Science.gov

Sample records for address aging effects

  1. International Conference on Population Aging. Keynote address.

    PubMed

    Tabone, V

    1992-11-01

    This is the keynote address of H.E.Dr. Vincent Tabone, President of Malta, at the International Conference on Aging, which was held in San Diego in September 1992. He states that the conference celebrates the tenth anniversary of the Vienna International Plan of Action, and provides an opportunity to evaluate progress and plan future direction. Dr. Tabone, as Minister of Foreign Affairs, first introduced the question of aging at the UN General Assembly over twenty years ago; the United Nations Secretariat established its first program in the field of aging in 1970. At the World Assembly on Aging in 1982, all members adopted the International Plan of Action, which defined guidelines for policies and programs in support of the aging populations. As a direct result of this, and in support of the needs of developing countries, the UN signed an agreement with the government of Malta that established the International Institute on Aging as an autonomous body under the auspices of the UN; it is the major expression of the Vienna Plan of Action. Concern for aging populations has developed enough maturity and momentum to oversee its own progress. Although current events may relegate the social and economic implications of the aged to the sphere of rhetoric, they demand thinking in terms of generations and transcend all political boundaries. This conference will evaluate progress toward deflecting a situation where the elderly constitute an increasing proportion of the population, without adequate and appropriate provision for their livelihood, and could have direct bearing on encouraging and ensuring the continuity of the family's vital and traditional role in preserving the dignity, status, and well-being of its aging members. A nation which begrudges its dues to the elderly, the successful products of society and triumphs of life, denies its past. This conference is a reaffirmation of commitment to the United Nations Principles for Older Persons, an omen of the review of

  2. International Conference on Population Aging. Keynote address.

    PubMed

    Tabone, V

    1992-11-01

    This is the keynote address of H.E.Dr. Vincent Tabone, President of Malta, at the International Conference on Aging, which was held in San Diego in September 1992. He states that the conference celebrates the tenth anniversary of the Vienna International Plan of Action, and provides an opportunity to evaluate progress and plan future direction. Dr. Tabone, as Minister of Foreign Affairs, first introduced the question of aging at the UN General Assembly over twenty years ago; the United Nations Secretariat established its first program in the field of aging in 1970. At the World Assembly on Aging in 1982, all members adopted the International Plan of Action, which defined guidelines for policies and programs in support of the aging populations. As a direct result of this, and in support of the needs of developing countries, the UN signed an agreement with the government of Malta that established the International Institute on Aging as an autonomous body under the auspices of the UN; it is the major expression of the Vienna Plan of Action. Concern for aging populations has developed enough maturity and momentum to oversee its own progress. Although current events may relegate the social and economic implications of the aged to the sphere of rhetoric, they demand thinking in terms of generations and transcend all political boundaries. This conference will evaluate progress toward deflecting a situation where the elderly constitute an increasing proportion of the population, without adequate and appropriate provision for their livelihood, and could have direct bearing on encouraging and ensuring the continuity of the family's vital and traditional role in preserving the dignity, status, and well-being of its aging members. A nation which begrudges its dues to the elderly, the successful products of society and triumphs of life, denies its past. This conference is a reaffirmation of commitment to the United Nations Principles for Older Persons, an omen of the review of

  3. Address by Dr. Robert N. Butler, Director, National Institute on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert N.

    This address by the Director of the National Institute on Aging is a plea for the recognition of the necessity of fundamental research on the aging process. It cautions that new scientific discoveries need to be evaluated more carefully before they are used on humans, and warns that the effects of drugs and treatments on older people may vary from…

  4. Teaching Writing in a Digital Age: Addressing Issues of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrill, Brittany B.

    2010-01-01

    The way people write and communicate has changed both inside and outside the university, and because of this writing instructors are professionally responsible for addressing these changes in the classroom. Technologies have affected writing for thousands of years. From the invention of the printing press to the Internet, challenges to writing…

  5. Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

  6. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  7. New VLT Observations Address the Age of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    First Detailed Spectra of White Dwarf Stars in a Globular Cluster Recent observations with the FORS1 instrument at the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (ANTU) by an international group of astronomers [1] have resulted in crucial new information about some small and faint stars within an old star cluster in the Milky Way. Thanks to the enormous light gathering power and, not least, the excellent optical quality of ANTU , it was possible for the first time to obtain detailed spectra of several very faint stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397 . Earlier images with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) hinted that they might be White Dwarf Stars (WDs) , i.e. Earth-size, hot and extremely dense stars that represent the end products of the evolution of stars like the Sun. The VLT spectra confirmed this classification and, even more important, have also permitted a first determination of the stellar spectral type, temperature and surface gravity, as well as the mass of four WDs in NGC 6397 . In particular, the astronomers learned that the brightest of the four observed WDs has a mass of about 0.35 solar masses, much lower than the mean mass of 0.55 - 0.65 solar masses that is typical for local white dwarfs. Distance and age determinations This means that the precise distance determination to a globular cluster, from a comparison of its WD stars to more nearby WDs with well-known masses and distances, will now be possible, provided the individual properties of the cluster WDs are well determined from such spectroscopic observations [2]. The mass strongly influences the brightness of a WD and comparing a low-mass globular cluster WD to a more massive local WD would underestimate the distance to the globular cluster. As these stars are very faint, the spectroscopic observations required for their analysis are very difficult and can only be done with large telescopes like the VLT. Accurate distances to the globular clusters allow to determine their age accurately. Milky Way

  8. The Arkansas Aging Initiative: An Innovative Approach for Addressing the Health of Older Rural Arkansans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Claudia J.; McAtee, Robin E.; Chernoff, Ronni; Davis, Gwynn V.; Jones, Susan K.; Lipschitz, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock is addressing one of the most pressing policy issues facing the United States: how to care for the burgeoning number of older adults. In 2001, the Institute created the Arkansas Aging Initiative, which established seven satellite centers on…

  9. Virtual reality applications for addressing the needs of those aging with disability.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Requejo, Phil; Winstein, Carolee J; Lange, Belinda; Ragusa, Gisele; Merians, Alma; Patton, James; Banerjee, Pat; Aisen, Mindy

    2011-01-01

    As persons with disabilities age, progressive declines in health and medical status can challenge the adaptive resources required to maintain functional independence and quality of life [1]. These challenges are further compounded by economic factors, medication side effects, loss of a spouse or caregiver, and psychosocial disorders [1-2]. With the gradual loss of functional independence and increased reliance on others for transportation, access to general medical and rehabilitation care can be jeopardized [2]. The combination of these factors when seen in the context of the average increase in lifespan in industrialized societies has lead to a growing crisis that is truly global in proportion. While research indicates that functional motor capacity can be improved, maintained, or recovered via consistent participation in a motor exercise and rehabilitation regimen [3], independent adherence to such preventative and/or rehabilitative programming outside the clinic setting is notoriously low [1]. This state of affairs has produced a compelling and ethical motivation to address the needs of individuals who are aging with disabilities by promoting home-based access to low-cost, interactive virtual reality (VR) systems designed to engage and motivate individuals to participate with "game"-driven physical activities and rehabilitation programming. The creation of such systems could serve to enhance, maintain and rehabilitate the sensorimotor processes that are needed to maximize independence and quality of life. This is the theme of the research to be presented at this MMVR workshop. PMID:21335848

  10. Effect of Mailing Address Style on Survey Response Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookingham, Frank G.

    This study determined the effect of using mailing labels prepared by a letter-quality computer printer on survey response rate. D. A. Dillman's personalization approach to conducting mail surveys suggests that envelopes with addresses typed directly on them may produce a higher response rate than envelopes with addresses typed on self-adhesive…

  11. Addressing risk factors of cognitive impairment in adults aging with HIV: a social work model.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; Struzick, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    With advances in life-extending medications and later- life infections, the number of older adults with HIV is increasing. Unfortunately, the synergistic effects of aging with HIV may place many people at risk of developing cognitive impairments which can disrupt everyday functioning. Fortunately, cognitive reserve may be maintained, or in some cases improved, by taking action to prevent or mitigate such loss. Preventative and treatment strategies that support biopsychosocial aspects of cognition include reducing alcohol and substance use; improving nutrition; diminishing the effects of comorbidities; increasing social contact; reducing depression and stress levels; engaging in cognitively stimulating activities; applying cognitive remediation therapies; and incorporating psychopharmacological interventions. Such strategies can improve the physiological integrity and health of the brain, thus supporting neuroplasticity and increasing cognitive reserve. Social workers are in a favorable position to recognize cognitive decline in clients and recommend or administer solutions to address such problems. A model for social workers advocating for older clients with HIV who have cognitive problems is provided. PMID:17953062

  12. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  13. School nurses can address existing gaps in school-age sleep research.

    PubMed

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2013-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue. PMID:23054101

  14. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chockie, Alan; Bjorkelo, Kenneth

    A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence of maintenance programs on addressing the system and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. Four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management were identified: (1) the selection of critical systems and components; (2) the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; (3) the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; and (4) the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations.

  15. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708

  16. Effectively addressing addiction requires changing the language of addiction.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2014-02-01

    Public knowledge and attitudes about addiction are largely inconsistent with scientific evidence. The gap between the facts and public and professional perceptions is due in part to the language used to describe the disease and those who have it. A key step in modifying public attitudes and improving how health professionals and policymakers address addiction is to better align the language of addiction with the scientific evidence. Unless we clarify the language, those with the disease will continue to experience the stigma associated with it and attempts to deliver comprehensive and effective evidence-based prevention, treatment, and disease management will be profoundly compromised. PMID:24226552

  17. Addressing questions about including environmental effects in the DMSO HLA

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is developing a High Level Architecture (HLA) to support the DOD Modeling and Simulation (M and S) community. Many, if not all, of the simulations involve the environment in some fashion. In some applications, the simulation takes place in an acknowledged environment without any environmental functionality being taken into account. The Joint Training Federation Prototype (JTFp) is one of several prototype efforts that have been created to provide a test of the DMSO HLA. In addition to addressing the applicability of the HLA to a training community, the JTFp is also one of two prototype efforts that is explicitly including environmental effects in their simulation effort. These two prototyping efforts are examining the issues associated with the inclusion of the environment in an HLA federation. In deciding whether or not to include an environmental federation in the JTFp effort, a number of questions have been raised about the environment and the HLA. These questions have raised the issue of incompatibility between the environment and the HLA and also shown that there is something unique about including the environment in simulations. The purpose of this White Paper, which was developed with inputs from the National Air and Space [Warfare] Model Program among others, is to address the various questions that have been posed about including environmental effects in an HLA simulation.

  18. Addressing the Need for School Age Child Care: A Guide for Philadelphia Elementary School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintzer, Janet L.

    The Delaware Valley Child Care Council (DVCCC) developed this booklet to help Philadelphia school principals plan and develop privately run after-school centers in their schools. First, an executive summary documents the need for school-age day care nationwide and in the Philadelphia area. Section I offers guidance on planning a school-age child…

  19. Aging Effects in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Chistos C.; McManus, Hugh L.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of composites degradation due to aging are described. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. Aging effects at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are evaluated, to determine failure of any kind. The results obtained show substantial ply stress built up as a result of aging accompanied by comparable laminate strength degradation in matrix dominated composite strengths.

  20. Food fortification for addressing iron deficiency in Filipino children: benefits and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Detzel, Patrick; Wieser, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional disorders in both developing and industrialized countries, making it a global public health concern. Anemia, mainly due to iron deficiency, affects one third of the world's population and is concentrated in women and children below 5 years of age. Iron deficiency anemia has a profound impact on human health and productivity, and the effects of iron deficiency are especially pronounced in the first 1,000 days of life. This critical window of time sets the stage for an individual's future physiological and cognitive health, underscoring the importance of addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children. This review focuses on the use of fortified foods as a cost-effective tool for addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children in the Philippines.

  1. School Nurses Can Address Existing Gaps in School-Age Sleep Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers,…

  2. Addressing the Myths and Realities of Age in a Russian Theatre Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailova, Anna

    1994-01-01

    Reports on an extensive study conducted with 10- to 12-year-old children in 3 Moscow schools to determine their aesthetic perceptions and comprehension of layers of metaphoric meanings in the Leningrad Theatre for Young Spectators' production of "Bambi." Shows that metaphoric comprehension decreases within this age group, countering the myth that…

  3. [Violence in old age: the issue addressed in indexed national journals].

    PubMed

    de Castro, Anúbes Pereira; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Sousa, Eduardo Sérgio Soares; Marcondes, Willer Baumgarten

    2013-05-01

    One of the consequences of increased life expectancy is the increase in the elderly population in many countries, including Brazil. Considering the vulnerability of this age group and the increasing prevalence of violence against the elderly, there is a pressing need for research and control interventions to minimize the phenomenon. This exploratory and descriptive article conducts an analysis into this topic in indexed Brazilian studies in SciELO, with special emphasis on the last five years. The themes were categorized into: Social construction and conceptualizations, 37.5%; Elderly Care and Protection Policies, 43.75%; and Typology of violence against the elderly, 18.75%. The results show that the Policy of protection of the elderly permeates the majority of discussions about violence in old age and the focus of the researchers' attention is on domestic violence, which needs to be broadened in field research.

  4. Effects of Age and Age-Related Hearing Loss on the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Kelly; Ross, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    It is well documented that aging adversely affects the ability to perceive time-varying acoustic cues. Here we review how physiological measures are being used to explore the effects of aging (and concomitant hearing loss) on the neural representation of temporal cues. Also addressed are the implications of current research findings on the…

  5. Strategies for addressing bullying with the school-age child who stutters.

    PubMed

    Murphy, William P; Quesal, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    This article outlines basic principles for helping school-age children who stutter to deal with bullying. Bullying may affect children's school performance and feelings of self-worth and lead to depression and feelings of helplessness and loneliness. Bullying can also exacerbate stuttering behavior, increase negative emotions and negative thoughts, and reduce therapy progress. A variety of techniques can be implemented as part of the overall treatment process to help children deal with bullying. These techniques can improve children's overall success in treatment by helping them develop socially appropriate responses to bullying, reduce or prevent negative emotion that may result from stuttering, and feel more comfortable in applying speech management skills learned in treatment. PMID:12207277

  6. Addressing healthy aging populations in developing countries: unlocking the opportunity of eHealth and mHealth.

    PubMed

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Losa, Juan; Miranda, J Jaime; Cheyne, Natalie E

    2014-01-01

    Aging societies worldwide propose a significant challenge to the model and organisation of the delivery of healthcare services. In developing countries, communicable and non-communicable diseases are affecting how the ageing population access healthcare; this could be due to varying reasons such as geographical barriers, limited financial support and poor literacy. New information and communication technology, such as eHealth have the potential to improve access to healthcare, information exchange and improving public and personalised medicine for elderly groups. In this article we will first frame the context of information and communication technologies in light of an aging landscape. We will also discuss the problems related to implementing the needed infrastructure for uptake of new technology, with particular emphasis on developing countries. In so doing, we highlight areas where newer technologies can serve as promising tools or vehicles to address health and healthcare-related gaps and needs of elderly people living in resource-constrained settings.

  7. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-12-31

    The public`s perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company`s community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance.

  8. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  9. Addressing intimate partner violence and sexual violence among adolescents: emerging evidence of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Rebecka; Amin, Avni

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) are widespread among adolescents and place them on a lifelong trajectory of violence, either as victims or perpetrators. The aim of this review was to identify effective approaches to prevent adolescent IPV and SV and to identify critical knowledge gaps. The interventions reviewed in this article reflect the global focus on interventions addressing violence perpetrated by men against women in the context of heterosexual relationships. Interventions for girls and boys (10-19 years) were identified through electronic searches for peer-reviewed and gray literature such as reports and research briefs. Studies were excluded if they were published before 1990 or did not disaggregate participants and results by age. Programs were classified as "effective," "emerging," "ineffective," or "unclear" based on the strength of evidence, generalizability of results to developing country settings, and replication beyond the initial pilot. Programs were considered "effective" if they were evaluated with well-designed studies, which controlled for threats to validity through randomization of participants. A review of 142 articles and documents yielded 61 interventions, which aimed to prevent IPV and SV among adolescents. These were categorized as "parenting" (n = 8), "targeted interventions for children and adolescents subjected to maltreatment" (n = 3), "school based" (n = 31; including 10 interventions to prevent sexual assault among university students), "community based" (n = 16), and "economic empowerment" (n = 2). The rigor of the evaluations varies greatly. A good number have relatively weak research designs, short follow-up periods, and low or unreported retention rates. Overall, there is a lack of robust standardized measures for behavioral outcomes. Three promising approaches emerge. First, school-based dating violence interventions show considerable success. However, they have only been implemented in high

  10. Addressing intimate partner violence and sexual violence among adolescents: emerging evidence of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Rebecka; Amin, Avni

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) are widespread among adolescents and place them on a lifelong trajectory of violence, either as victims or perpetrators. The aim of this review was to identify effective approaches to prevent adolescent IPV and SV and to identify critical knowledge gaps. The interventions reviewed in this article reflect the global focus on interventions addressing violence perpetrated by men against women in the context of heterosexual relationships. Interventions for girls and boys (10-19 years) were identified through electronic searches for peer-reviewed and gray literature such as reports and research briefs. Studies were excluded if they were published before 1990 or did not disaggregate participants and results by age. Programs were classified as "effective," "emerging," "ineffective," or "unclear" based on the strength of evidence, generalizability of results to developing country settings, and replication beyond the initial pilot. Programs were considered "effective" if they were evaluated with well-designed studies, which controlled for threats to validity through randomization of participants. A review of 142 articles and documents yielded 61 interventions, which aimed to prevent IPV and SV among adolescents. These were categorized as "parenting" (n = 8), "targeted interventions for children and adolescents subjected to maltreatment" (n = 3), "school based" (n = 31; including 10 interventions to prevent sexual assault among university students), "community based" (n = 16), and "economic empowerment" (n = 2). The rigor of the evaluations varies greatly. A good number have relatively weak research designs, short follow-up periods, and low or unreported retention rates. Overall, there is a lack of robust standardized measures for behavioral outcomes. Three promising approaches emerge. First, school-based dating violence interventions show considerable success. However, they have only been implemented in high

  11. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    PubMed

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-01-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. Associations between Changes in City and Address Specific Temperature and QT Interval - The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amar J.; Kloog, Itai; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Background The underlying mechanisms of the association between ambient temperature and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well understood, particularly for daily temperature variability. We evaluated if daily mean temperature and standard deviation of temperature was associated with heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) duration, a marker of ventricular repolarization in a prospective cohort of older men. Methods This longitudinal analysis included 487 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with up to three visits between 2000–2008 (n = 743). We analyzed associations between QTc and moving averages (1–7, 14, 21, and 28 days) of the 24-hour mean and standard deviation of temperature as measured from a local weather monitor, and the 24-hour mean temperature estimated from a spatiotemporal prediction model, in time-varying linear mixed-effect regression. Effect modification by season, diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, and age was also evaluated. Results Higher mean temperature as measured from the local monitor, and estimated from the prediction model, was associated with longer QTc at moving averages of 21 and 28 days. Increased 24-hr standard deviation of temperature was associated with longer QTc at moving averages from 4 and up to 28 days; a 1.9°C interquartile range increase in 4-day moving average standard deviation of temperature was associated with a 2.8 msec (95%CI: 0.4, 5.2) longer QTc. Associations between 24-hr standard deviation of temperature and QTc were stronger in colder months, and in participants with diabetes and coronary heart disease. Conclusion/Significance In this sample of older men, elevated mean temperature was associated with longer QTc, and increased variability of temperature was associated with longer QTc, particularly during colder months and among individuals with diabetes and coronary heart disease. These findings may offer insight of an important underlying mechanism of temperature

  13. Age versus Schooling Effects on Intelligence Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Cohen, Nora

    1989-01-01

    A study of effects of age and schooling in grades five and six on raw scores from a variety of general ability tests found that schooling: (1) is the major factor underlying the increase of intelligence test scores as a function of age; and (2) has a larger effect on verbal than nonverbal tests. (RH)

  14. 75 FR 63764 - Hearing Aid Compatibility Proceeding; Request That Comments Address Effects of New Legislation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... to the rules governing hearing aid compatibility of mobile handsets. 75 FR 54546 (Sept. 8, 2010... of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 20 Hearing Aid Compatibility Proceeding; Request That Comments Address Effects of...

  15. Evaluation of cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address total trihalomethane (TTHM) compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  16. Combining Temporal-Envelope Cues across Channels: Effects of Age and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Pamela E.; Boike, Kumiko T.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the ability to combine temporal-envelope information across frequency channels. Three areas were addressed: (a) the effects of hearing loss, (b) the effects of age and (c) whether such effects increase with the number of frequency channels. Twenty adults aged 23-80 years with hearing loss ranging from mild to…

  17. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  18. Aging and Radiation Effects in Stockpile Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E.F.

    1999-03-25

    It is likely that aging is affecting the radiation hardness of stockpile electronics, and we have seen apparent examples of aging that affects the electronic radiation hardness. It is also possible that low-level intrinsic radiation that is inherent during stockpile life will damage or in a sense age electronic components. Both aging and low level radiation effects on radiation hardness and stockpile reliability need to be further investigated by using both test and modeling strategies that include appropriate testing of electronic components withdrawn from the stockpile.

  19. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

  20. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Effects of Aging on ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  1. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events. PMID:22185072

  2. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events.

  3. Role of the nurse in addressing the health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Benny

    Climate change affects the social and environmental determinants of health such as clean air, sufficient food, safe drinking water and secure shelter, and may be considered a threat to health. Healthcare professionals have been called to take action on carbon reduction. Action depends on various factors such as personal commitment to environmental issues and professionals' understanding of climate change, and action may occur at individual, organisational, community, national and international levels. As public health is a core component of the nurse's role, this article discusses the health effects of climate change and suggests ways to address these effects.

  4. When ageing meets the blues: Are current antidepressants effective in depressed aged patients?

    PubMed

    Felice, Daniela; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Gardier, Alain M; Sánchez, Connie; David, Denis J

    2015-08-01

    "I had to wait 110 years to become famous. I wanted to enjoy it as long as possible.", Jeanne Louise Calment (1875-1997). This review summarizes current knowledge of the effects of antidepressant drugs in elderly patients (double-blind placebo (n=27) or active comparator-controlled clinical trials (n=21) indexed in Pubmed in depressed patients aged ≥60) and in aged mice (≥9 months) and middle-aged rats (≥14 months) on depression-related symptoms and cognitive performances. Finally, other potential therapeutic targets for treating depression-related disorders in elderly patients are also addressed (neurogenesis, GABAB receptor, 5-HT4 receptor, mTOR signaling). Overall, the very few published preclinical studies (n=12 in total) in middle-aged and aged rodents seem to suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be less effective than tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCAs) in ameliorating depression-like behavior and cognitive functions. On the other hand, results from clinical trials suggest that there is not a marked difference in efficacy and safety profiles of current marketed classes of antidepressant drugs.

  5. Potential effects of raising Medicare's eligibility age.

    PubMed

    Waidmann, T A

    1998-01-01

    Recent fiscal pressures on Medicare and an already enacted increase in Social Security's normal retirement age have generated discussion of raising Medicare's age of entitlement. This DataWatch examines potential impacts of raising Medicare's eligibility age to sixty-seven on public-sector health spending and individual insurance coverage. The proposed increase would affect a substantial fraction of beneficiaries without having a commensurate effect on expenditures, even in the long run. It is estimated that if the eligibility age were sixty-seven, upwards of 500,000 persons ages sixty-five and sixty-six would be left without any insurance, and even more would not be able to afford coverage with benefits similar to those of Medicare. PMID:9558794

  6. Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in an after School Program Classroom: The Effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorvey, Zamecia J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to address behavior discipline problems in special and general education setting classrooms. Disruptive behaviors are a major concern as they create excessive stress and demands for classroom teachers and school administrators to address them. Effective interventions are needed to properly address them. Moreover, classroom…

  7. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  8. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Laura K; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  9. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Gore, M S

    1997-07-01

    In India, data from the decennial censuses have been the catalyst that has led researchers to identify social policy needs and craft programs to lower overall mortality rates, infant mortality rates, and fertility rates. A new demographic phenomenon that is being exposed by the data is the increase in life expectancy that will see large numbers of individuals surviving 15-20 years beyond age 60. This increased life expectancy will lead to an increased old age dependency ratio and will require reexamination of the issue of resources to meet the needs of the elderly. These needs are social and psychological as well as physical. Research is needed to predict the initial consequences of population aging within different states. International comparisons within the Asian region will also foster identification of effective policies. Research is also needed to identify whether longevity is tied to higher educational and socioeconomic status in order to improve life expectancy among low-income groups. Another aspect that requires consideration is that most elderly women will likely survive their husbands. This means that they will be available to care for their husbands but will have to depend upon their children to care for them. The possible demographic diversity in the experience of aging among various states and classes and between the genders may be of special interest to researchers. PMID:12293130

  10. A model for meteoritic and lunar 40Ar/39Ar age spectra: Addressing the conundrum of multi-activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnke, P.; Harrison, T. Mark; Heizler, M. T.; Warren, P. H.

    2016-11-01

    Results of whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analyses of extra-terrestrial materials have been used to constrain the timing of impacts in the inner solar system, solidification of the lunar magma ocean, and development of planetary magnetic fields. Despite the importance of understanding these events, the samples we have in hand are non-ideal due to mixed provenance, isotopic disturbances from potentially multiple heating episodes, and laboratory artifacts such as nuclear recoil. Although models to quantitatively assess multi-domain, diffusive 40Ar* loss have long been applied to terrestrial samples, their use on extra-terrestrial materials has been limited. Here we introduce a multi-activation energy, multi-diffusion domain model and apply it to 40Ar/39Ar temperature-cycling, step-heating data for meteoritic and lunar samples. We show that age spectra of extra-terrestrial materials, the Jilin chondrite (K-4) and Apollo 16 lunar breccia (67514 , 43), yielding seemingly non-ideal behavior commonly interpreted as either laboratory artifacts or localized shock heating of pyroxene, are meaningful and can be understood in context of the presence of multi-diffusion domains containing multiple activation energies. Internally consistent results from both the meteoritic and lunar samples reveal high-temperature/short duration thermal episodes we interpret as due to moderate shock heating.

  11. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered.

  12. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered. PMID:27565189

  13. [False memories and aging: age effects on predictive inferences].

    PubMed

    Gras, Doriane; Tardieu, Hubert; Nicolas, Serge

    2008-12-01

    To study false memories in older adults, a lot of experiments used the DRM paradigm (Deese, Roediger et McDermott). Most of the time, the results showed that older adults make more false memories than young adults. To test this hypothesis with a more ecological material, we used a situation of text reading. When we read a text, we activate predictive inferences, which are anticipations of what will happen next. We constructed short texts inducing predictive inferences (represented by a target word not presented) to study false memories in young and older adults. For example, in the text , the target word "sting" is not presented but represents the predictive inference. After the reading of the texts, we propose to the subjects a restitution task consisting in recalling texts with the first sentence as clue. Then, they made a recognition task composed of target words and lures; they had to say if they remembered having read these words in the texts. In these two tasks, the subjects tended to remember not presented target words, creating false memories. This effect was the same for the two age groups showing that, in an ecological situation like text reading, older persons make as many false memories as young adults. PMID:19087911

  14. Tritium Aging Effects in Palladium on Kieselguhr

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.L.; Holder, J.S.; Wermer, J.R.

    1998-10-01

    50 weight % Pd on kieselguhr (Pd/k) is used in hydrogen isotope separation processes at the Savannah River Site. Long term aging studies on this material were undertaken in June, 1992. P-c-T data showing the aging effect of tritium loading for long periods will be presented and discussed covering from June, 1992 to March, 1997. Lowering of plateau pressures and increasing indications of in homogeneities have been observed in both tritium and deuterium absorption isotherms at 0 C, and desorption isotherms at 80 and 120 C.

  15. Effective target binarization method for linear timed address-event vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiangtao; Zou, Jiawei; Yan, Shi; Gao, Zhiyuan

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an effective target binarization method for a linear timed address-event (TAE) vision system. In the preprocessing phase, TAE data are processed by denoising, thinning, and edge connection methods sequentially to obtain the denoised- and clear-event contours. Then, the object region will be confirmed by an event-pair matching method. Finally, the image open and close operations of morphology methods are introduced to remove the artifacts generated by event-pair mismatching. Several degraded images were processed by our method and some traditional binarization methods, and the experimental results are provided. As compared with other methods, the proposed method performs efficiently on extracting the target region and gets satisfactory binarization results from object images with low-contrast and nonuniform illumination.

  16. Electrochemical aging effects in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, G. R.

    Leakage currents were experimentally measured in PV modules undergoing natural aging outdoors, and in PV modules undergoing accelerated aging in laboratory environmental chambers. The significant contributors to module leakage current were identified with a long range goal to develop techniques to reduce or stop module leakage currents. For outdoor aging in general, module leakage current is relatively insensitive to temperature fluctuations, but is very sensitive to moisture effects such as dew, precipitation, and fluctuations in relative humidity. Comparing ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB), module leakage currents are much higher in PVB as compared to EVA for all environmental conditions investigated. Leakage currents proceed in series along two paths, bulk conduction followed by interfacial (surfaces) conduction.

  17. Effectiveness of a parenting program in Bangladesh to address early childhood health, growth and development.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Singla, Daisy R; Nahil, Md Imam; Borisova, Ivelina

    2013-11-01

    A stratified cluster design was used to evaluate a 10-month parenting program delivered to mothers of children in rural Bangladesh. Intervention mothers through a combination of group meetings and home visits received messages along with an illustrative card concerning hygiene, responsive feeding, play, communication, gentle discipline, and nutritious foods. Control mothers received the standard government care. Three months prior, 463 children between 4 and 14 months in a subdistrict of western Bangladesh were administered the cognitive, receptive language and expressive language Bayley III subtests, their length was taken and past week illness recorded. Gross motor milestones were reported by the mother and verified through observation. Mothers were interviewed concerning their practices: preventive health practices, dietary diversity, home stimulation, and knowledge about development milestones. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed as a measure of emotional availability. Family sociodemographic variables included maternal education, family assets, decision-making and mobility autonomy. One month after the end of the program, mothers and their children were again assessed. Comparisons were made between intervention and control children who were under-12 months vs. 12 months and older at the start of the program. This may be a critical age, when children begin to be upright and mobile enough to explore on their own and be less dependent on parenting stimulation. Analyses yielded strong intervention effects on the three Bayley subtests and on parenting practices related to stimulation and knowledge of development milestones. Age effects were found only for dietary diversity in that younger children in the program benefited more than older ones. However, all children became more stunted. Findings are discussed in terms of theories of behaviour change and parenting, critical ages for parenting programs, and implications for program delivery.

  18. Effectiveness of a parenting program in Bangladesh to address early childhood health, growth and development.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Singla, Daisy R; Nahil, Md Imam; Borisova, Ivelina

    2013-11-01

    A stratified cluster design was used to evaluate a 10-month parenting program delivered to mothers of children in rural Bangladesh. Intervention mothers through a combination of group meetings and home visits received messages along with an illustrative card concerning hygiene, responsive feeding, play, communication, gentle discipline, and nutritious foods. Control mothers received the standard government care. Three months prior, 463 children between 4 and 14 months in a subdistrict of western Bangladesh were administered the cognitive, receptive language and expressive language Bayley III subtests, their length was taken and past week illness recorded. Gross motor milestones were reported by the mother and verified through observation. Mothers were interviewed concerning their practices: preventive health practices, dietary diversity, home stimulation, and knowledge about development milestones. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed as a measure of emotional availability. Family sociodemographic variables included maternal education, family assets, decision-making and mobility autonomy. One month after the end of the program, mothers and their children were again assessed. Comparisons were made between intervention and control children who were under-12 months vs. 12 months and older at the start of the program. This may be a critical age, when children begin to be upright and mobile enough to explore on their own and be less dependent on parenting stimulation. Analyses yielded strong intervention effects on the three Bayley subtests and on parenting practices related to stimulation and knowledge of development milestones. Age effects were found only for dietary diversity in that younger children in the program benefited more than older ones. However, all children became more stunted. Findings are discussed in terms of theories of behaviour change and parenting, critical ages for parenting programs, and implications for program delivery. PMID:23871435

  19. Elements of Effective Interventions for Addressing Intimate Partner Violence in Latina Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen P.; Davidson, Patricia M.; Fleming, Christina; Glass, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence remains a global problem and is of particular concern in Latina diasporas. Aim To identify effective elements of interventions to address intimate partner violence in Latina women. Method The systematic review was undertaken according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We focused the search on intervention studies assessing intimate partner violence as an outcome measure and on publications in English and Spanish from the last 11 years (2004–2015). Results Despite the scope of the problem, from the 1,274 studies screened only four met the search criteria and only a single study included an exclusive Latino population. Of the four interventions, one was only as effective as the control treatment. Heterogeneity of study populations and designs prohibited meta-analytic methods. Conclusions Theoretically derived interventions that are gender specific, culturally appropriate, target mutual aid through group dynamics, and that are developed collaboratively with the target population are likely to be most effective. PMID:27504833

  20. Biological effects of rutin on skin aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Jin; Lee, Sung-Nae; Kim, Karam; Joo, Da Hye; Shin, Shanghun; Lee, Jeongju; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jihyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; Kim, Min Jung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2016-07-01

    Rutin, a quercetin glycoside is a member of the bioflavonoid family which is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the anti‑aging effects of rutin on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and human skin. We examined the effects of rutin using a cell viability assay, senescence-associated-β-galactosidase assay, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in vitro. To examine the effects of rutin in vivo, rutin‑containing cream was applied to human skin. A double-blind clinical study was conducted in 40 subjects aged between 30-50 years and divided into control and experimental groups. The test material was applied for 4 weeks. After 2 and 4 weeks, dermal density, skin elasticity, the length and area of crow's feet, and number of under-eye wrinkles following the application of either the control or the rutin-containing cream were analyzed. Rutin increased the mRNA expression of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) and decreased the mRNA expression of matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1) in HDFs. We verified that ROS scavenging activity was stimulated by rutin in a dose‑dependent manner and we identified that rutin exerted protective effects under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, rutin increased skin elasticity and decreased the length, area and number of wrinkles. The consequences of human aging are primarily visible on the skin, such as increased wrinkling, sagging and decreased elasticity. Overall, this study demonstrated the biological effects of rutin on ROS-induced skin aging. PMID:27220601

  1. Short-Term Effects of Traditional and Alternative Community Interventions to Address Food Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Roncarolo, Federico; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    offer short term reprise from the effects of food insecurity, the question as to whether food banks are the most appropriate solution to food insecurity still needs to be addressed. PMID:26974826

  2. Characterizing mechanical effects of aging damage

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, T.D.; Chen, S.P.; Schoonover, J.R.; Trent, B.C.; Howe, P.M.; Hjelm, R.P.; Browning, R.V.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal was to develop and apply several different experimental and theoretical/computational tools to better understand physical and chemical aging phenomena in plastic-bonded high explosives, and to develop a methodology for predicting the likely effects of aging on the mechanical properties of the composite based on input from these fundamental studies. Initial comparisons were done for spectra of fresh and aged Esane, as well as PBX-9501, and the authors found differences in the carbonyl region of the spectrum, which possibly reflect differences in hydrogen bonding due to aging phenomena. The micromechanical model of composites was extended to study various volume fractions of HMX with binders. The results showed that, as the binder fraction increases, there is a decrease in the maximum stress that can be supported but an increase in the percent strain at final fracture. A more realistic microstructural model was obtained through the use of a phase field model. Using this model, the authors have studied the microstructural evolution as a function of the grain boundary energy vs. misorientation relationship. The initial results indicate that there are some changes in the grain growth rate when the grain-boundary energy dependence on the angle is not constant. They also find that solute tends to segregate at the grain boundary and slows the grain growth kinetics.

  3. Updating misconceptions: effects of age and confidence.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Anderson, Nicole D

    2013-06-01

    Young adults are more likely to correct an initial higher confidence error than a lower confidence error (Butterfield & Metcalfe, 2001). This hypercorrection effect has never been investigated among older adults, although features of the standard paradigm (free recall, metacognitive judgments) and prior evidence of age-related error resolution deficits (see Clare & Jones, 2008) suggest that they may not show this effect. In Study 1, we used free recall and a 7-point confidence scale; in Study 2, we used multiple-choice questions, and participants indicated how many alternatives they had narrowed their options down to prior to answering. In both studies, younger and older adults showed a hypercorrection effect, and this effect was equivalent between groups in Study 2 when free recall and explicit confidence ratings were not required. These results are consistent with our previous work (Cyr & Anderson, 2012) showing that older adults can successfully resolve learning errors when the learning context provides sufficient support.

  4. Addressing the potential adverse effects of school-based BMI assessments on children's wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Lisa; O'Connor, Thea; Waters, Elizabeth; Booth, Michael; Walsh, Orla; Green, Julie; Bartlett, Jenny; Swinburn, Boyd

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Do child obesity prevention research and intervention measures have the potential to generate adverse concerns about body image by focussing on food, physical activity and body weight? Research findings now demonstrate the emergence of body image concerns in children as young as 5 years. In the context of a large school-community-based child health promotion and obesity prevention study, we aimed to address the potential negative effects of height and weight measures on child wellbeing by developing and implementing an evidence-informed protocol to protect and prevent body image concerns. fun 'n healthy in Moreland! is a cluster randomised controlled trial of a child health promotion and obesity prevention intervention in 23 primary schools in an inner urban area of Melbourne, Australia. Body image considerations were incorporated into the study philosophies, aims, methods, staff training, language, data collection and reporting procedures of this study. This was informed by the published literature, professional body image expertise, pilot testing and implementation in the conduct of baseline data collection and the intervention. This study is the first record of a body image protection protocol being an integral part of the research processes of a child obesity prevention study. Whilst we are yet to measure its impact and outcome, we have developed and tested a protocol based on the evidence and with support from stakeholders in order to minimise the adverse impact of study processes on child body image concerns.

  5. The challenge of effectively addressing tobacco control within a health promoting NHS Trust.

    PubMed

    Quinn, J; Sengupta, S; Cleary, H

    2001-12-15

    As part of its participation in the international network of health promoting hospitals (HPH), South Tyneside Health Care NHS Trust has initiated a series of sub-projects that are informed by the contemporary evidence-base and the principles of the HPH programme. This paper concerns the first of these sub-projects, whose aim is to establish an equitable and effective Trust-wide system to address smoking in South Tyneside. The ambition is to build a framework for, and foster a culture within which, individuals will be treated considerately, whilst managing "unhealthy" behaviour in such a way as to have a long-term positive impact within the organisation and the surrounding community. This paper will briefly outline the key activities underway, and the manner in which it is hoped this approach to undertaking a HPH sub-project will contribute to sustainable local health improvement, while also supporting the Trust's broader transformation into a truly health promoting organisation. PMID:11755769

  6. Frontal Plane Knee Moments in Golf: Effect of Target Side Foot Position at Address

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Scott K.; Noffal, Guillermo J.

