep.

  14. Bilinearity, Rules, and Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Humans can be instructed verbally to perform computationally complex cognitive tasks; their performance then improves relatively slowly over the course of practice. Many skills underlie these abilities; in this paper, we focus on the particular question of a uniform architecture for the instantiation of habitual performance and the storage, recall, and execution of simple rules. Our account builds on models of gated working memory, and involves a bilinear architecture for representing conditional input-output maps and for matching rules to the state of the input and working memory. We demonstrate the performance of our model on two paradigmatic tasks used to investigate prefrontal and basal ganglia function. PMID:18946523

  15. Medical Qualification Determinations. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-01-18

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to revise its regulations for medical qualification determinations. The revised regulations update references and language; add and modify definitions; clarify coverage and applicability; address the need for medical documentation and medical examination and/or testing for an applicant or employee whose position may or may not have medical standards and/or physical requirements; and recommend the establishment of agency medical review boards. The final rule provides agencies guidance regarding medical evaluation procedures.

  16. Amendments to excepted benefits. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    This document contains final regulations that amend the regulations regarding excepted benefits under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, the Internal Revenue Code (the Code), and the Public Health Service Act. Excepted benefits are generally exempt from the health reform requirements that were added to those laws by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In addition, eligibility for excepted benefits does not preclude an individual from eligibility for a premium tax credit under section 36B of the Code if an individual chooses to enroll in coverage under a Qualified Health Plan through an Affordable Insurance Exchange. These regulations finalize some but not all of the proposed rules with minor modifications; additional guidance on limited wraparound coverage is forthcoming.

  17. Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings: Evidence from the US Acid Rain Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    The US Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate in allowance trading, and whether regulatory activity at the state level would further complicate utilities` decision to trade allowances. This paper finds that public utility commission regulation has encouraged allowance trading activity in states with regulatory rulings, but that allowance trading activity has not been limited to states issuing regulations. Until there is evidence suggesting that significant additional cost savings could have been obtained if additional allowance trading activity had occurred in states without regulations or that utilities in states with regulations are still not taking advantage of all cost saving trading opportunities, this analysis suggests that there is little reason to believe that allowance trading activity is impeded by public utility commission regulations.

  18. 47 CFR 22.817 - Additional channel policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional channel policies. 22.817 Section 22... Additional channel policies. The rules in this section govern the processing of applications for authority to operate a ground station transmitter on any ground station communication channel listed in § 22.805...

  19. Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR.

  20. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.