    2010-01-01

    Golf has the potential to keep people active well into their later years. Injuries to the target side knee have been reported in golfers, yet no mechanisms for these injuries have been proposed. The loads on the knee during the golf swing may be insufficient to cause acute injury, yet they may be a factor in the progression of overuse/degenerative conditions; therefore, research developing swing modifications that may alter loading of the knee is warranted. It has been suggested that the proper golf set-up position has the target-side foot externally rotated but no reasoning for this modification has been provided. Frontal plane knee moments have been implicated in many knee pathologies. Therefore, this study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to quantify the frontal plane knee moments during the golf swing in a straight (STR) and externally rotated (EXT) target-side foot position. Subjects were 7 collegiate golfers and knee moments were compared between conditions using repeated measures T-tests. The golf swing knee moment magnitudes were also descriptively compared to those reported for two athletic maneuvers (drop jump landing, side-step cutting) and activities of daily living (gait, stair ascent). The EXT condition decreased the peak knee adduction moment as compared to the STR condition; however, foot position had no effect on the peak knee abduction moment. Also, the magnitude of the knee adduction moments during the two activities of daily living were 9-33% smaller than those experienced during the two different golfing conditions. The drop jump landing and golf swing knee moments were of similar magnitude (STR= - 5%, EXT= + 8%); however, the moments associated with side- step cutting were 50-71% larger than those on the target side knee during the golf swing. The loading of the target side knee during the golf swing may be a factor in the development and progression of knee pathologies and further research should examine ways of attenuating these loads

  7. Aging effect in the BESIII drift chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ming-Yi; Xiu, Qing-Lei; Wu, Ling-Hui; Wu, Zhi; Qin, Zhong-Hua; Shen, Pin; An, Fen-Fen; Ju, Xu-Dong; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Kai; Qun, Ou-Yang; Chen, Yuan-Bo

    2016-01-01

    As the main tracking detector of BESIII, the drift chamber provides accurate measurements of the position and the momentum of the charged particles produced in e+e- collisions at BEPCII. After six years of operation, the drift chamber is suffering from aging problems due to huge beam-related background. The gains of the cells in the first ten layers show an obvious decrease, reaching a maximum decrease of about 29% for the first layer cells. Two calculation methods for the gain change (Bhabha events and accumulated charges with 0.3% aging ratio for inner chamber cells) give almost the same results. For the Malter effect encountered by the inner drift chamber in January 2012, about 0.2% water vapor was added to the MDC gas mixture to solve this cathode aging problem. These results provide an important reference for MDC operating high voltage settings and the upgrade of the inner drift chamber. Supported by the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  8. Aging effects upon pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Kato, I; Sakuma, A; Ogino, S; Takahashi, K; Okada, T

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of aging effects upon pursuit eye movements was done in step-ramp stimulus conditions using 32 normal individuals. Eye movements were recorded with infrared reflection oculography. The target was a spot of 0.5 degree red lazar light. The light spot was blanked for 5 ms while the mirror galvanometer moved to a new position. Eye and target position were sampled at 250 Hz and analysed by a personal computer. In onward stimulation in which 2 degrees, 4 degrees, 6 degrees and 8 degrees position steps were followed by fixed ramp speed (10 degrees/s), and also in backward stimulation in which 2 degrees, 4 degrees, 6 degrees step positions were followed by 9 degrees, 17 degrees and 27 degrees/s, eye acceleration increased depending upon increase of retinal slip velocity in the younger group below 49 years. Among the factors effecting aging effects, the cerebrum might be important because visual recognition and eye acceleration are performed in the parietal lobe. PMID:8749143

  9. Pedestrian injury risk and the effect of age.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Rosén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Older adults and pedestrians both represent especially vulnerable groups in traffic. In the literature, hazards are usually described by the corresponding injury risks of a collision. This paper investigates the MAIS3+F risk (the risk of sustaining at least one injury of AIS 3 severity or higher, or fatal injury) for pedestrians in full-frontal pedestrian-to-passenger car collisions. Using some assumptions, a model-based approach to injury risk, allowing for the specification of individual injury risk parameters for individuals, is presented. To balance model accuracy and sample size, the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) data set is divided into three age groups; children (0-14); adults (15-60); and older adults (older than 60). For each group, individual risk curves are computed. Afterwards, the curves are re-aggregated to the overall risk function. The derived model addresses the influence of age on the outcome of pedestrian-to-car accidents. The results show that older people compared with younger people have a higher MAIS3+F injury risk at all collision speeds. The injury risk for children behaves surprisingly. Compared to other age groups, their MAIS3+F injury risk is lower at lower collision speeds, but substantially higher once a threshold has been exceeded. The resulting injury risk curve obtained by re-aggregation looks surprisingly similar to the frequently used logistic regression function computed for the overall injury risk. However, for homogenous subgroups - such as the three age groups - logistic regression describes the typical risk behavior less accurately than the introduced model-based approach. Since the effect of demographic change on traffic safety is greater nowadays, there is a need to incorporate age into established models. Thus far, this is one of the first studies incorporating traffic participant age to an explicit risk function. The presented approach can be especially useful for the modeling and prediction of risks, and for the

  10. Pedestrian injury risk and the effect of age.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Rosén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Older adults and pedestrians both represent especially vulnerable groups in traffic. In the literature, hazards are usually described by the corresponding injury risks of a collision. This paper investigates the MAIS3+F risk (the risk of sustaining at least one injury of AIS 3 severity or higher, or fatal injury) for pedestrians in full-frontal pedestrian-to-passenger car collisions. Using some assumptions, a model-based approach to injury risk, allowing for the specification of individual injury risk parameters for individuals, is presented. To balance model accuracy and sample size, the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) data set is divided into three age groups; children (0-14); adults (15-60); and older adults (older than 60). For each group, individual risk curves are computed. Afterwards, the curves are re-aggregated to the overall risk function. The derived model addresses the influence of age on the outcome of pedestrian-to-car accidents. The results show that older people compared with younger people have a higher MAIS3+F injury risk at all collision speeds. The injury risk for children behaves surprisingly. Compared to other age groups, their MAIS3+F injury risk is lower at lower collision speeds, but substantially higher once a threshold has been exceeded. The resulting injury risk curve obtained by re-aggregation looks surprisingly similar to the frequently used logistic regression function computed for the overall injury risk. However, for homogenous subgroups - such as the three age groups - logistic regression describes the typical risk behavior less accurately than the introduced model-based approach. Since the effect of demographic change on traffic safety is greater nowadays, there is a need to incorporate age into established models. Thus far, this is one of the first studies incorporating traffic participant age to an explicit risk function. The presented approach can be especially useful for the modeling and prediction of risks, and for the

  11. Tool to address green roof widespread implementation effect in flood characteristics for water management planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, R.; Lorenzini, F.; Allasia, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    In the last decades, new approaches were adopted to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible through technologies and devices that preserve and recreate natural landscape features. Green Roofs (GR) are examples of these devices that are also incentivized by city's stormwater management plans. Several studies show that GR decreases on-site runoff from impervious surfaces, however, the analysis of the effect of widespread implementation of GR in the flood characteristics at the urban basin scale in subtropical areas are little discussed, mainly because of the absence of data. Thereby, this paper shows results related to the monitoring of an extensive modular GR under subtropical weather conditions, the development of a rainfall-runoff model based on the modified Curve Number (CN) and SCS Triangular Unit Hydrograph (TUH) methods and the analysis of large-scale impact of GR by modelling different basins. The model was calibrated against observed data and showed that GR absorbed almost all the smaller storms and reduced runoff even during the most intense rainfall. The overall CN was estimated in 83 (consistent with available literature) with the shape of hydrographs well reproduced. Large-scale modelling (in basins ranging from 0.03 ha to several square kilometers) showed that the widespread use of GRs reduced peak flows (volumes) around 57% (48%) at source and 38% (32%) at the basin scale. Thus, this research validated a tool for the assessment of structural management measures (specifically GR) to address changes in flood characteristics in the city's water management planning. From the application of this model it was concluded that even if the efficiency of GR decreases as the basin scale increase they still provide a good option to cope with urbanization impact.

  12. The varying effects of age of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Catling, Jonathan C; Johnston, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of theories that suggest that age of acquisition (AoA) effects are not uniform across different tasks. Catling and Johnston (2006a) found greater AoA effects within an object-naming task than in a semantic classification task. They explained these findings by suggesting that AoA effects might accumulate according to how many levels of representation a task necessitates access to. Brysbaert and Ghyselinck (2006) explain the difference in AoA effects by proposing two distinct types of AoA (frequency dependent and frequency independent), the first accounted for by a connectionist-type mechanism and the latter situated at the interface between semantics and word production. Moreover, Moore, Smith-Spark, and Valentine (2004) and Holmes and Ellis (2006) have suggested that there are two loci of AoA effects: at the phonological level and somewhere within the perceptual level of representation. Again, this could account for the varying degrees of AoA effects. This study sets about testing these ideas by assessing the effect size of AoA across a series of different tasks that necessitate access to various levels of representation. Experiments 1-4 demonstrate significant effects of AoA in a novel picture-picture verification task, an object classification task, a picture verification task, and an object-naming task. Experiment 5 showed no effects of initial phoneme on the naming of the critical objects used within Experiments 1-4. The implication of the varying AoA effect sizes found within Experiments 1-4 in relation to explanations of AoA are discussed.

  13. Gesture and Language in Narratives and Explanations: The Effects of Age and Communicative Activity on Late Multimodal Discourse Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamillo, Asela Reig; Colletta, Jean-Marc; Guidetti, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the effect of communicative activity on the use of language and gesture by school-age children. The present study examined oral narratives and explanations produced by children aged six and ten years on the basis of several linguistic and gestural measures. Results showed that age affects both gestural and linguistic…

  14. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  15. Gravity effects on reproduction, development, and aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, Jaime; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of various levels of gravity force (obtained by rotation in clinostats or by centrifugation) and the near-weightlessness condition aboard orbiting spacecraft on the fertilization, embryonic development, maturation, and aging of animals are examined. Results obtained from the American and Soviet spaceborne biology experiments are presented including those on mammals, amphibians, fish, birds, invertebrates, and protozoa. Theoretical issues related to the effect of gravity on various physiological systems are discused together with the future research goals concerning human life in space. It is noted that life in space (after adaptation to near-weightlessness) might be significantly prolonged due to a reduction in metabolic rate and a concomitant decrease in oxygen radical reactions.

  16. Birthdate and Performance: The Relative Age Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, Roger H.

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the concept of "relative age" and to review recent research findings that have demonstrated that relative age is related to a variety of academic and athletic performance measures. The paper is divided into six parts: (1) the relative age concept; (2) relative age and achievement in sports; (3) relative age…

  17. Estimating the Health Effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies: Addressing Parametric, Model, and Valuation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeremy J.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Markandya, Anil; Balbus, John M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    simultaneously improving health. Citation: Remais JV, Hess JJ, Ebi KL, Markandya A, Balbus JM, Wilkinson P, Haines A, Chalabi Z. 2014. Estimating the health effects of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies: addressing parametric, model, and valuation challenges. Environ Health Perspect 122:447–455; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306744 PMID:24583270

  18. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  19. Centrophenoxine: effects on aging mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Nandy, K

    1978-02-01

    A study was made of the effects of centrophenoxine on the learning and memory of old mice. The results were correlated with changes in neuronal lipofuscin in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Old female mice (11-12 months) were treated with centropheoxine for three months and their learning and memory were tested in a T-maze. The number of trials required to attain the criterion in the 20 treated old mice were compared with those for 20 untreated mice of the same age and for 20 younger untreated mice. The treated animals learned the task with significantly fewer trials, and also exhibited a reduction of neuronal lipofuscin pigment in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. The changes in lipofuscin were demonstrated by study of the characteristic autofluorescence, and by histolchemical and ultrastructural (electron microscope) observations.

  20. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1991-12-31

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  1. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. ); Aggarwal, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  2. Effects of age on testicular function.

    PubMed

    Tsitouras, P D

    1987-12-01

    Although frequency of sexual activity declines dramatically with age, most investigators have been able to define rather small physiologic function (hormonal and spermatogenic) changes with advancing age. Despite the development of subtle intrinsic age-related defects at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, reproductive capacity is maintained in healthy elderly men.

  3. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  4. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  5. Effects of aging on the effectiveness of smoking cessation medication

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Jaqueline; Santos, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima; Buzo, Carolina Giusti; Lopes, Neuza Helena Moreira; Abe, Tania Marie Ogawa; Gaya, Patricia Viviane; Pierri, Humberto; Amorim, Clarice; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background Considering the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of different medications, it is plausible that the age of a smoker could affect the half-life of these drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of smoking cessation drugs (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline) used either in isolation or in combination in adults under and over 60 years of age. Methods Data were collected from 940 Brazilian patients participating in a smoking cessation program. Participants were prescribed smoking cessation medication to be used for at least 12 weeks and were followed for 52 weeks. Results Cessation rates were significantly different among younger and older participants who were using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) alone. Being over 60 years of age was significantly associated with increased cessation success among those who used NRT alone (OR 2.34, 95% CI: 1.36 to 4.04, p = 0.002). The effectiveness of varenicline and bupropion were not significantly different according to age groups. Conclusion Using age as a predictor for tailoring smoking cessation drugs might potentially lead to a more individualized prescription of smoking cessation therapy. These results should be tested in randomized controlled trials. PMID:27166253

  6. Gompertz law and aging as exclusion effects.

    PubMed

    Hallén, Anund

    2007-10-01

    The exponential increase with age in mortality rate, the Gompertz law, indicates that the decrease in vitality and viability linked to aging depends on phenomena with exponential or logarithmic dynamics. Gompertz slope (alpha) is assumed to be a measure of aging rate, provided the studied cohort is homogeneous and in a supporting environment. The law provides no clue about the cause of aging, but may be formally correlated with various physical or mathematical functions. A possible correlation between the Ogston-Laurent exclusion equation and human aging is examined. An increase with age of an inert cross-linked insoluble protein network is assumed to result in a logarithmic decrease in water volume available to colloidal macromolecules. In this model, alpha is assumed to be a measure of the rate of accumulation of the polypeptide network.

  7. Effects of Age of L2 Acquisition on L1 Event Conceptualization Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish-L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint…

  8. Effects of Aging on Thyroarytenoid Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyungah; Kletzien, Heidi; Connor, Nadine P.; Schultz, Edward; Chamberlain, Connie S.; Bless, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/hypotheses Regenerative properties of age-associated changes in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles following injury are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regenerative properties of the thyroarytenoid muscle (TA) in an aging rat model. The hypothesis was that, following myotoxic injury, old animals would exhibit a decrease in mitotic activities of muscle satellite cells when compared with younger rats, suggesting reduced regenerative potential in the aging rat TA. Study Design Animal group comparison. Method Regeneration responses following injury to the TA were examined in 18 young adult, middle-aged, and old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats. TA muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), satellite cell mitosis (number/fiber), and regeneration index (CSA injured side/CSA non-injured side) were measured and compared across age groups. Results Young animals had a significantly higher regeneration index than the middle-aged and old groups. Within the lateral region of the TA (LTA), the regeneration index was significantly higher in the young animals than in the middle-aged and old animals. The regeneration index of the medial TA (MTA) was significantly higher than the LTA across all age groups. Conclusions The regenerative capacity of the TA muscle is impaired with increasing age. Evidence N/A PMID:22965923

  9. Addressing Disparities in Sudden Cardiac Arrest Care and the Under-Utilization of Effective Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Melissa H.; Peterson, Eric D.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Sanders, Gillian D.; Yancy, Clyde W.; Russo, Andrea M.; Curtis, Anne B.; Sears, Samuel F.; Thomas, Kevin L.; Campbell, Susan; Carlson, Mark D.; Chiames, Chris; Cook, Nakela L.; Hayes, David L.; LaRue, Michelle; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Lyons, Edward L.; Al-Khatib, Sana M.

    2010-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the most common cause of death in the Unites States. Despite its major impact on public health, significant challenges exist at the patient, provider, public, and policy levels with respect to raising more widespread awareness and understanding of SCA risks, identifying patients at risk for SCA, addressing barriers to SCA care, and eliminating disparities in SCA care and outcomes. To address many of these challenges, the Duke Center for the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death at the Duke Clinical Research Institute (Durham, NC) held a think tank meeting on December 7, 2009, convening experts on this issue from clinical cardiology, cardiac electrophysiology, health policy and economics, the US Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, and device and pharmaceutical manufacturers. The specific goals of the meeting were to examine existing educational tools on SCA for patients, health care providers and the public and explore ways to enhance and disseminate these tools, to propose a framework for improved identification of patients at risk of SCA, and to review the latest data on disparities in SCA care and explore ways to reduce these disparities. This paper summarizes the discussions that occurred at the meeting. PMID:20934553

  10. Understanding and effectively addressing breast cancer in African American women: Unpacking the social context.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-15

    Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. Understanding and effectively addressing breast cancer in African American women: Unpacking the social context.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-15

    Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26930024

  12. Effect of age and CMV on NK cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carmen; Pera, Alejandra; Sanchez-Correa, Beatriz; Alonso, Corona; Lopez-Fernandez, Isabel; Morgado, Sara; Tarazona, Raquel; Solana, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    NK cells represent an important component of the innate immune response against infection and tumors. Age-associated changes in NK cell phenotype have been previously reported that can be responsible of functional NK cell deficiency. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect CMV seropositivity and aging on the distribution of NK cell subsets with a focus on the expression of cytotoxicity-related molecules and on the expression of CD94/NKG2 heterodimers and CD57 on these NK cell subsets. Our results show that CMV seropositivity in young individuals does not significantly affect peripheral blood NK cell percentage and NK cell subsets defined by the use of CD56 and CD16 markers. In contrast a significant increase in the percentage of NK cells is observed in elderly donors, all of them are CMV seropositive, when compared with young CMV seropositive subjects. A decrease in the percentage of CD56bright NK cells, either fully immature CD16 negative or CD16+ and an increase in the CD56-CD16+ subset are also found in the elderly. CMV seropositivity either in healthy young or elderly individuals is associated to the expression of CD94/NKG2C dimers and high expression of CD57on the CD56dimCD16+ NK cell subset. CD56-CD16+ NK cells, which are expanded in the elderly, show a decreased expression of granzymes A and B and an increased expression of CD94/NKG2C and CD57 in CMV seropositive young donors when compared with CMV seronegative young individuals. These results indicate that CMV and age have a different effect on NK cell phenotype and emphasize the relevance of including the determination of CMV serostatus in those studies addressed to analyze the immune response in the elderly.

  13. A Conceptual Framework to Address Stress-Associated Human Health Effects of Ecosystem Services Degraded by Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic stress leads to a variety of mental and physiological disorders, and stress effects are the primary concern after traumatic injury and exposure to infectious diseases or toxic agents from disaster events. We developed a conceptual model to address the question of whether...

  14. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning. PMID:20817131

  15. Differential Effects of Aging on Processes Underlying Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Robert; Travers, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of aging on processes underlying task switching. The response time data revealed an age-related increase in mixing costs before controlling for general slowing and no effect of aging on switching costs. In the cue-locked epoch, the ERP data revealed little effect…

  16. The Relative Age Effect among Female Brazilian Youth Volleyball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2011-01-01

    In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…

  17. Relative Age Effect in Masters Sports: Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medic, Nikola; Starkes, Janet L.; Weir, Patricia L.; Young, Bradley W.; Grove, J. Robert

    2009-01-01

    The relative age effect refers to the performance-related advantage of being born early in a cohort or selection year. Until recently it was unknown whether the relative age effect generalizes across the lifespan. Medic, Starkes, and Young (2007) reasoned that the 5-year age categories that are widely used in masters-level sports to organize…

  18. The effect of aging on fertility.

    PubMed

    Speroff, L

    1994-04-01

    In the developed world, deferment of marriage and postponement of child-bearing in marriage are resulting in unprecedented numbers of couples who desire pregnancy relatively late in life. These factors combine with a decline in fertility and an increase in pregnancy wastage with advancing age to present new challenges for the clinician treating infertility. Experience with young oocytes donated to older women indicates that the major responsibility for the decline in fertility with age can be attributed to aging oocytes. Oocyte donation offers new hope for infertile older woman, but important moral and social questions remain unanswered.

  19. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  20. Effective Parenting Education through Age-Paced Newsletters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Nelson, Pat Tanner

    2004-01-01

    For more than 20 years, Cooperative Extension University and county faculty throughout the nation have made available an unusually parent-friendly series of educational newsletters. Monthly issues of the newsletters address information by age groups. Through local and state collaborations that often feature the county Extension office, hospitals,…

  1. Effects of age on blood pressure (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... become less elastic with age. The "average" blood pressure increases from 120/70 to 150/90 and may persist slightly high even if treated. The blood vessels respond more slowly to a change in body ...

  2. Rapamycin extends murine lifespan but has limited effects on aging

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Frauke; Flores-Dominguez, Diana; Ryan, Devon P.; Horsch, Marion; Schröder, Susanne; Adler, Thure; Afonso, Luciana Caminha; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hans, Wolfgang; Hettich, Moritz M.; Holtmeier, Richard; Hölter, Sabine M.; Moreth, Kristin; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Naton, Beatrix; Ordemann, Rainer; Adamski, Jerzy; Beckers, Johannes; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Busch, Dirk H.; Ehninger, Gerhard; Graw, Jochen; Höfler, Heinz; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Stypmann, Jörg; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Ehninger, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for a large number of disorders and functional impairments. Therapeutic targeting of the aging process may therefore represent an innovative strategy in the quest for novel and broadly effective treatments against age-related diseases. The recent report of lifespan extension in mice treated with the FDA-approved mTOR inhibitor rapamycin represented the first demonstration of pharmacological extension of maximal lifespan in mammals. Longevity effects of rapamycin may, however, be due to rapamycin’s effects on specific life-limiting pathologies, such as cancers, and it remains unclear if this compound actually slows the rate of aging in mammals. Here, we present results from a comprehensive, large-scale assessment of a wide range of structural and functional aging phenotypes, which we performed to determine whether rapamycin slows the rate of aging in male C57BL/6J mice. While rapamycin did extend lifespan, it ameliorated few studied aging phenotypes. A subset of aging traits appeared to be rescued by rapamycin. Rapamycin, however, had similar effects on many of these traits in young animals, indicating that these effects were not due to a modulation of aging, but rather related to aging-independent drug effects. Therefore, our data largely dissociate rapamycin’s longevity effects from effects on aging itself. PMID:23863708

  3. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  4. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  5. Masked Intervention Effects: Analytic Methods for Addressing Low Dosage of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Boxmeyer, Caroline; Powell, Nicole; Roth, David L.; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines how a particular strategy for analyzing evaluation data, intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses, may underestimate the true effects of interventions. Such underestimation of intervention effects can profoundly influence policies for prevention and treatment of children's mental health problems, which can in turn lead to negative…

  6. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  7. Effect of moisture on the aging behavior of asphalt binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Huang, Xiao-Ming; Mahmoud, Enad; Garibaldy, Emil

    2011-08-01

    The moisture aging effect and mechanism of asphalt binder during the in-service life of pavement were investigated by laboratory simulating tests. Pressure aging vessel (PAV) test simulating the long-term aging of binder during the in-service life of pavement was modified to capture the long-term moisture aging effect of binder. Penetration grade tests including penetration test, soften point test, and ductility test as well as Superpave™ performance grade tests including viscosity test, dynamic shear rheometer test, and bending beam rheometer test were conducted to fully evaluate the moisture aging effect of binder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy test and Gel-permeation chromatography test were applied to provide a fundamental understanding of the moisture aging mechanism of binder. The results indicate that moisture condition can accelerate the aging of asphalt binder and shorten the service life of asphalt binder. The modified PAV test with moisture condition can well characterize the moisture aging properties of asphalt binder.

  8. Effect of face familiarity on age decision.

    PubMed

    Bruyer, Raymond; Mejias, Sandrine; Doublet, Sophie

    2007-02-01

    The present experiment was planned to check whether the extraction of apparent age is affected by face identity (familiarity) or not. According to the traditional view, age estimation should be carried out independently of face identity, because it is one of the visually derived semantic codes (like gender and ethnicity). However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, some recent studies have cast doubt on the parallel thesis regarding facial expression, facial speech, ethnicity, and gender. Given the promising results of a pilot experiment (n=24), 16 Caucasian participants were enrolled in an "age decision" task on morphed faces derived from one old and one young source-face, in the proportion 70:30. The respondents had previously been familiarised with half the source faces by a learning procedure (associating the face, surname, occupation and city of residence of the person displayed), while the remaining half were unfamiliar. The results showed that age decision was affected by face familiarity, at least when the task was perceptually difficult enough. This adds support to the thesis that the identification of identity and the extraction of visually derived semantic codes are not made independently from each other. The status of age, within the visually derived semantic codes, is also discussed. PMID:16643811

  9. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  10. Effects of nutritional components on aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongyeop; Hwang, Wooseon; Artan, Murat; Jeong, Dae-Eun; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals regulate various physiological processes and are essential for the survival of organisms. Reduced overall caloric intake delays aging in various organisms. However, the role of each nutritional component in the regulation of lifespan is not well established. In this review, we describe recent studies focused on the regulatory role of each type of nutrient in aging. Moreover, we will discuss how the amount or composition of each nutritional component may influence longevity or health in humans. PMID:25339542

  11. Making USGS information effective in the electronic age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Debbie R.; Sanders, Rex; Faust, T.

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary -- The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) held a workshop on 'Making USGS Information Effective in the Electronic Age' in Woods Hole, MA, on 6-8 February 2001. The workshop was designed to address broad issues of knowledge and communication, and to help develop the mission, vision, and goals of the National Knowledge Bank called for in the 1999 NRC review of the CMGP. Presentations led by historians and philosophers yield to a wide-ranging review and discussion of the role of USGS science in society: USGS science is important to government to understand certain complicated public policy issues (such as the environment), but we must participate in two-way public dialogs to increase our relevance and usefulness. Presentations led by USGS communications experts reviewed the principles of audience analysis and effective communications: this focused look at audiences, markets, and products provided an introduction to the behaviors, the tools, and the terminology that might be applied to public discourse. Presentations by several information technology experts showed the potential - and pitfalls - of current schemes for Web-based information access. Finally, several brainstorming sessions developed action items, vision, and characteristics of a knowledge bank. Based on the workshop discussions and results, the authors developed the National Knowledge Bank Mission, Vision, and Goals statements.

  12. Effects of age and gender on physical performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to assess the effects of age and gender on physical performance using one-hour swimming performance and participation in 2,173 man and 2,098 women, aged 19 – 91 years from a long distance (one-hour) national competition. Decline in performance with aging was found to be quadratic rat...

  13. Age-Related Changes in the Misinformation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Rachel; Hayne, Harlene

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined relation between age-related changes in retention and age-related changes in the misinformation effect. Found large age-related retention differences when participants were interviewed immediately and after 1 day, but after 6 weeks, differences were minimal. Exposure to misleading information increased commission errors.…

  14. Effects of Intergenerational Interaction on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Carmen Requena; Gonzalez, Marta Zubiaur

    2008-01-01

    The world population pyramid has changed shape. However, this does not mean that societies have changed their negative concept of old age. Our study proposes an intergenerational service-learning program with 179 university students and 101 slightly depressed elderly people. The results show that the elderly people who interacted improved in…

  15. Effective recordkeeping technologies to manage aging

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelow, J.S.; Johnson, A.B. Jr. ); Vora, J.P. )

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has investigated the capability of current recordkeeping technology to support aging management. This paper discusses technical issues associated with potential enhancements of nuclear plant records systems--from the perspective of the lessons learned about equipment aging degradation mechanisms and associated surveillance and monitoring techniques during the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The paper considers both the specific types of technical data needed to ensure continued safe operation and the use of new technology to upgrade record systems. Specific topics discussed include: equipment reliability data needed to support the assessment of the impact of aging on the continued operation of the plant; operational history data to support the assessment of residual life of mechanical and structural components and piping; tools for the analysis and trending of equipment reliability data and operational history data; design and implementation of plant record systems that will provide a comprehensive and usable engineering design basis for the plant; proposed improvements in the data input process for the plant records system; computerization of plant records systems, including conversion of existing records into machine-readable forms.

  16. Effective recordkeeping technologies to manage aging

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelow, J.S.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Vora, J.P.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has investigated the capability of current recordkeeping technology to support aging management. This paper discusses technical issues associated with potential enhancements of nuclear plant records systems--from the perspective of the lessons learned about equipment aging degradation mechanisms and associated surveillance and monitoring techniques during the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The paper considers both the specific types of technical data needed to ensure continued safe operation and the use of new technology to upgrade record systems. Specific topics discussed include: equipment reliability data needed to support the assessment of the impact of aging on the continued operation of the plant; operational history data to support the assessment of residual life of mechanical and structural components and piping; tools for the analysis and trending of equipment reliability data and operational history data; design and implementation of plant record systems that will provide a comprehensive and usable engineering design basis for the plant; proposed improvements in the data input process for the plant records system; computerization of plant records systems, including conversion of existing records into machine-readable forms.

  17. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  18. Evaluating Special Educator Effectiveness: Addressing Issues Inherent to Value-Added Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbrecher, Trisha D.; Selig, James P.; Cosbey, Joanna; Thorstensen, Beata I.

    2014-01-01

    States are increasingly using value-added approaches to evaluate teacher effectiveness. There is much debate regarding whether these methods should be employed and, if employed, what role such methods should play in comprehensive teacher evaluation systems. In this article, we consider the use of value-added modeling (VAM) to evaluate special…

  19. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice.

  20. Presidential address. Endoscopic surgery, cost effectiveness, and the quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hasson, H M

    1995-02-01

    One measure of mitigating escalating costs of health care is to create an economic market-based system that connects value to cost. Cost-effectiveness analysis compares treatments that produce different benefits and require different costs, and ranks them by the amount of net treatment benefit divided by cost. Evaluation of the impact of illness and treatment on the medical condition, quality of life, and productivity of individual patients is essential for capturing all dimensions of treatment outcome. When performed by efficient teams, laparoscopic surgery compared with conventional open surgery, adds value through reduced operative morbidity, earlier returns to work, and improved quality of life. These advantages have to be confirmed by cost-effectiveness analysis, however. Endoscopic surgery will be consistently more cost effective than conventional surgery only when performed by a dedicated team of surgeons, nurses, and technicians. The need for a specialized team arises from the fact that endoscopic surgery requires different skills, including the ability to develop a two-dimensional concept for tissue manipulation, perform major surgery through small incisions using a different type of hand-eye coordination, and operate and maintain highly sophisticated and sensitive equipment and instrumentation. Reusable instruments will contribute to lower costs.

  1. Effect of Aging on Taut Rubber Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henrickson, H B; Strother, D H

    1932-01-01

    As part of an investigation of special compositions of rubber suitable for use as diaphragms for aircraft instruments, six samples were used as taut diaphragms in instruments and allowed to age for five years. Two of the instruments were in operating condition after this period of time and one had remarkably little change in performance. In making the rubber tetraethyl thorium disulfide was employed as a vulcanizing agent.

  2. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  3. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  4. Addressing the implementation gap in global road safety: exploring features of an effective response and introducing a 10-country program.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A; Allen, Katharine A; Di Pietro, Gayle; Adriazola, Claudia A; Sobel, Rochelle; Larson, Kelly; Peden, Margie

    2012-06-01

    Yearly, more than 1.2 million people are killed by road traffic injuries (RTIs) around the globe, and another 20 to 50 million are injured. The global burden of RTIs is predicted to rise. We explored the need for concerted action for global road safety and propose characteristics of an effective response to the gap in addressing RTIs. We propose that a successful response includes domains such as strong political will, capacity building, use of evidence-based interventions, rigorous evaluation, increased global funding, multisectoral action, and sustainability. We also present a case study of the global Road Safety in 10 Countries project, which is a new, 5-year, multipartner initiative to address the burden of RTIs in 10 low- and middle-income countries.

  5. Addressing the Implementation Gap in Global Road Safety: Exploring Features of an Effective Response and Introducing a 10-Country Program

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Katharine A.; Di Pietro, Gayle; Adriazola, Claudia A.; Sobel, Rochelle; Larson, Kelly; Peden, Margie

    2012-01-01

    Yearly, more than 1.2 million people are killed by road traffic injuries (RTIs) around the globe, and another 20 to 50 million are injured. The global burden of RTIs is predicted to rise. We explored the need for concerted action for global road safety and propose characteristics of an effective response to the gap in addressing RTIs. We propose that a successful response includes domains such as strong political will, capacity building, use of evidence-based interventions, rigorous evaluation, increased global funding, multisectoral action, and sustainability. We also present a case study of the global Road Safety in 10 Countries project, which is a new, 5-year, multipartner initiative to address the burden of RTIs in 10 low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22515864

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of human resources policy interventions to address the shortage of nurses in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane; Cairns, John

    2012-09-01

    Recent policy recommendations have called for increased research efforts to inform the design of cost-effective interventions to address the shortage of health workers in rural areas. This paper takes forward the recent use of Discrete Choice Experiments to assess the effects of potential incentives to attract nurses to rural areas. The analysis relies on data collected in South Africa between August and November 2008. Effectiveness measures derived from Discrete Choice Experiments are combined in a Markov model to derive the long-term effects of policies, and costs are evaluated with secondary data. Measures involving the selection of more nursing students who are more likely to accept positions in rural areas are shown to be the most cost-effective interventions. If such policies could not be implemented, the next best options are to offer preferential access to specialist training to nurses willing to work in rural areas.

  7. Role of antioxidants in the skin: anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) advance skin aging, which is characterized by wrinkles and atypical pigmentation. Because UV enhances ROS generation in cells, skin aging is usually discussed in relation to UV exposure. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. In this review, the mechanisms of ROS generation and ROS elimination in the body are summarized. The effects of ROS generated in the skin and the roles of ROS in altering the skin are also discussed. In addition, the effects of representative antioxidants on the skin are summarized with a focus on skin aging.

  8. The Flynn Effect and Population Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirbekk, Vegard; Stonawski, Marcin; Bonsang, Eric; Staudinger, Ursula M.

    2013-01-01

    Although lifespan changes in cognitive performance and Flynn effects have both been well documented, there has been little scientific focus to date on the net effect of these forces on cognition at the population level. Two major questions moving beyond this finding guided this study: (1) Does the Flynn effect indeed continue in the 2000s for…

  9. Aging display's effect on interpretation of digital pathology slide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanaki, Ali R. N.; Espig, Kathryn S.; Sawhney, Sameer; Pantanowitzc, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.; Xthona, Albert; Kimpe, Tom R. L.

    2015-03-01

    It is our conjecture that the variability of colors in a pathology image effects the interpretation of pathology cases, whether it is diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic confidence, or workflow efficiency. In this paper, digital pathology images are analyzed to quantify the perceived difference in color that occurs due to display aging, in particular a change in the maximum luminance, white point, and color gamut. The digital pathology images studied include diagnostically important features, such as the conspicuity of nuclei. Three different display aging models are applied to images: aging of luminance and chrominance, aging of chrominance only, and a stabilized luminance and chrominance (i.e., no aging). These display models and images are then used to compare conspicuity of nuclei using CIE ΔE2000, a perceptual color difference metric. The effect of display aging using these display models and images is further analyzed through a human reader study designed to quantify the effects from a clinical perspective. Results from our reader study indicate significant impact of aged displays on workflow as well as diagnosis. Comparing original (not aged) images to aged images, aged images were significantly more difficult to read (p-value of 0.0005) and took longer to score (p-value of 0.02). Moreover, luminance and chrominance aging significantly reduced inter-session percent agreement of diagnostic scores (p-value of 0.0418).

  10. Welcome address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    overview of fields they are involved in. The topic of the present symposium is ‘advances in f-electron phenomena’. I will not go into detail about the importance of this field, because the Chairman of the organizing committee, Professor Russ Walstedt will tell you the outline later. Nevertheless, let me emphasize that the scientific subjects discussed at this symposium, namely the fundamental properties of f-electrons, are playing a crucial role in understanding the exotic effects of rare earth and actinide compounds such as magnetic and multi polar ordering, quantum critical phenomena and unconventional superconductivity. These are quite fascinating topics and I expect a variety of hot discussions throughout this symposium. Finally, I would like to thank our president, Dr S Saito, for allowing us to hold this symposium and for help with financial sponsorship. My special gratitude goes also to the Physical Society of Japan and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for their endorsement. I would like to close my speech by expressing my sincere wishes for the success of the symposium and for all participants to discover new opportunities in the still growing area of research on the f-electron systems. Thank you very much for your attention.

  11. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark A; Low, Kathy A; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A; Tan, Chin H; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain's atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55-87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors. PMID:27445740

  12. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark A; Low, Kathy A; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A; Tan, Chin H; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain's atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55-87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors.

  13. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Mark A.; Low, Kathy A.; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A.; Tan, Chin H.; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain’s atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55–87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors. PMID:27445740

  14. Pervasive Effects of Aging on Gene Expression in Wild Wolves.

    PubMed

    Charruau, Pauline; Johnston, Rachel A; Stahler, Daniel R; Lea, Amanda; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Smith, Douglas W; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Cole, Steven W; Tung, Jenny; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression levels change as an individual ages and responds to environmental conditions. With the exception of humans, such patterns have principally been studied under controlled conditions, overlooking the array of developmental and environmental influences that organisms encounter under conditions in which natural selection operates. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole blood to assess the relative impacts of social status, age, disease, and sex on gene expression levels in a natural population of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Our findings suggest that age is broadly associated with gene expression levels, whereas other examined factors have minimal effects on gene expression patterns. Further, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved signatures of senescence, such as immunosenescence and metabolic aging, between wolves and humans despite major differences in life history and environment. The effects of aging on gene expression levels in wolves exhibit conservation with humans, but the more rapid expression differences observed in aging wolves is evolutionarily appropriate given the species' high level of extrinsic mortality due to intraspecific aggression. Some expression changes that occur with age can facilitate physical age-related changes that may enhance fitness in older wolves. However, the expression of these ancestral patterns of aging in descendant modern dogs living in highly modified domestic environments may be maladaptive and cause disease. This work provides evolutionary insight into aging patterns observed in domestic dogs and demonstrates the applicability of studying natural populations to investigate the mechanisms of aging. PMID:27189566

  15. Effects of Roads on Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: new evidence using census-tract data and addressing endogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; Reis, E.; Robalino, J. A.; Bohrer, C.

    2004-12-01

    Regional landscape projections constitute a valuable tool for identifying policies that can address the development needs of Amazonian populations while minimizing loss of ecosystem integrity. Changes in transport costs in particular are expected to affect both livelihoods and deforestation, and there are significant planned policies which would involve investments to lower such costs. Recent work has advanced the literature in terms of both its questions and its empirical approach. Specifically, more has been learned about the development gains attendant to loss in forest area. Also more "dynamic" and more appropriate approaches have been taken to infer factors' effects. One particular result of interest from this work has been that roads' effect depend on the setting. Most controversially, it suggests that more roads could lower deforestation rate in cleared areas. In reconsidering that idea, this paper addresses the greatest limitation upon the previous research. Specifically, the use of census-tract-level data over time provides over 20 times the observations. This permits much greater control for unobservables that could easily drive any previous results. Further, it permits separate regressions for different settings to directly address effects of roads. The results suggest that setting does indeed matter and that roads' effects may fall with clearing. However, it does not appear that lowering the cost of transport ever lowers rates of deforestation. While to this point we have results only for our first time period, this is a strong important result. The second part of the paper considers the possibility that the effects of roads are overestimated. The reason for this is endogeneity of roads, i.e. they are not randomly but purposefully located. Should their location be driven by factors that would themselves lead to greater forest clearing, empirical results appearing to indicate effects of roads could be showing effects of those factors. Project team

  16. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384

  17. Aging and emotional memory: cognitive mechanisms underlying the positivity effect.

    PubMed

    Spaniol, Julia; Voss, Andreas; Grady, Cheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Younger adults tend to remember negative information better than positive or neutral information (negativity bias). The negativity bias is reduced in aging, with older adults occasionally exhibiting superior memory for positive, as opposed to negative or neutral, information (positivity bias). Two experiments with younger (N=24 in Experiment 1, N=25 in Experiment 2; age range: 18-35 years) and older adults (N=24 in both experiments; age range: 60-85 years) investigated the cognitive mechanisms responsible for age-related differences in recognition memory for emotional information. Results from diffusion model analyses (R. Ratcliff, 1978) indicated that the effects of valence on response bias were similar in both age groups but that Age x Valence interactions emerged in memory retrieval. Specifically, older adults experienced greater overall familiarity for positive items than younger adults. We interpret this finding in terms of an age-related increase in the accessibility of positive information in long-term memory. PMID:19140656

  18. Age effects on rotational hand action.

    PubMed

    Varadhan, S K M; Zhang, Wei; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2012-06-01

    We investigated age-related differences in finger coordination during rotational hand actions. Two hypotheses based on earlier studies were tested: higher safety margins and lower synergy indices were expected in the elderly. Young and elderly subjects held a handle instrumented with five six-component force sensors and performed discrete accurate pronation and supination movements. The weight of the system was counterbalanced with another load. Indices of synergies stabilizing salient performance variables, such as total normal force, total tangential force, moments produced by these forces, and total moment of force were computed at two levels of a hypothetical control hierarchy, at the virtual finger-thumb level and at the individual finger level. At each level, synergy indices reflected the normalized difference between the sum of the variances of elemental variables and variance of their combined output, both computed at comparable phases over repetitive trials. The elderly group performed the task slower and showed lower safety margins for the thumb during the rotation phase. Overall, the synergy indices were not lower in the elderly group. In several cases, these indices were significantly higher in the elderly than in the younger participants. Hence, both main hypotheses have been falsified. We interpret the unexpectedly low safety margins in the elderly as resulting from several factors such as increased force variability, impaired feed-forward control, and the fact that there was no danger of dropping the object. Our results suggest that in some natural tasks, such as the one used in this study, healthy elderly persons show no impairment, as compared to younger persons, in their ability to organize digits into synergies stabilizing salient performance variables. PMID:22236650

  19. AGE EFFECTS ON ROTATIONAL HAND ACTION

    PubMed Central

    SKM, Varadhan; Zhang, Wei; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated age-related differences in finger coordination during rotational hand actions. Two hypotheses based on earlier studies were tested: higher safety margins and lower synergy indices were expected in the elderly. Young and elderly subjects held a handle instrumented with five six-component force sensors and performed discrete accurate pronation and supination movements. The weight of the system was counterbalanced with another load. Indices of synergies stabilizing salient performance variables, such as total normal force, total tangential force, moments produced by these forces, and total moment of were computed at two levels of a hypothetical control hierarchy, at the virtual finger-thumb level and at the individual finger level. At each level, synergy indices reflected the normalized difference between the sum of the variances of elemental variables and variance of their combined output, both computed at comparable phases over repetitive trials. The elderly group performed the task slower and showed lower safety margins for the thumb during the rotation phase. Overall, the synergy indices were not lower in the elderly group. In several cases, these indices were significantly higher in the elderly than in the younger participants. Hence, both main hypotheses have been falsified. We interpret the unexpectedly low safety margins in the elderly as resulting from several factors such as increased force variability, impaired feed-forward control, and the fact that there was no danger of dropping the object. Our results suggest that in some natural tasks, such as the one used in this study, healthy elderly persons show no impairment, as compared to younger persons, in their ability to organize digits into synergies stabilizing salient performance variables. PMID:22236650

  20. Birth weight and smoking during pregnancy--effect modification by maternal age.

    PubMed

    Fox, S H; Koepsell, T D; Daling, J R

    1994-05-15

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is an important, avoidable factor associated with low birth weight. Maternal age is also associated with variations in birth weight. Using birth certificate data from all 347,650 singleton births for which maternal age and birth weight were recorded during 1984-1988 in Washington State, this study investigated birth weight and smoking during pregnancy (yes/no) for mothers of different ages. In multiple linear regressions adjusted for race, marital status, parity, adequacy of prenatal care, and urban/rural residence, the decrement in mean birth weight associated with smoking grew steadily from 117 g for the youngest mothers (age less than 16 years) to 376 g for the oldest (age 40 years or more). Similarly, the adjusted relative risk of having a low weight birth (less than 2,500 g) for smokers compared with nonsmokers was lowest for mothers aged 16-17 years, at 1.43 (95% confidence interval 1.22-1.68), and increased steadily to 2.63 (95% confidence interval 1.77-3.90) for mothers aged 40 or more. This result suggests that the effect of exposure to cigarette smoking during pregnancy is modified by advancing maternal age. Further research using data that more precisely measure the exposure (cigarettes per day, years smoked) could help further clarify this issue and better address the public health question of whether smoking cessation programs ought to focus limited resources more selectively toward pregnant smokers in particular age groups. PMID:8178780

  1. The effect of age on cognitive performance of frontal patients

    PubMed Central

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Healy, Colm; Chan, Edgar; MacPherson, Sarah E.; White, Mark; Woollett, Katherine; Turner, Martha; Robinson, Gail; Spanò, Barbara; Bozzali, Marco; Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Age is known to affect prefrontal brain structure and executive functioning in healthy older adults, patients with neurodegenerative conditions and TBI. Yet, no studies appear to have systematically investigated the effect of age on cognitive performance in patients with focal lesions. We investigated the effect of age on the cognitive performance of a large sample of tumour and stroke patients with focal unilateral, frontal (n=68), or non-frontal lesions (n=45) and healthy controls (n=52). We retrospectively reviewed their cross sectional cognitive and imaging data. In our frontal patients, age significantly predicted the magnitude of their impairment on two executive tests (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, RAPM and the Stroop test) but not on nominal (Graded Naming Test, GNT) or perceptual (Incomplete Letters) task. In our non-frontal patients, age did not predict the magnitude of their impairment on the RAPM and GNT. Furthermore, the exacerbated executive impairment observed in our frontal patients manifested itself from middle age. We found that only age consistently predicted the exacerbated executive impairment. Lesions to specific frontal areas, or an increase in global brain atrophy or white matter abnormalities were not associated with this impairment. Our results are in line with the notion that the frontal cortex plays a critical role in aging to counteract cognitive and neuronal decline. We suggest that the combined effect of aging and frontal lesions impairs the frontal cortical systems by causing its computational power to fall below the threshold needed to complete executive tasks successfully. PMID:26102190

  2. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-21

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  3. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  4. The role of harvesting in age-structured populations: disentangling dynamic and age truncation effects.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Anders; Ripa, Jörgen; Jonzén, Niclas

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the processes generating fluctuations of natural populations lies at the very heart of academic ecology. It is also very important for applications such as fisheries management and pest control. We are interested in the effect of harvesting on population fluctuations and for that purpose we develop and analyze an age-structured model where recruitment is a stochastic process and the adult segment of the population is harvested. When a constant annual harvest is taken the coefficient of variation of the adult population increases for most parameter values due to the age truncation effect, i.e. an increased variability in a juvenescent population due to the removal of older individuals. However, if a constant proportion of the adults is harvested the age truncation effect is sometimes counteracted by a stabilizing dynamic effect of harvesting. Depending on parameter values mirroring different life histories, proportional harvest can either increase or decrease the relative fluctuations of an exploited population. When there is a demographic Allee effect the ratio of juveniles to adults may actually decrease with harvesting. We conclude that, depending on life history and harvest strategy, harvesting can either reinforce or dampen population fluctuations due to the relative importance of stabilizing dynamic effects and the age truncation effect. The strength of the latter is highly dependent on the fished population's endogenous, age-structured dynamics. More specifically, we predict that populations with strong and positively autocorrelated dynamics will show stronger age truncation effect, a testable prediction that offers a simple rule-of-thumb assessment of a population's vulnerability to exploitation.

  5. Relative age effects in Japanese baseball: an historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the existence of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, in Japanese professional baseball players born from 1911 to 1980. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. Thus, athletes were divided into four groups based on their month of birth; quarters Q1 (April-June), Q2 (July-September), Q3 (October-December), and Q4 (January-March of the following year). There were statistically biased distributions of birth dates among players born in the 1940s and subsequent decades (medium effects), and similar (but small) relative age effects were observed among players born in the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s. The magnitude of the relative age effect changed with time, and socio-cultural factors such as international competition and media coverage may have contributed greatly to this effect.

  6. Relative age effects in Japanese baseball: an historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the existence of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, in Japanese professional baseball players born from 1911 to 1980. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. Thus, athletes were divided into four groups based on their month of birth; quarters Q1 (April-June), Q2 (July-September), Q3 (October-December), and Q4 (January-March of the following year). There were statistically biased distributions of birth dates among players born in the 1940s and subsequent decades (medium effects), and similar (but small) relative age effects were observed among players born in the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s. The magnitude of the relative age effect changed with time, and socio-cultural factors such as international competition and media coverage may have contributed greatly to this effect. PMID:24422356

  7. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  8. Beneficial effects of berryfruit polyphenols on neuronal behavioral aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is becoming increasingly clear that although there is a great deal of research being devoted to elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging, practical information on how to forestall or reverse the deleterious effects of aging may be years away. Therefore, it may be beneficial to dete...

  9. Boosting Early Development: The Mixed Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiahui; Xin, Tao

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of kindergarten enrollment age on four-year-old Chinese children's early cognition and problem behavior using multilevel models. The sample comprised of 1,391 pre-school children (the mean age is 4.58 years old) from 74 kindergartens in six different provinces. The results demonstrated curvilinear…

  10. How Pervasive Are Relative Age Effects in Secondary School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Baker, Joeseph; Wattie, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; R. H. Barnsley, A. H. Thompson, & P. E. Barnsley, 1985) convey school attainment (dis)advantages depending on whether one is relatively older or younger within annually age-grouped cohorts. In the present study, the authors examined the pervasiveness of RAEs by examining (a) attainment in 4 secondary school subjects,…

  11. Effect of Age and Other Factors on Maximal Heart Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.

    1982-01-01

    To reduce confusion regarding reported effects of age on maximal exercise heart rate, a comprehensive review of the relevant English literature was conducted. Data on maximal heart rate after exercising with a bicycle, a treadmill, and after swimming were analyzed with regard to physical fitness and to age, sex, and racial differences. (Authors/PP)

  12. Addressing gender inequality and intimate partner violence as critical barriers to an effective HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Discussion Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent partner disclosure are common triggers for violence within relationships. The authors describe the challenges women face in adhering to medication or using services. Kyegombe and colleagues present a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Uganda of SASA! – a community violence prevention programme. Along with promising community impacts on physical partner violence, significantly lower levels of sexual concurrency, condom use and HIV testing were reported by men in intervention communities. Remme and her colleagues present a systematic review of evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive HIV interventions. The review identified an ever-growing evidence base, but a paucity of accompanying economic analyses, making it difficult to assess the costs or value for money of gender-focused programmes. Conclusions There is a need to continue to accumulate evidence on the effectiveness and costs of different approaches to addressing gender inequality and violence as part of a combination HIV response. A clearer HIV-specific and broader synergistic vision of financing and programming needs to be developed, to ensure that the potential synergies between HIV-specific and broader gender-focused development investments can be used to best effect to address vulnerability of women and girls to both violence and HIV. PMID:25499456

  13. Effects of intraborehole flow on groundwater age distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zinn, B.A.; Konikow, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental tracers are used to estimate groundwater ages and travel times, but the strongly heterogeneous nature of many subsurface environments can cause mixing between waters of highly disparate ages, adding additional complexity to the age-estimation process. Mixing may be exacerbated by the presence of wells because long open intervals or long screens with openings at multiple depths can transport water and solutes rapidly over a large vertical distance. The effect of intraborehole flow on groundwater age was examined numerically using direct age transport simulation coupled with the Multi-Node Well Package of MODFLOW. Ages in a homogeneous, anisotropic aquifer reached a predevelopment steady state possessing strong depth dependence. A nonpumping multi-node well was then introduced in one of three locations within the system. In all three cases, vertical transport along the well resulted in substantial changes in age distributions within the system. After a pumping well was added near the nonpumping multi-node well, ages were further perturbed by a flow reversal in the nonpumping multi-node well. Results indicated that intraborehole flow can substantially alter groundwater ages, but the effects are highly dependent on local or regional flow conditions and may change with time. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  14. Aging effects on oxidative phosphorylation in rat adrenocortical mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Paola; Fujioka, Hisashi; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L

    2014-06-01

    Does aging in itself lead to alteration in adrenocortical mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation? Mitochondria from Fischer 344 (F344) rats (6 and 24 months old), Brown Norway rats (6 and 32 months old) and F344-Brown Norway hybrid rats (6 and 30 months old) were compared. Mitochondria were isolated from extirpated adrenal cortex. The yields of mitochondria were quantitatively similar in all rat strains irrespective of age. In order to assess the activity of each mitochondrial complex, several different substrates were tested and the rate of oxidative phosphorylation measured. Aging does not affect mitochondrial activity except in the F344 rat adrenal cortex where the maximal ADP-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation decreased with age. We hypothesize that impaired synthesis of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex with age in F344 rats might be due to decreased adrenocortical mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We conclude that aging results in adrenocortical mitochondria effects that are non-uniform across different rat strains.

  15. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain. PMID:14590204

  16. The effects of aging on BWR core isolation cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.S.

    1994-10-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) system in commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The failure data from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the RCIC system. This analysis identified important components that should receive the highest priority in terms of aging management. The aging characterization provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failures causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

  17. Aspartame pharmacokinetics - the effect of ageing.

    PubMed

    Puthrasingam, S; Heybroek, W M; Johnston, A; Maskrey, V; Swift, C G; Turner, P; Abrams, S M; Jackson, S H

    1996-05-01

    Aspartame is an intense sweetener which is increasingly used in the UK. It is registered at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg/kg, although there are no previous data relating to the metabolism of aspartame in older people. Twelve young and 12 elderly volunteers each received a single dose of approximately 40 mg/kg of aspartame. Baseline concentrations of phenylalanine (the main metabolite of aspartame) rose after ingestion with a significantly higher maximum concentration (Cmax) (81.3 vs. 63.3 micromol/1, p<0.01) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity AUC 9(0-infinity)(518.7 vs. 353.5 micromol . h/l, p<0.01) in the elderly group. The higher concentrations reflected a significant fall in volume of distribution (V) from 2.03 to 1.59 1/kg (p <0.05) and clearance (CL) from 7.3 to 4.9 ml/min/kg (p <0.005) in the elderly group. The greater effect on CL than on V resulted in a small but non-significant rise in elimination half life (3.5 to 3.9 hours). The sizes of the differences were modest implying that there is no need on pharmacokinetic grounds for a change in the ADI for older people.

  18. Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

    2006-06-01

    Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of water or

  19. Developing of a VS30 map for addressing site effects for Portugal: evaluation of the effectiveness of using VS30-proxies for stable continental regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanova, Susana; Narciso, Joao; Carvalho, Joao; Pinto, Carlos; Lopes, Isabel; Nemser, Eliza; Borges, Jose; Oliveira, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The need to perform first-order estimates for site amplification in a regional sense has been strongly emphasized in recent years. The use site-amplification maps is of major importance for addressing both land-use planning (seismic-hazard maps) and emergency planning (instrumental intensity maps). Project SCENE, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), aimed at gathering and acquiring shear-wave velocity profiles in diverse lithological and geological formations in Portugal, in order to develop a regional site conditions map to be used for including first-order site-effects into seismic hazard assessment maps. Within the scope of project SCENE thirty sites where strong motion stations are installed were characterized using shear-wave seismic refraction. The project SCENE shear-wave database also includes a significant amount of shear-wave refraction data available from FCT project NEFITAG and from previously performed CAPSA and ERSTA campaigns. Few sites characterised by using other methods (multichannel analysis of surface waves and invasive profiles) were also included in the database. The shear-wave database currently includes 85 shear-wave depth sections or profiles from a variety of lithological/geological formations. In addition to the shear-wave profile database we compiled geotechnical and geological profiles in the vicinity of the sites analysed. We performed a careful evaluation of the geological conditions for each site in the database using the largest scale available (usually 1:50 000). A smaller scale map (1:500000) was also used in order to evaluate the bias introduced by the scale-dependent map accuracy. We grouped the sites into six generalized geological units: S1 - igneous and metamorphic rocks; S2 - old sedimentary rocks (Limestones, marly limestones, dolomites, conglomerates and sandstones); S3 - Sand, sandstones, clays and conglomerates of Miocene age; S4 - Sandstones, gravels, sands and clays of Pliocene age; S5

  20. Age-related differences in arithmetic strategy sequential effects.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I review a series of new findings concerning how age-related changes in strategic variations are modulated by sequential effects. Sequential effects refer to how strategy selection and strategy execution on current problems are influenced by which strategy is used on immediately preceding problems. Two sequential effects during strategy selection (i.e., strategy revisions and strategy perseverations) and during strategy execution (i.e., strategy switch costs and modulations of poorer strategy effects) are presented. I also discuss how these effects change with age during adulthood. These phenomena are important, as they shed light on arithmetic processes and how these processes change with age during adulthood. In particular, they speak to the role of executive control while participants select and execute arithmetic strategies. Finally, I discuss the implications of sequential effects for theories of strategies and of arithmetic.

  1. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  2. Effect of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wu, Yan; Meng, Yi-Fang; Wang, Jin-Yu; Xu, Ming; Tao, Jian-Jun; Lu, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is now one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly population. The antioxidative effects of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are still unclear. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate the effects of curcumin on aging RPE cells. A pulsed H2O2 exposure aging model was adopted. Aging RPE cells were treated with curcumin 20 µM, 40 µM, and 80 µM. Apoptosis of RPE cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration was detected using a specific probe and apoptosis-associated proteins were detected by Western blot. Expression of oxidative biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, maleic dialdehyde, and glutathione, was detected commercially available assay kits. Compared with normal cells, lower cell viability, higher apoptosis rates, and more severe oxidation status were identified in the aging RPE cell model. Curcumin improved cell viability and decreased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Further, curcumin had a significant influence on expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and oxidative stress biomarkers. In conclusion, treatment with curcumin was able to regulate proliferation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in aging RPE cells. Accordingly, application of curcumin may be a novel strategy to protect against age-related change in AMD.

  3. Do weight categories prevent athletes from relative age effect?

    PubMed

    Delorme, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether weight categories prevent young athletes from being exposed to a relative age effect. The dates of birth of all French female (n = 727) and male (n = 5440) amateur boxers who participated in the 2010-2011 season were collected from the federation database. The dates of birth of all French male professional boxers (n = 354) were also collected. The results show an absence of a relative age effect among French female and male amateur boxers. The results also show an absence of this phenomenon among French male professional boxers. The male 18-18+ age category reveal an inverse relative age effect. This inverse relative age effect might be interpreted as the result of a strategic adaptation from relatively younger children who shift from one sport to another where there are weight categories in order to ensure fair competition. The results of this study suggest that the weight category system is a possible solution within the relative age effect phenomenon.

  4. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF SMILE INTENSITY ON AGE PERCEPTIONS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; He, Xin; Liu, Fan

    2015-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the positive effects of smiles on interpersonal perceptions of attractiveness, likability, and friendliness. A possible mechanism underlying the effects of smiles is babyfacedness. Four studies were conducted with 1,235 participants. In Study 1, 646 participants were assigned to one of the six levels of smile intensity and responded to the measures of age perception and perceived babyfacedness. Compared to the neutral expression, the maximal smile reduced age estimations and this effect was mediated by perceived babyfacedness. In Study 2, 59 respondents' responses indicated that a maximal smile reduced the perception of age. In Study 3, 318 respondents estimated the age of models in different sex and levels of smile intensity. Maximal smiles reduced age estimations. In Study 4, 125 students and 87 non-students were randomly assigned to one of the three levels of smile intensity and provided age estimations. Replicating previous findings, maximal smiles reduced age estimations. Consistent results emerged from the various contexts, models, and samples, as well as in a pooled analysis.

  5. Ninth Annual Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address: effects of childhood radiation exposure: an issue from computed tomography scans to Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Fred A; Constine, Louis S; Nosske, Dietmar; Shore, Roy E

    2013-11-01

    The acute and chronic effects of radiation on children have been and will continue to be of great social, public health, scientific, and clinical importance. The focus of interest on ionizing radiation and children has been clear for over half a century and ranges from the effects of fallout from nuclear weapons testing to exposures from accidents, natural radiation, and medical procedures. There is a loosely stated notion that "children are three to five times more sensitive to radiation than adults." Is this really true? In fact, children are at greater risk for some health effects, but not all. For a few sequelae, children may be more resistant than adults. Which are those effects? How and why do they occur? While there are clear instances of increased risk of some radiation-induced tumors in children compared to adults, there are other tumor types in which there appears to be little or no difference in risk by age at exposure and some in which published models that assume the same relative increase in risks for child compared to adult exposures apply to nearly all tumor types are not supported by the scientific data. The United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has a task group producing a comprehensive report on the subject. The factors to be considered include relevant radiation sources; developmental anatomy and physiology; dosimetry; and stochastic, deterministic, and hereditary effects.

  6. Effects of aging on the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Hekim, Gulgez Neslihan Taskurt; Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Asci, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to discuss the effects of aging on the male reproductive system. A systematic review was performed using PubMed from 1980 to 2014. Aging is a natural process comprising of irreversible changes due to a myriad of endogenous and environmental factors at the level of all organs and systems. In modern life, as more couples choose to postpone having a child due to various socioeconomic reasons, research for understanding the effects of aging on the reproductive system has gained an increased importance. Paternal aging also causes genetic and epigenetic changes in spermatozoa, which impair male reproductive functions through their adverse effects on sperm quality and count as, well as, on sexual organs and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hormone production, spermatogenesis, and testes undergo changes as a man ages. These small changes lead to decrease in both the quality and quantity of spermatozoa. The offspring of older fathers show high prevalence of genetic abnormalities, childhood cancers, and several neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, the latest advances in assisted reproductive techniques give older men a chance to have a child even with poor semen parameters. Further studies should investigate the onset of gonadal senesce and its effects on aging men.

  7. Effects of an intervention addressing information, motivation, and behavioral skills on HIV care adherence in a southern clinic cohort.

    PubMed

    Konkle-Parker, Deborah J; Amico, K Rivet; McKinney, Venetra E

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that subtherapeutic appointment adherence and medication adherence are associated with worse clinical outcomes for people living with HIV disease. Thus, poor appointment and medication adherence diminish individual and community HIV control and transmission. Yet not enough is known about interventions that can improve retention in HIV care. The purpose of this study was to test an intervention to improve retention and/or medication adherence in a public clinic in the Deep South. One hundred participants with retention or medication adherence difficulties were randomized to either a six-month intervention or usual care, and followed longitudinally for one year. The intervention was multidimensional, based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model. The intervention addressed information about HIV and the importance of retention/adherence, motivation to be retained and/or adhere to medications, and the behavioral skills needed to manage and maintain these healthy behaviors in a combination of face-to-face and telephone sessions. The proportion of those with at least one visit in each four-month block (third) of the year increased in those with minimal exposure to the intervention (three out of eight intervention contacts) as compared to those with less intervention exposure (p = 0.098). Those with at least this minimal exposure averaged a significantly higher number of thirds that included a clinic visit as compared to those with less intervention exposure (p = 0.013). The intervention did not demonstrate a significant effect on medication adherence, though this is contradictory to a previous study testing a version of this intervention designed to address only medication adherence. Further study to increase uptake of the intervention is needed to increase its efficacy.

  8. The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R; Addai, Josephine; Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-01-01

    Modern societal pressures and expectations over the past several decades have resulted in the tendency for couples to delay conception. While women experience a notable decrease in oocyte production in their late thirties, the effect of age on spermatogenesis is less well described. While there are no known limits to the age at which men can father children, the effects of advanced paternal age are incompletely understood. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding advanced paternal age and its implications on semen quality, reproductive success and offspring health. This review will serve as a guide to physicians in counseling men about the decision to delay paternity and the risks involved with conception later in life. PMID:23912310

  9. Erythrocyte cation transport and age: effects of digoxin and furosemide

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.G.; Copeland, S.; McDevitt, D.G.

    1983-08-01

    The uptake of rubidium 86 (/sup 86/Rb) by human erythrocytes was measured at various ages. Effects of digoxin and furosemide on this process were examined and, in the case of digoxin, related to its numbers of specific cellular binding sites. There were no significant effects of age on absolute cellular Rb uptake, digoxin-sensitive Rb uptake, or numbers of cellular binding sites for digoxin, but the ability of digoxin to inhibit digoxin-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake increased with age. The ability of furosemide to inhibit digoxin-insensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake did not change with age. Results suggest a dynamic contribution to altered sensitivity to digoxin in elderly persons.

  10. Attention enhancing effects of methylphenidate are age-dependent.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shevon E; Shumsky, Jed S; Waterhouse, Barry D

    2015-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®) is used to treat a variety of cognitive disorders. MPH is also popular among healthy individuals, including the elderly, for its ability to focus attention and improve concentration, but these effects have not been shown to be comparable between aged and adult subjects. Thus, we tested whether MPH would improve performance in sustained attention in both adult and aged rats. In addition, we tested the impact of visual distraction on performance in this task and the ability of MPH to mitigate the effects of distraction. Adult (6-12 months) and aged (18-22 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were given oral MPH, and their cognitive and motor abilities were tested. Results suggest that while MPH improves task performance in adults; there is no improvement in the aged animals. These outcomes suggest that the use of MPH for cognitive enhancement in elderly individuals may be ineffective.

  11. The effect of chrome adhesion layer on quartz resonator aging.

    SciTech Connect

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2011-03-01

    This SAND report documents a late start LDRD designed to determine the possible aging effects of a quartz resonator gold adhesion layer. Sandia uses quartz resonators for applications. These applications require a very stable frequency source with excellent aging (low drift) characteristics. These parts are manufactured by one of our qualified vendors outside Sandia Laboratories, Statek Corp. Over the years we, Sandia and the vendor, have seen aging variations that have not been completely explained by the typical mechanisms known in the industry. One theory was that the resonator metallization may be contributing to the resonator aging. This LDRD would allow us to test and analyze a group of resonators with known differentiating metallization and via accelerated aging determine if a chrome adhesion layer used to accept the final gold plating may contribute to poor aging. We worked with our main vendor to design and manufacture a set of quartz resonators with a wide range of metallization thickness ratios between the chrome and gold that will allow us determine the cause of this aging and which plating thickness ratios provide the best aging performance while not degrading other key characteristics.

  12. Effects of long-term atorvastatin treatment on cardiac aging

    PubMed Central

    HAN, LEI; LI, MINGGAO; LIU, XIN

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have reported that atorvastatin (AVT) may have an important role in the delay of cardiac aging. However, the mechanism by which AVT affects cardiac aging has not been established. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to investigate the effects of AVT treatment on the cardiovascular system and the associated mechanism. Wistar rats were administered AVT or saline for 4 months. Age-related changes in the hearts were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that compared with young rats, the aged rats had significant changes indicative of myocardial aging, including increased blood lipid 1evelss, increased body weight, cardiac hypertrophy, larger myocardial cells, irregular muscle fibers, fewer deeply stained nuclei, smaller intercellular spaces, a larger number of apoptotic cells and increased levels of lipofuscin in myocardial tissue. However, long-term AVT treatment was able to significantly delay or even reverse these aging-related changes. In addition, these effects showed a certain dose-dependence. In general, long-term AVT treatment reduces blood lipids, inhibits cardiac hypertrophy, suppresses cardiomyocyte apoptosis and lowers the level of oxidative stress to protect the heart from aging. PMID:24137254

  13. Promoting successful aging through effective prevention and management of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, Thomas A; Noll, Donald R

    2013-02-01

    Successful aging has been described as having 3 components: a low probability of disease and disease-related disability, a capacity for high cognitive and physical function, and active engagement with social and productive activities. Osteopathic physicians play a critical role in the promotion of successful aging through the prevention, early detection, and management of osteoporosis. Not many years ago, osteoporosis was viewed as an age-related disorder for which there was a lack of effective approaches for early intervention and management. Now, that view has changed.

  14. Hygrothermal ageing effect on mechanical properties of FRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi, S.; Bensaada, R.; Bilek, A.; Djebali, S.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of hygrothermal aging on mechanical properties of two composite materials (carbon fiber / epoxy and glass fiber E / vinylester). Two stratifications are studied for each material. Both materials are exposed to two different environments, the sea water and the deionized water at a temperature of 40°C. The kinetic of material absorption is plotted. We see an irreversible degradation of material caused by exposure time. The characterization of samples in the virgin state and the aged condition is achieved with three points bending tests. We can see significant loss of mechanical properties due to hygrothermal aging.

  15. What a difference your e-mail makes: effects of informal e-mail addresses in online résumé screening.

    PubMed

    van Toorenburg, Marlies; Oostrom, Janneke K; Pollet, Thomas V

    2015-03-01

    Résumés are screened rapidly, with some reports stating that recruiters form their impressions within 10 seconds. Certain résumé characteristics can have a significant impact on the snap judgments these recruiters make. The main goal of the present study was to examine the effect of the e-mail address (formal vs. informal) used in a résumé on the hirability perceptions formed by professional recruiters (N=73). In addition, the effect of the e-mail address on hirability perceptions was compared to the effects of spelling errors and typeface. Participants assessed the cognitive ability, personality, and the hirability of six fictitious applicants for the job of an HR specialist. The hirability ratings for the résumés with informal e-mail addresses were significantly lower than the hirability ratings for résumés that featured a formal e-mail address. The effect of e-mail address was as strong as the effect of spelling errors and stronger than that of typeface. The effect of e-mail address on hirability was mediated by perceptions of conscientiousness and honesty-humility. This study among actual recruiters shows for the first time that the choice of the e-mail address used on a résumé might make a real difference. PMID:25751044

  16. What a difference your e-mail makes: effects of informal e-mail addresses in online résumé screening.

    PubMed

    van Toorenburg, Marlies; Oostrom, Janneke K; Pollet, Thomas V

    2015-03-01

    Résumés are screened rapidly, with some reports stating that recruiters form their impressions within 10 seconds. Certain résumé characteristics can have a significant impact on the snap judgments these recruiters make. The main goal of the present study was to examine the effect of the e-mail address (formal vs. informal) used in a résumé on the hirability perceptions formed by professional recruiters (N=73). In addition, the effect of the e-mail address on hirability perceptions was compared to the effects of spelling errors and typeface. Participants assessed the cognitive ability, personality, and the hirability of six fictitious applicants for the job of an HR specialist. The hirability ratings for the résumés with informal e-mail addresses were significantly lower than the hirability ratings for résumés that featured a formal e-mail address. The effect of e-mail address was as strong as the effect of spelling errors and stronger than that of typeface. The effect of e-mail address on hirability was mediated by perceptions of conscientiousness and honesty-humility. This study among actual recruiters shows for the first time that the choice of the e-mail address used on a résumé might make a real difference.

  17. Cost-effectiveness landscape analysis of treatments addressing xerostomia in patients receiving head and neck radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sasportas, Laura S.; Hosford, Andrew T.; Sodini, Maria A.; Waters, Dale J.; Zambricki, Elizabeth A.; Barral, Joëlle K.; Graves, Edward E.; Brinton, Todd J.; Yock, Paul G.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Sirjani, Davud

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck (H&N) radiation therapy (RT) can induce irreversible damage to the salivary glands thereby causing long-term xerostomia or dry mouth in 68%–85% of the patients. Not only does xerostomia significantly impair patients’ quality-of-life (QOL) but it also has important medical sequelae, incurring high medical and dental costs. In this article, we review various measures to assess xerostomia and evaluate current and emerging solutions to address this condition in H&N cancer patients. These solutions typically seek to accomplish 1 of the 4 objectives: (1) to protect the salivary glands during RT, (2) to stimulate the remaining gland function, (3) to treat the symptoms of xerostomia, or (4) to regenerate the salivary glands. For each treatment, we assess its mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, clinical utilization, and cost. We conclude that intensity-modulated radiation therapy is both the most widely used prevention approach and the most cost-effective existing solution and we highlight novel and promising techniques on the cost-effectiveness landscape. PMID:23643579

  18. The Relative Age Effect in Elite Sport: The French Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delorme, Nicolas; Boiche, Julie; Raspaud, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is considered a common phenomenon in elite sport. However, it has not been examined systematically in previous research, and the mechanisms likely to generate or to limit such an effect are little understood. This paper investigates the prevalence of the RAE in French professional championship-level players, taking…

  19. Evidence of aging effects on certain safety-related components

    SciTech Connect

    Magleby, H.L.; Atwood, C.L.; MacDonald, P.E.; Edson, J.L.; Bramwell, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    In response to interest shown by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Principal Working Group I (PWG- 1) of the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) conducted a generic study on the effects of aging of active components in nuclear power plants. (This focus on active components is consistent with PWG-l`s mandate; passive components are primarily within the mandate of PWG-3.) Representatives from France, Sweden, Finland, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom participated in the study by submitting reports documenting aging studies performed in their countries. This report consists of summaries of those reports, along with a comparison of the various statistical analysis methods used in the studies. The studies indicate that with some exceptions, active components generally do not present a significant aging problem in nuclear power plants. Design criteria and effective preventative maintenance programs, including timely replacement of components, are effective in mitigating potential aging problems. However, aging studies (such as qualitative and statistical analyses of failure modes and maintenance data) are an important part of efforts to identify and solve potential aging problems. Solving these problems typically includes such strategies as replacing suspect components with improved components, and implementing improved maintenance programs.

  20. Patterns and effectiveness of bortezomib use according to age in the VESUVE cohort.

    PubMed

    Grelaud, Angela; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Fitoussi, Olivier; Facon, Thierry; Jové, Jérémy; Bénichou, Jacques; Robinson, Philip; Marit, Gérald; Rouyer, Magali; Moore, Nicholas; Noize, Pernelle

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutical options for older multiple myeloma patients have been improved with the advent of new drugs, yet there is a lack of observational data for such patients. To address this issue, an age-stratified analysis of the VESUVE cohort of bortezomib users was performed. Among the 779 patients included in the analysis, 358 (46%) were aged ≤ 65 years, 282 (36%) were between 65-75 years and 139 (18%) were more than 75 years old. There were few significant differences in treatment parameters across age groups; notably, older patients received a lower dose of bortezomib and more frequently experienced general or administration site conditions, metabolism or nutrition disorders and cardiac disorders. Overall best response rate and progression-free survival were similar across age groups. Taken together, these results indicate that older patients do benefit from bortezomib and that tailored treatment in real-life clinical practice does not compromise effectiveness.

  1. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world

    PubMed Central

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance. PMID:25713524

  2. Report on thermal aging effects on tensile properties of ferritic-martensitic steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Soppet, W.K.; Rink, D.L.; Listwan, J.T.; Natesan, K.

    2012-05-10

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of thermal-aging induced degradation of tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic steels. The report is the first deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030103), under the Work Package A-11AN040301, 'Advanced Alloy Testing' performed by Argonne National Laboratory, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing tensile data on aged alloys and a mechanistic model, validated by experiments, with a predictive capability on long-term performance. The scope of work is to evaluate the effect of thermal aging on the tensile properties of advanced alloys such as ferritic-martensitic steels, mod.9Cr-1Mo, NF616, and advanced austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS. The aging experiments have been conducted over a temperature of 550-750 C for various time periods to simulate the microstructural changes in the alloys as a function of time at temperature. In addition, a mechanistic model based on thermodynamics and kinetics has been used to address the changes in microstructure of the alloys as a function of time and temperature, which is developed in the companion work package at ANL. The focus of this project is advanced alloy testing and understanding the effects of long-term thermal aging on the tensile properties. Advanced materials examined in this project include ferritic-martensitic steels mod.9Cr-1Mo and NF616, and austenitic steel, HT-UPS. The report summarizes the tensile testing results of thermally-aged mod.9Cr-1Mo, NF616 H1 and NF616 H2 ferritic-martensitic steels. NF616 H1 and NF616 H2 experienced different thermal-mechanical treatments before thermal aging experiments. NF616 H1 was normalized and tempered, and NF616 H2 was normalized and tempered and cold-rolled. By examining these two heats, we evaluated the effects of thermal-mechanical treatments on material microstructures and

  3. Effects of age on speech and voice quality ratings.

    PubMed

    Goy, Huiwen; Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, M; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The quality of communication may be affected by listeners' perception of talkers' characteristics. This study examined if there were effects of talker and listener age on the perception of speech and voice qualities. Younger and older listeners judged younger and older talkers' gender and age, then rated speech samples on pleasantness, naturalness, clarity, ease of understanding, loudness, and the talker's suitability to be an audiobook reader. For the same talkers, listeners also rated voice samples on pleasantness, roughness, and power. Younger and older talkers were perceived to be similar on most qualities except age. Younger and older listeners rated talkers similarly, except that younger listeners perceived younger voices to be more pleasant and less rough than older voices. For vowel samples, younger listeners were more accurate than older listeners at age estimation, while older listeners were more accurate than younger listeners at gender identification, suggesting that younger and older listeners differ in their evaluation of specific talker characteristics. Thus, the perception of quality was generally more affected by the age of the listener than the age of the talker, and age-related differences between listeners depended on whether voice or speech samples were used and the rating being made. PMID:27106312

  4. The Effects of Aging on Researchers' Publication and Citation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Yves; Larivière, Vincent; Macaluso, Benoît; Robitaille, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The average age at which U.S. researchers receive their first grant from NIH has increased from 34.3 in 1970, to 41.7 in 2004. These data raise the crucial question of the effects of aging on the scientific productivity and impact of researchers. Drawing on a sizeable sample of 6,388 university professors in Quebec who have published at least one paper between 2000 and 2007, our results identify two turning points in the professors' careers. A first turning point is visible at age 40 years, where researchers start to rely on older literature and where their productivity increases at a slower pace—after having increased sharply since the beginning of their career. A second turning point can be seen around age 50, when researchers are the most productive whereas their average scientific impact is at its lowest. Our results also show that older professors publish fewer first-authored papers and move closer to the end of the list of co-authors. Although average scientific impact per paper decreases linearly until about age 50, the average number of papers in highly cited journals and among highly cited papers rises continuously until retirement. Our results show clearly that productivity and impact are not a simple and declining function of age and that we must take into account the collaborative aspects of scientific research. Science is a collective endeavor and, as our data shows, researchers of all ages play a significant role in its dynamic. PMID:19112502

  5. Effects of culture age on symbiotic infectivity of Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuvaneswari, T.V.; Mills, K.K.; Crist, D.K.; Evans, W.R.; Bauer, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The infectivity of the soybean symbiont Rhizobium japonicum changed two- to fivefold with culture age for strains 110 ARS, 138 Str Spc, and 123 Spc, whereas culture age had relatively little effect on the infectivity of strains 83 Str and 61A76 Str. Infectivity was measured by determining the number of nodules which developed on soybean primary roots in the zone which contained developing and preemergent root hairs at the time of inoculation. Root cells in this region of the host root are susceptible to Rhizobium infection, but this susceptibility is lost during acropetal development and maturation of the root cells within a period of 4 to 6 h. Profiles of nodulation frequency at different locations on the root were not affected by the age of the R. japonicum cultures, indicating that culture age affected the efficiency of Rhizobium infection rather than how soon infections were initiated after inoculation. Inoculum dose-response experiments also indicated that culture age affected the efficiency of infection. Two strains, 61A76 Str and 83 Str, were relatively inefficient at all culture ages, particularly at low inoculum doses. Changes in infectivity with culture age were reasonably well correlated with changes in the proportion of cells in a culture capable of binding soybean lectin. Suspensions of R. japonicum in water were found to retain their viability and infectivity. 15 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Effect of age on extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor availability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S. |

    1996-05-01

    It is known that dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia decreases with age. This study was done to assess the effects of age on extrastriatal DA D2 receptors. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in 42 healthy male subjects (age mean 41 {plus_minus} 16, range 21 -86 year old) using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen, thalamus, frontal, occipital cortices, temporal insula, cingulate and orbitofrontal gyri) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max.}/K{sub d}. Pearson product-moment correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between age and D2 receptor availability. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen (r {le} 0.0001), caudate (r {le} 0.0002), thalamus (r {le} 0.03), and temporal insula (r {le} 0.01) were significantly correlated with age. The decrements in D2 receptors with age were lower in extrastriatal than in striatal regions and corresponded to a decrease of 4.7% per decade in caudate, 6.2% in putamen, 2.1% in thalamus and 2.5% in temporal insula. This study documents age related decrement of DA D2 receptor availability in striatal and extrastriatal regions.

  7. [Age Effect on Relationship Between Intelligence and EEG Characteristics].

    PubMed

    Belousova, L V; Razumnikova, O M; Volf, N V

    2015-01-01

    Age effect on EEG correlates of psychometrically estimated intelligence (IQ) in the younger (N = 132, age mean = 21.8 ± 3.1) and elder groups (N = 84, age mean = 64.1 ± 6.6) was studied. Regression analysis of individual alpha peak frequency's meanings, total power of biopotentials in eight frequency ranges indicated that a decrease of IQ correlates with age increase, or with decrease of individual alpha peak frequency with positive contribution of the alpha3 power and negative--of the beta1. High meaning of the alpha3 power and low meaning of the beta1 are the predictors of high intelligence in the younger group. High intelligence in the elder group is accompanied by a trend to increase of the individual alpha peak frequency and to decrease of the theta/beta1 power ration together with significant decrease of the alpha3/alpha2 power ratio.

  8. Antidepressant prescription and suicide rates: effect of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J John

    2008-08-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in both genders. The strongest association was found in the oldest age groups, where the increase in antidepressant use was highest, while there was no association in the under 20 or 50-69 age groups in either gender. Antidepressant prescription rate was related to suicide rate after controlling for divorce rate or unemployment rate, but not after controlling for alcohol consumption rate.

  9. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network: An Effective Infrastructure for Addressing Important Issues in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a rapidly evolving field with active preclinical and clinical development of new strategies for patient assessment, graft selection and manipulation, and pre- and post-transplantation drug and cell therapy. New strategies require evaluation in definitive clinical trials; however, HCT trials face unique challenges, including the relatively small number of transplantations performed at any single center, the diverse indications for HCT requiring dissimilar approaches, the complex nature of the intervention itself, the risk of multiple complications in the immediate post-transplantation period, and the risk of important, though infrequent, late effects. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) was established by the US National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute to meet these challenges. In its 15 years as a network, the BMT CTN has proven to be a successful infrastructure for planning, implementing, and completing such trials and for providing definitive answers to questions leading to improvements in the understanding and practice of HCT. It has opened 37 trials, about one-half phase 2 and one-half phase 3, enrolled more than 8000 patients, and published 57 papers addressing important issues in the treatment of patients with life-threatening malignant and nonmalignant blood disorders. This review describes the network's accomplishments, key components of its success, lessons learned over the past 15 years, and challenges for the future.

  10. Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation on Aging and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    If aging is due to or contributed by free radical reactions, as postulated by the free radical theory of aging, lifespan of organisms should be extended by administration of exogenous antioxidants. This paper reviews data on model organisms concerning the effects of exogenous antioxidants (antioxidant vitamins, lipoic acid, coenzyme Q, melatonin, resveratrol, curcumin, other polyphenols, and synthetic antioxidants including antioxidant nanoparticles) on the lifespan of model organisms. Mechanisms of effects of antioxidants, often due to indirect antioxidant action or to action not related to the antioxidant properties of the compounds administered, are discussed. The legitimacy of antioxidant supplementation in human is considered. PMID:24783202

  11. The effect of normal aging and age-related macular degeneration on perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Astle, Andrew T.; Blighe, Alan J.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach. PMID:26605694

  12. The effects of age and experience on accidents with injuries: should the licensing age be raised?

    PubMed

    Laberge-Nadeau, C; Maag, U; Bourbeau, R

    1992-04-01

    In Canadian Provinces and in several states of the United States the minimal legal age to drive a motor vehicle is 16 years old and in some, it is 15. The excess mortality and morbidity registered by 15 to 24-year-old drivers is well known. Several studies have reported that accident rates decrease with experience, but the effect of the age of new drivers has not been well documented. The objective is to study injury accident rates in terms of the age and experience factors. The data sources are computer files of the Government Insurance Corporation (Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec), which covers all Quebec drivers. For each driver, the file contains birth date, sex, year and month of first license, involvement in accidents, and other parameters. The yearly rates (1970-1984) of new permits per age last birthday and sex show an increase over time, particularly for 16-year-old men. For the period 1979-1984, injury accident involvement rates were computed for all Quebec drivers by age, sex, and driving experience. An experienced driver has been defined as a person who has been licensed for at least one year. The results show, for experienced as well as inexperienced young men (16-18), a high injury accident rate that decreases with age. For women, the rates are much lower and decrease more gradually than for men. This study does not take into account the kilometers driven. Since young drivers (16-18) have the highest accident rates, the question of regulating access to first licensing for such drivers must be examined as a possible strategy for injury prevention. PMID:1558618

  13. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  14. The effects of age and gender on laryngeal aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Goozée, J V; Murdoch, B E; Theodoros, D G; Thompson, E C

    1998-01-01

    A computerized airflow/air pressure analysis system, the Aerophone II Model 6800 (Kay Elemetrics Corp.), was used to assess the effects of age and gender on laryngeal aerodynamics. A sample of 56 male and 53 female normal speaking subjects was divided into six age groups (20-30; 31-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-70 and 71-80 years). The laryngeal aerodynamic parameters measured included phonatory (mean) flow rate, estimated subglottal pressure, laryngeal airway resistance, phonatory sound pressure level, phonatory power, and phonatory efficiency. Most comfortable phonation, vocal efficiency, and running speech tasks were used to collect the aerodynamic data. Comfortable pitch and loudness levels were used for each of these tasks. Age and gender effects were found for a number of the phonatory (mean) flow rate and phonatory sound pressure level values. Results failed, however, to indicate age or gender effects for the estimated subglottal pressure, laryngeal airway resistance, phonatory power and phonatory efficiency parameters. High intersubject variability was found for the phonatory flow rate, laryngeal airway resistance, phonatory power and phonatory efficiency values. Estimated subglottal pressure values, however, appeared to vary the least among subjects. The results are discussed with respect to factors that might influence laryngeal aerodynamics, such as underlying laryngeal anatomical and physiological age-related changes and gender-related differences. The clinical implications of the findings for the assessment and treatment of individuals with voice disorders using the Aerophone II are also discussed.

  15. Analysis of Ageing Effect on Li-Polymer Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Barcellona, Simone; Brenna, Morris; Foiadelli, Federica; Longo, Michela; Piegari, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for current and future energy storage in mobile and stationary application. In particular, they play an important role in the electrification of mobility and therefore the battery lifetime prediction is a fundamental aspect for successful market introduction. Numerous studies developed ageing models capable of predicting battery life span. Most of the previous works compared the effect of the ageing factors to a battery's cycle life. These cycles are identical, which is not the case for electric vehicles applications. Indeed, most of the available information is based on results from laboratory testing, under very controlled environments, and using ageing protocols, which may not correctly reflect the actual utilization. For this reason, it is important to link the effect of duty cycles with the ageing of the batteries. This paper proposes a simple method to investigate the effect of the duty cycle on the batteries lifetime through tests performed on different cells for different kinds of cycle. In this way, a generic complex cycle can be seen as a composition of elemental cycles by means of Rainflow procedures. Consequently, the ageing due to any cycle can be estimated starting from the knowledge of simpler cycles. PMID:26236775

  16. Can Aging in Place Be Cost Effective? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Graybill, Erin M.; McMeekin, Peter; Wildman, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study To systematically review cost, cost-minimization and cost-effectiveness studies for assisted living technologies (ALTs) that specifically enable older people to ‘age in place’ and highlight what further research is needed to inform decisions regarding aging in place. Design People aged 65+ and their live-in carers (where applicable), using an ALT to age in place at home opposed to a community-dwelling arrangement. Methods Studies were identified using a predefined search strategy on two key economic and cost evaluation databases NHS EED, HEED. Studies were assessed using methods recommended by the Campbell and Cochrane Economic Methods Group and presented in a narrative synthesis style. Results Eight eligible studies were identified from North America spread over a diverse geographical range. The majority of studies reported the ALT intervention group as having lower resource use costs than the control group; though the low methodological quality and heterogeneity of the individual costs and outcomes reported across studies must be considered. Implications The studies suggest that in some cases ALTs may reduce costs, though little data were identified and what there were was of poor quality. Methods to capture quality of life gains were not used, therefore potential effects on health and wellbeing may be missed. Further research is required using newer developments such as the capabilities approach. High quality studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of ALTs for ageing in place are required before robust conclusion on their use can be drawn. PMID:25058505

  17. Wind power: Addressing wildlife impacts, assessing effects on tourism, and examining the link between climate change perceptions and support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Meredith Blaydes

    As the world's most rapidly growing source of energy, wind power has vast potential for mitigating climate change and advancing global environmental sustainability. Yet, the challenges facing wind energy remain both complex and substantial. Two such challenges are: 1) wildlife impacts; and 2) perceived negative effects on tourism. This dissertation examines these challenges in a multi-paper format, and also investigates the role that climate change perceptions play in garnering public support for wind power. The first paper assesses optimal approaches for addressing wind power's wildlife impacts. Comparative analysis reveals that avian mortality from turbines ranks far behind avian mortality from a number of other anthropogenic sources. Additionally, although bats have recently emerged as more vulnerable to wind turbines than birds, they are generally less federally protected. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) protects over 800 bird species, regardless of their threatened or endangered status. Moreover, it criminalizes the incidental take of birds without a permit and simultaneously grants no permits for such incidental take, thereby creating a legal conundrum for the wind industry. An examination of the legislative and case history of the MBTA, however, reveals that wind operators are not likely to be prosecuted for incidental take if they cooperate with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) and take reasonable steps to reduce siting and operational impacts. Furthermore, this study's analysis reveals modest wildlife impacts from wind power, in comparison with numerous other energy sources. Scientific-research, legal, and policy recommendations are provided to update the present legal and regulatory regime under the MBTA and to minimize avian and bat impacts. For instance, FWS should: establish comprehensive federal guidelines for wind facility siting, permitting, monitoring, and mitigation; and promulgate regulations under the MBTA for the issuance of

  18. Evaluating the effect of a community-based lay health advisor training curriculum to address immigrant children's caries disparities.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yuan-Jung; Peng, Wu-Der; Chen, Jen-Hao; Lin, Ying-Chun; Chang, Chin-Shun; Chen, Ted; Hu, Chih-Yang; Ho, Pei-Shan; Chen, Fu-Li; Lee, Chien-Hung; Huang, Hsiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Previous programs had not designed the culturally adequate Lay Health Advisor (LHA) oral health training curriculum for medically underserved population. We evaluated the effects of LHA training curriculum for addressing immigrant children's caries disparities in their access to dental care. We used a pre/post-test study design. Immigrant women were recruited from churches, schools, and immigrant centers in an urban area. Four training classes were held. Each training cycle lasted 15 consecutive weeks, consisting of 1 weekly 2-h training session for 12 weeks followed by a 3-week practicum. The curriculum included training in caries-related knowledge, oral hygiene demonstrations, teaching techniques, communication skills, and hands-on practice sessions. Thirty-seven LHA trainees completed the course and passed the post-training exam. The data were collected using self-report questionnaires. The level of oral health knowledge, self-efficacy and attitudes toward oral hygiene were significantly increased after LHA training. There was a significant and over twofold increase in trainees' oral hygiene behaviors. An increase of >20% in LHA and their children's dental checkup was observed following training. After training, LHAs were more likely to have 3+ times of brushing teeth [Odds Ratio (OR) = 13.14], brushing teeth 3+ minutes (OR = 3.47), modified bass method use (OR = 30.60), dental flossing (OR = 4.56), fluoride toothpaste use (OR = 5.63) and child's dental visit (OR = 3.57). The cross-cultural training curriculum designed for immigrant women serving as LHAs was effective in improvement of oral hygiene behaviors and access to dental care. PMID:25634314

  19. Effects of age and eccentricity on visual target detection

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Nicole; Müri, René M.; Mosimann, Urs P.; Bieri, Rahel; Aeschimann, Andrea; Zito, Giuseppe A.; Urwyler, Prabitha; Nyffeler, Thomas; Nef, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging and target eccentricity on a visual search task comprising 30 images of everyday life projected into a hemisphere, realizing a ±90° visual field. The task performed binocularly allowed participants to freely move their eyes to scan images for an appearing target or distractor stimulus (presented at 10°; 30°, and 50° eccentricity). The distractor stimulus required no response, while the target stimulus required acknowledgment by pressing the response button. One hundred and seventeen healthy subjects (mean age = 49.63 years, SD = 17.40 years, age range 20–78 years) were studied. The results show that target detection performance decreases with age as well as with increasing eccentricity, especially for older subjects. Reaction time also increases with age and eccentricity, but in contrast to target detection, there is no interaction between age and eccentricity. Eye movement analysis showed that younger subjects exhibited a passive search strategy while older subjects exhibited an active search strategy probably as a compensation for their reduced peripheral detection performance. PMID:24474935

  20. Effects of aging and IQ on item and associative memory.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-08-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual participants. The values of the components of processing identified by the model for the recognition tasks, as well as accuracy for cued and free recall, were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 85 to 140) and age (college age, 60-74 years old, and 75-90 years old). IQ had large effects on drift rate in recognition and recall performance, except for the oldest participants with some measures near floor. Drift rates in the recognition tasks, accuracy in recall, and IQ all correlated strongly. However, there was a small decline in drift rates for item recognition and a large decline for associative recognition and cued recall accuracy (70%). In contrast, there were large effects of age on boundary separation and nondecision time (which correlated across tasks) but small effects of IQ. The implications of these results for single- and dual-process models of item recognition are discussed, and it is concluded that models that deal with both RTs and accuracy are subject to many more constraints than are models that deal with only one of these measures. Overall, the results of the study show a complicated but interpretable pattern of interactions that present important targets for modeling. PMID:21707207

  1. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  2. Differential effects of age on involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Schlagman, Simone; Kliegel, Matthias; Schulz, Jörg; Kvavilashvili, Lia

    2009-06-01

    Research on aging and autobiographical memory has focused almost exclusively on voluntary autobiographical memory. However, in everyday life, autobiographical memories often come to mind spontaneously without deliberate attempt to retrieve anything. In the present study, diary and word-cue methods were used to compare the involuntary and voluntary memories of 44 young and 38 older adults. The results showed that older adults reported fewer involuntary and voluntary memories than did younger adults. Additionally, the life span distribution of involuntary and voluntary memories did not differ in young adults (a clear recency effect) or in older adults (a recency effect and a reminiscence bump). Despite these similarities between involuntary and voluntary memories, there were also important differences in terms of the effects of age on some memory characteristics. Thus, older adults' voluntary memories were less specific and were recalled more slowly than those of young adults, but there were no reliable age differences in the specificity of involuntary memories. Moreover, older adults rated their involuntary memories as more positive than did young adults, but this positivity effect was not found for voluntary memories. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on autobiographical memory and cognitive aging are discussed. PMID:19485657

  3. Professor Age Affects Student Ratings: Halo Effect for Younger Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janie H.; Beyer, Denise; Monteiro, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching provide valued information about teaching effectiveness, and studies support the reliability and validity of such measures. However, research also illustrates potential moderation of student perceptions based on teacher gender, attractiveness, and even age, although the latter receives little research attention. In…

  4. Differential Age Effects on Spatial and Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cleo; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young…

  5. AGING-RELATED CARBARYL EFFECTS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid increase in older adults in the population highlights the importance ofunderstanding the role of aging in susceptibility to environmental contaminants. Aspart of a larger research program on life-stage susceptibility, this experiment determined the effect of the carbama...

  6. Aging, Neighborhood Attachment, and Fear of Crime: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Sangmoon

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the reciprocal effects between fear of crime and neighborhood attachment because aging is a critical factor in both discussions of fear of crime and neighborhood attachment (friendship, neighboring, social cohesion and trust, informal social control, and participation in neighborhood watch program). Using data from…

  7. The Effect of Kindergarten Entry Age on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buten, Nicole A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of kindergarten entry age on the scores of the eighth grade Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) math and reading scores, while controlling for the demographic variables of gender and socioeconomic status. The subjects included 1,197 students who participated in the randomized, long-term STAR (Student-Teacher…

  8. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  9. Aging Effect on Visual and Spatial Components of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beigneux, Katia; Plaie, Thierry; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging on the storage of visual and spatial working memory according to Logie's model of working memory (1995). In a first experiment young, elderly, and very old subjects carried out two tasks usually used to measure visual span (Visual Patterns Test) and spatial span (Corsi Block Tapping test).…

  10. Effects of Aging on Influenza Virus Infection Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.; Wilk, Esther; Canini, Laetitia; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Binder, Sebastian C.; Uvarovskii, Alexey; Ross, Ted M.; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The consequences of influenza virus infection are generally more severe in individuals over 65 years of age (the elderly). Immunosenescence enhances the susceptibility to viral infections and renders vaccination less effective. Understanding age-related changes in the immune system is crucial in order to design prophylactic and immunomodulatory strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Here, we propose different mathematical models to provide a quantitative understanding of the immune strategies in the course of influenza virus infection using experimental data from young and aged mice. Simulation results suggested a central role of CD8+ T cells for adequate viral clearance kinetics in young and aged mice. Adding the removal of infected cells by natural killer cells did not improve the model fit in either young or aged animals. We separately examined the infection-resistant state of cells promoted by the cytokines alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β), IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The combination of activated CD8+ T cells with any of the cytokines provided the best fits in young and aged animals. During the first 3 days after infection, the basic reproductive number for aged mice was 1.5-fold lower than that for young mice (P < 0.05). IMPORTANCE The fits of our models to the experimental data suggest that the increased levels of IFN-α/β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α (the “inflammaging” state) promote slower viral growth in aged mice, which consequently limits the stimulation of immune cells and contributes to the reported impaired responses in the elderly. A quantitative understanding of influenza virus pathogenesis and its shift in the elderly is the key contribution of this work. PMID:24478442

  11. Trends in Triathlon Performance: Effects of Sex and Age.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat; Stapley, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    The influences of sex and age upon endurance performance have previously been documented for both running and swimming. A number of recent studies have investigated how sex and age influence triathlon performance, a sport that combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running), with competitions commonly lasting between 2 (short distance: 1.5-km swim, 40-km cycle and 10-km run) and 8 h (Ironman distance: 3.8-km swim,180-km cycle and 42-km run) for elite triathletes. Age and sex influences upon performance have also been investigated for ultra-triathlons, with distances corresponding to several Ironman distances and lasting several days, and for off-road triathlons combining swimming, mountain biking and trail running. Triathlon represents an intriguing alternative model for analysing the effects of age and sex upon endurance and ultra-endurance ([6 h) performance because sex differences and age-related declines in performance can be analysed in the same individuals across the three separate disciplines. The relative participation of both females and masters athletes (age[40 years) in triathlon has increased consistently over the past 25 years. Sex differences in triathlon performance are also known to differ between the modes of locomotion adopted (swimming, cycling or running) for both elite and non-elite triathletes. Generally, time differences between sexes in swimming have been shown to be smaller on average than during cycling and running. Both physiological and morphological factors contribute to explaining these findings. Performance density (i.e. the time difference between the winner and tenth-placed competitor) has progressively improved (time differences have decreased) for international races over the past two decades for both males and females, with performance density now very similar for both sexes. For age-group triathletes, sex differences in total triathlon performance time increases with age. However,the possible difference in age

  12. The Effects of Organizational Culture on Mental Health Service Engagement of Transition Age Youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth M; Biegel, David E; Min, Meeyoung O; Munson, Michelle R

    2015-10-01

    Nationwide, there is a growing concern in understanding mental health service engagement among transition age youth. The ecological perspective suggests that there are multiple barriers to service engagement which exist on varying levels of the ecosystem. Based on the socio-technical theory and organizational culture theory, this study examined the impact of organization-level characteristics on perceived service engagement and the moderating role of organizational culture on practitioner-level characteristics affecting youth service engagement. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to address the research questions. The data were collected from 279 practitioners from 27 mental health service organizations representing three major metropolitan areas in Ohio. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to address a nested structure. Findings revealed that location of organization, service setting, and organizational culture had significant effects on the continuation of services. In addition, the relationship between service coordination and resource knowledge and service engagement was moderated by organizational culture.

  13. Effectiveness of training family physicians to deliver a brief intervention to address excessive substance use among young patients: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Dagmar M.; Meynard, Anne; Lefebvre, Daniele; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Narring, Françoise; Broers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brief interventions delivered by family physicians to address excessive alcohol use among adult patients are effective. We conducted a study to determine whether such an intervention would be similarly effective in reducing binge drinking and excessive cannabis use among young people. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 33 family physicians in Switzerland. Physicians in the intervention group received training in delivering a brief intervention to young people during the consultation in addition to usual care. Physicians in the control group delivered usual care only. Consecutive patients aged 15–24 years were recruited from each practice and, before the consultation, completed a confidential questionnaire about their general health and substance use. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months after the consultation. The primary outcome measure was self-reported excessive substance use (≥ 1 episode of binge drinking, or ≥ 1 joint of cannabis per week, or both) in the past 30 days. Results: Of the 33 participating physicians, 17 were randomly allocated to the intervention group and 16 to the control group. Of the 594 participating patients, 279 (47.0%) identified themselves as binge drinkers or excessive cannabis users, or both, at baseline. Excessive substance use did not differ significantly between patients whose physicians were in the intervention group and those whose physicians were in the control group at any of the follow-up points (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] at 3 months: 0.9 [0.6–1.4]; at 6 mo: 1.0 [0.6–1.6]; and at 12 mo: 1.1 [0.7–1.8]). The differences between groups were also nonsignificant after we re stricted the analysis to patients who reported excessive substance use at baseline (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9–2.8, at 3 mo; OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9–3.2, at 6 mo; and OR 1.9, 95% CI 0.9–4.0, at 12 mo). Interpretation: Training family physicians to use a brief intervention to

  14. Food Decision-Making: Effects of Weight Status and Age.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-09-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The effects of weight status and age on food preference, food cue sensitivity, and self-control are discussed, as these are important components of food decision-making. Furthermore, the neural correlates of food anticipation and choice and how these are affected by weight status and age are discussed. Behavioral studies show that in particular, poor self-control may have an adverse effect on food choice in children and adults with overweight and obesity. Neuroimaging studies show that overweight and obese individuals have altered neural responses to food in brain areas related to reward, self-control, and interoception. Longitudinal studies across the lifespan will be invaluable to unravel the causal factors driving (changes in) food choice, overconsumption, and weight gain. PMID:27473844

  15. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science - Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, S; Mills, C E; Phan, N; Taylor, K; Boreham, D R

    2011-02-22

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered.The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  16. [The effects of video games on cognitive aging].

    PubMed

    Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan

    2012-03-01

    Advancing age is associated with cognitive decline, which, however, remains a very heterogeneous phenomenon. Indeed, several extrinsic factors seem to modulate the effect of aging on cognition. Recently, several studies have provided evidence that the practice of video games could engender many benefits by favoring the maintenance of cognitive vitality in the elderly. This review of the literature aims to establish a precise inventory of the relations between the various types of video games and cognitive aging, including both sedentary video games (i.e., classics as well as brain training) and active video games (i.e., exergames). The largest benefits seem to be provided by exergames which combine game play with significant physical exercise. This article also tries to define the determinants of the training programs which could be responsible for the observed improvements.

  17. Interpreting chlorophyll fluorescence signals: the effects of leaf age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, L.; Vergeli, P.; Martins, G.; Saleska, S. R.; Huxman, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) promises robust estimation of carbon uptake across landscapes, as studies of plant physiology have shown that fluorescence emission is directly linked to photosynthesis at the leaf level. Yet most leaf-level studies demonstrating the link between chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis have studied leaves in their prime: leaves that recently finished expansion and have yet to senesce. By contrast, remote sensing of landscapes involves observing leaves of different ages. For example, broadleaf deciduous forests and annual plant communities in temperate regions have leaves that develop and then senesce over the course of a growing season. In this experiment, we explored how leaf age and moisture availability affect steady-state fluoresence (Fs) at the leaf level. We simultaneously measured net photosynthesis (Anet) and Fs for leaves of known ages on greenhouse-grown dwarf Helianthus Annuus (sunflowers) from two watering treatments. To monitor plant water status, we measured pre-dawn water potential, and, for a subset of leaves, osmotic potential. Fully expanded or near-fully expanded leaves (~8 to ~23 days old) had higher Anet at saturating light than young, expanding leaves (less than 8 days old) or old leaves nearing senescence (>23 days old). We found a positive relationship between Fs and Anet, suggesting that the link between fluorescence emission and photosynthesis is robust across leaves of different ages. However, leaf age had marked effects on the light response curve of photosynthesis and fluorescence metrics. These results suggest that leaf age distribution, and changes in leaf age distribution due to phenology, should be considered when interpreting SIF at the landscape level.

  18. Cross-age effects on forensic face construction

    PubMed Central

    Fodarella, Cristina; Brown, Charity; Lewis, Amy; Frowd, Charlie D.

    2015-01-01

    The own-age bias (OAB) refers to recognition memory being more accurate for people of our own age than other age groups (e.g., Wright and Stroud, 2002). This paper investigated whether the OAB effect is present during construction of human faces (also known as facial composites, often for forensic/police use). In doing so, it adds to our understanding of factors influencing both facial memory across the life span as well as performance of facial composites. Participant-witnesses were grouped into younger (19–35 years) and older (51–80 years) adults, and constructed a single composite from memory of an own- or cross-age target face using the feature-based composite system PRO-fit. They also completed the shortened version of the glasgow face matching test (GFMT; Burton et al., 2010). A separate group of participants who were familiar with the relevant identities attempted to name the resulting composites. Correct naming of the composites revealed the presence of an OAB for older adults, who constructed more-identifiable composites of own-age than cross-age faces. For younger adults, age of target face did not influence correct naming and their composites were named at the same level as those constructed by older adults for younger targets. Also, there was no reliable correlation between face perception ability and composite quality. Overall, correct naming was fairly good across the experiment, and indicated benefit for older witnesses for older targets. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary theories of OAB, and implications of the work for forensic practice. PMID:26347697

  19. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to address nonlinear kinetics and changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation in deriving reference values for propylene glycol methyl ether and propylene glycol methyl ether acetate.

    SciTech Connect

    Kirman, C R.; Sweeney, Lisa M.; Corley, Rick A.; Gargas, M L.

    2005-04-01

    Reference values, including an oral reference dose (RfD) and an inhalation reference concentration (RfC), were derived for propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), and an oral RfD was derived for its acetate (PGMEA). These values were based upon transient sedation observed in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice during a two-year inhalation study. The dose-response relationship for sedation was characterized using internal dose measures as predicted by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for PGME and its acetate. PBPK modeling was used to account for changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation, based on data collected during weeks 1, 2, 26, 52, and 78 of a chronic inhalation study. The peak concentration of PGME in richly perfused tissues was selected as the most appropriate internal dose measure based upon a consideration of the mode of action for sedation and similarities in tissue partitioning between brain and other richly perfused tissues. Internal doses (peak tissue concentrations of PGME) were designated as either no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) based upon the presence or absence of sedation at each time-point, species, and sex in the two year study. Distributions of the NOAEL and LOAEL values expressed in terms of internal dose were characterized using an arithmetic mean and standard deviation, with the mean internal NOAEL serving as the basis for the reference values, which was then divided by appropriate uncertainty factors. Where data were permitting, chemical-specific adjustment factors were derived to replace default uncertainty factor values of ten. Nonlinear kinetics are were predicted by the model in all species at PGME concentrations exceeding 100 ppm, which complicates interspecies and low-dose extrapolations. To address this complication, reference values were derived using two approaches which differ with respect to the order in which these extrapolations

  20. Comment: Distinguishing Cohort Effects from Age*Period Effects on Non-Marital Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In the article "Cohort Effects on Non-marital Fertility," in this issue of "Social Forces," Jean Stockard employs a novel strategy for disentangling cohort, period, and age effects on the non-marital fertility ratio. In a model with fixed-effect controls for age and for time period, the author documents evidence for three cohort-specific factors…

  1. Reversal of the Effects of Aging in Soybean Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Tilden, Robert L.; West, Sherlie H.

    1985-01-01

    Accelerated aging predisposed seeds to imbibition injury. Slowing the rate of hydration prevented the loss of germinability due to imbibition injury. Germinability of accelerated aged seeds (50 hours) was increased from 10 to 90% by controlling the rate of imbibition. Slow hydration also prevented seed electrolyte leakage. This may indicate that cell membrane permeability or rupture was a major factor contributing to the loss of germinability after aging. Reversal of the effects of aging (repair) was accomplished by slowly inbibing and then redrying seeds (priming). This treatment lowered steep water conductivity by a factor of 2 to 5. Priming also increased the per cent germination of low vigor seeds. The mechanism of this reversal was probably metabolic because it depended on temperature, seed moisture, and treatment duration. Priming doubled the survival of seeds in the accelerated aging vigor test. The `rejuvenation' was accepted as evidence for metabolic repair. Since the `vigor' of seeds was increased by priming, metabolic repair probably included other subcellular components as well as the plasma membrane. PMID:16664102

  2. Reversal of the effects of aging in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Tilden, R L; West, S H

    1985-03-01

    Accelerated aging predisposed seeds to imbibition injury. Slowing the rate of hydration prevented the loss of germinability due to imbibition injury. Germinability of accelerated aged seeds (50 hours) was increased from 10 to 90% by controlling the rate of imbibition. Slow hydration also prevented seed electrolyte leakage. This may indicate that cell membrane permeability or rupture was a major factor contributing to the loss of germinability after aging.Reversal of the effects of aging (repair) was accomplished by slowly inbibing and then redrying seeds (priming). This treatment lowered steep water conductivity by a factor of 2 to 5. Priming also increased the per cent germination of low vigor seeds. The mechanism of this reversal was probably metabolic because it depended on temperature, seed moisture, and treatment duration.Priming doubled the survival of seeds in the accelerated aging vigor test. The ;rejuvenation' was accepted as evidence for metabolic repair. Since the ;vigor' of seeds was increased by priming, metabolic repair probably included other subcellular components as well as the plasma membrane.

  3. Anti-aging Effect and Gene Expression Profiling of Aged Rats Treated with G. bimaculatus Extract

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Sam; Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Kun-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Gryllus bimaculatus crickets inhibits oxidation at the DNA level, with reduced production of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Microarray analyses were performed with a rat 28K cDNA clone set array to identify the gene expression profiles of aged (10 months old) Wistar Kyoto rats treated for one month with 100 mg/kg G. bimaculatus ethanol extract to assess the effects. The extract produced a meaningful anti-edema effect, evident by the inhibition of creatinine phosphokinase activity. The weights of abdominal and ovarian adipose tissues were reduced and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissues was increased in an extract dose-dependent manner. Compared with untreated control rats, rats treated with the extract displayed the upregulation of 1053 genes including Fas (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6), Amigo3 (adhesion molecule with an immunoglobulin-like domain), Reticulon 4, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme (Hmgcr; a reductase), related anti-fatigue (enzyme metabolism), and Rtn antioxidant, and the downregulation of 73 genes including Ugt2b (UDP glycosyltransferase 2 family), Early growth response 1, and Glycoprotein m6a. Data suggest that G. bimaculatus extract may have value in lessening the effects of aging, resulting in a differential gene expression pattern indicative of a marked stress response and lower expression of metabolic and biosynthetic genes. PMID:26191384

  4. Addressing the Effects of Culture on the Boundary-Keeping Practices of Psychiatry Residents Educated outside of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Gary E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The author sought to develop a curriculum for international medical graduate (IMG) psychiatry residents that addresses their culture-based deviations from normative boundary-keeping practices common to U.S.-based psychotherapy practices. Methods: A group consisting of 12 IMG psychiatry residents and one United States graduate (USG)…

  5. Moving beyond "Those Kids": Addressing Teacher Beliefs Regarding the Role of Culture within Effective Science Pedagogy for Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Bolshakova, Virginia L. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on intensive work within a large, urban, low-performing middle school in the southwest to address and transform teacher beliefs regarding the role of culture within their science pedagogy. Given the recent, rapid growth of numbers of students from Hispanic/Latino(a) backgrounds in the United States, it is critical that a…

  6. Effects of aging on strategic-based visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Alfonso Uresti-Cabrera, Luis; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Diaz, Rosalinda; Beltran-Parrazal, Luis; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2015-08-27

    There are different kinds of visuomotor learnings. One of the most studied is error-based learning where the information about the sign and magnitude of the error is used to update the motor commands. However, there are other instances where subjects show visuomotor learning even if the use of error sign and magnitude information is precluded. In those instances subjects could be using strategic instead of procedural adaptation mechanisms. Here, we present the results of the effect of aging on visuomotor strategic learning under a reversed error feedback condition, and its contrast with procedural visuomotor learning within the same participants. A number of measures were obtained from a task consisting of throwing clay balls to a target before, during and after wearing lateral displacing or reversing prisms. The displacing prism results show an age dependent decrease on the learning rate that corroborates previous findings. The reversing prism results also show significant adaptation impairment in the aged population. However, decreased reversing learning in the older group was the result of an increase in the number of subjects that could not adapt to the reversing prism, and not on a reduction of the learning capacity of all the individuals of the group. These results suggest a significant deleterious effect of aging on visuomotor strategic learning implementation. PMID:26014620

  7. Effects of aging on strategic-based visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Alfonso Uresti-Cabrera, Luis; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Diaz, Rosalinda; Beltran-Parrazal, Luis; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2015-08-27

    There are different kinds of visuomotor learnings. One of the most studied is error-based learning where the information about the sign and magnitude of the error is used to update the motor commands. However, there are other instances where subjects show visuomotor learning even if the use of error sign and magnitude information is precluded. In those instances subjects could be using strategic instead of procedural adaptation mechanisms. Here, we present the results of the effect of aging on visuomotor strategic learning under a reversed error feedback condition, and its contrast with procedural visuomotor learning within the same participants. A number of measures were obtained from a task consisting of throwing clay balls to a target before, during and after wearing lateral displacing or reversing prisms. The displacing prism results show an age dependent decrease on the learning rate that corroborates previous findings. The reversing prism results also show significant adaptation impairment in the aged population. However, decreased reversing learning in the older group was the result of an increase in the number of subjects that could not adapt to the reversing prism, and not on a reduction of the learning capacity of all the individuals of the group. These results suggest a significant deleterious effect of aging on visuomotor strategic learning implementation.

  8. Relative Age Effect in UEFA Championship Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    González-Víllora, Sixto; Pastor-Vicedo, Juan C.; Cordente, David

    2015-01-01

    Relative Age Effect (RAE) is the breakdown by both age grouping and dates of birth of athletes. In the past 20 years the existence of this effect has been shown with higher or smaller impact in multiple sports, including soccer. The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of RAE in European soccer players. The sample included 841 elite soccer players who were participants in the UEFA European Soccer Championship in different categories. The professional category (n = 368), U-19 (n = 144) and U-17 (n = 145) were in 2012, and U-21 was in 2011 (n = 184). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Levene test recommended the use of nonparametric statistics. The results obtained by the square test ( the Kruskal-Wallis test and Cohen’s effect sizes revealed the existence of RAE (χ2 = 17.829, p < 0.001; d = 0.30), with the size of their different effects depending on their category or qualifying round achieved by the national team and the existence of significance in the observed differences by category. Therefore, we could continue examining RAE which is present in elite soccer, and could be considered a factor that influences performance of the national teams tested. RAE was not evident in the professional teams analysed, however it was present in the three lower categories analysed (youth categories), with its influence being greater on younger age categories (U-17). PMID:26557207

  9. Effects of Aging on Arm Swing during Gait: The Role of Gait Speed and Dual Tasking

    PubMed Central

    Mirelman, Anat; Bernad-Elazari, Hagar; Nobel, Tomer; Thaler, Avner; Peruzzi, Agnese; Plotnik, Meir; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy walking is characterized by pronounced arm swing and axial rotation. Aging effects on gait speed, stride length and stride time variability have been previously reported, however, less is known about aging effects on arm swing and axial rotation and their relationship to age-associated gait changes during usual walking and during more challenging conditions like dual tasking. Sixty healthy adults between the ages of 30–77 were included in this study designed to address this gap. Lightweight body fixed sensors were placed on each wrist and lower back. Participants walked under 3 walking conditions each of 1 minute: 1) comfortable speed, 2) walking while serially subtracting 3’s (Dual Task), 3) walking at fast speed. Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30–40; 41–50; 51–60; 61–77 years). As expected, older adults walked slower (p = 0.03) and with increased stride variability (p = 0.02). Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04). In the oldest group, arm swing decreased during dual task and increased during the fast walking condition (p<0.0001). Similarly, arm swing asymmetry increased during the dual task in the older groups (p<0.004), but not in the younger groups (p = 0.67). Significant differences between groups and within conditions were observed in arm swing jerk (p<0.02), axial rotation amplitude (p<0.02) and axial jerk (p<0.001). Gait speed, arm swing amplitude of the dominant arm, arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation jerk were all independent predictors of age in a multivariate model. These findings suggest that the effects of gait speed and dual tasking on arm swing and axial rotation during walking are altered among healthy older adults. Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging. PMID:26305896

  10. DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON AGING CONCRETE STRUCTURES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, M.

    2010-01-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) is responsible for the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities throughout the DOE Complex. Some of these facilities will be completely dismantled, while others will be partially dismantled and the remaining structure will be stabilized with cementitious fill materials. The latter is a process known as In-Situ Decommissioning (ISD). The ISD decision process requires a detailed understanding of the existing facility conditions, and operational history. System information and material properties are need for aged nuclear facilities. This literature review investigated the properties of aged concrete structures affected by radiation. In particular, this review addresses the Savannah River Site (SRS) isotope production nuclear reactors. The concrete in the reactors at SRS was not seriously damaged by the levels of radiation exposure. Loss of composite compressive strength was the most common effect of radiation induced damage documented at nuclear power plants.

  11. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine fuzhisan on aged rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu Ling; Wang, De Sheng; Zhao, Bao Quan; Li, Qian; Qu, Heng Yan; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Jian Ping; Sun, Man Ji

    2008-09-01

    Fuzhisan (FZS), a Chinese herbal complex prescription, has been used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for more than 15 years. Previous studies showed that FZS enhanced the cognitive ability in AD patients and AD model rats. FZS modulated the impaired cellular functions, and attenuated the damage caused by beta-amyloid protein, dose-dependently regulated and ameliorated the cholinergic functions of the Abeta(25-35)-induced AD-model mice. The SPECT imaging revealed that FZS improved the blood flow of the frontal and temporal lobes and the callosal gyrus in AD patients. However, little investigation of the effects of FZS on the naturally aged rats was reported. The underlying mechanism also remains to be explored. Recently we investigated the effects of the aqueous extract of FZS on the cognitive functions of the aged rats and the pharmacological basis for its therapeutic efficacy. The results showed a significant improvement made by FZS (0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 g/kg/d) for impaired cognitive functions of the aged rats. The rats manifested a shortened latency in Morris water maze test after intra-gavage administration (ig) of FZS for 30 consecutive days. The micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) using (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) as the tracer demonstrated that FZS promoted the glucose metabolism in the whole brains especially the temporal and parietal regions in the aged rats. The spectrophotometry and Western blot showed that FZS obviously increased the activity and the production of choline O-acetyltransferase (ChAT, EC 2.3.1.6) and the acetylcholine (ACh) contents in the hippocampus, thus regulated and ameliorated the impaired cholinergic functions of the aged rats. The therapeutical effects of FZS on the learning and memory of the aged rats were dose-dependent. The mechanism of action of FZS in ameliorating the memory dysfunction of the aged rats is ascribed to the reinforcement of the function of the cholinergic system and the

  12. The effects of ageing on cutaneous wound healing in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, G S; Horan, M A; Ferguson, M W

    1995-01-01

    The dogma that cutaneous wound healing is impaired as a function of age is largely unsubstantiated. This can be attributed to poor experimental design of human studies, the lack of subject characterisation with the exclusion of disease processes, and the study of inappropriate animal models. Structural and functional changes in skin with age have been reported, such as a decrease in dermal thickness, decline in collagen content, a subtle alteration in the glycosaminoglycan profile, and a loss of elasticity, but these reports are subject to the above criticisms in addition to the often-neglected requirement for site specificity. Wound repair can be thought of as a culmination of three major overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. The inflammatory process has not been studied systematically with respect to age, and despite a reported decline in cellular function and number, there is a confounding increase in the production of specific cytokines involved in the process of repair. The proliferative phase is associated with a loss of cellular responsiveness to specific cytokines with a decline in motility and proliferation; however caution in interpreting these findings is important as, for example, the definition of 'ageing' is used rather loosely with the result that neonatal versus young adult cells are compared instead of young versus old adults. During remodelling, fibronectin and collagen production may increase with age, as may wound contraction; the deposition of elastin has not been assessed and the resulting mechanical properties of the scar are controversial, not least because human in vivo studies have been ignored. The absence of a critical review on the effects of advancing age on wound healing has conspired to permit the perpetuation of the belief that well defined tenets exist. This review aims to redress this imbalance and to highlight the need for well designed research into an increasingly important field. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

  13. Age-Related Tissue Stiffening: Cause and Effect

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Tissue elasticity is severely compromised in aging skin, lungs, and blood vessels. In the vascular and pulmonary systems, respectively, loss of mechanical function is linked to hypertension, which in turn is a risk factor for heart and renal failure, stroke, and aortic aneurysms, and to an increased risk of mortality as a result of acute lung infections. Recent Advances Although cellular mechanisms were thought to play an important role in mediating tissue aging, the reason for the apparent sensitivity of elastic fibers to age-related degradation remained unclear. We have recently demonstrated that compared with type I collagen, a key component of the elastic fiber system, the cysteine-rich fibrillin microfibril is highly susceptible to direct UV exposure in a cell-free environment. We hypothesized therefore that, as a consequence of both their remarkable longevity and cysteine-rich composition, many elastic fiber-associated components will be susceptible to the accumulation of damage by both direct UV radiation and reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidation. Critical Issues Although elastic fiber remodeling is a common feature of aging dynamic tissues, the inaccessibility of most human tissues has hampered attempts to define the molecular causes. Clinical Care Relevance Although, currently, the localized repair of damaged elastic fibers may be effected by the topical application of retinoids and some cosmetic products, future studies may extend the application of systemic transforming growth factor β antagonists, which can prevent cardiovascular remodeling in murine Marfan syndrome, to aging humans. Acellular mechanisms may be key mediators of elastic fiber remodeling and hence age-related tissue stiffening. PMID:24527318

  14. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  15. Effects of metabolic syndrome on language functions in aging.

    PubMed

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Spiro, Avron; Cohen, Jason A; Oveis, Abigail C; Ojo, Emmanuel A; Sayers, Jesse T; Obler, Loraine K; Albert, Martin L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored effects of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) on language in aging. MetS is a constellation of five vascular and metabolic risk factors associated with the development of chronic diseases and increased risk of mortality, as well as brain and cognitive impairments. We tested 281 English-speaking older adults aged 55-84, free of stroke and dementia. Presence of MetS was based on the harmonized criteria (Alberti et al., 2009). Language performance was assessed by measures of accuracy and reaction time on two tasks of lexical retrieval and two tasks of sentence processing. Regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease, demonstrated that participants with MetS had significantly lower accuracy on measures of lexical retrieval (action naming) and sentence processing (embedded sentences, both subject and object relative clauses). Reaction time was slightly faster on the test of embedded sentences among those with MetS. MetS adversely affects the language performance of older adults, impairing accuracy of both lexical retrieval and sentence processing. This finding reinforces and extends results of earlier research documenting the negative influence of potentially treatable medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension) on language performance in aging. The unanticipated finding that persons with MetS were faster in processing embedded sentences may represent an impairment of timing functions among older individuals with MetS.

  16. Effects of normal aging on visuo-motor plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, Carrie A.; Cohen, Helen S.; Kimball, Kay T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2002-01-01

    Normal aging is associated with declines in neurologic function. Uncompensated visual and vestibular problems may have dire consequences including dangerous falls. Visuo-motor plasticity is a form of behavioral neural plasticity, which is important in the process of adapting to visual or vestibular alteration, including those changes due to pathology, pharmacotherapy, surgery or even entry into microgravity or an underwater environment. To determine the effects of aging on visuo-motor plasticity, we chose the simple and easily measured paradigm of visual-motor rearrangement created by using visual displacement prisms while throwing small balls at a target. Subjects threw balls before, during and after wearing a set of prisms which displace the visual scene by twenty degrees to the right. Data obtained during adaptation were modeled using multilevel modeling techniques for 73 subjects, aged 20 to 80 years. We found no statistically significant difference in measures of visuo-motor plasticity with advancing age. Further studies are underway examining variable practice training as a potential mechanism for enhancing this form of behavioral neural plasticity.

  17. Effects of Normal Aging on Visuo-Motor Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, Carrie A.; Cohen, Helen S.; Kimball, Kay T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2001-01-01

    Normal aging is associated with declines in neurologic function. Uncompensated visual and vestibular problems may have dire consequences including dangerous falls. Visuomotor plasticity is a form of behavioral neural plasticity which is important in the process of adapting to visual or vestibular alteration, including those changes due to pathology, pharmacotherapy, surgery or even entry into a microgravity or underwater environment. In order to determine the effects of aging on visuomotor plasticity, we chose the simple and easily measured paradigm of visual-motor re-arrangement created by using visual displacement prisms while throwing small balls at a target. Subjects threw balls before, during and after wearing a set of prisms which displace the visual scene by twenty degrees to the right. Data obtained during adaptation were modeled using multilevel analyses for 73 subjects aged 20 to 80 years. We found no statistically significant difference in measures of visuomotor plasticity with advancing age. Further studies are underway examining variable practice training as a potential mechanism for enhancing this form of behavioral neural plasticity.

  18. Age-of-acquisition and cumulative frequency have independent effects.

    PubMed

    Moore, V; Valentine, T; Turner, J

    1999-10-26

    Lewis (1999) argued that effects of age of acquisition (AoA) are entirely attributable to cumulative frequency. He reported an instance-based model in which the number of instances of the stimulus stored in memory predicts reaction time. We note four aspects of the literature on AoA that cannot be explained by this instance-based approach. Firstly, an effect of AoA has been observed in the absence of an effect of frequency. Secondly, an effect of AoA has been observed when cumulative frequency has been controlled. Thirdly, the effect of AoA is dependent on task. Fourthly, the effect of word frequency is dependent on stimulus modality. Lewis reported an experiment in which participants make a decision based on identity-specific semantic information to celebrity faces to demonstrate an effect of the number of instances in memory, which he interpreted as an effect of AoA. We note that effects of AoA have been found in lexical and perceptual tasks, but to date all attempts to demonstrate an advantage for early-acquired items in semantic classification tasks have failed. We conclude that the effects of AoA cannot be attributed solely to the effects of cumulative frequency. PMID:10610297

  19. "Accelerating aging" chemotherapy on aged animals: protective effect from nutraceutical modulation.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Francesco; Harada, Masatoshi; Minelli, Emilio; Ono-Nita, Suzanne K; Marandola, Paulo

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a novel phytocompound in an experimental model of antitumor-induced immunosuppression. Five groups of mice were considered: young (Y) and aged (A) that were given intraperitoneally 10 doses of cyclophosphamide (CPX, 25mg/kg/bw) or CPX plus (150 mg/kg/bw) of the nutraceutical DTS (Denshichi-Tochiu-Sen), and control. After sacrifice, macrophage chemotaxis and serum levels of IFN-gamma, IL-2, and GM-CSF were determined. Liver and urinary bladder were examined histologically, as were the liver and kidney for redox enzymes. CPX significantly decreased macrophage chemotaxis and all cytokines (p < 0.05, A > Y). DTS restored macrophage function and cytokine concentration (p < 0.001) and partly improved the necro-inflammatory score and substance P receptor expression in the bladder and the redox status in liver and kidney (p < 0.05). Such data suggest that DTS effectively prevents CPX-induced immune suppression and oxidative-inflammatory damage, which are particularly enhanced in aged organisms.

  20. Effects of aging on face identification and holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Konar, Yaroslav; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2013-08-01

    Several studies have shown that face identification accuracy is lower in older than younger adults. This effect of aging might be due to age differences in holistic processing, which is thought to be an important component of human face processing. Currently, however, there is conflicting evidence as to whether holistic face processing is impaired in older adults. The current study therefore re-examined this issue by measuring response accuracy in a 1-of-4 face identification task and the composite face effect (CFE), a common index of holistic processing, in older adults. Consistent with previous reports, we found that face identification accuracy was lower in older adults than in younger adults tested in the same task. We also found a significant CFE in older adults that was similar in magnitude to the CFE measured in younger subjects with the same task. Finally, we found that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFE and face identification accuracy. This last result differs from the results obtained in a previous study that used the same tasks and which found no evidence of an association between the CFE and face identification accuracy in younger adults. Furthermore, the age difference was found with subtraction-, regression-, and ratio-based estimates of the CFE. The current findings are consistent with previous claims that older adults rely more heavily on holistic processing to identify objects in conditions of limited processing resources.

  1. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Natalie T. Y.; Tam, Helena M. K.; Chu, Leung W.; Kwok, Timothy C. Y.; Chan, Felix; Lam, Linda C. W.; Woo, Jean; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cognitive decline. These older adults were randomly assigned to the Cognitive Training Group (n = 109) and the Active Control Group (n = 100). Findings clearly indicated that training induced improvement in auditory and visual-spatial attention and working memory. The training effect was specific to the experience provided because no significant difference in verbal and visual-spatial memory between the two groups was observed. This pattern of findings is consistent with the prediction and the principle of experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Findings of our study provided further support to the notion that the neural plastic potential continues until older age. The baseline cognitive status did not correlate with pre- versus posttraining changes to any cognitive variables studied, suggesting that the initial cognitive status may not limit the neuroplastic potential of the brain at an old age. PMID:26417460

  2. Aging and microwave effects on alginate/chitosan matrices.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin Wui; Chan, Lai Wah; Kho, Shyan Bin; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2005-06-01

    The influence of microwave irradiation on the drug release properties of freshly prepared and aged alginate, alginate-chitosan and chitosan beads was investigated. The beads were prepared by extrusion method with sulphathiazole as a model drug. The dried beads were subjected to microwave irradiation at 80 W for 10 min, 20 min or three consecutive cycles of 10 and 20 min, respectively. The profiles of drug dissolution, drug content, drug stability, drug polymorphism, drug-polymer interaction, polymer crosslinkage and complexation were determined by dissolution testing, drug content assay, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The chemical stability of drug embedded in beads was unaffected by microwave conditions and length of storage time. The release property of drug was mainly governed by the extent of polymer interaction in beads. The aged alginate beads required intermittent cycles of microwave irradiation to induce drug release retarding effect in contrast to their freshly prepared samples. Unlike the alginate beads, the level of polymer interaction was higher in aged alginate-chitosan beads than the corresponding fresh beads. The drug release retarding property of aged alginate-chitosan beads could be significantly enhanced through subjecting the beads to microwave irradiation for 10 min. No further change in drug release from these beads was observed beyond 30 min of microwave irradiation. Unlike beads containing alginate, the rate and extent of drug released from the aged chitosan beads were higher upon treatment by microwave in spite of the higher degree of polymer interaction shown by the latter on prolonged storage. The observation suggested that the response of polymer matrix to microwave irradiation in induction of drug release retarding property was largely affected by the molecular arrangement of the polymer chains.

  3. Changes in skeletal muscle with aging: effects of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M A; Evans, W J

    1993-01-01

    There is an approximate 30% decline in muscle strength and a 40% reduction in muscle area between the second and seventh decades of life. Thus, the loss of muscle mass with aging appears to be the major factor in the age-related loss of muscle strength. The loss of muscle mass is partially due to a significant decline in the numbers of both Type I and Type II muscle fibers plus a decrease in the size of the muscle cells, with the Type II fibers showing a preferential atrophy. There appears to be no loss of glycolytic capacity in senescent skeletal muscle whereas muscle oxidative enzyme activity and muscle capillarization decrease by about 25%. Vigorous endurance exercise training in older people, where the stimulus is progressively increased, elicits a proliferation of muscle capillaries, an increase in oxidative enzyme activity, and a significant improvement in VO2max. Likewise, progressive resistive training in older individuals results in muscle hypertrophy and increased strength, if the training stimulus is of a sufficient intensity and duration. Since older individuals adapt to resistive and endurance exercise training in a similar fashion to young people, the decline in the muscle's metabolic and force-producing capacity can no longer be considered as an inevitable consequence of the aging process. Rather, the adaptations in aging skeletal muscle to exercise training may prevent sarcopenia, enhance the ease of carrying out the activities of daily living, and exert a beneficial effect on such age-associated diseases as Type II diabetes, coronary artery disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, and obesity. PMID:8504850

  4. Sex differences in relative age effects among Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect (RAE), a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese female athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 1,335 female athletes were evaluated from six sports: softball, soccer, volleyball, basketball, badminton, and track and field (long distance), and compared with male athletes. All athletes played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. Distribution of the birth dates in each female sport showed a significant RAE only in volleyball. For males, significant RAEs were observed in baseball, soccer, and track and field. Findings suggest that the determinants of RAEs in sports may differ between males and females. PMID:23033755

  5. Effect of aging on temporary cement retention in vitro.

    PubMed

    Millstein, P L; Hazan, E; Nathanson, D

    1991-06-01

    Retention of restorations cemented with temporary cement varies. Some cements are adhesive and others are weak in retention. In addition, cement retention may vary over time. This study determined (1) the retentive properties of four temporary cements, and (2) the effects of aging on temporary cement retention. Cylindrical amalgam cores and mated stainless steel retainers with a 0.05 mm cement space were used in the study. Cores were cemented into the retainers and stored in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C until tested. Retention was measured by applying a compressive force to the cores through a rod in an Instron machine. Half the samples were tested after 1 week and half were tested after 6 weeks. The results indicate a significant difference in retentive value among the four cements, including a significant decrease in retention for one cement over the 6-week aging period.

  6. Effects of environmental ageing on HMS-polypropylene/Cloisite nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsu, L. G. H. Oliani, W. L. Ferreto, H. F. R. Lugao, A. B. Parra, D. F.

    2014-05-15

    High melt strength polypropylene Nanocomposites (NC-HMSPP) were obtained with concentrations of 0.1 and 5 wt% of Cloisite 20A. The melt intercalation, using twin screw extruder was done to homogenize the nanocomposite in presence of polypropylene graft maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) compatibilizer agent. In this work, the manufactured dumbbell samples were settled in device for natural ageing assay. The period of exposition was January to December of 2012. The effects of environmental ageing was determined by carbonyl index (FT-IR) and the results showed that nanocomposites were more stable than HMSPP. The mechanical properties (elongation and rupture strength) were evaluated and the thermal behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X ray diffraction (DRX). The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in which the nanocomposites showed intense cracks on the surface.

  7. Sex differences in relative age effects among Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect (RAE), a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese female athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 1,335 female athletes were evaluated from six sports: softball, soccer, volleyball, basketball, badminton, and track and field (long distance), and compared with male athletes. All athletes played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. Distribution of the birth dates in each female sport showed a significant RAE only in volleyball. For males, significant RAEs were observed in baseball, soccer, and track and field. Findings suggest that the determinants of RAEs in sports may differ between males and females.

  8. Decreased Pasteur effect in platelets of aged individuals.

    PubMed

    D'Aurelio, M; Merlo Pich, M; Catani, L; Sgarbi, G L; Bovina, C; Formiggini, G; Parenti Castelli, G; Baum, H; Tura, S; Lenaz, G

    2001-06-01

    We have investigated the mitochondrial energy state in human platelets of young (19-30 years old) and aged individuals (65-87 years old) exploiting the Pasteur effect, i.e. stimulation of lactate production by incubation of the purified platelets with the mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor, antimycin A. This assay allows the determination of mitochondrial function with respect to glycolysis, and the ratio of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to glycolytic ATP. A significant increase of basal, non-stimulated lactate production and decrease of the stimulation by antimycin A were observed in the older individuals, suggesting that the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation detectable in post-mitotic tissues of aged individuals can be observed also in easily collectable blood cells.

  9. The impacts of ageing effects due to radiation burden on optical fiber couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perecar, F.; Marcinka, O.; Bednarek, L.; Lucki, M.; Liner, A.; Hajek, L.; Papes, M.; Jaros, J.; Vasinek, V.

    2015-08-01

    The paper discuss about accelerated ageing of optical fiber elements in their burdened with gamma radiation. In addition to the destruction of coating materials, gamma radiation has its effect on the internal structure of the optical fiber. It is necessary to specify the changes in the optical coupler and find out why these changes occur. This article contains experimental measurement of the impact of gamma radiation Cobalt-60 on the optical couplers of various split performance ratio. The couplers were exposed to gradually increasing doses of 60Co. Measurements are focused on the overall distribution of the energy in the core and cladding various branches of SM optical fiber couplers. This article focuses on applied research and experimental development of resources for safety operation of optical networks since monitoring of ageing substantially contributes to its security. It addresses issues of accelerated ageing of optical fiber elements in their burdened with gamma radiation. How does radiation energy of gamma radiation influence optical network elements? This effect is explored just very little bit and is yet another unanswered question. In addition to the destruction of coating materials, gamma radiation has its effect on the internal structure of the optical fiber. It is necessary to specify the changes in the optical coupler and find out why these changes occur. This article contains experimental measurement of the impact of gamma radiation Cobalt-60 on the optical couplers of various split performance ratio. Optical passive components, couplers, were exposed to gradually increasing doses of 60Co. Measurements are focused on the overall distribution of the energy of LP01 mode in the core and cladding various branches of SM optical fiber couplers. Graphical and mathematical detect changes in the dissemination of energy coupler after single doses of gamma radiation are useful to understand the phenomenon of accelerated ageing elements of optical networks in

  10. Effects of Applied Strain on Rates of Ageing: Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the stated intents of this project has been to make some assessment of effects of strain on rates of ageing of project thermoplastics exposed to project fluids. To this end, certain straining jigs which apply in various modes - tensile, four-point bending and crack growth using compact tension samples - were designed and made for holding samples during fluid exposures. During testing, features of the thermoplastics have been observed which have tended to confuse apparent strain effects on the polymers' aged performance, but recent assessments of the topic and its data have led to considerable progress being made in identifying test procedures necessary for strain and related effects on chemical deterioration to manifest themselves. It is the intent of this report to provide a summary of what has been determined on strain and related effects thus far, and provide recommendations for clarifying them in Phase 2 by means of further test procedures which will increase and focus the severity of the conditions applying. The choice of flexible pipe rather than umbilicals service for assessing service strain conditions reflects the major interest of project members. However, Tefzel data are still provided.

  11. Effect of age and exercise on the viscoelastic properties of rat tail tendon.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, Andrew S; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah E; Brickson, Stacey; Akins, Tiffany L; Diffee, Gary; Aiken, Judd; Vanderby, Ray; Lakes, Roderic S

    2013-06-01

    Tendon mechanical properties are thought to degrade during aging but improve with exercise. A remaining question is whether exercise in aged animals provides sufficient regenerative, systemic stimulus to restore younger mechanical behaviors. Herein we address that question with tail tendons from aged and exercised rats, which would be subject to systemic effects but not direct loading from the exercise regimen. Twenty-four month old rats underwent one of three treadmill exercise training protocols for 12 months: sedentary (walking at 0° incline for 5 min/day), moderate (running at 0° incline for 30 min/day), or high (running at 4° incline for 30 min/day). A group of 9 month old rats were used to provide an adult control, while a group of 3 month old rats provided a young control. Tendons were harvested at sacrifice and mechanically tested. Results show significant age-dependent differences in modulus, ultimate stress, relaxation rate, and percent relaxation. Relaxation rate was strain-dependent, consistent with nonlinear superposition or Schapery models but not with quasilinear viscoelasticity (QLV). Trends in exercise data suggest that with exercise, tendons assume the elastic character of younger rats (lower elastic modulus and ultimate stress).

  12. Working memory in middle-aged males: age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Elissa B; Evers, Elisabeth A T; de Groot, Renate H M; Backes, Walter H; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on cognitively demanding tasks (compared to a control condition). Results showed a main effect of age on left dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortex activation during WM encoding; greater activation was evident in middle-aged than young adults regardless of WM load or fatigue condition. An interaction effect was found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC); WM load-dependent activation was elevated in middle-aged compared to young in the control condition, but did not differ in the fatigue condition due to a reduction in activation in middle-aged in contrast to an increase in activation in the young group. These findings demonstrate age-related activation differences and differential effects of fatigue on activation in young and middle-aged adults.

  13. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. Methods The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. Results The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the

  14. The effect of aging on the healing of hydroxylapatite implants.

    PubMed

    Shirota, T; Ohno, K; Suzuki, K; Michi, K; Tatsuo, S; Kohsuke, O; Kanako, S; Ken-Ichi, M

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on the healing process after insertion of a hydroxylapatite (HA) implant into bone. Three groups of eight male Wistar rats, aged 6 weeks (young group), 12 weeks (adult group), and approximately 2 years (old group) were used in this experiment. Two implants were placed into the tibia of each rat. The animals were killed 7, 14, 28, and 56 days after implantation, and 15-microns, hematoxylin-eosin-stained, undecalcified sections were prepared. The healing process was examined histologically, and histomorphometric measurements were made by a computer-based image analyzer to quantify the percentage of HA-bone contact and trabecular bone in the medullary cavity. In the young group, new trabecular bone formed actively around the HA implant and good HA-bone contact was achieved more rapidly than in the adult group. In the old group, both the quantity of newly formed trabecular bone around the implant and the extent of HA-bone contact were less than in the other groups. The results suggest that the rate and volume of new bone formation around implants decrease with increasing age.

  15. Analysis of tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation caused by accelerated artificial aging and the effects of microstructure in stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Thomas J.

    This investigation addresses the issue that yttria stabilized zirconia is being used as a dental biomaterial without substantial evidence of its long-term viability. Furthermore, stabilized zirconia (SZ) undergoes low temperature degradation (LTD), which can lead to roughening of the surface. A rougher exterior can lead to increased wear of the antagonist in the oral environment. Despite the LTD concerns, SZ is now widely used in restorative dentistry, including full contour crowns. A comparison of aging methods to determine the role of artificial aging on inducing the transformation has not been extensively studied. Therefore, simulations of the transformation process were investigated by comparing different methods of accelerated aging. The rejected null hypothesis is that the temperature of aging treatment will not affect the time required to cause measurable monoclinic transformation of yttria stabilized zirconia. The transformation of SZ starts at the surface and progresses inward; however, it is unclear whether the progression is constant for different aging conditions. This investigation analyzed the depth of transformation as a function of aging conditions for stabilized zirconia in the top 5-6 mum from the surface. The rejected null hypothesis is that the transformation amount is constant throughout the first six micrometers from the surface. The effects of grain size on the amount of monoclinic transformation were also investigated. This study aimed to determine if the grain size of partially stabilized zirconia affects the amount of monoclinic transformation, surface roughness, and property degradation due to aging. The rejected null hypothesis is that the grain size will not affect the amount of monoclinic transformation, thus have no effect on surface roughening or property degradation. The final part of this study addresses the wear of enamel when opposing zirconia by observing how grain size and aging affected the wear rate of an enamel antagonist

  16. Effects of Vitreomacular Adhesion on Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eui Chun; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we review the association between vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meta-analyses have shown that eyes with neovascular AMD are twice as likely to have VMA as normal eyes. VMA in neovascular AMD may induce inflammation, macular traction, decrease in oxygenation, sequestering of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and other cytokines or may directly stimulate VEGF production. VMA may also interfere with the treatment effects of anti-VEGF therapy, which is the standard treatment for neovascular AMD, and releasing VMA can improve the treatment response to anti-VEGF treatment in neovascular AMD. We also reviewed currently available methods of relieving VMA. PMID:26425354

  17. Using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to address nonlinear kinetics and changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation in deriving reference values for propylene glycol methyl ether and propylene glycol methyl ether acetate.

    PubMed

    Kirman, C R; Sweeney, L M; Corley, R; Gargas, M L

    2005-04-01

    Reference values, including an oral reference dose (RfD) and an inhalation reference concentration (RfC), were derived for propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), and an oral RfD was derived for its acetate (PGMEA). These values were based on transient sedation observed in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice during a two-year inhalation study. The dose-response relationship for sedation was characterized using internal dose measures as predicted by a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for PGME and its acetate. PBPK modeling was used to account for changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation, based on data collected during Weeks 1, 2, 26, 52, and 78 of a chronic inhalation study. The peak concentration of PGME in richly perfused tissues (i.e., brain) was selected as the most appropriate internal dose measure based on a consideration of the mode of action for sedation and similarities in tissue partitioning between brain and other richly perfused tissues. Internal doses (peak tissue concentrations of PGME) were designated as either no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) based on the presence or the absence of sedation at each time point, species, and sex in the two-year study. Distributions of the NOAEL and LOAEL values expressed in terms of internal dose were characterized using an arithmetic mean and standard deviation, with the mean internal NOAEL serving as the basis for the reference values, which was then divided by appropriate uncertainty factors. Where data were permitting, chemical-specific adjustment factors were derived to replace default uncertainty factor values of 10. Nonlinear kinetics, which was predicted by the model in all species at PGME concentrations exceeding 100 ppm, complicate interspecies, and low-dose extrapolations. To address this complication, reference values were derived using two approaches that differ with respect to the order in which these

  18. Effect of occlusion, directionality and age on horizontal localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alworth, Lynzee Nicole

    Localization acuity of a given listener is dependent upon the ability discriminate between interaural time and level disparities. Interaural time differences are encoded by low frequency information whereas interaural level differences are encoded by high frequency information. Much research has examined effects of hearing aid microphone technologies and occlusion separately and prior studies have not evaluated age as a factor in localization acuity. Open-fit hearing instruments provide new earmold technologies and varying microphone capabilities; however, these instruments have yet to be evaluated with regard to horizontal localization acuity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of microphone configuration, type of dome in open-fit hearing instruments, and age on the horizontal localization ability of a given listener. Thirty adults participated in this study and were grouped based upon hearing sensitivity and age (young normal hearing, >50 years normal hearing, >50 hearing impaired). Each normal hearing participant completed one localization experiment (unaided/unamplified) where they listened to the stimulus "Baseball" and selected the point of origin. Hearing impaired listeners were fit with the same two receiver-in-the-ear hearing aids and same dome types, thus controlling for microphone technologies, type of dome, and fitting between trials. Hearing impaired listeners completed a total of 7 localization experiments (unaided/unamplified; open dome: omnidirectional, adaptive directional, fixed directional; micromold: omnidirectional, adaptive directional, fixed directional). Overall, results of this study indicate that age significantly affects horizontal localization ability as younger adult listeners with normal hearing made significantly fewer localization errors than older adult listeners with normal hearing. Also, results revealed a significant difference in performance between dome type; however, upon further examination was not

  19. Effect of age on upper and lower eyelid saccades.

    PubMed

    Leite, L V O; Cruz, A A V; Messias, A; Malbouisson, J M C

    2006-12-01

    To study the effect of age on the metrics of upper and lower eyelid saccades, eyelid movement of two groups of 30 subjects each were measured using computed image analysis. The patients were divided on the basis of age into a younger group (20-30 years) and an older group (60-91 years). Eyelid saccade functions were fitted by the damped harmonic oscillator model. Amplitude and peak velocity were used to compare the effect of age on the saccades of the upper and lower eyelid. There was no statistically significant difference in saccade amplitude between groups for the upper eyelid (mean +/- SEM; upward, young = 9.18 +/- 0.32 mm, older = 8.93 +/- 0.31 mm, t = 0.56, P = 0.58; downward, young = 9.11 +/- 0.27 mm, older = 8.86 +/- 0.32 mm, t = 0.58, P = 0.56) However, there was a clear decline in the peak velocity of the upper eyelid saccades of older subjects (upward, young = 59.06 +/- 2.34 mm/s, older = 50.12 +/- 1.95 mm/s, t = 2.93, P = 0.005; downward, young = 71.78 +/- 1.78 mm/s, older = 60.29 +/- 2.62 mm/s, t = 3.63, P = 0.0006). In contrast, for the lower eyelid there was a clear increase of saccade amplitude in the elderly group (upward, young = 2.27 +/- 0.09 mm, older = 2.98 +/- 0.15 mm, t = 4.33, P < 0.0001; downward, young = 2.21 +/- 0.10 mm, older = 2.96 +/- 0.17 mm, t = 3.85, P < 0.001). These data suggest that the aging process affects the metrics of the lid saccades in a different manner according to the eyelid. In the upper eyelid the lower tension exerted by a weak aponeurosis is reflected only on the peak velocity of the saccades. In the lower eyelid, age is accompanied by an increase in saccade amplitude which indicates that the force transmission to the lid is not affected in the elderly.

  20. Effects of the Fataki campaign: addressing cross-generational sex in Tanzania by mobilizing communities to intervene.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Mooney, Alyssa; Kamala, Benjamin; Modarres, Najmeh; Karam, Robert; Ng'wanansabi, Deo

    2013-07-01

    The national multimedia "Fataki" campaign aired in Tanzania from 2008 to 2011 with the goal of addressing cross-generational sex (CGS) by mobilizing communities to intervene in CGS relationships. A cross-sectional household survey was used to evaluate the campaign. Logistic regression analysis found a dose-response relationship between campaign exposure and interpersonal communication about CGS, intervening in CGS relationships, and lower CGS engagement among women. No association was found between campaign exposure and current CGS involvement among men, though longer-term data collection may be needed to assess changes in relationship patterns. Findings indicated that engaging in interpersonal communication about CGS was associated with a higher likelihood of actually intervening. Strategies to generate further discussion surrounding CGS and increase impact, such as through community-based components to supplement campaigns, are discussed. PMID:23443976

  1. Effects of the Fataki campaign: addressing cross-generational sex in Tanzania by mobilizing communities to intervene.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Mooney, Alyssa; Kamala, Benjamin; Modarres, Najmeh; Karam, Robert; Ng'wanansabi, Deo

    2013-07-01

    The national multimedia "Fataki" campaign aired in Tanzania from 2008 to 2011 with the goal of addressing cross-generational sex (CGS) by mobilizing communities to intervene in CGS relationships. A cross-sectional household survey was used to evaluate the campaign. Logistic regression analysis found a dose-response relationship between campaign exposure and interpersonal communication about CGS, intervening in CGS relationships, and lower CGS engagement among women. No association was found between campaign exposure and current CGS involvement among men, though longer-term data collection may be needed to assess changes in relationship patterns. Findings indicated that engaging in interpersonal communication about CGS was associated with a higher likelihood of actually intervening. Strategies to generate further discussion surrounding CGS and increase impact, such as through community-based components to supplement campaigns, are discussed.

  2. Age-dependent effects of environmental enrichment on spatial memory and neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallegos, Andrea; Rojas-Carvajal, Mijail; Salas, Sofía; Saborío-Arce, Adriana; Fornaguera-Trías, Jaime; Brenes, Juan C

    2015-02-01

    Although aging and environmental stimulation are well-known to affect cognitive abilities, the question of whether aging effects can be distinguished in already-mature adult rats has not been fully addressed. In the present study, therefore, young and mature adult rats were housed in either enriched or standard conditions (EE or SC) for three months. Open-field (OFT) and radial-maze (RM) behavior, and ex-vivo contents of GABA and glutamate in hippocampus, and of dopamine and DOPAC in ventral striatum (VS) were analyzed and compared between the four groups. In OFT, young rats were more active than mature adults irrespective of the housing condition. Surprisingly, in the RM test, mature adults outperformed young counterparts except for the young-enriched rats, which showed a progressive improvement in RM performance. At the neurochemical level, young EE rats showed higher hippocampal glutamate and GABA concentrations, and DA turnover in VS, which correlated with RM performance. Altogether, the behavioral and cognitive strategies underlying habituation learning and spatial memory seem to be qualitatively different between the two ages analyzed. These results challenge the assumption that mature adult animals are always worse in learning and memory tasks. However, young rats benefited more from the social and physical stimulation provided by the enrichment than mature adult counterparts. The latter effect was evident not just on behavior, but also on brain neurochemistry.

  3. Age-dependent effects of environmental enrichment on spatial memory and neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallegos, Andrea; Rojas-Carvajal, Mijail; Salas, Sofía; Saborío-Arce, Adriana; Fornaguera-Trías, Jaime; Brenes, Juan C

    2015-02-01

    Although aging and environmental stimulation are well-known to affect cognitive abilities, the question of whether aging effects can be distinguished in already-mature adult rats has not been fully addressed. In the present study, therefore, young and mature adult rats were housed in either enriched or standard conditions (EE or SC) for three months. Open-field (OFT) and radial-maze (RM) behavior, and ex-vivo contents of GABA and glutamate in hippocampus, and of dopamine and DOPAC in ventral striatum (VS) were analyzed and compared between the four groups. In OFT, young rats were more active than mature adults irrespective of the housing condition. Surprisingly, in the RM test, mature adults outperformed young counterparts except for the young-enriched rats, which showed a progressive improvement in RM performance. At the neurochemical level, young EE rats showed higher hippocampal glutamate and GABA concentrations, and DA turnover in VS, which correlated with RM performance. Altogether, the behavioral and cognitive strategies underlying habituation learning and spatial memory seem to be qualitatively different between the two ages analyzed. These results challenge the assumption that mature adult animals are always worse in learning and memory tasks. However, young rats benefited more from the social and physical stimulation provided by the enrichment than mature adult counterparts. The latter effect was evident not just on behavior, but also on brain neurochemistry. PMID:25434818

  4. Effects of Long-Term Mindfulness Meditation on Brain's White Matter Microstructure and its Aging

    PubMed Central

    Laneri, Davide; Schuster, Verena; Dietsche, Bruno; Jansen, Andreas; Ott, Ulrich; Sommer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Although research on the effects of mindfulness meditation (MM) is increasing, still very little has been done to address its influence on the white matter (WM) of the brain. We hypothesized that the practice of MM might affect the WM microstructure adjacent to five brain regions of interest associated with mindfulness. Diffusion tensor imaging was employed on samples of meditators and non-meditators (n = 64) in order to investigate the effects of MM on group difference and aging. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to estimate the fractional anisotrophy of the WM connected to the thalamus, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The subsequent generalized linear model analysis revealed group differences and a group-by-age interaction in all five selected regions. These data provide preliminary indications that the practice of MM might result in WM connectivity change and might provide evidence on its ability to help diminish age-related WM degeneration in key regions which participate in processes of mindfulness. PMID:26834624

  5. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  6. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  7. Making It Work: How Effective Schools Address the Impact of Crime in the Community on School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safie, Omar.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable research on effective schools, but there is very little research on the impact community crime has on schools and the academic achievement of students. Within the framework of neighborhood effect theory and 90-90-90 schools, this study aimed to determine what adults in effective schools in low-income high minority schools in…

  8. Aging Effects on Behavioural Estimates of Suppression with Short Suppressors.

    PubMed

    Hegland, Erica L; Strickland, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Auditory two-tone suppression is a nearly instantaneous reduction in the response of the basilar membrane to a tone or noise when a second tone or noise is presented simultaneously. Previous behavioural studies provide conflicting evidence on whether suppression changes with increasing age, and aging effects may depend on whether a suppressor above (high-side) or below (low-side) the signal frequency is used. Most previous studies have measured suppression using stimuli long enough to elicit the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR), a sound-elicited reflex that reduces cochlear amplification or gain. It has a "sluggish" onset of approximately 25 ms. There is physiological evidence that suppression may be reduced or altered by elicitation of the MOCR. In the present study, suppression was measured behaviourally in younger adults and older adults using a forward-masking paradigm with 20-ms and 70-ms maskers and suppressors. In experiment 1, gain was estimated by comparing on-frequency (2 kHz) and off-frequency (1.2 kHz) masker thresholds for a short, fixed-level 2-kHz signal. In experiment 2, the fixed-level signal was preceded by an off-frequency suppressor (1.2 or 2.4 kHz) presented simultaneously with the on-frequency masker. A suppressor level was chosen that did not produce any forward masking of the signal. Suppression was measured as the difference in on-frequency masker threshold with and without the suppressor present. The effects of age on gain and suppression estimates will be discussed.

  9. Effects of age on cognitive control during semantic categorization.

    PubMed

    Mudar, Raksha A; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Maguire, Mandy J; Spence, Jeffrey S; Eroh, Justin; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study age effects of perceptual (basic-level) vs. perceptual-semantic (superordinate-level) categorization on cognitive control using the go/nogo paradigm. Twenty-two younger (11 M; 21 ± 2.2 years) and 22 older adults (9 M; 63 ± 5.8 years) completed two visual go/nogo tasks. In the single-car task (SiC) (basic), go/nogo responses were made based on single exemplars of a car (go) and a dog (nogo). In the object animal task (ObA) (superordinate), responses were based on multiple exemplars of objects (go) and animals (nogo). Each task consisted of 200 trials: 160 (80%) 'go' trials that required a response through button pressing and 40 (20%) 'nogo' trials that required inhibition/withholding of a response. ERP data revealed significantly reduced nogo-N2 and nogo-P3 amplitudes in older compared to younger adults, whereas go-N2 and go-P3 amplitudes were comparable in both groups during both categorization tasks. Although the effects of categorization levels on behavioral data and P3 measures were similar in both groups with longer response times, lower accuracy scores, longer P3 latencies, and lower P3 amplitudes in ObA compared to SiC, N2 latency revealed age group differences moderated by the task. Older adults had longer N2 latency for ObA compared to SiC, in contrast, younger adults showed no N2 latency difference between SiC and ObA. Overall, these findings suggest that age differentially affects neural processing related to cognitive control during semantic categorization. Furthermore, in older adults, unlike in younger adults, levels of categorization modulate neural processing related to cognitive control even at the early stages (N2).

  10. Effects of Age on Cognitive Control during Semantic Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Mudar, Raksha A.; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Maguire, Mandy J.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Eroh, Justin; Michael, A. Kraut; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study age effects of perceptual (basic-level) vs. perceptual-semantic (superordinate-level) categorization on cognitive control using the go/nogo paradigm. Twenty-two younger (11 M; 21±2.2 years) and 22 older adults (9 M; 63±5.8 years) completed two visual go/nogo tasks. In the single car task (SiC) (basic), go/nogo responses were made based on single exemplars of a car (go) and a dog (nogo). In the object animal task (ObA) (superordinate), responses were based on multiple exemplars of objects (go) and animals (nogo). Each task consisted of 200 trials: 160 (80%) ‘go’ trials that required a response through button pressing and 40 (20%) ‘nogo’ trials that required inhibition/withholding of a response. ERP data revealed significantly reduced nogo-N2 and nogo-P3 amplitudes in older compared to younger adults, whereas go-N2 and go-P3 amplitudes were comparable in both groups during both categorization tasks. Although the effects of categorization levels on behavioral data and P3 measures were similar in both groups with longer response times, lower accuracy scores, longer P3 latencies, and lower P3 amplitudes in ObA compared to SiC, N2 latency revealed age group differences moderated by the task. Older adults had longer N2 latency for ObA compared to SiC, in contrast, younger adults showed no N2 latency difference between SiC and ObA. Overall, these findings suggest that age differentially affects neural processing related to cognitive control during semantic categorization. Furthermore, in older adults, unlike in younger adults, levels of categorization modulate neural processing related to cognitive control even at the early stages (N2). PMID:25823764

  11. The effects of aging and Alzheimer's disease on cerebral cortical anatomy: Specificity and differential relationships with cognition

    PubMed Central

    Bakkour, Akram; Morris, John C.; Wolk, David A.; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2014-01-01

    Although both normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with regional cortical atrophy, few studies have directly compared the spatial patterns and magnitude of effects of these two processes. The extant literature has not addressed two important questions: 1) Is the pattern of age-related cortical atrophy different if cognitively intact elderly individuals with silent AD pathology are excluded? and 2) Does the age- or AD-related atrophy relate to cognitive function? Here we studied 142 young controls, 87 older controls, and 28 mild AD patients. In addition, we studied 35 older controls with neuroimaging data indicating the absence of brain amyloid. Whole-cortex analyses identified regions of interest (ROIs) of cortical atrophy in aging and in AD. Results showed that some regions are predominantly affected by age with relatively little additional atrophy in patients with AD, e.g., calcarine cortex; other regions are predominantly affected by AD with much less of an effect of age, e.g., medial temporal cortex. Finally, other regions are affected by both aging and AD, e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Thus, the processes of aging and AD have both differential and partially overlapping effects on specific regions of the cerebral cortex. In particular, some frontoparietal regions are affected by both processes, most temporal lobe regions are affected much more prominently by AD than aging, while sensorimotor and some prefrontal regions are affected specifically by aging and minimally more by AD. Within normal older adults, atrophy in aging-specific cortical regions relates to cognitive performance, while in AD patients atrophy in AD-specific regions relates to cognitive performance. Further work is warranted to investigate the behavioral and clinical relevance of these findings in additional detail, as well as their histological basis; ROIs generated from the present study could be used strategically in such

  12. The effect of age-at-testing on verbal memory among children following severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silberg, Tamar; Ahonniska-Assa, Jaana; Levav, Miriam; Eliyahu, Roni; Peleg-Pilowsky, Tamar; Brezner, Amichai; Vakil, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Memory deficits are a common sequelae following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI), which often have serious implications on age-related academic skills. The current study examined verbal memory performance using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in a pediatric TBI sample. Verbal memory abilities as well as the effect of age at-testing on performance were examined. A sample of 67 children following severe TBI (age average = 12.3 ± 2.74) and 67 matched controls were evaluated using the RAVLT. Age effect at assessment was examined using two age groups: above and below 12 years of age during evaluation. Differences between groups were examined via the 9 RAVLT learning trials and the 7 composite scores conducted out of them. Children following TBI recalled significantly less words than controls on all RAVLT trials and had significantly lower scores on all composite scores. However, all of these scores fell within the low average range. Further analysis revealed significantly lower than average performance among the older children (above 12 years), while scores of the younger children following TBI fell within average limits. To conclude, verbal memory deficits among children following severe TBI demonstrate an age-at-testing effect with more prominent problems occurring above 12 years at the time of evaluation. Yet, age-appropriate performance among children below 12 years of age may not accurately describe memory abilities at younger ages following TBI. It is therefore recommended that clinicians address child's age at testing and avoid using a single test as an indicator of verbal memory functioning post TBI.

  13. The effects of aging and Alzheimer's disease on cerebral cortical anatomy: specificity and differential relationships with cognition.

    PubMed

    Bakkour, Akram; Morris, John C; Wolk, David A; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2013-08-01

    Although both normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with regional cortical atrophy, few studies have directly compared the spatial patterns and magnitude of effects of these two processes. The extant literature has not addressed two important questions: 1) Is the pattern of age-related cortical atrophy different if cognitively intact elderly individuals with silent AD pathology are excluded? and 2) Does the age- or AD-related atrophy relate to cognitive function? Here we studied 142 young controls, 87 older controls, and 28 mild AD patients. In addition, we studied 35 older controls with neuroimaging data indicating the absence of brain amyloid. Whole-cortex analyses identified regions of interest (ROIs) of cortical atrophy in aging and in AD. Results showed that some regions are predominantly affected by age with relatively little additional atrophy in patients with AD, e.g., calcarine cortex; other regions are predominantly affected by AD with much less of an effect of age, e.g., medial temporal cortex. Finally, other regions are affected by both aging and AD, e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Thus, the processes of aging and AD have both differential and partially overlapping effects on specific regions of the cerebral cortex. In particular, some frontoparietal regions are affected by both processes, most temporal lobe regions are affected much more prominently by AD than aging, while sensorimotor and some prefrontal regions are affected specifically by aging and minimally more by AD. Within normal older adults, atrophy in aging-specific cortical regions relates to cognitive performance, while in AD patients atrophy in AD-specific regions relates to cognitive performance. Further work is warranted to investigate the behavioral and clinical relevance of these findings in additional detail, as well as their histological basis; ROIs generated from the present study could be used strategically in such

  14. Aging effects of US space nuclear systems in orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, B.W.; Huang, R.; Tammara, S.R.; Thielke, N.R.

    1982-05-14

    This report presents information and data in support of a cost-benefit analysis being performed by Fair child Industries (FI) on the feasibility of retrieving existing US space nuclear systems in earth orbit by the Space Shuttle. This report evaluates, for US space nuclear systems presently in orbit, the radioisotopic inventory and external radiation field as a function of time, the effect of aging on fuel containment materials over the projected lifetime of the system, and the possible radioactive source terms should reentry eventually occur. Although the radioisotopic inventories and radiation fields have been evaluated for all systems, Transit 4A and Transit Triad have been emphasized in the evaluation of the aging effects and reentry consequences because these spacecraft have the shortest projected orbital lifetimes (570 and 150 years, respectively). In addition to existing systems in orbit, the radioisotopic inventory, radiation field, and reentry source terms have been evaluated for a General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) in a parking orbit due to an aborted Galileo Mission or International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM).

  15. The Theory Behind the Age-Related Positivity Effect

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    The “positivity effect” refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather and Carstensen, 2005) scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people. PMID:23060825

  16. Aging effects on the availability of herbicides to runoff transfer.

    PubMed

    Louchart, Xavier; Voltz, Marc

    2007-02-15

    Realistic estimation of sorption parameters is essential to predict long-term herbicide availability in soils and their contamination of surface water and groundwater. This study examined the temporal change of an effective partition coefficient Kd(eff) for the herbicides simazine, diuron, and oryzalin from a 0.12 ha field experiment during 7 vineyard growing seasons. Kd(eff) is the ratio of solvent extractable herbicide concentrations in the top soil (0-2 cm) to the average concentrations in runoff water and is considered to assess the effective availability of herbicides to runoff transfer. Kd(eff) increased largely with aging time since application, from values similar to those of the literature (determined in 24 h batch conditions, Kd(ref)), up to 88, 164, and 30 times these initial values for simazine, diuron, and oryzalin respectively. The seasonal variation of Kd(eff) values between years and compounds could be adequately described by a unique model, taking into account the cumulative rainfall since application and Kd(ref) of each compound. This simple model was able to represent the influence of the soil moisture content and its changes in the different biological and physicochemical processes that may contribute to the (bio)available, sorbed, or entrapped state of any of the studied herbicides with aging time under Mediterranean climate.

  17. Age dissociates recency and lag recency effects in free recall.

    PubMed

    Kahana, Michael J; Howard, Marc W; Zaromb, Franklin; Wingfield, Arthur

    2002-05-01

    The temporal relations among word-list items exert a powerful influence on episodic memory retrieval. Two experiments were conducted with younger and older adults in which the age-related recall deficit was examined by using a decomposition method to the serial position curve, partitioning performance into (a) the probability of first recall, illustrating the recency effect, and (b) the conditional response probability, illustrating the lag recency effect (M. W. Howard & M. J. Kahana, 1999). Although the older adults initiated recall in the same manner in both immediate and delayed free recall, temporal proximity of study items (contiguity) exerted a much weaker influence on recall transitions in older adults. This finding suggests that an associative deficit may be an important contributor to older adults' well-known impairment in free recall.

  18. Effect of cognitive load on working memory forgetting in aging.

    PubMed

    Baumans, Christine; Adam, Stephane; Seron, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Functional approaches to working memory (WM) have been proposed recently to better investigate "maintenance" and "processing" mechanisms. The cognitive load (CL) hypothesis presented in the "Time-Based Resource-Sharing" model (Barrouillet & Camos, 2007) suggests that forgetting from WM (maintenance) can be investigated by varying the presentation rate and processing speed (processing). In this study, young and elderly participants were compared on WM tasks in which the difference in processing speed was controlled by CL manipulations. Two main results were found. First, when time constraints (CL) were matched for the two groups, no aging effect was observed. Second, whereas a large variation in CL affected WM performance, a small CL manipulation had no effect on the elderly. This suggests that WM forgetting cannot be completely accounted for by the CL hypothesis. Rather, it highlights the need to explore restoration times in particular, and the nature of the refreshment mechanisms within maintenance. PMID:22617311

  19. Effect of aging on rheology of ball clay suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonthai, Tienchai

    2002-01-01

    The behaviors of clay-water suspensions such as deflocculation or rheological properties are not constant but change with time. Aging has been recognized for changing the rheological properties of clay suspensions. This work provided information about the effects of the moisture contents in ball clay lumps and clay air exposure time on their processability. Dynamic oscillatory rheometry using a vane-in-cup geometry was used to characterize the rheological behavior of ball clay suspensions in terms of elastic modulus, viscous modulus and yield stress as a function of aging time. A light scattering size analyzer was used to examine the agglomerate size distribution of ball clay suspensions which affected the rheological behavior. Soluble ion release (both cations and anions) in the filtrate of suspensions was measured by ion chromatography. Low and high lignitic ball clay suspensions were dispersed with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) or sodium polyacrylate at specific gravity 1.3 and 1.6 in two dispersion states: fully deflocculated (minimum viscosity) and under deflocculated. Suspensions prepared using freshly mined ball clays required more dispersant than suspensions prepared using dry ball clays to achieve minimum viscosity due to a difference in agglomerate size distribution. The agglomerate size distribution of suspensions prepared using dry clays was broader than that of suspensions prepared using freshly mined clays. In suspensions prepared using freshly mined clays, there were many uniformly small agglomerates having loose water inside, while in suspensions prepared using dry clays, the capillary effect and bonding between clay particles resulting from drying broke clay aggregates apart into agglomerate structures composed of a few to many clay particles. For suspensions prepared using dry clays after one day suspension aging, the elastic modulus and yield stress decreased due to the change in agglomerate size distribution of suspensions but increased for

  20. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  1. Skin aging and oxidative stress: Equol's anti-aging effects via biochemical and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lephart, Edwin D

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen in biology is essential for life. It comes at a cost during normal cellular function, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by oxidative metabolism. Human skin exposed to solar ultra-violet radiation (UVR) dramatically increases ROS production/oxidative stress. It is important to understand the characteristics of human skin and how chronological (intrinsic) aging and photo-aging (extrinsic aging) occur via the impact of ROS production by cascade signaling pathways. The goal is to oppose or neutralize ROS insults to maintain good dermal health. Botanicals, as active ingredients, represent one of the largest categories used in dermatology and cosmeceuticals to combat skin aging. An emerging botanical is equol, a polyphenolic/isoflavonoid molecule found in plants and food products and via gastrointestinal metabolism from precursor compounds. Introductory sections cover oxygen, free radicals (ROS), oxidative stress, antioxidants, human skin aging, cellular/molecular ROS events in skin, steroid enzymes/receptors/hormonal actions and genetic factors in aging skin. The main focus of this review covers the characteristics of equol (phytoestrogenic, antioxidant and enhancement of extracellular matrix properties) to reduce skin aging along with its anti-aging skin influences via reducing oxidative stress cascade events by a variety of biochemical/molecular actions and mechanisms to enhance human dermal health. PMID:27521253

  2. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  3. JV Task 119 - Effects of Aging on Treated Activated Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Olson; Lucinda Hamre; John Pavlish; Blaise Mibeck

    2009-03-25

    For both the United States and Canada, testing has been under way for electric utilities to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending future mercury emission limits. The technology that holds the most promise for mercury control in low-chlorine lignite to meet the needs of the Clean Air Act in the United States and the Canada-Wide Standards in Canada is injection of treated activated carbon (AC) into the flue gas stream. Most of the treated carbons are reported to be halogenated, often with bromine. Under a previous multiyear project headed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), testing was performed on a slipstream unit using actual lignite-derived flue gas to evaluate various sorbent technologies for their effectiveness, performance, and cost. Testing under this project showed that halogenated ACs performed very well, with mercury capture rates often {ge} 90%. However, differences were noted between treated ACs with respect to reactivity and capacity, possibly as a result of storage conditions. Under certain conditions (primarily storage in ambient air), notable performance degradation had occurred in mercury capture efficiency. Therefore, a small exploratory task within this project evaluated possible differences resulting from storage conditions and subsequent effects of aging that might somehow alter their chemical or physical properties. In order to further investigate this potential degradation of treated (halogenated) ACs, the EERC, together with DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), SaskPower, and Otter Tail Power Company, assessed the aging effects of brominated ACs for the effect that different storage durations, temperatures, and humidity conditions have on the mercury sorption capacity of treated ACs. No aging effects on initial capture activity were observed for any carbons or conditions in the investigation

  4. Addressing Low Colorectal Cancer Screening in African Americans: Using Focus Groups to Inform the Development of Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    May, Folasade P; Whitman, Cynthia B; Varlyguina, Ksenia; Bromley, Erica G; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-09-01

    African Americans have the highest burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States of America (USA) yet lower CRC screening rates than whites. Although poor screening has prompted efforts to increase screening uptake, there is a persistent need to develop public health interventions in partnership with the African American community. The aim of this study was to conduct focus groups with African Americans to determine preferences for the content and mode of dissemination of culturally tailored CRC screening interventions. In June 2013, 45-75-year-old African Americans were recruited through online advertisements and from an urban Veterans Affairs system to create four focus groups. A semi-structured interview script employing open-ended elicitation was used, and transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti software to code and group data into a concept network. A total of 38 participants (mean age = 54) were enrolled, and 59 ATLAS.ti codes were generated. Commonly reported barriers to screening included perceived invasiveness of colonoscopy, fear of pain, and financial concerns. Facilitators included poor diet/health and desire to prevent CRC. Common sources of health information included media and medical providers. CRC screening information was commonly obtained from medical personnel or media. Participants suggested dissemination of CRC screening education through commercials, billboards, influential African American public figures, Internet, and radio. Participants suggested future interventions include culturally specific information, including details about increased risk, accessing care, and dispelling of myths. Public health interventions to improve CRC screening among African Americans should employ media outlets, emphasize increased risk among African Americans, and address race-specific barriers. Specific recommendations are presented for developing future interventions. PMID:25963898

  5. Addressing Low Colorectal Cancer Screening in African Americans: Using Focus Groups to Inform the Development of Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    May, Folasade P; Whitman, Cynthia B; Varlyguina, Ksenia; Bromley, Erica G; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-09-01

    African Americans have the highest burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States of America (USA) yet lower CRC screening rates than whites. Although poor screening has prompted efforts to increase screening uptake, there is a persistent need to develop public health interventions in partnership with the African American community. The aim of this study was to conduct focus groups with African Americans to determine preferences for the content and mode of dissemination of culturally tailored CRC screening interventions. In June 2013, 45-75-year-old African Americans were recruited through online advertisements and from an urban Veterans Affairs system to create four focus groups. A semi-structured interview script employing open-ended elicitation was used, and transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti software to code and group data into a concept network. A total of 38 participants (mean age = 54) were enrolled, and 59 ATLAS.ti codes were generated. Commonly reported barriers to screening included perceived invasiveness of colonoscopy, fear of pain, and financial concerns. Facilitators included poor diet/health and desire to prevent CRC. Common sources of health information included media and medical providers. CRC screening information was commonly obtained from medical personnel or media. Participants suggested dissemination of CRC screening education through commercials, billboards, influential African American public figures, Internet, and radio. Participants suggested future interventions include culturally specific information, including details about increased risk, accessing care, and dispelling of myths. Public health interventions to improve CRC screening among African Americans should employ media outlets, emphasize increased risk among African Americans, and address race-specific barriers. Specific recommendations are presented for developing future interventions.

  6. Aging and photo-aging DNA repair phenotype of skin cells-evidence toward an effect of chronic sun-exposure.

    PubMed

    Prunier, Chloé; Masson-Genteuil, Gwénaëlle; Ugolin, Nicolas; Sarrazy, Fanny; Sauvaigo, Sylvie

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the deleterious effect of aging on the capacity of cells to repair their DNA. However, current existing assays aimed at measuring DNA repair address only a specific repair step dedicated to the correction of a specific DNA lesion type. Consequently they provide no information regarding the repair pathways that handle other types of lesions. In addition to aging, consequences of photo-exposure on these repair processes remain elusive. In this study we evaluated the consequence of aging and of chronic and/or acute photo-exposure on DNA repair in human skin fibroblasts using a multiplexed approach, which provided detailed information on several repair pathways at the same time. The resulting data were analyzed with adapted statistics/bioinformatics tools. We showed that, irrespective of the repair pathway considered, excision/synthesis was less efficient in non-exposed cells from elderly compared to cells from young adults and that photo-exposure disrupted this very clear pattern. Moreover, it was evidenced that chronic sun-exposure induced changes in DNA repair properties. Finally, the identification of a specific signature at the level of the NER pathway in cells repeatedly exposed to sun revealed a cumulative effect of UVB exposure and chronic sun irradiation. The uses of bioinformatics tools in this study was essential to fully take advantage of the large sum of data obtained with our multiplexed DNA repair assay and unravel the effects of environmental exposure on DNA repair pathways.

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Moo Rim; Han, Sang-Bae; Park, Heungsik; Jung, Jae Chul; Chung, Yoon Hoo; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aged black garlic (ABG) in rodent models of liver injury. ABG inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), which are markers of hepatocellular damage, in SD rats. D-galactosamineinduced hepatocellular damage was also suppressed by ABG treatment. However, ABG does not affect the elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of hepatobilliary damage, in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine. We also examined the effect of ABG on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and subsequent liver damage. ABG had no significant effect on body weight increase and plasma lipid profile in HFD-fed mice. However, HFD-induced increase in AST and ALT, but not ALP, was significantly suppressed by ABG treatment. These results demonstrate that ABG has hepatoprotective effects and suggest that ABG supplementation might be a good adjuvant therapy for the management of liver injury. PMID:24795800

  8. Effect of high-intensity exercise on aged mouse brain mitochondria, neurogenesis, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    E, Lezi; Burns, Jeffrey M; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-11-01

    In aged mice, we assessed how intensive exercise affects brain bioenergetics, inflammation, and neurogenesis-relevant parameters. After 8 weeks of a supra-lactate threshold treadmill exercise intervention, 21-month-old C57BL/6 mice showed increased brain peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α protein, mammalian target of rapamycin and phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin protein, citrate synthase messenger RNA, and mitochondrial DNA copy number. Hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene expression trended higher, and a positive correlation between VEGF-A and PRC messenger RNA levels was observed. Brain doublecortin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and CCL11 gene expression, as well as plasma CCL11 protein levels, were unchanged. Despite these apparent negative findings, a negative correlation between plasma CCL11 protein levels and hippocampal doublecortin gene expression was observed; further analysis indicated exercise may mitigate this relationship. Overall, our data suggest supra-lactate threshold exercise activates a partial mitochondrial biogenesis in aged mice, and a gene (VEGF-A) known to support neurogenesis. Our data are consistent with another study that found systemic inflammation in general, and CCL11 protein specifically, suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis. Our study supports the view that intense exercise above the lactate threshold may benefit the aging brain; future studies to address the extent to which exercise-generated lactate mediates the observed effects are warranted.

  9. Age effects and temporal trends in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia (United States).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jihyoun; Luebeck, E Georg; Moolgavkar, Suresh H

    2006-09-01

    A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the rapid increase of the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the US. A major problem in identifying and understanding the nature of this increase is the difficulty in untangling age effects from temporal trends due to cohort and period effects. To address this problem, we have developed multi-stage carcinogenesis models that describe the age-specific incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and of the gastric cardia with separate adjustments for temporal trends. These models explicitly incorporate important features of the cancers, such as the metaplastic conversion of normal esophagus to Barrett's esophagus (BE). We fit these models separately to the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and of the gastric cardia reported in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry over the period 1973-2000. We conclude that the incidence of both cancers is consistent with a sequence that posits a tissue conversion step in the target organ followed by a multi-stage process with three rate-limiting events, the first two leading to an initiated cell that can expand clonally into a premalignant lesion, and the third converting an initiated cell into a malignant cell. Temporal trends in the incidence of both cancers are dominated by dramatically increasing period effects.

  10. The effect of context and age on social referencing.

    PubMed

    Walden, T A; Baxter, A

    1989-12-01

    The present study investigated social referencing in 2 settings, familiar child-care centers and an unfamiliar university laboratory. 48 children from 6 to 40 months, divided into 3 age groups (6-12, 13-23, and 24-40 months), participated with 1 parent. Looking at parents varied with age and setting. Younger children looked more often when parents expressed positive reactions, whereas middle children looked more at fearful expressions, and the oldest children looked equally at positive and fearful expressions. Children looked at their parents sooner and were more involved with parents in the child-care setting. Behavioral regulation--less play with the fearful-message than the positive-message toy--was observed in both settings. Affect was not influenced by setting and showed regulation only for the oldest children. These results indicate that some effects of social referencing, such as behavior regulation, may be generalizable across some settings, but that parent proximity and looking at parents are sensitive to the context in which referencing occurs. PMID:2612256

  11. Effects of Aging on Genioglossus Motor Units in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Saboisky, Julian P.; Stashuk, Daniel W.; Hamilton-Wright, Andrew; Trinder, John; Nandedkar, Sanjeev; Malhotra, Atul

    2014-01-01

    The genioglossus is a major upper airway dilator muscle thought to be important in obstructive sleep apnea pathogenesis. Aging is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea although the mechanisms are unclear and the effects of aging on motor unit remodeled in the genioglossus remains unknown. To assess possible changes associated with aging we compared quantitative parameters related to motor unit potential morphology derived from EMG signals in a sample of older (n = 11; >55 years) versus younger (n = 29; <55 years) adults. All data were recorded during quiet breathing with the subjects awake. Diagnostic sleep studies (Apnea Hypopnea Index) confirmed the presence or absence of obstructive sleep apnea. Genioglossus EMG signals were analyzed offline by automated software (DQEMG), which estimated a MUP template from each extracted motor unit potential train (MUPT) for both the selective concentric needle and concentric needle macro (CNMACRO) recorded EMG signals. 2074 MUPTs from 40 subjects (mean±95% CI; older AHI 19.6±9.9 events/hr versus younger AHI 30.1±6.1 events/hr) were extracted. MUPs detected in older adults were 32% longer in duration (14.7±0.5 ms versus 11.1±0.2 ms; P  =  0.05), with similar amplitudes (395.2±25.1 µV versus 394.6±13.7 µV). Amplitudes of CNMACRO MUPs detected in older adults were larger by 22% (62.7±6.5 µV versus 51.3±3.0 µV; P<0.05), with areas 24% larger (160.6±18.6 µV.ms versus 130.0±7.4 µV.ms; P<0.05) than those detected in younger adults. These results confirm that remodeled motor units are present in the genioglossus muscle of individuals above 55 years, which may have implications for OSA pathogenesis and aging related upper airway collapsibility. PMID:25111799

  12. Adapting to climate change on Western public lands: addressing the ecological effects of domestic, wild, and feral ungulates.

    PubMed

    Beschta, Robert L; Donahue, Debra L; DellaSala, Dominick A; Rhodes, Jonathan J; Karr, James R; O'Brien, Mary H; Fleischner, Thomas L; Deacon Williams, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify. Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment. Historical and contemporary livestock production-the most widespread and long-running commercial use of public lands-can alter vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources. Excess abundance of native ungulates (e.g., deer or elk) and feral horses and burros add to these impacts. Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades, the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the long-term supply of ecosystem services on public lands. Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and long-term stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change. Where livestock use continues, or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur, management should carefully document the ecological, social, and economic consequences (both costs and benefits) to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities, soils, and water resources. Reestablishing apex predators in large, contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates.

  13. Adapting to Climate Change on Western Public Lands: Addressing the Ecological Effects of Domestic, Wild, and Feral Ungulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beschta, Robert L.; Donahue, Debra L.; DellaSala, Dominick A.; Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Karr, James R.; O'Brien, Mary H.; Fleischner, Thomas L.; Deacon Williams, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify. Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment. Historical and contemporary livestock production—the most widespread and long-running commercial use of public lands—can alter vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources. Excess abundance of native ungulates (e.g., deer or elk) and feral horses and burros add to these impacts. Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades, the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the long-term supply of ecosystem services on public lands. Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and long-term stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change. Where livestock use continues, or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur, management should carefully document the ecological, social, and economic consequences (both costs and benefits) to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities, soils, and water resources. Reestablishing apex predators in large, contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates.

  14. Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L

    2013-11-01

    During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer.

  15. Effects of workplace, family and cultural influences on low back pain: what opportunities exist to address social factors in general consultations?

    PubMed

    Shaw, William S; Campbell, Paul; Nelson, Candace C; Main, Chris J; Linton, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    Social factors are widely acknowledged in behavioural models of pain and pain management, but incorporating these factors into general medical consultations for low back pain (LBP) can be challenging. While there is no compelling evidence that social factors contribute to LBP onset, these factors have been shown to influence functional limitation and disability, especially the effects of organisational support in the workplace, spousal support, family conflict and social disadvantage. A number of barriers exist to address such social factors in routine medical encounters for LBP, but there is emerging evidence that improving social and organisational support may be an effective strategy to reduce the negative lifestyle consequences of LBP. For clinicians to address these factors in LBP treatment requires a clearer psychosocial framework in assessment and screening, more individualised problem-solving efforts, more patient-centred interventions involving family, peers and workplace supports and a less biomechanical and diagnostic approach.

  16. The effect of aging on fracture healing in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bak, B; Andreassen, T T

    1989-11-01

    The effect of age on the biomechanical properties of healing tibial fractures was studied by comparing the fracture healing in 2-year-old male Wistar rats with the fracture healing in 3-month-old male Wistar rats after 40 and 80 days of healing. There were no significant differences in the mechanical parameters after 40 days of healing, but after 80 days, a considerable delay in the fracture healing process was noted in the old rats compared with the young adult rats when evaluated by maximum load, maximum stress, stiffness, and energy absorption in a three-point bending procedure. In the contralateral, nonfractured bones, the tibiae from the old animals sustained higher loads and had higher stiffness than the bones from the young adult animals, but stress values, elastic modulus, and capacity for energy absorption was much lower in the old animals.

  17. Hydrogen effects on the age hardening behavior of 2024 aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, J. A.; Louthan, M. R., Jr.; Sisson, R. D., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the fatigue crack growth rate in aluminum alloys increases significantly in the presence of moisture. This phenomenon along with a moisture effect observed in another context has been attributed to 'embrittlement' of the aluminum by absorbed hydrogen generated by the reaction of moisture with freshly exposed aluminum. A description is given of a number of age hardening experiments involving 2024 aluminum. These experiments show that a mechanism related to the segregation of absorbed hydrogen to the coherent theta-double-prime interfaces may account for the observed reduction in fatigue life. It is pointed out that this segregation promotes a loss of coherency in the hydrogen rich region at a fatigue crack tip. Subsequently, the loss of coherency causes local softening and reduces fatigue life.

  18. Psychotherapist countertransference in the nuclear age: Effects on therapeutic interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Oderberg, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, there has been considerable attention in the psychology literature to mental health problems related to living in a world threatened by nuclear destruction. Questionnaires were mailed to 630 psychotherapists from the Colorado Psychological Association, California Psychotherapists for Social Responsibility, California Psychologists for Social Responsibility, the US Army, and the APA Division of Military Psychology; 174 questionnaires were returned. It was hypothesized that liberalism, nuclear weapons opposition, nuclear concern, nuclear awareness, and anti-nuclear activism in psychotherapists would facilitate perception of, and openness to working with, a client's nuclear concerns and thus, would be positively correlated with intentions to discuss nuclear issues with clients in three different clinical vignettes. Results indicated that when controlling for subject group, psychotherapy orientation, age, sex, and income, all five independent variables were positively correlated with responses to all three clinical vignettes, with nuclear concern having the strongest unique effect in accounting for variance in responses to the vignettes.

  19. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Structural evaluations were conducted on several parachute systems to determine the effects of aging on parachute materials. Most of the parachutes were 25 years old. Five 64 ft parachutes were evaluated along with one 4 ft guide surface parachute and three 16.5 ft ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Results were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. The results indicate that over a period of about 25 years, parachute nylon materials do not degrade to unacceptable levels. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Effect of recipient age on the outcome of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Abou-Jaoude, Maroun M; Khoury, Mansour; Nawfal, Naji; Shaheen, Joseph; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effect of recipient age (RA) on kidney transplantation outcome in 107 transplant patients, with a follow-up of 1 year. Patients were divided in 3 groups: Group A (RA<50 years; 72 patients), Group B (RA 50-60 years, 19 patients), and Group C (RA>60 years; 16 patients). The rate and severity of acute rejection, infection rate and type, delayed graft function, hospital stay, creatinine levels (3, 6, 12 months), incidence at 1 year of post-transplant hypertension, cholesterol and triglycerides blood levels, and the rate of post-transplant surgical complications, and 1-year graft and patient survival were comparable between the 3 groups. However, creatinine blood level at 1 month and the 1-year fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in Group B. The RA does not seem to be of a significant predictive value, good selection and pre-transplant patient workout are important factors for a better outcome.

  1. Posturo-respiratory synchronization: effects of aging and stroke.

    PubMed

    Manor, Brad D; Hu, Kun; Peng, Chung-Kang; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Novak, Vera

    2012-06-01

    Spontaneous respiration influences the body's center-of-mass when standing. We contend that the healthy postural control system actively adapts to respiration, thereby minimizing its effect on postural sway. We therefore examined the interaction between respiration and postural sway, as measured by center-of-pressure (COP) oscillations, and quantified the extent to which this interaction resulted in "posturo-respiratory synchronization." We hypothesized that synchronization would be stronger in elderly subjects and those with stroke, and when standing with eyes closed as compared to open, due to alterations in the physiologic mechanisms that normally regulate postural sway. Twenty-five subjects with chronic hemispheric infarction and 38 controls (50-80 years) stood on a force platform for 3 min with eyes-open and 3 min with eyes-closed. Respiratory flow and COP dynamics were simultaneously recorded. The dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and the corresponding oscillatory modes of anterioposterior and mediolateral COP dynamics were extracted using ensemble empirical mode decomposition. The strength of posturo-respiratory synchronization was quantified from the regularity of instantaneous phase shifts between extracted respiratory and COP oscillations. Significant posturo-respiratory synchronization was only present in the anterioposterior direction. The strength of synchronization increased with age (p<0.01). Closing the eyes increased synchronization strength in both groups (p=0.01), but more so in stroke patients (p=0.01). These observations suggest that a control system actively regulates the effects of respiration on sagittal-plane postural sway, particularly during eyes-open standing. As evidenced by increased posturo-respiratory synchronization with advanced age and central lesion, this novel metric may be used as a clinical marker of altered postural control.

  2. Posturo-respiratory synchronization: Effects of aging and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Brad D.; Hu, Kun; Peng, Chung-Kang; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Novak, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous respiration influences the body’s center-of-mass when standing. We contend that the healthy postural control system actively adapts to respiration, thereby minimizing its effect on postural sway. We therefore examined the interaction between respiration and postural sway, as measured by center-of-pressure (COP) oscillations, and quantified the extent to which this interaction resulted in “posturo-respiratory synchronization.” We hypothesized that synchronization would be stronger in elderly subjects and those with stroke, and when standing with eyes closed as compared to open, due to alterations in the physiologic mechanisms that normally regulate postural sway. Twenty-five subjects with chronic hemispheric infarction and 38 controls (50–80yrs) stood on a force platform for 3min with eyes-open and 3min with eyes-closed. Respiratory flow and COP dynamics were simultaneously recorded. The dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and the corresponding oscillatory modes of anterioposterior and mediolateral COP dynamics were extracted using ensemble empirical mode decomposition. The strength of posturo-respiratory synchronization was quantified from the regularity of instantaneous phase shifts between extracted respiratory and COP oscillations. Significant posturo-respiratory synchronization was only present in the anterioposterior direction. The strength of synchronization increased with age (p<0.01). Closing the eyes increased synchronization strength in both groups (p=0.01), but more so in stroke patients (p=0.01). These observations suggest that a control system actively regulates the effects of respiration on sagittal-plane postural sway, particularly during eyes-open standing. As evidenced by increased posturo-respiratory synchronization with advanced age and central lesion, this novel metric may be used as a clinical marker of altered postural control. PMID:22475726

  3. Feasibility and acceptability of a remotely administered computerized intervention to address cognitive late effects among childhood cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Lauren E.; Ashford, Jason M.; Clark, Kellie N.; Martin-Elbahesh, Karen; Hardy, Kristina K.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Ogg, Robert J.; Jeha, Sima; Willard, Victoria W.; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Hui; Conklin, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer survivors frequently develop working memory (WM) deficits as a result of disease and treatment. Medication-based and therapist-delivered interventions are promising but have limitations. Computerized interventions completed at home may be more appealing for survivors. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a remotely administered, computerized WM intervention (Cogmed) for pediatric cancer survivors using a single-blind, randomized, wait-list control design. Methods Of 80 qualifying patients, 12 were excluded or declined to participate. Participants randomized to intervention (n = 34/68) included survivors of childhood brain tumors (32%) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 68%) between the ages of 8 and 16 years (x¯ = 12.2) who were at least 1 year post therapy (x¯ = 5.0). The majority of brain tumor participants were treated with cranial radiation therapy (72.7%), whereas most of the ALL participants were treated with chemotherapy only (87%). Participants completed 25 WM training sessions over 5–9 weeks at home with weekly phone-based coaching. Results Participants lived in 16 states. Compliance was strong, with 30 of the 34 participants (88%) completing intervention. Almost all participants completed pre- and postintervention neuroimaging exams (91% and 93%, respectively). Families had the necessary skills to utilize the computer program successfully. Caregivers reported they were generally able to find time to complete training (63%), viewed training as beneficial (70%), and would recommend this intervention to others (93%). Conclusions Cogmed is a feasible and acceptable intervention for childhood cancer survivors. It is a viable option for survivors who do not live in close proximity to cancer care centers. Efficacy and neural correlates of change are currently being evaluated. PMID:27054041

  4. The biotic ligand model approach for addressing effects of exposure water chemistry on aquatic toxicity of metals: Genesis and challenges

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major uncertainty in many aquatic risk assessments for toxic chemicals is the aggregate effect of the physicochemical characteristics of exposure media on toxicity, and how this affects extrapolation of laboratory test results to natural systems. A notable example of this is h...

  5. Cultural Nuances, Assumptions, and the Butterfly Effect: Addressing the Unpredictability Caused by Unconscious Values Structures in Cross-Cultural Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remer, Rory

    2007-01-01

    Cultural values, cross-cultural interaction patterns that are produced by dynamical (chaotic) systems, have a significant impact on interaction, particularly among and between people from different cultures. The butterfly effect, which states that small differences in initial conditions may have severe consequences for patterns in the long run,…

  6. Addressing the Effects of Reciprocal Teaching on the Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary of 1st-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Eliana; Osana, Helena P.; Venkatesh, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Adapted Reciprocal Teaching (ART) on the receptive and expressive flight-word vocabulary of 1st-grade students. During ART, classroom interactions produced narrative contexts within which students assumed responsibility for applying new flight words in personally meaningful ways. Students in the control group…

  7. Toward Addressing the Issues of Site Selection in District Effectiveness Research: A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Growth Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: District effectiveness research (DER) is an emerging field concerned with identifying the organizational structures, administration, and leadership practices at the school district level that help districts find success with all of their students across the schools within the system. This work has mirrored much of the early school…

  8. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  9. Effect of Phenytoin and Age on Gingival Fibroblast Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Vahabi, Surena; Nazemisalman, Bahareh; Vahid Golpaigani, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Anahid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The alteration of cytokine balance is stated to exert greater influence on gingival overgrowth compared to the direct effect of the drug on the regulation of extracellular matrix metabolism. The current study evaluated the effect of phenytoin on the regulation of collagen, lysyl oxidase and elastin in gingival fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were obtained from 4 healthy children and 4 adults. Samples were cultured with phenytoin. MTT test was used to evaluate the proliferation and ELISA was performed to determine the level of IL1β and PGE2 production by HGFs. Total RNA of gingival fibroblasts was extracted and RT-PCR was performed on samples. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the data with an alpha error level less than 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in the expression of elastin between the controls and treated samples in both adult and pediatric groups and also in the lysyl oxidase expression of adult controls and treated adults. No significant difference was found between collagen expression in adults. Conclusion: The significant difference in elastin and lysyl oxidase expression between adult and pediatric samples indicates the significant effect of age on their production. PMID:25628662

  10. Paternal age effect on age of onset in bipolar I disorder is mediated by sex and family history.

    PubMed

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Wickramaratne, Priya J; Mihailescu, Radu; Prelipceanu, Dan; Sima, Dorina; Codreanu, Marina; Grimberg, Mihaela; Elston, Robert C

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated for the first time in the psychiatric literature the effect of parental age on age-of-onset (AO) in bipolar I disorder (BPI) in relation to proband sex and family history (FH) for major psychoses in a sample of 564 BPI probands. All probands, 72.68% of their first-degree and 12.13% of their second-degree relatives were directly interviewed. The FH-method was used for all unavailable relatives. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV(TR) . The impact of parental age on proband early/late AO was evaluated through logistic regression with the cut-off for early AO determined through commingling analysis. We found evidence for a significant influence of increasing paternal age, and especially age ≥ 35 years, on AO of BPI disorder in the total sample (OR = 0.54, CI: 0.35-0.80), in the female subsample (OR = 0.44, CI: 0.25-0.78), in the sporadic subsample (OR = 0.64, CI: 0.38-0.95), and in the subsample with FH of recurrent unipolar major depression (Mdd-RUP) (OR = 0.55, CI: 0.34-0.87). No significant effect of paternal age on disease AO was found in patients with FH of bipolar (BP), schizoaffective disorders (SA), or schizophrenia (SCZ), nor in males. Mean age was significantly higher in fathers of sporadic cases and of cases with FH of Mdd-RUP than in fathers of cases with FH of BP/SA/SCZ (P = 0.011). Maternal age had no significant effect either in the total sample or in subsamples defined by proband sex or FH. In conclusion, in our sample increasing paternal age lowered the onset of BPI selectively, the effect being related to the female sex and FH-type.

  11. The Effect of Demographic Factors on Age-Earnings Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The age-earnings profile of male workers is significantly influenced by the age composition of the workforce. The dependence of the age-earnings profile on demographically induced movements along a relative demand schedule suggests that standard human capital models of the profile are incomplete. (MF)

  12. Modification to EPA Method 1623 to address a unique seasonal matrix effect encountered in some U.S. source waters.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Nancy J; Villegas, Leah Fohl; Eldred, Bradley J; Gaynor, Deborah H; Warden, Paul S; Pepich, Barry V

    2008-12-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1623 is designed to detect and determine concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water through concentration, immuno-magnetic separation (IMS), and immuno-fluorescence assay with microscopic examination. A seasonal interference with the method was observed in some municipal source waters collected from reservoirs and as reported to Shaw Environmental, Inc. in the summers of 2005, 2006, and 2007. This interference, which was not confined to a single region of the nation, caused clumping of the IMS beads during the acid dissociation of the IMS procedure in Method 1623. This effect lowered method recoveries for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia; however, the effect was more pronounced for Giardia. A heat dissociation technique (Ware et al., (2003) J. Microbiol. Methods 55, 575-583) was shown to be a viable option for samples which demonstrate the clumping matrix effect and improved Giardia recoveries in partially clumped samples. The heat dissociation application holds promise for fully clumped samples and warrants further investigation.

  13. U.S. view of human problems to be addressed for long duration space flights. [physiological and psychological effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Russian and American space programs have consisted of several thousands of hours of exposure of man to the space environment. In spite of numerous biological phenomena of adaptation observed, the space travellers have displayed, after their return, no enduring pathological effect. Although the usable data remain too limited to reflect fully the effects of space flight, it is possible to sketch the biological responses in the absence of gravity and to define the work bases for the future. Beyond its basic physiological effects, weightlessness has operational consequences in the daily life of the astronauts. These consequences will be still more evident during missions of long duration. The conclusions drawn in flight as well as on the ground are reviewed, and future requirements concerning prolonged flights are outlined. The gaps in actual knowledge are discussed and solutions are suggested. The problems of habitability are considered, particularly those which remain at present without satisfactory solutions: psychological responses to a confined life, cleaning, hygiene, and used material.

  14. Effectiveness and Tradeoffs between Portfolios of Adaptation Strategies Addressing Future Climate and Socioeconomic Uncertainties in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansey, M. K.; Van Lienden, B.; Das, T.; Munevar, A.; Young, C. A.; Flores-Lopez, F.; Huntington, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the major agricultural areas in the United States. The Central Valley Project (CVP) is operated by the Bureau of Reclamation to serve multiple purposes including generating approximately 4.3 million gigawatt hours of hydropower and providing, on average, 5 million acre-feet of water per year to irrigate approximately 3 million acres of land in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Tulare Lake basins, 600,000 acre-feet per year of water for urban users, and 800,000 acre-feet of annual supplies for environmental purposes. The development of effective adaptation and mitigation strategies requires assessing multiple risks including potential climate changes as well as uncertainties in future socioeconomic conditions. In this study, a scenario-based analytical approach was employed by combining three potential 21st century socioeconomic futures with six representative climate and sea level change projections developed using a transient hybrid delta ensemble method from an archive of 112 bias corrected spatially downscaled CMIP3 global climate model simulations to form 18 future socioeconomic-climate scenarios. To better simulate the effects of climate changes on agricultural water demands, analyses of historical agricultural meteorological station records were employed to develop estimates of future changes in solar radiation and atmospheric humidity from the GCM simulated temperature and precipitation. Projected changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide were computed directly by weighting SRES emissions scenarios included in each representative climate projection. These results were used as inputs to a calibrated crop water use, growth and yield model to simulate the effects of climate changes on the evapotranspiration and yields of major crops grown in the Central Valley. Existing hydrologic, reservoir operations, water quality, hydropower, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and both urban and agricultural economic models were integrated

  15. The Effects of Age on Second Language Grammar and Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Becky H.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the age of learning effect on second language (L2) acquisition. The research goals of the study were twofold: to test whether there is an independent age effect controlling for other potentially confounding variables, and to clarify the age effect across L2 grammar and speech production domains. The study included 118…

  16. Aging effects on the structure underlying balance abilities tests.

    PubMed

    Urushihata, Toshiya; Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as 'Reactive'. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as 'Static'. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as 'Dynamic'. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as 'Static and Reactive'. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as 'Reactive'. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as 'Dynamic'. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were acceptable (young group, GFI

  17. Aging Effects on the Structure Underlying Balance Abilities Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as ‘Static’. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as ‘Static and Reactive’. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were

  18. Age differences in the effect of framing on risky choice: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Best, Ryan; Charness, Neil

    2015-09-01

    The framing of decision scenarios in terms of potential gains versus losses has been shown to influence choice preferences between sure and risky options. Normative cognitive changes associated with aging have been known to affect decision making, which has led to a number of studies investigating the influence of aging on the effect of framing. Mata, Josef, Samanez-Larkin, and Hertwig (2011) systematically reviewed the available literature using a meta-analytic approach, but did not include tests of homogeneity or subsequent moderator variable analyses. The current review serves to extend the previous analysis to include such tests as well as update the pool of studies available for analysis. Results for both positively and negatively framed conditions were reviewed using 2 meta-analyses encompassing data collected from 3,232 subjects across 18 studies. Deviating from the previous results, the current analysis found a tendency for younger adults to choose the risky option more often than older adults for positively framed items. Moderator variable analyses found this effect likely to be driven by the specific decision scenario, showing a significant effect, with younger adults choosing the risky option more often in small-amount financial and large-amount mortality-based scenarios. For negatively framed items, the current review found no overall age difference in risky decision making, confirming the results from the prior meta-analysis. Moderator variable analyses conducted to address heterogeneity found younger adults to be more likely than older adults to choose the risky option for negatively framed high-amount mortality-based decision scenarios. Practical implications for older adults are discussed.

  19. Effect of weaning age on cortisol release in piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, L A; Yang, J J; Li, Y; Lv, L; Xie, J J; Du, G M; Jin, T M; Qin, S Y; Jiao, X L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of weaning age on the adrenal cortex, which plays a vital role in the stress response, is currently unknown. Therefore, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, weights and relative weights of adrenal glands, and steroidogenesis-related protein and enzyme expression levels in piglets weaned on different days were determined. Piglets weaned at 35 days had significantly lower ACTH levels than those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and cortisol levels of piglets weaned at 21, 28, and 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned on day 14. Adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days and relative adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned at 14 days. However, no significant difference was detected in the expression of melanocortin-type 2 receptor mRNA, which is associated with weaning age. Steroidogenic acute-regulatory (StAR) mRNA and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and P450 11β mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 days. Therefore, early-weaned piglets exhibited increased adrenal gland weights and StAR and steroidogenic enzyme expression, all of which contributed to high cortisol levels. The high plasma ACTH and cortisol levels in early-weaned piglets indicate that these animals would be greatly affected by stress. PMID:27173313

  20. Behavioral activating effects of adrafinil in aged canines.

    PubMed

    Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Woehrlé, F; Schneider, M; Muggenburg, B A; Murphey, H L; Callahan, H; Milgram, N W

    2000-06-01

    Adrafinil, a vigilance enhancing pharmaceutical, was administered to aged dogs for 14 consecutive days at doses of 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg using a crossover design. The effects on spontaneous behavior in a 10-min canine open-field test were systematically recorded every fourth day, starting with day 1 of treatment. The open field tests were given 2 or 10 h following oral administration of capsules containing either adrafinil or lactose, the placebo control. Adrafinil caused an increase in locomotor activity at the three highest doses at both the 2- and 10-h intervals and during both the first (days 1 and 5) and second treatment week (days 9 and 13). Adrafinil also caused a transient increase in directed sniffing. At the highest dose level, adrafinil caused a decrease in urination frequency. The increased locomotion was generally unaccompanied by stereotypical behavior in the test session. There was some variability; a subpopulation of animals showed either no effect, or decreased locomotion. The individual differences were correlated with changes in serum levels of adrafinil 10 h following treatment. PMID:10880681

  1. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  2. A novel approach for addressing diseases not yielding to effective vaccination? Immunization by replication-competent controlled virus.

    PubMed

    Voellmy, Richard; Bloom, David C; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2015-05-01

    Vaccination involves inoculation of a subject with a disabled disease-causing microbe or parts thereof. While vaccination has been highly successful, we still lack sufficiently effective vaccines for important infectious diseases. We propose that a more complete immune response than that elicited from a vaccine may be obtained from immunization with a disease-causing virus modified to subject replication-essential genes to the control of a gene switch activated by non-lethal heat in the presence of a drug-like compound. Upon inoculation, strictly localized replication of the virus would be triggered by a heat dose administered to the inoculation site. Activated virus would transiently replicate with an efficiency approaching that of the disease-causing virus and express all viral antigens. It may also vector heterologous antigens or control co-infecting microbes.

  3. Handling intensity and the short- and long-term survival of elephant seals: addressing and quantifying research effects on wild animals.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Clive; van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry

    2005-08-01

    This study addresses the consequences of repeated human handling on the survival of an endangered phocid, the southern elephant seal and the implications for wildlife research. Southern elephant seal pups were repeatedly handled during the first six weeks of their lives. The possibility that such anthropogenic research may have altered the very parameters that were being investigated is a topical and relevant study area that we address here. Our results show that there were no measurable effects on pups that were repeatedly handled and subjected to invasive research methods with respect to survivorship in the short term (the 24-day nursing period) nor in the long term (the first year of life and beyond) and hence fitness one year after handling. In support of this conclusion we were unable to detect any significant differences in the survival rates of the most intensively handled seals and the least intensively handled seals.

  4. Effects of Aging Structures and Humidity on Fatigue Properties of Maraging Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kousuke; Nagano, Takanori; Moriyama, Michihiko; Wang, Xishu; Kawagoishi, Norio

    Effects of aging structures and humidity on fatigue properties of 350 grade 18% Ni maraging steel were investigated under rotating bending in relative humidity of 25% and 85%. Aging conditions tested were a conventional single aging and a double one which was aged at low temperature after the conventional aging. In each aging, under and peak aged steels were prepared. Tensile strength was increased by the double aging without reduction of the ductility. Proportional relation between fatigue limit and Vickers hardness held until 750HV in low humidity. However fatigue strength was largely decreased by high humidity, especially in the peak aged steel at the single aging. The decrease in fatigue strength by high humidity was mainly caused by the acceleration of a crack initiation due to the anodic dissolution. The acceleration of a crack initiation was larger in the steel peak aged at the single aging with larger precipitated particles.

  5. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  6. 'Active ageing': from empty rhetoric to effective policy tool.

    PubMed

    Boudiny, Kim

    2013-08-01

    'Active ageing' is a topic of increasing attention in scientific and policy discussions on ageing, yet there is no consensus on its actual meaning. The current paper proposes a detailed classification of various definitions that have been used since its introduction. These definitions are subjected to critical investigation, and subtle differences with regard to such terms as 'healthy ageing' and 'productive ageing' are clarified. Bearing the hazards of previous definitions in mind, a comprehensive strategy is initiated. Given that earlier definitions have tended to exclude frail older adults, this strategy pays particular attention to the translation of the active-ageing concept to situations of dependency by centring on three key principles: fostering adaptability, supporting the maintenance of emotionally close relationships and removing structural barriers related to age or dependency. PMID:23913994

  7. Pulmonary effects of inhaled diesel exhaust in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel, Kinal J.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Turpin, Barbara J.; Ridgely, Sherritta; Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Veleeparambil, Manoj; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary morbidity and mortality resulting from exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) increases with age. The present studies analyzed potential mechanisms underlying increased susceptibility of the elderly to PM using diesel exhaust (DE) as a model. Mice (2 m and 18 m) were exposed to DE (0, 300, and 1000 μg/m3) for 3 h once (single) or 3 h/day for 3 days (repeated). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), serum and lung tissue were collected 0 and 24 h later. Exposure to DE resulted in structural alterations in the lungs of older but not younger mice, including patchy thickening of the alveolar septa and inflammatory cell localization in alveolar spaces. These effects were most pronounced 24 h after a single exposure to the higher dose of DE. Significant increases in BAL nitrogen oxides were also noted in older mice, as well as expression of lipocalin 24p3, an oxidative stress marker in the lung with no effects in younger mice. Following DE inhalation, expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) was upregulated in lungs of both younger and older mice; however, this was attenuated in older animals. Whereas exposure to DE resulted in increases in lung Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in both older and younger mice, IL-8 increased only in older animals. In younger mice, constitutive expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) decreased after DE exposure, while in older mice, constitutive MnSOD was not detectable and DE had no effect on expression of this antioxidant. Taken together, these results suggest that altered generation of inflammatory mediators and MnSOD may contribute to increased susceptibility of older mice to inhaled DE. PMID:19729031

  8. Pulmonary effects of inhaled diesel exhaust in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel, Kinal J.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Turpin, Barbara J.; Ridgely, Sherritta; Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Veleeparambil, Manoj; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2009-12-15

    Pulmonary morbidity and mortality resulting from exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) increases with age. The present studies analyzed potential mechanisms underlying increased susceptibility of the elderly to PM using diesel exhaust (DE) as a model. Mice (2 m and 18 m) were exposed to DE (0, 300, and 1000 mug/m{sup 3}) for 3 h once (single) or 3 h/day for 3 days (repeated). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), serum and lung tissue were collected 0 and 24 h later. Exposure to DE resulted in structural alterations in the lungs of older but not younger mice, including patchy thickening of the alveolar septa and inflammatory cell localization in alveolar spaces. These effects were most pronounced 24 h after a single exposure to the higher dose of DE. Significant increases in BAL nitrogen oxides were also noted in older mice, as well as expression of lipocalin 24p3, an oxidative stress marker in the lung with no effects in younger mice. Following DE inhalation, expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha) was upregulated in lungs of both younger and older mice; however, this was attenuated in older animals. Whereas exposure to DE resulted in increases in lung Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in both older and younger mice, IL-8 increased only in older animals. In younger mice, constitutive expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) decreased after DE exposure, while in older mice, constitutive MnSOD was not detectable and DE had no effect on expression of this antioxidant. Taken together, these results suggest that altered generation of inflammatory mediators and MnSOD may contribute to increased susceptibility of older mice to inhaled DE.

  9. Densified biomass can cost-effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and address energy security in thermal applications.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas O; McNeal, Frederick M; Spatari, Sabrina; G Abler, David; Adler, Paul R

    2012-01-17

    Regional supplies of biomass are currently being evaluated as feedstocks in energy applications to meet renewable portfolio (RPS) and low carbon fuel standards. We investigate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated abatement costs resulting from using densified switchgrass for thermal and electrical energy. In contrast to the large and positive abatement costs for using biomass in electricity generation ($149/Mg CO(2)e) due to the low cost of coal and high feedstock and power plant operation costs, abatement costs for replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications are large and negative (-$52 to -$92/Mg CO(2)e), resulting in cost savings. Replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications results in least cost reductions compared to replacing coal in electricity generation, an alternative that has gained attention due to RPS legislation and the centralized production model most often considered in U.S. policy. Our estimates indicate a more than doubling of liquid fuel displacement when switchgrass is substituted for fuel oil as opposed to gasoline, suggesting that, in certain U.S. locations, such as the northeast, densified biomass would help to significantly decarbonize energy supply with regionally sourced feedstock, while also reducing imported oil. On the basis of supply projections from the recently released Billion Ton Report, there will be enough sustainably harvested biomass available in the northeast by 2022 to offset the entirety of heating oil demand in the same region. This will save NE consumers between $2.3 and $3.9 billion annually. Diverting the same resource to electricity generation would cost the region $7.7 billion per year. While there is great need for finding low carbon substitutes for coal power and liquid transportation fuels in the U.S., we argue that in certain regions it makes cost- (and GHG mitigation-) effective sense to phase out liquid heating fuels with locally produced biomass first.

  10. Compensation Age Theory: Effect of Chronological Age on Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz-Vahav, Hefziba

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to discuss a new concept, the "Compensation Age Theory (CAT)", for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The CAT is a holistic framework comprised of four dimensions: (a) the state of the art of the CAT; (b) the theoretical resources which are at the core of the CAT; (c) a series of empirical…

  11. Age matters: The effect of onset age of video game play on task-switching abilities.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Andree; Toh, Wei Xing; Yang, Hwajin

    2016-05-01

    Although prior research suggests that playing video games can improve cognitive abilities, recent empirical studies cast doubt on such findings (Unsworth et al., 2015). To reconcile these inconsistent findings, we focused on the link between video games and task switching. Furthermore, we conceptualized video-game expertise as the onset age of active video-game play rather than the frequency of recent gameplay, as it captures both how long a person has played video games and whether the individual began playing during periods of high cognitive plasticity. We found that the age of active onset better predicted switch and mixing costs than did frequency of recent gameplay; specifically, players who commenced playing video games at an earlier age reaped greater benefits in terms of task switching than did those who started at a later age. Moreover, improving switch costs required a more extensive period of video-game experience than did mixing costs; this finding suggests that certain cognitive abilities benefit from different amounts of video game experience. PMID:26860712

  12. Age matters: The effect of onset age of video game play on task-switching abilities.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Andree; Toh, Wei Xing; Yang, Hwajin

    2016-05-01

    Although prior research suggests that playing video games can improve cognitive abilities, recent empirical studies cast doubt on such findings (Unsworth et al., 2015). To reconcile these inconsistent findings, we focused on the link between video games and task switching. Furthermore, we conceptualized video-game expertise as the onset age of active video-game play rather than the frequency of recent gameplay, as it captures both how long a person has played video games and whether the individual began playing during periods of high cognitive plasticity. We found that the age of active onset better predicted switch and mixing costs than did frequency of recent gameplay; specifically, players who commenced playing video games at an earlier age reaped greater benefits in terms of task switching than did those who started at a later age. Moreover, improving switch costs required a more extensive period of video-game experience than did mixing costs; this finding suggests that certain cognitive abilities benefit from different amounts of video game experience.

  13. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  14. Effect of Aging on ERP Components of Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Kropotov, Juri; Ponomarev, Valery; Tereshchenko, Ekaterina P.; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    As people age, their performance on tasks requiring cognitive control often declines. Such a decline is frequently explained as either a general or specific decline in cognitive functioning with age. In the context of hypotheses suggesting a general decline, it is often proposed that processing speed generally declines with age. A further hypothesis is that an age-related compensation mechanism is associated with a specific cognitive decline. One prominent theory is the compensation hypothesis, which proposes that deteriorated functions are compensated for by higher performing functions. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) in the context of a GO/NOGO task to examine the age-related changes observed during cognitive control in a large group of healthy subjects aged between 18 and 84 years. The main question we attempted to answer was whether we could find neurophysiological support for either a general decline in processing speed or a compensation strategy. The subjects performed a relatively demanding cued GO/NOGO task with similar omissions and reaction times across the five age groups. The ERP waves of cognitive control, such as N2, P3cue and CNV, were decomposed into latent components by means of a blind source separation method. Based on this decomposition, it was possible to more precisely delineate the different neurophysiological and psychological processes involved in cognitive control. These data support the processing speed hypothesis because the latencies of all cognitive control ERP components increased with age, by 8 ms per decade for the early components (<200 ms) and by 20 ms per decade for the late components. At the same time, the compensatory hypothesis of aging was also supported, as the amplitudes of the components localized in posterior brain areas decreased with age, while those localized in the prefrontal cortical areas increased with age in order to maintain performance on this simple task at a relatively stable level

  15. Effect of Aging on ERP Components of Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Kropotov, Juri; Ponomarev, Valery; Tereshchenko, Ekaterina P; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    As people age, their performance on tasks requiring cognitive control often declines. Such a decline is frequently explained as either a general or specific decline in cognitive functioning with age. In the context of hypotheses suggesting a general decline, it is often proposed that processing speed generally declines with age. A further hypothesis is that an age-related compensation mechanism is associated with a specific cognitive decline. One prominent theory is the compensation hypothesis, which proposes that deteriorated functions are compensated for by higher performing functions. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) in the context of a GO/NOGO task to examine the age-related changes observed during cognitive control in a large group of healthy subjects aged between 18 and 84 years. The main question we attempted to answer was whether we could find neurophysiological support for either a general decline in processing speed or a compensation strategy. The subjects performed a relatively demanding cued GO/NOGO task with similar omissions and reaction times across the five age groups. The ERP waves of cognitive control, such as N2, P3cue and CNV, were decomposed into latent components by means of a blind source separation method. Based on this decomposition, it was possible to more precisely delineate the different neurophysiological and psychological processes involved in cognitive control. These data support the processing speed hypothesis because the latencies of all cognitive control ERP components increased with age, by 8 ms per decade for the early components (<200 ms) and by 20 ms per decade for the late components. At the same time, the compensatory hypothesis of aging was also supported, as the amplitudes of the components localized in posterior brain areas decreased with age, while those localized in the prefrontal cortical areas increased with age in order to maintain performance on this simple task at a relatively stable level

  16. Adaptive male effects on female ageing in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Kremer, Natacha; Arnqvist, Göran

    2005-12-01

    Selection can favour the evolution of a high reproductive rate early in life even when this results in a subsequent increase in the rate of mortality, because selection is relatively weak late in life. However, the optimal reproductive schedule of a female may be suboptimal to any one of her mates, and males may thus be selected to modulate female reproductive rate. Owing to such sexual conflict, coevolution between males and females may contribute to the evolution of senescence. By using replicated beetle populations selected for reproduction at an early or late age, we show that males evolve to affect senescence in females in a manner consistent with the genetic interests of males. 'Late' males evolved to decelerate senescence and increase the lifespan of control females, relative to 'early' males. Our findings demonstrate that adaptive evolution in one sex may involve its effects on senescence in the other, showing that the evolution of optimal life histories in one sex may be either facilitated or constrained by genes expressed in the other.

  17. Interaction of mouse splenocytes and macrophages with bacterial strains in vitro: the effect of age in the immune response.

    PubMed

    Van Beek, A A; Hoogerland, J A; Belzer, C; De Vos, P; De Vos, W M; Savelkoul, H F J; Leenen, P J M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics influence the immune system, both at the local and systemic level. Recent findings suggest the relation between microbiota and the immune system alters with age. Our objective was to address direct effects of six bacterial strains on immune cells from young and aged mice: Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Bifidobacterium breve ATCC15700, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC15697, and Akkermansia muciniphila ATCC BAA-835. We used splenocytes and naïve or interferon-γ-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as responder populations. All tested bacterial strains induced phenotypic and cytokine responses in splenocytes and BMDM. Based on magnitude of the cellular inflammatory response and cytokine profiles, two subgroups of bacteria were identified, i.e. L. plantarum and L. casei versus B. breve, B. infantis, and A. muciniphila. The latter group of bacteria induced high levels of cytokines produced under inflammatory conditions, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. Responses to L. lactis showed features of both subgroups. In addition, we compared responses by splenocytes and BMDM derived from young mice to those of aged mice, and found that splenocytes and BMDM derived from aged mice had an increased IL-10 production and dysregulated IL-6 and TNF production compared to young immune cells. Overall, our study shows differential inflammatory responses to distinct bacterial strains, and profound age-dependent effects. These findings, moreover, support the view that immune environment importantly influences bacterial immune effects. PMID:26689225

  18. Berry effects on cognition and motor function in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last century, the lifespan of humans has almost doubled. Consequently, the percent of the population that is over the age of 65 years has markedly increased, making age-related pathologies a growing concern. Research has demonstrated, in both human and animals, that psychomotor and cognitive...

  19. Effect of alternative aging and accident simulations on polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Gaussens, G.; LeMeur, M.

    1984-01-01

    The response of eighteen US and French polymer materials to variations in aging and accident simulation techniques has been determined by this experimental program. This information will provide a partial data base by which to judge appropriate simulation practices. The overall research goal was to determine whether some aging and accident simulation techniques are better suited for qualification activities than other alternative simulation techniques.

  20. The beneficial effects of tree nuts on the aging brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns may play an important role in protecting the brain from the cellular and cognitive dysfunction associated with the aging process and neurodegenerative diseases. Tree nuts are showing promise as possible dietary interventions for age-related brain dysfunction. Tree nuts are an impo...

  1. Effect of kenaf fiber age on PLLA composite properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The age of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiber dictates its pore architecture. The impact of increasing age of plant fiber on the corresponding composite can impact material selection for enhanced composite performance. Bast fibers stems of kenaf, a warm season tropical herbaceous annual plant ...

  2. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  3. Conditional grandmother effects on age at marriage, age at first birth, and completed fertility of daughters and daughters-in-law in historical Krummhörn.

    PubMed

    Johow, Johannes; Voland, Eckart

    2012-09-01

    Based on historical data pertaining to the Krummhörn population (eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Germany), we compared reproductive histories of mothers according to whether the maternal grandmother (MGM) or the paternal grandmother (PGM) or neither of them was resident in the parents' parish at the time of the mother's first birth. In contrast to effects of PGMs, we discovered conditional differences in the MGM's effects between landless people and wealthier, commercial farmers. Our data indicate that the presence of the MGM only lowers the woman's age at marriage (AAM) and her age at the birth of her first child (AFB) in the case of landless families. However, among commercial farmers, who can generally be characterized by a lower AAM and AFB, we found opposite tendencies for the MGM's effect leading to a relatively small delay in AAM and AFB. Moreover, we also analyzed differences in the completed fertility (i.e., children ever born: CEB). Results indicate that landless families in general do have fewer CEB compared with commercial farmers except for those families in which the MGM has been present. Emphasizing that the adaptiveness of investment decisions should depend on the interaction of genetic, lineage-specific (intrinsic) and ecologically imposed (extrinsic) constraints, we conclude that kin strategies consequently address different fitness components under different conditions.

  4. Effect of Age on Regulation of Human Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ping-Lin; Zhou, Shuanhu; Eslami, Behnam; Shen, Longxiang; LeBoff, Meryl S.; Glowacki, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Human skeletal aging is characterized as a gradual loss of bone mass due to an excess of bone resorption not balanced by new bone formation. Using human marrow cells, we tested the hypothesis that there is an age-dependent increase in osteoclastogenesis due to intrinsic changes in regulatory factors [macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG)] and their receptors [c-fms and RANK]. In bone marrow cells (BMCs), c-fms (r=0.61, p=0.006) and RANK expression (r=0.59, p=0.008) were increased with age (27-82 years, n=19). In vitro generation of osteoclasts was increased with age (r=0.89, p=0.007). In enriched marrow stromal cells (MSCs), constitutive expression of RANKL was increased with age (r=0.41, p=0.049) and expression of OPG was inversely correlated with age (r=-0.43, p=0.039). Accordingly, there was an age-related increase in RANKL/OPG (r=0.56, p=0.005). These data indicate an age-related increase in human osteoclastogenesis that is associated with an intrinsic increase in expression of c-fms and RANK in osteoclast progenitors, and, in the supporting MSCs, an increase in pro-osteoclastogenic RANKL expression and a decrease in anti-osteoclastogenic OPG. These findings support the hypothesis that human marrow cells and their products can contribute to skeletal aging by increasing the generation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. These findings help to explain underlying molecular mechanisms of progressive bone loss with advancing age in humans. PMID:24700654

  5. 29 CFR 570.5 - Certificates of age and their effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificates of age and their effect. 570.5 Section 570.5... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age § 570.5 Certificates of age and their effect. (a) To protect an employer from unwitting violation of the minimum...

  6. 29 CFR 570.5 - Certificates of age and their effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certificates of age and their effect. 570.5 Section 570.5... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age § 570.5 Certificates of age and their effect. (a) To protect an employer from unwitting violation of the minimum...

  7. 29 CFR 570.5 - Certificates of age and their effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certificates of age and their effect. 570.5 Section 570.5... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age § 570.5 Certificates of age and their effect. (a) To protect an employer from unwitting violation of the minimum...

  8. Age-Sensitive Effect of Adolescent Dating Experience on Delinquency and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ryang Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a developmental perspective and focuses on examining whether the impact of adolescent dating is age-sensitive. Dating at earlier ages is hypothesized to have a stronger effect on adolescent criminal behavior or substance use, but the effect would be weaker as one ages. The data obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  9. 29 CFR 570.5 - Certificates of age and their effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certificates of age and their effect. 570.5 Section 570.5... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age § 570.5 Certificates of age and their effect. (a) To protect an employer from unwitting violation of the minimum...

  10. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  11. The effect of ageing on platelet function and fibrinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Gleerup, G; Winther, K

    1995-08-01

    Twelve healthy male volunteers, mean age twenty-five, range twenty-one to thirty years, and 12 healthy middle-aged male volunteers mean age fifty-eight, range forty-four to seventy-two years, were tested regarding platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate and fibrinolytic activity, estimated as euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and the fast-acting inhibitor against t-PA normally referred to as (PAI-1). Platelet aggregation increased significantly in the middle-aged group as compared with the young, as shown by a decrease in ADP thresholds for irreversible aggregation (P < 0.01). In healthy young volunteers, vigorous cycling exercise by itself caused platelet aggregability to decrease (P < 0.05). Such changes were not observed in the elderly. Fibrinolytic activity decreased significantly in the middle-aged group as shown by a prolongation of the ECLT (P < 0.01) and PAI-1, although not significantly, increased by approximately 100%, whereas t-PA significantly increased in the middle-aged group (P < 0.01). The present results suggest that increasing age is associated with not only increased platelet aggregability but also decreased fibrinolytic activity.

  12. Effects of aging on the mechanical behavior of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Arola, D; Reprogel, R K

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study on the mechanical behavior of human dentin and the influence of age was conducted. Beams with rectangular cross-section were sectioned from the coronal dentin of virgin extracted molars (N = 76) that were obtained from (N = 70) patients between 17 and 80 years of age. The beams were loaded in either quasi-static 4-point flexure or 4-point flexural fatigue to failure and the stiffness, strength and fatigue properties were evaluated. In characterizing the fatigue response the beams were divided into two age groups that were regarded as young (17 < or = age < or = 30, mean +/- std. dev. = 25 +/- 5 years) and old (50 < or = age < or = 80, mean +/- std. dev. = 64 +/- 9 years) dentin. Results from monotonic loading showed that both the flexural strength and strain to fracture of dentin decreased significantly with age. The fatigue life of dentin increased with a reduction in cyclic stress amplitude and the fatigue strength of young dentin was greater than that of old dentin at all cyclic stress amplitudes. The endurance strength of young dentin (at 10(7) cycles) was approximately 44 MPa, whereas the old dentin exhibited an endurance strength of approximately 23 MPa. Based on differences in the mechanical behavior and microscopic features of the fracture surfaces from the young and old specimens, aging appears to result in an increase in both the rate of damage initiation and propagation in dentin.

  13. Effects of tretinoin on wound healing in aged skin.

    PubMed

    de Campos Peseto, Danielle; Carmona, Erica Vilaça; Silva, Kellyn Cristina da; Guedes, Flavia Roberta Valente; Hummel Filho, Fernando; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Pereira, José Aires; Rocha, Thalita; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Aged and adult populations have differences in the structural, biological, and healing properties of skin. Comparative studies of healing under the influence of retinoids in both these populations are very important and, to the best of our knowledge, have not been performed to date. The purpose of this study was to compare the activities of topical tretinoin in aged and adult animal models of wound healing by secondary intention. Male aged rats (24 months old, n = 7) and adult rats (6 months old, n = 8) were used. The rats were assigned to the following groups according to the dates on which wound samples were excised (day 14 or 21 after model creation): treated group, control group, and naive group. Topical application of tretinoin cream was used only on the proximal wound and was applied daily for 7 days. Wound healing areas were measured using metal calipers, and morphological analysis was performed. Slides were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Statistical analysis adopted a 5% coefficient for rejection of the null hypothesis. Although aged animals showed skin repair, complete reepithelialization was found on day 21 in some animals of both groups (treated and control). In aged rats, the wound area was significantly smaller in treated wounds than in untreated wounds, resulting in a larger scar area compared with the adult group. When treated wounds were compared, no differences were found between the wound areas in adult and aged rats. As expected, the collagen concentration was higher in normal skin from adult rats than in normal skin from aged animals, but there was no difference when aged skin was treated with tretinoin. These results indicate that tretinoin increases collagen synthesis in aged skin and returns the healing process to a normal state of skin healing. PMID:26834030

  14. Age-Related Changes in Predictive Capacity Versus Internal Model Adaptability: Electrophysiological Evidence that Individual Differences Outweigh Effects of Age.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Philipp, Markus; Alday, Phillip M; Kretzschmar, Franziska; Grewe, Tanja; Gumpert, Maike; Schumacher, Petra B; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age-related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured in a group of older adults (60-81 years; n = 40) as they read sentences of the form "The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice." Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym ("white"; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match), and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, "nice," versus the incongruous associated condition, "yellow"). These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that - at both a neurophysiological and a functional level - the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to cognitive performance. PMID

  15. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: evidence from golf putting.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Hartley, Alan A; Joubert, Sven; Didierjean, André; Masters, Rich S W

    2012-01-01

    Can motor learning be equivalent in younger and older adults? To address this question, 48 younger (M = 23.5 years) and 48 older (M = 65.0 years) participants learned to perform a golf-putting task in two different motor learning situations: one that resulted in infrequent errors or one that resulted in frequent errors. The results demonstrated that infrequent-error learning predominantly relied on nondeclarative, automatic memory processes whereas frequent-error learning predominantly relied on declarative, effortful memory processes: After learning, infrequent-error learners verbalized fewer strategies than frequent-error learners; at transfer, a concurrent, attention-demanding secondary task (tone counting) left motor performance of infrequent-error learners unaffected but impaired that of frequent-error learners. The results showed age-equivalent motor performance in infrequent-error learning but age deficits in frequent-error learning. Motor performance of frequent-error learners required more attention with age, as evidenced by an age deficit on the attention-demanding secondary task. The disappearance of age effects when nondeclarative, automatic memory processes predominated suggests that these processes are preserved with age and are available even early in motor learning. PMID:21736434

  16. The Effect of Age on a Visual Learning Task in the American Cockroach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sheena; Strausfeld, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal modifications that accompany normal aging occur in brain neuropils and might share commonalties across phyla including the most successful group, the Insecta. This study addresses the kinds of neuronal modifications associated with loss of memory that occur in the hemimetabolous insect "Periplaneta americana." Among insects that display…

  17. Effect of aging and dietary restriction on DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weraarchakul, N.; Strong, R.; Wood, W.G.; Richardson, A.

    1989-03-01

    DNA repair was studied as a function of age in cells isolated from both the liver and the kidney of male Fischer F344 rats. DNA repair was measured by quantifying unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by UV irradiation. Unscheduled DNA synthesis decreased approximately 50% between the ages of 5 and 30 months in both hepatocytes and kidney cells. The age-related decline in unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells isolated from the liver and kidney was compared in rats fed ad libitum and rats fed a calorie-restricted diet; calorie restriction has been shown to increase the survival of rodents. The level of unscheduled DNA synthesis was significantly higher in hepatocytes and kidney cells isolated from the rats fed the restricted diet. Thus, calorie restriction appears to retard the age-related decline in DNA repair.

  18. Age effects on attentional blink performance in meditation.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Sara; Müller, Notger G; Melloni, Lucia

    2009-09-01

    Here we explore whether mental training in the form of meditation can help to overcome age-related attentional decline. We compared performance on the attentional blink task between three populations: A group of long-term meditation practitioners within an older population, a control group of age-matched participants and a control group of young participants. Members of both control groups had never practiced meditation. Our results show that long-term meditation practice leads to a reduction of the attentional blink. Meditation practitioners taken from an older population showed a reduction in blink as compared to a control group taken from a younger population, whereas, the control group age-matched to the meditators' group revealed a blink that was comparatively larger and broader. Our results support the hypothesis that meditation practice can: (i) alter the efficiency with which attentional resources are distributed and (ii) help to overcome age-related attentional deficits in the temporal domain.

  19. Effect of rabbit age on sperm chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Gogol, P; Bochenek, M; Smorag, Z

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the age of male rabbits and the sperm chromatin structure. The studies involved the semen of New Zealand White rabbits between 5 and 28 months of age. A flow cytometry and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) method was used to determine chromatin structure. The results of cytometric chromatin structure assay suggested a relatively high stability of sperm chromatin in the rabbit. Between 6 and 16 months of age, the mean percentage of sperm with damaged chromatin was the lowest and ranged from 1.7 to 2.4%. Decreased sperm chromatin stability was found in ejaculates taken from male rabbits less than 5 months and more than 20 months of age. PMID:11975746

  20. Effect of shelf aging on O-ring materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, T. E.; Stone, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial O-rings made from 13 different rubber compounds were tested for physical properties after 7 and 12 years of shelf aging. No gross changes were observed in tensile strength, elongation, or compression deflection characteristics.

  1. Effects of Ageing on the Immune System: Infants to Elderly.

    PubMed

    Valiathan, R; Ashman, M; Asthana, D

    2016-04-01

    Physiological ageing is accompanied by decline in immune system function and immune alteration during ageing increases susceptibility to infections. We retrospectively analysed the data for complete blood count (CBC) and lymphocyte subsets from infant to elderly age groups to determine changes during ageing. Data from dual-platform flow cytometry and CBC were analysed to determine the percentage (%) and absolute cell counts (Abs) of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and CD56+16+ cells) in infants (1 month to 1 year), children (1 year to 6 years), adolescents (12 years to 18 years), adults (21 years to 50) and elderly (70 years to 92 years). Differences in plasma cytokine levels in adults and elderly were also analysed using Randox system. Comparisons among age groups from infants through adults revealed progressive declines in the percentage of total lymphocytes and absolute numbers of T and B cells. The NK cells declined from infancy to adulthood but increased in elderly participants. The percentages of T cells increased with age from infant to adulthood and then declined. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were higher in elderly people compared to adults. The elderly group had significantly higher levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and lower levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) compared to adults. Our findings confirm and extend earlier reports on age-related changes in lymphocyte subpopulations and data generated from this study is useful for clinicians and researchers, patient management in various age groups for the interpretation of disease-related changes, as well as therapy-dependent alterations. PMID:26808160

  2. Neural circuitry of the bilingual mental lexicon: effect of age of second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Isel, Frédéric; Baumgaertner, Annette; Thrän, Johannes; Meisel, Jürgen M; Büchel, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Numerous studies have proposed that changes of the human language faculty caused by neural maturation can explain the substantial differences in ultimate attainment of grammatical competences between first language (L1) acquirers and second language (L2) learners. However, little evidence on the effect of neural maturation on the attainment of lexical knowledge in L2 is available. The present functional magnetic resonance study addresses this question via a cross-linguistic neural adaptation paradigm. Age of acquisition (AoA) of L2 was systematically manipulated. Concrete nouns were repeated across language (e.g., French-German, valise(suitcase)-Koffer(suitcase)). Whereas early bilinguals (AoA of L2<3years) showed larger repetition enhancement (RE) effects in the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and the right posterior insula, late bilinguals (AoA of L2>10years) showed larger RE effects in the middle portion of the left insula and in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG). We suggest that, as for grammatical knowledge, the attainment of lexical knowledge in L2 is affected by neural maturation. The present findings lend support to neurocognitive models of bilingual word recognition postulating that, for both early and late bilinguals, the two languages are interconnected at the conceptual level. PMID:19695760

  3. Neural circuitry of the bilingual mental lexicon: effect of age of second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Isel, Frédéric; Baumgaertner, Annette; Thrän, Johannes; Meisel, Jürgen M; Büchel, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Numerous studies have proposed that changes of the human language faculty caused by neural maturation can explain the substantial differences in ultimate attainment of grammatical competences between first language (L1) acquirers and second language (L2) learners. However, little evidence on the effect of neural maturation on the attainment of lexical knowledge in L2 is available. The present functional magnetic resonance study addresses this question via a cross-linguistic neural adaptation paradigm. Age of acquisition (AoA) of L2 was systematically manipulated. Concrete nouns were repeated across language (e.g., French-German, valise(suitcase)-Koffer(suitcase)). Whereas early bilinguals (AoA of L2<3years) showed larger repetition enhancement (RE) effects in the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and the right posterior insula, late bilinguals (AoA of L2>10years) showed larger RE effects in the middle portion of the left insula and in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG). We suggest that, as for grammatical knowledge, the attainment of lexical knowledge in L2 is affected by neural maturation. The present findings lend support to neurocognitive models of bilingual word recognition postulating that, for both early and late bilinguals, the two languages are interconnected at the conceptual level.

  4. Using groundwater age distributions to estimate the effective parameters of Fickian and non-Fickian models of solute transport

    PubMed Central

    Engdahl, Nicholas B.; Ginn, Timothy R.; Fogg, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater age distributions are used to estimate the parameters of Fickian, and non-Fickian, effective models of solute transport. Based on the similarities between the transport and age equations, we develop a deconvolution based approach that describes transport between two monitoring wells. We show that the proposed method gives exact estimates of the travel time distribution between two wells when the domain is stationary and that the method still provides useful information on transport when the domain is non-stationary. The method is demonstrated using idealized uniform and layered 2-D aquifers. Homogeneous transport is determined exactly and non-Fickian transport in a layered aquifer was also approximated very well, even though this example problem is shown to be scale-dependent. This work introduces a method that addresses a significant limitation of tracer tests and non-Fickian transport modeling which is the difficulty in determining the effective parameters of the transport model. PMID:25821342

  5. Head Start at ages 3 and 4 versus Head Start followed by state pre-k: Which is more effective?

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2016-01-01

    As policy-makers contemplate expanding preschool opportunities for low-income children, one possibility is to fund two, rather than one year of Head Start for children at ages 3 and 4. Another option is to offer one year of Head Start followed by one year of pre-k. We ask which of these options is more effective. We use data from the Oklahoma pre-k study to examine these two ‘pathways’ into kindergarten using regression discontinuity to estimate the effects of each age-4 program, and propensity score weighting to address selection. We find that children attending Head Start at age 3 develop stronger pre-reading skills in a high quality pre-kindergarten at age 4 compared with attending Head Start at age 4. Pre-k and Head Start were not differentially linked to improvements in children’s pre-writing skills or pre-math skills. This suggests that some impacts of early learning programs may be related to the sequencing of learning experiences to more academic programming. PMID:27076692

  6. Analyses of component degradation to evaluate maintenance effectiveness and aging effects

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M. ); Vesely, W.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes degradation modeling, an approach for analyzing degradation and failure of components to understand the aging process of components. As used in our study, degradation modeling is the analysis of information on degradation of components for developing models of the degradation process and its implications. This modeling focuses on the analysis of the times of degradations of components, to model how the rate of degradation changes with the age of the component. With this methodology we also determine the effectiveness of maintenance as applicable to aging evaluations. The specific applications which are performed show quantitative models of degradation rates of components and failure rates of components from plant-specific data. The statistical techniques allow aging trends to be identified in the degradation data and in the failure data. Initial estimates of the effectiveness of maintenance in limiting degradations from becoming failures are developed. These results are important first steps in degradation modeling, and show that degradation can be modeled to identify aging trends. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Urban groundwater age modeling under unconfined condition - Impact of underground structures on groundwater age: Evidence of a piston effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, underground structures are shown to have a major influence on the groundwater mean age distribution described as a dispersive piston effect. Urban underground development does not occur without impacts on subsoil resources. In particular, groundwater resources can be vulnerable and generate disturbances when this space is exploited. Groundwater age spatial distribution data are fundamental for resource management as it can provide operational sustainability indicators. However, the application of groundwater age modeling is neglected regarding the potential effect of underground structures in urban areas. A three dimensional modeling approach was conducted to quantify the impact of two underground structures: (1) an impervious structure and (2) a draining structure. Both structures are shown to cause significant mixing processes occurring between shallow and deeper aquifers. The design technique used for draining structures is shown to have the greatest impact, generating a decrease in mean age of more than 80% under the structure. Groundwater age modeling is shown to be relevant for highlighting the role played by underground structures in advective-dispersive flows in urban areas.

  8. 20 CFR 229.52 - Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is... Minimum Rate § 229.52 Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. If an employee received a reduced age O/M before the effective date of a DIB O/M, the PIA amount for the DIB O/M...

  9. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  10. An Investigation into the Effect of Aging on the Forming Limit Diagram of 6063 Aluminum Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, S. M.; Hosseimpour, S. J.; Nourouzi, S.; Gorji, A. H.

    2011-01-17

    In this study, the effect of ageing on the forming limit diagram of a commercially available 6063 aluminum alloy has been investigated. For this purpose, initially the specimens have been aged at 200 deg. C and at various times. The hardness tests have been carried out and the hardness-aging time curve has been obtained for this alloy. Moreover, the mechanical properties were determined by tensile test. Then, the forming limit diagrams have been achieved by using the out-of-plane formability test method at four different conditions containing: annealed, under-aged, peak-aged, and over-aged. The results indicate that in comparing with the annealed condition the FLD{sub 0} decreases significantly from the under-aged condition to the peak-aged condition and increases slightly from the peak-aged condition to the over-aged condition.

  11. Effects of Age and Dysfunction on Human Meibomian Glands

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Chyong Jy; Massei, Salina; Lin, Gloria; Nabavi, Cameron; Tao, Jeremiah; Brown, Donald J.; Paugh, Jerry R.; Jester, James V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify age-related changes in human meibomian glands that may be associated with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods Excess eyelid tissue from 36 patients (age range, 18–95 years, 19 female, 17 male) who underwent canthoplasty procedures were used. Dermatologic history, age, and presence of MGD were recorded. Samples were frozen, sectioned, and stained with specific antibodies against peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ(PPARγ) to identify meibocyte differentiation, Ki67 nuclear antigen to identify cycling cells, and CD45 to identify inflammatory cell infiltration. Results Staining for PPARγ showed cytoplasmic and nuclear localization in the 2 youngest subjects (ages, 18 and 44 years). Older individuals (>60 years) showed predominantly nuclear staining, with cytoplasmic staining limited to the basal acinar cells in 17 of 31 subjects. The number of Ki67 positively stained basal cells were significantly elevated in the younger compared with older subjects based on linear regression analysis (r2= 0.35; P <.001). There was also a significant correlation between MG expression grade and CD45 cell infiltration (r =0.414; P =.05). Conclusions These results indicate that aging human meibomian glands show decreased meibocyte differentiation and cell cycling that is associated with the development of MGD. Findings also suggest that altered PPARγ signaling may lead to acinar atrophy and development of an age-related hyposecretory MGD. Clinical Relevance Meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye are common age-related eyelid disorders. Understanding the underlying mechanism of MGD may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat this disease. PMID:21482872

  12. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  13. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  14. Age-related priming effects in social judgments.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; McGee, K A; Woodburn, S M; Bolstad, C A

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in the impact of previously activated (and thus easily accessible) trait-related information on judgments about people. The authors hypothesized that age-related declines in the efficiency of controlled processing mechanisms during adulthood would be associated with increased susceptibility to judgment biases associated with such information. In each study, different-aged adults made impression judgments about a target, and assimilation of these judgments to trait constructs activated in a previous, unrelated task were examined. Consistent with the authors' hypotheses, older adults were likely to form impressions that were biased toward the primed trait constructs. In contrast, younger adults exhibited greater awareness of the primed information and were more likely to correct for its perceived influence, especially when distinctive contextual cues regarding the source of the primes were available. PMID:9533195

  15. The effect of age on the latency of radiation myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Geyer, J R; Taylor, E M; Milstein, J M; Shaw, C M; Hubbard, B A; Geraci, J P; Bleyer, W A

    1991-04-01

    The latent period to forelimb paresis following photon irradiation of the cervical spinal cord was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats ranging in age from 9 days to adulthood. The radiation was administered dorsally in single fractions, and in 15-day-old animals, to different lengths of the rostral cord and in doses ranging from 16 to 38 Gy. The duration of the latent period was found to be directly proportional to the age of the animal at the time of irradiation, and independent of radiation dose or the volume of the cervical cord which was irradiated. In the majority of paretic animals, the irradiated segment of the spinal cord demonstrated white matter necrosis. The results indicate that in the developing rat, the manifestations of radiation myelopathy are delayed by an interval determined in part by the age of the animal at the time of irradiation.

  16. Age effects in earwitness recall of a novel conversation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jonathan; Coombe, Allison

    2005-06-01

    Recall of conversation is an important part of memory for events. Previous studies have focused predominantly on adults. In the present study, 195 participants ages 11 to 63 years listened to a novel audiotaped conversation. They were not informed they would later have to recall elements of this conversation. Recall was a week later. There were no age-related differences in the recall of children ages 11, 13, and 15; however, there was a difference between retention over 7 days of children and adults, with adults recalling more information correctly. No sex differences were observed. These results are evaluated in the context of research on eye- and ear-witness recall and suggestions for research are given. PMID:16060441

  17. Moisture and aging effects of solder wettability of copper surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Sorensen, N.R.; Lucero, S.J.

    1996-12-01

    Solderability is a critical property of electronic assembly that affects both manufacturing efficiency and product reliability. There is often a considerable time interval between initial fabrication of a circuit board or component and its use at the assembly level. Parts are often stored under a variety of conditions, usually not controlled. Solder wettability can soon deteriorate during storage, especially in extreme environments. This paper describes ongoing efforts at Sandia to quantify solder wettability on bare and aged Cu surfaces. In addition, organic solderability preservatives (OSPs) were applied to the bare Cu to retard solderability loss due to aging. The OSPs generally performed well, although wetting did decrease with exposure time.

  18. Persistence of the effect of birth size on dysglycaemia and type 2 diabetes in old age: AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Muller, Majon; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Rantanen, Taina; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Thorsdottir, Inga; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara B

    2013-08-01

    We studied the effect of birth size on glucose and insulin metabolism among old non-diabetic individuals. We also explored the combined effect of birth size and midlife body mass index (BMI) on type 2 diabetes in old age. Our study comprised 1,682 Icelanders whose birth records included anthropometrical data. The same individuals had participated in the prospective population-based Reykjavik Study, where BMI was assessed at a mean age of 47 years, and in the AGES-Reykjavik Study during 2002 to 2006, where fasting glucose, insulin and HbA1c were measured and homeostasis model assessment for the degree of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculated at a mean age of 75.5 years. Type 2 diabetes was determined as having a history of diabetes, using glucose-modifying medication or fasting glucose of >7.0 mmol/l. Of the participants, 249 had prevalent type 2 diabetes in old age. Lower birth weight and body length were associated with higher fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and HbA1c among old non-diabetic individuals. Higher birth weight and ponderal index at birth decreased the risk for type 2 diabetes in old age, odds ratio (OR), 0.61 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.48-0.79] and 0.96 (95 % CI, 0.92-1.00), respectively. Compared with those with high birth weight and low BMI in midlife, the odds of diabetes was almost five-fold for individuals with low birth weight and high BMI (OR, 4.93; 95 % CI, 2.14-11.37). Excessive weight gain in adulthood might be particularly detrimental to the health of old individuals with low birth weight.

  19. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  20. Effects of age, dietary, and behavioral enrichment on brain mitochondria in a canine model of human aging.

    PubMed

    Head, E; Nukala, V N; Fenoglio, K A; Muggenburg, B A; Cotman, C W; Sullivan, P G

    2009-11-01

    Dogs develop cognitive decline and a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage. In a previous longitudinal study, we demonstrated that aged dogs treated with either an antioxidant diet or with behavioral enrichment show cognitive improvement. The antioxidant diet included cellular antioxidants (vitamins E and C, fruits and vegetables) and mitochondrial cofactors (lipoic acid and carnitine). Behavioral enrichment consisted of physical exercise, social enrichment, and cognitive training. We hypothesized that the antioxidant treatment improved neuronal function through increased mitochondrial function. Thus, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and bioenergetics in mitochondria isolated from young, aged, and treated aged animals. Aged canine brain mitochondria show significant increases in ROS production and a reduction in NADH-linked respiration. Mitochondrial function (ROS and NADH-linked respiration) was improved selectively in aged dogs treated with an antioxidant diet. In contrast, behavioral enrichment had no effect on any mitochondrial parameters. These results suggest that an antioxidant diet improves cognition by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, which may be an independent molecular pathway not engaged by behavioral enrichment.

  1. Effects of age, dietary, and behavioral enrichment on brain mitochondria in a canine model of human aging.

    PubMed

    Head, E; Nukala, V N; Fenoglio, K A; Muggenburg, B A; Cotman, C W; Sullivan, P G

    2009-11-01

    Dogs develop cognitive decline and a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage. In a previous longitudinal study, we demonstrated that aged dogs treated with either an antioxidant diet or with behavioral enrichment show cognitive improvement. The antioxidant diet included cellular antioxidants (vitamins E and C, fruits and vegetables) and mitochondrial cofactors (lipoic acid and carnitine). Behavioral enrichment consisted of physical exercise, social enrichment, and cognitive training. We hypothesized that the antioxidant treatment improved neuronal function through increased mitochondrial function. Thus, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and bioenergetics in mitochondria isolated from young, aged, and treated aged animals. Aged canine brain mitochondria show significant increases in ROS production and a reduction in NADH-linked respiration. Mitochondrial function (ROS and NADH-linked respiration) was improved selectively in aged dogs treated with an antioxidant diet. In contrast, behavioral enrichment had no effect on any mitochondrial parameters. These results suggest that an antioxidant diet improves cognition by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, which may be an independent molecular pathway not engaged by behavioral enrichment. PMID:19703441

  2. A Qualitative Exploration of the Effects of Increasing the Minimum Purchase Age of Alcohol in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Srirojn, Bangorn; Lilleston, Pam; Aramrattana, Apinun; Thomson, Nicholas; Celentano, David D.; Sherman, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Although prevalence of alcohol consumption has been relatively stable among Thai youth, concerns over alcohol-related harms affecting youth influenced the passage of new laws in early 2008, which made it illegal to sell alcohol to anyone under the age of 20. This qualitative study explored the effects of the law on the purchasing patterns of underage Thai bar patrons, in order to understand the strategies employed by underage youth to circumvent the law. Design and Methods A total of 41 in-depth interviews were conducted with 18–19 year old bar patrons in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Results Underage Thai bar patrons frequented shops where enforcement was not strict and purchased alcohol, from familiar shopkeepers in their neighborhoods. Participants suggested that purchasing alcohol was relatively easy as long as shopkeepers were driven by the need to make a profit. Discussion and Conclusions To address alcohol-related harms, the control law must be enforced in a meaningful way to deter youth from purchasing alcohol. Otherwise, the law will have minimal effectiveness in reducing the harms associated with alcohol. PMID:22762793

  3. Prioritizing "psychological" consequences for disaster preparedness and response: a framework for addressing the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects of patient surge in large-scale disasters.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Lisa S; Eisenman, David P; Tanielian, Terri; Taylor, Stephanie L; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Zazzali, James; Diamond, Dickson; Cienfuegos, Barbara; Shields, Sandra

    2011-03-01

    While information for the medical aspects of disaster surge is increasingly available, there is little guidance for health care facilities on how to manage the psychological aspects of large-scale disasters that might involve a surge of psychological casualties. In addition, no models are available to guide the development of training curricula to address these needs. This article describes 2 conceptual frameworks to guide hospitals and clinics in managing such consequences. One framework was developed to understand the antecedents of psychological effects or "psychological triggers" (restricted movement, limited resources, limited information, trauma exposure, and perceived personal or family risk) that cause the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive reactions following large-scale disasters. Another framework, adapted from the Donabedian quality of care model, was developed to guide appropriate disaster response by health care facilities in addressing the consequences of reactions to psychological triggers. This framework specifies structural components (internal organizational structure and chain of command, resources and infrastructure, and knowledge and skills) that should be in place before an event to minimize consequences. The framework also specifies process components (coordination with external organizations, risk assessment and monitoring, psychological support, and communication and information sharing) to support evidence-informed interventions.

  4. Prioritizing "psychological" consequences for disaster preparedness and response: a framework for addressing the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects of patient surge in large-scale disasters.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Lisa S; Eisenman, David P; Tanielian, Terri; Taylor, Stephanie L; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Zazzali, James; Diamond, Dickson; Cienfuegos, Barbara; Shields, Sandra

    2011-03-01

    While information for the medical aspects of disaster surge is increasingly available, there is little guidance for health care facilities on how to manage the psychological aspects of large-scale disasters that might involve a surge of psychological casualties. In addition, no models are available to guide the development of training curricula to address these needs. This article describes 2 conceptual frameworks to guide hospitals and clinics in managing such consequences. One framework was developed to understand the antecedents of psychological effects or "psychological triggers" (restricted movement, limited resources, limited information, trauma exposure, and perceived personal or family risk) that cause the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive reactions following large-scale disasters. Another framework, adapted from the Donabedian quality of care model, was developed to guide appropriate disaster response by health care facilities in addressing the consequences of reactions to psychological triggers. This framework specifies structural components (internal organizational structure and chain of command, resources and infrastructure, and knowledge and skills) that should be in place before an event to minimize consequences. The framework also specifies process components (coordination with external organizations, risk assessment and monitoring, psychological support, and communication and information sharing) to support evidence-informed interventions. PMID:21402830

  5. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  6. Mitigating the Effects of Negative Stereotyping of Aging and the Elderly in Primary Grade Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutknecht, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Discusses depictions of aging and the elderly in primary grade reading instructional materials. Investigates the attitudes of primary grade students toward aging and the elderly. Suggests instructional approaches and materials that can mitigate the effects of negative stereotyping of aging and the elderly. (RS)

  7. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  8. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  9. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  10. Care Management by Oncology Nurses To Address Palliative Care Needs: A Pilot Trial To Assess Feasibility, Acceptability, and Perceived Effectiveness of the CONNECT Intervention

    PubMed Central

    White, Douglas; Rosenzweig, Margaret; Chu, Edward; Moore, Charity; Ellis, Peter; Nikolajski, Peggy; Ford, Colleen; Tiver, Greer; McCarthy, Lauren; Arnold, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Specialty palliative care is not accessible for many patients with advanced cancer. There is a need to find alternative palliative care strategies in oncology clinics. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and perceived effectiveness of an oncology nurse-led care management approach to improve primary palliative care. Methods: The study design was a single-arm pilot trial of the Care Management by Oncology Nurses (CONNECT) intervention, in which registered oncology nurses receive specialized training and work closely with oncologists to (1) address symptom needs; (2) engage patients and caregivers in advance care planning; (3) provide emotional support; and (4) coordinate care. The subjects were 23 patients with advanced cancer, 19 caregivers, and 5 oncologists from a community oncology clinic in western Pennsylvania. Feasibility was assessed through enrollment rates, outcome assessment rates, and visit checklists. Patients, caregivers, and oncologists completed three-month assessments of acceptability and perceived effectiveness. Results: The consent-to-approach rate was 86% and enrolled-to-consent rate, 77%. CONNECT was implemented according to protocol for all participants. No participants withdrew after enrollment. Four patients died during the study; three-month outcome assessments were completed with all remaining participants (83%). Patients and caregivers reported high satisfaction with CONNECT and perceived the intervention as helpful in addressing symptoms (85%), coping (91%), and planning for the future (82%). Oncologists unanimously agreed that CONNECT improved the quality of care provided for patients with advanced cancer. Conclusion: An oncology nurse-led care management intervention is feasible, acceptable, and was perceived to be effective for improving provision of primary palliative care. A randomized trial of CONNECT is warranted. PMID:25517219

  11. Japanese Cooperative and Competitive Attitudes: Age and Gender Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwalb, David W.; Shwalb, Barbara J.

    1985-01-01

    Finds that (1) while females were significantly more cooperative and males more competitive than were subjects of the opposite sex, both sexes responded much more positively toward cooperative than competitive items and (2) cooperative and competitive orientation varies across activities. Age, gender, and situational factors were related to…

  12. Heredity vs. Environment: The Effects of Genetic Variation with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, N.

    1978-01-01

    Major problems in the field are presented through a brief review of Burt's work and a critical account of the Hawaiian and British schools of biometrical genetics. The merits and demerits of Christopher Jencks' study are also discussed. There follows an account of the principle of genetic variation with age, a new concept to the…

  13. Effect of Age, Country, and Gender on Music Listening Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; Jin, Young Chang; Stamou, Lelouda; McCrary, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Examines the music listening preferences of 2,042 students from Greece, South Korea, and the United States using a survey that listed selections from art music, traditional jazz, and rock music. Finds that age, gender, and country all exerted influence, but the variables did not perform the same way in each country. (CMK)

  14. Age, Period and Cohort Effects on Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwadel, Philip; Stout, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Researchers hypothesize that social capital in the United States is not just declining, but that it is declining across "generations" or birth cohorts. Testing this proposition, we examine changes in social capital using age-period-cohort intrinsic estimator models. Results from analyses of 1972-2010 General Social Survey data show (1) that…

  15. Bone age at birth; method and effect of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, M; Perheentupa, J

    1989-05-01

    Bone maturity at birth (or during the neonatal period) can be estimated from the ossified distal femoral epiphyses (FE). In congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) bone maturation is retarded and neonatal bone age reflects the severity of prenatal thyroid failure. In our reference group of 111 healthy infants, the size of these epiphyses depended not only on the age but also on body size. Thus, if bone age is estimated from the size of an epiphysis, the size of the infant is a potential confounder. This problem was avoided by estimating the maturation lag from the difference between the observed and predicted heights of FE (FEHs). Models for predicting FEH were constructed from data from the reference group by multiple linear regression and confirmed in a separate group of 37 healthy infants. In 52 hypothyroid newborns both FEH and FEH lag correlated with serum thyroxine concentration, indicating that FEH can be used as a measure of bone maturation in a population that is fairly homogeneous for (postmenstrual) age and size. Otherwise FEH lag is a better indicator.

  16. Effect of alternative aging and accident simulations on polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Gaussens, G.; LeMeur, M.

    1985-05-01

    The influence of accident irradiation, steam, and chemical spray exposures on the behavior of twenty-three age-preconditioned polymer sample sets (twenty-one different materials) has been investigated. The test program varied the following conditions: (1) Accident simulations of irradiation and thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) conditions were performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (2) Accident thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) exposures were performed both with and without air present during the exposures. (3) Sequential accident irradiations were performed both at 28/sup 0/C and 70/sup 0/C. (4) Age preconditioning was performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (5) Sequential aging irradiations were performed both at 27/sup 0/C and 70/sup 0/C. (6) Sequential aging exposures were performed using two sequences: (1) thermal followed by irradiation and (2) irradiation followed by thermal. We report both general trends applicable to a majority of the tested materials as well as specific results for each polymer. Our data base consists of ultimate tensile properties at the completion of the accident exposure for three XLPO and XLPE, five EPR and EPDM, two CSPE (HYPALON), one CPE, one VAMAC, one polydiallylphtalate, and one PPS material. We also report bend test results at completion of the accident exposures for two TEFZEL materials and permanent set after compression results for three EPR, one VAMAC, one BUNA N, one SILICONE, and one VITON material.

  17. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  18. Effect of aging and oral tolerance on dendritic cell function.

    PubMed

    Simioni, P U; Fernandes, L G R; Gabriel, D L; Tamashiro, W M S C

    2010-01-01

    Oral tolerance can be induced in some mouse strains by gavage or spontaneous ingestion of dietary antigens. In the present study, we determined the influence of aging and oral tolerance on the secretion of co-stimulatory molecules by dendritic cells (DC), and on the ability of DC to induce proliferation and cytokine secretion by naive T cells from BALB/c and OVA transgenic (DO11.10) mice. We observed that oral tolerance could be induced in BALB/c mice (N = 5 in each group) of all ages (8, 20, 40, 60, and 80 weeks old), although a decline in specific antibody levels was observed in the sera of both tolerized and immunized mice with advancing age (40 to 80 weeks old). DC obtained from young, adult and middle-aged (8, 20, and 40 weeks old) tolerized mice were less efficient (65, 17 and 20%, respectively) than DC from immunized mice (P < 0.05) in inducing antigen-specific proliferation of naive T cells from both BALB/c and DO11.10 young mice, or in stimulating IFN-g, IL-4 and IL-10 production. However, TGF-beta levels were significantly elevated in co-cultures carried out with DC from tolerant mice (P < 0.05). DC from both immunized and tolerized old and very old (60 and 80 weeks old) mice were equally ineffective in inducing T cell proliferation and cytokine production (P < 0.05). A marked reduction in CD86+ marker expression was observed in DC isolated from both old and tolerized mice (75 and 50%, respectively). The results indicate that the aging process does not interfere with the establishment of oral tolerance in BALB/c mice, but reduces DC functions, probably due to the decline of the expression of the CD86 surface marker.

  19. Effect of age on respiratory function of Fischer-344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The respiratory function of adult male and female specific pathogen free Fischer-344 rats in three age groups was measured by plethysmography. Groups included young adults at 102 days, mid-adults at 538 days and old adults at 815 days of age. Measurements included spontaneous breathing patterns, subdivisions of lung volume, quasistatic lung pressure-volume relationships and CO diffusing capacity. The mid-adult and old rats were larger in body size than the young rats and had larger values for breathing pattern variables and lung volumes. The mid-adult rats had lower values for functional residual capacity and residual volume and a greater quasistatic lung compliance than the young or old rats. There were no age-related differences in the position of the mid-portion of the quasistatic pressure-volume curve; however, when volumes were expressed as percentages of maximal lung volume, the curves of the older groups lay to the right of the curve for the youngest group. Although these differences suggested the possibility of a slight reduction of respiratory efficiency in the old rats, there was no clear indication of a major loss of respiratory function with age. Differences between males and females were largely related to body size, although young and mid-adult females had larger size-adjusted values for lung volumes than males. Rat lungs undergo significant changes during adulthood, due primarily to continued lung growth, but the pattern of change may be different than that of man and the degrees of the changes suggesting a possible function loss in aged subjects were less than those observed in many at an equivalent portion of the life span.

  20. Effect of altitude exposure on induction of streptococcal endocarditis in young and middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Altland, P D

    1982-01-01

    Young (age 2 months) and middle-aged (age 10 month) rats were injected once with a culture of Streptococcus sanguis and exposed for 24 h to 7620 m altitude. At 6 d 54% of the exposed and 30% of the unexposed middle-aged rats had bacterial endocarditis. Myocarditis developed in 63% of the injected exposed rats of both ages, in 11% of the injected unexposed middle-aged rats, and in none of the unexposed young adults. Interstitial nephritis was found in 46-66% of the injected, unexposed young and middle-aged rats and in 70-86% of the injected, exposed young and middle-aged rats, respectively. About 95% of all injected rats survived 6 d. No evidence of hemoconcentration was found. The increase in cardiac disease induced by altitude was probably due to deleterious effects of hypoxia on the myocardium, and cellular defenses, and to physiological and possible immunological changes associated with aging.

  1. Effects of sleep deprivation and aging on long-term and remote memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Park, Alan J.; Khatib, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) following hippocampus-dependent learning in young mice impairs memory when tested the following day. Here, we examined the effects of SD on remote memory in both young and aged mice. In young mice, we found that memory is still impaired 1 mo after training. SD also impaired memory in aged mice 1 d after training, but, by a month after training, sleep-deprived and control aged animals performed similarly, primarily due to remote memory decay in the control aged animals. Gene expression analysis supported the finding that SD has similar effects on the hippocampus in young and aged mice. PMID:25776037

  2. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  3. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Joost; English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild. PMID:26752635

  4. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Joost; English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild. PMID:26752635

  5. Age, period, and cohort effects on maternal mortality: a linear logit model.

    PubMed

    Tu, E J; Chuang, J L

    1983-01-01

    This analysis was aimed at disentangling the age, period, and cohort effects on the decline in maternal mortality in the 1917-77 period in New York State. New York maternal mortality rates were consistentley lower than US rates from 191-56, but fell considerably more slowly than national rates since 1957. Cohort analysis can potentially provide separate measures of age, period, and cohort effects by use of linear ligit models. Comparison of various age-period-cohort linear logit models on the logits of maternal mortality rates indicated that period and age effects are the dominant influences on maternal mortality. Cohortship did not make a significant contribution after age and period were already in the model. Age parameter results suggest that the 20-24 year age group faces the lowest maternal mortality risk, and risk increases rapidly with age after age 30 years. The infuctuation in the residuals for the 40-44 year age group is slightly higher due to the stochastic variation in diminishing small numbers of maternal deaths and pregnancies in this group. In addition, adding the period dimension after adjustment for age had a greater impact than adding the cohort dimension after adjustment for age. The implication of these findings is that, as a set, changes in temporal variables that cut across cohorts seem to be more important than those variables that distinguish cohorts.

  6. Effects of Age on Long Term Memory for Degraded Speech

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Christiane M.; Özyurt, Jale; Nogueira, Waldo; Puschmann, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that acoustical degradation impacts encoding of items into memory, especially in elderly subjects. We here aimed to investigate whether acoustically degraded items that are initially encoded into memory are more prone to forgetting as a function of age. Young and old participants were tested with a vocoded and unvocoded serial list learning task involving immediate and delayed free recall. We found that degraded auditory input increased forgetting of previously encoded items, especially in older participants. We further found that working memory capacity predicted forgetting of degraded information in young participants. In old participants, verbal IQ was the most important predictor for forgetting acoustically degraded information. Our data provide evidence that acoustically degraded information, even if encoded, is especially vulnerable to forgetting in old age. PMID:27708570

  7. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25-year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12-year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of 2 years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2-year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12-year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Comparing sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2-year old stand and 53 % in the 12-year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g., from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk

  8. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25 year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12 year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of two years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2 year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12 year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Confronting sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2 year old stand and 53 % in the 12 year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g. from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk

  9. [Effect of osteoinductors on osseous tissue reparation in ageing].

    PubMed

    Botabaev, B K

    2007-01-01

    Ageing of population determines the ever growing need for dental health service to older patients, which stipulates the necessity of the search for new materials with osteoplastic and osteoinductive properties. Experimental study on old animals showed that osseous defects of the lower jaw, filled with granules of GAP-99 osteoinductor, were completely replaced with new osseous tissue by the 90th day of the experiment.

  10. Effect of aging on muscle mitochondrial substrate utilization in humans

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kitt Falk; Morino, Katsutaro; Alves, Tiago C.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Dufour, Sylvie; Sono, Saki; Yoo, Peter S.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated age-associated reductions in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity in skeletal muscle as a predisposing factor for intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation and muscle insulin resistance (IR) in the elderly. To further investigate potential alterations in muscle mitochondrial function associated with aging, we assessed basal and insulin-stimulated rates of muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase (VPDH) flux relative to citrate synthase flux (VCS) in healthy lean, elderly subjects and healthy young body mass index- and activity-matched subjects. VPDH/VCS flux was assessed from the 13C incorporation from of infused [1-13C] glucose into glutamate [4-13C] relative to alanine [3-13C] assessed by LC-tandem MS in muscle biopsies. Insulin-stimulated rates of muscle glucose uptake were reduced by 25% (P < 0.01) in the elderly subjects and were associated with ∼70% (P < 0.04) increase in IMCL, assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Basal VPDH/VCS fluxes were similar between the groups (young: 0.20 ± 0.03; elderly: 0.14 ± 0.03) and increased approximately threefold in the young subjects following insulin stimulation. However, this increase was severely blunted in the elderly subjects (young: 0.55 ± 0.04; elderly: 0.18 ± 0.02, P = 0.0002) and was associated with an ∼40% (P = 0.004) reduction in insulin activation of Akt. These results provide new insights into acquired mitochondrial abnormalities associated with aging and demonstrate that age-associated reductions in muscle mitochondrial function and increased IMCL are associated with a marked inability of mitochondria to switch from lipid to glucose oxidation during insulin stimulation. PMID:26305973

  11. Effects of aging on mnemonic discrimination of emotional information

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory loss is one of the hallmarks of age-related cognitive decline and a major symptom of Alzheimer's disease. The persistence and strength of memories is determined by modulatory factors such as emotional arousal. Whether emotional memories are preserved with age or if these memories are just as susceptible to loss and forgetting is not well understood. We have recently shown that emotion alters how similar memories are stored using non-overlapping representations (i.e. pattern separation), in an emotional mnemonic discrimination task. Here, we extend this work to testing young and older adults at two time-points (immediately after encoding and 24 hours later). Overall, older adults performed worse than young adults, a memory deficit that was not secondary to perceptual or attentional deficits. When tested immediately, older adults were impaired on neutral target recognition but intact on emotional target recognition. We also found that a pattern we previously reported in young adults (reduced emotional compared to neutral discrimination of similar items) was reversed in older adults. When tested after 24-hours, young adults exhibited less forgetting of emotional targets compared to neutral, while older adults exhibited more forgetting of emotional targets. Finally, discrimination of highly similar positive items was preserved in older adults. These results suggest that emotional modulation of memory interacts with age in a complex manner such that the emotion-induced memory trade-off reported in young adults is reversed in older adults. These findings shed light on how emotion and memory interact in the aging brain. PMID:25150544

  12. Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group. PMID:25324091

  13. Fate and lability of silver in soils: effect of ageing.

    PubMed

    Settimio, Lara; McLaughlin, Mike J; Kirby, Jason K; Langdon, Kate A; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Scheckel, Kirk G

    2014-08-01

    The fate and lability of added soluble Ag in soils over time was examined by measurement of labile metal (E-value) by isotopic dilution using the (110m)Ag radioactive isotope and the solid-phase speciation of Ag by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. After two weeks of ageing the E-values for Ag decreased by 20-90% with a further decrease of 10-40% after six months. The overall decrease in labile Ag for all soils after the 6 month ageing period was 50-100%. The ageing was more rapid and pronounced in the alkaline soils. XANES results for Ag in soils indicated that for the majority of soils the added Ag(+) was reduced to metallic Ag over time, and associations with Fe-oxohydroxides and reduced S groups in organic matter also decreased Ag lability. Strong positive correlations were found between metallic Ag and non-labile Ag and between organic carbon and Ag bonded with S species.

  14. Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group.

  15. Moving Into the Third Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Twelve articles on aging address the needs of older adults. Discussed are effects of physical activity on the aging process, physical assessment procedures, nutrition, dance, aerobics, fitness needs, recreation needs, and even in-home activities for seniors. A listing of resource agencies, books, records, cassettes, journals and indexes is…

  16. Sensitivity of negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects to age and associative memory performance.

    PubMed

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative subsequent memory effects did not correlate with memory performance within any age group. By contrast, in the older group only, task-negative effects predicted later memory performance. The findings demonstrate that negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects depend on dissociable neural mechanisms and likely reflect distinct cognitive processes. The relationship between task-negative effects and memory performance in the older group might reflect the sensitivity of these effects to variations in amount of age-related neuropathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory. PMID:25264353

  17. Aging and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Shaik Ahmed; Saini, Vasu; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Zivadinov, Robert; Teter, Barbara E; Ramanathan, Murali; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2016-05-01

    The life expectancy and average age of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have increased significantly during the last two decades. The introduction of disease-modifying therapies and a better delineation and understanding of the superimposed comorbidities often diagnosed in MS patients are probably the most important factors accountable for the increase in aging MS population worldwide. Healthcare teams must therefore address the problems arising due to advancing age superimposed on this chronic neurologic disease. In this review, we focus on the physiology of aging, its effects on MS disease course, and the pathological and immunological changes associated with aging and disease progression. Additionally, we discuss the common comorbidities that occur in aging persons with MS that may arise either as a result of the aging process or from relentless chronic MS disease progression as well as the challenges on differentiating the two processes for a more appropriate therapeutic approach. PMID:26895718

  18. Aging and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Shaik Ahmed; Saini, Vasu; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Zivadinov, Robert; Teter, Barbara E; Ramanathan, Murali; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2016-05-01

    The life expectancy and average age of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have increased significantly during the last two decades. The introduction of disease-modifying therapies and a better delineation and understanding of the superimposed comorbidities often diagnosed in MS patients are probably the most important factors accountable for the increase in aging MS population worldwide. Healthcare teams must therefore address the problems arising due to advancing age superimposed on this chronic neurologic disease. In this review, we focus on the physiology of aging, its effects on MS disease course, and the pathological and immunological changes associated with aging and disease progression. Additionally, we discuss the common comorbidities that occur in aging persons with MS that may arise either as a result of the aging process or from relentless chronic MS disease progression as well as the challenges on differentiating the two processes for a more appropriate therapeutic approach.

  19. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  20. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  1. 20 CFR 229.52 - Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. 229.52 Section 229.52 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... Minimum Rate § 229.52 Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. If an...

  2. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  3. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  4. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  5. The Effects of the Parenting Styles on Social Skills of Children Aged 5-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kol, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…

  6. Cell death atlas of the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus: effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Todd H; Krug, Stefanie; Carr, Audrey V; Murray, Elaine K; Fitzpatrick, Emmett; Bengston, Lynn; McCutcheon, Jill; De Vries, Geert J; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-08-01

    Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain.

  7. Behavioral effects of basal forebrain cholinergic lesions in young adult and aging rats.

    PubMed

    Paban, Véronique; Chambon, Caroline; Jaffard, Magali; Alescio-Lautier, Béatrice

    2005-08-01

    The interactive effects of age and cholinergic damage were assessed behaviorally in young and middle-aged rats. Rats were lesioned at either 3 or 17 months of age by injection of 192 IgG-saporin immunotoxin into the medial septum and the nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and they were then tested on a range of behavioral tasks: a nonmatching-to-position task in a T-maze, an object-recognition task, an object-location task, and an open-field activity test. Depending on the task used, only an age or a lesion effect was observed, but there was no Age X Lesion interaction. Middle-aged and young rats responded to the cholinergic lesions in the same manner. These results show that in the middle-aged rats in which cholinergic transmission was affected, additional injury to the system was not always accompanied by major cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:16187821

  8. The effects of aging in component cooling water systems and the implications for life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.; Taylor, J. ); Aggarwal, S. )

    1991-01-01

    To help assess the effects of aging on safety and reliability, an aging and life extension analysis of component cooling water (CCW) systems in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) has been performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The NPAR program is sponsored by the NRC Office of Research to provide a technical basis for understanding and managing the effects of aging degradation in nuclear plant applications. The objectives of the two phase CCW system analysis are to characterize the effects of aging, and identify effective methods of detecting and mitigating aging degradation. The effects of aging in CCW systems were characterized by collecting and analyzing failure data from various national databases. The dominant failure causes and mechanisms were identified along with the components most frequently failed. Time-dependent component failure rates were calculated and used to evaluate the effect of aging on system unavailability in later years. Inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently in use were compiled from plant and industry sources. These practices were correlated with various aging mechanisms and generic listings were developed for two of the most commonly failed CCW components. 2 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  10. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  11. Differential effects of blueberry polyphenols on age-associated neuroinflammation and cognition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammatory insults are thought to contribute to the decrements in cognitive performance seen in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits in reversing age-related de...

  12. Effect of Pre-aging on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Spray-formed 7075 Alloy in Retrogression and Re-aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rui-ming; Qu, Ying-dong; You, Jun-hua; de Li, Rong-

    2015-11-01

    The effects of pre-aging in retrogression and re-aging (RRA) treatment on microstructure, mechanical properties, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of spray-formed 7075 aluminum alloy were investigated by tensile test, slow strain rate test, and transmission electron microscope. The results show that the under aging (120 °C for 16 h) as the pre-aging in RRA treatment can vastly improve the mechanical properties and the SCC resistance of the alloy, compared with early aging (120 °C for 8 h), peak aging (120 °C for 24 h), and over aging (120 °C for 32 h) treatments, the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy is 782 MPa, which is higher than that for peak aging or conventional RRA treatment; and the SCC resistance of the alloy is also excellent after RRA with under aging as pre-aging.

  13. Age-Related Changes in Predictive Capacity Versus Internal Model Adaptability: Electrophysiological Evidence that Individual Differences Outweigh Effects of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Philipp, Markus; Alday, Phillip M.; Kretzschmar, Franziska; Grewe, Tanja; Gumpert, Maike; Schumacher, Petra B.; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age–related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured in a group of older adults (60–81 years; n = 40) as they read sentences of the form “The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice.” Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym (“white”; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match), and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, “nice,” versus the incongruous associated condition, “yellow”). These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that – at both a neurophysiological and a functional level – the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to

  14. Water matrix and age effects on microorganism Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ashish; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Treado, Patrick J.; Nelson, Matthew P.; Snyder, A. Peter

    2010-04-01

    Raman microspectroscopy is used to probe the age and milieu parameters for suspensions of bacteria for their detection in water backgrounds. No studies have been reported on the fate of Raman signatures over time for biologicals stored in water matrices. A FALCON II Raman Chemical Imaging System (ChemImage, Pittsburgh, PA) and 532 nm laser excitation source acquired the Raman spectra. MATLAB principal components (PC) analysis software was employed for data reduction. Suspensions of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and three strains of E. coli (EC) were prepared in distilled and recipe tap water. Aliquots at 5 min, 5 hr, and 1, 2, and 7 days at 25 C were dried on microscope slides in replicate. Adequate spectral differences were observed for all three organism species. Microscope analysis showed that freshly suspended Bacillus spores and EC vegetative cells, in both water matrices, remained as spores after seven days. Agar plate growth procedures showed that the bacteria were still viable even after seven days resting in both water matrices. All three bacterial species were separated based on PC analysis; however, the three EC strains coalesced. The water matrix parameter was inconsistent in its ability to separate the Raman spectra in PC plots of the five bacteria. Within each group, the time parameter poorly separated the bacterial resting suspensions as the aging proceeded. A Mahalanobis linkage distance analysis (dendrogram) for all three species and strains in both water matrices confirmed a random order for all five suspension times.

  15. The effect of ageing on human platelet sensitivity to serotonin.

    PubMed

    Gleerup, G; Winther, K

    1988-10-01

    Twelve healthy young volunteers (mean age 21, range 18-27 years) and 12 elderly people (mean age 77, range 72-86 years) were tested regarding platelet aggregation induced by adrenaline, ADP and serotonin. The serum levels of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and serum 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and the plasma level of adrenaline and cyclic AMP (cAMP) were also measured. Platelet aggregation induced by adrenaline and ADP increased significantly in the elderly compared with the young group (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.02, respectively). There was a substantial and highly significant increase in the response of platelets from elderly people to serotonin (P less than 0.01). No alteration was observed in the serum level of TXB2 or 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Plasma adrenaline increased in the old group, but plasma cAMP was unaffected. As serotonin is known to amplify adrenaline- and ADR-induced platelet aggregation, the considerable increase in platelet sensitivity to serotonin could be an important factor in the increased adrenaline and ADP-induced platelet aggregability of elderly people.

  16. Effect of dietary boron on the aging process.

    PubMed Central

    Massie, H R

    1994-01-01

    Total boron concentrations in Drosophila changed during development and aging. The highest concentration of boron was found during the egg stage, followed by a decline during the larval stages. Newly emerged flies contained 35.5 ppm boron. During the adult stage the boron concentration increased by 52% by 9 weeks of age. Adding excess dietary boron during the adult stage decreased the median life span by 69% at 0.01 M sodium borate and by 21% at 0.001 M sodium borate. Lower concentrations gave small but significant increases in life span. Supplementing a very low boron diet with 0.00025 M sodium borate improved life span by 9.5%. The boron contents of young and old mouse tissues were similar to those of Drosophila and human samples. Boron supplements of 4.3 and 21.6 ppm in the drinking water, however, did not significantly change the life span of old mice fed a diet containing 31.1 ppm boron. PMID:7889879

  17. Aging and luminance-adaptation effects on spatial contrast sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sloane, M E; Owsley, C; Jackson, C A

    1988-12-01

    Contrast sensitivity as a function of target luminance for four spatial frequencies (0.5, 2, 4, and 8 cycles/deg) was measured in younger (n = 12; age range, 19-35 years) and older (n = 11; age range, 68-79 years) adults in order to examine the feasibility of optical and neural explanations for the impairment of contrast sensitivity in older adults. All subjects were free from identifiable ocular disease and had good acuity. Sensitivity for each spatial frequency was measured at eight luminance levels spanning 3.5 log units in the photopic-mesopic range. When gratings were flickered at 0.5 Hz, functions for older adults were displaced downward on the sensitivity axis across all luminance levels, and the slopes of these functions were steeper than those for younger adults, suggesting that optical mechanisms alone cannot account for the vision loss in older adults. Further measurements, in which spatial targets were flickered at 7.5 Hz, indicated that this faster temporal modulation affected sensitivity as a function of luminance differentially in younger and older adults. These data imply that the neural mechanisms subserving human spatial vision undergo significant changes during adulthood.

  18. Effect of ageing on rheological properties of storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Yu, Jianying; Wu, Shaopeng

    2010-10-15

    Oxidative ageing as an inevitable process in practical road paving has a great effect on the properties of polymer-modified asphalts (PMAs). In this article, the effect of short-term and long-term oxidative ageing on the rheological, physical properties and the morphology of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)- and storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts was studied, respectively. The analysis on the rheological and physical properties of the PMAs before and after ageing showed the two major effects of ageing. On one hand, ageing prompted the degradation of polymer and increased the viscous behaviour of the modified binders, on the other, ageing changed the asphalt compositions and improved the elastic behaviour of the modified binders. The final performance of the aged binders depended on the combined effect. After ageing, the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts showed an obvious viscous behaviour compare with the SBS-modified asphalts and this led to an improved low-temperature creep property. The rutting resistance of the SBS-modified asphalts declined by the addition of sulfur due to the structural instability of the SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. The rheological properties of the modified binders before and after ageing also depended strongly on the structural characteristics of SBS. The observation by using optical microscopy showed the compatibility between asphalt and SBS was improved with further ageing, especially for the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

  19. Effect of ageing on rheological properties of storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Yu, Jianying; Wu, Shaopeng

    2010-10-15

    Oxidative ageing as an inevitable process in practical road paving has a great effect on the properties of polymer-modified asphalts (PMAs). In this article, the effect of short-term and long-term oxidative ageing on the rheological, physical properties and the morphology of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)- and storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts was studied, respectively. The analysis on the rheological and physical properties of the PMAs before and after ageing showed the two major effects of ageing. On one hand, ageing prompted the degradation of polymer and increased the viscous behaviour of the modified binders, on the other, ageing changed the asphalt compositions and improved the elastic behaviour of the modified binders. The final performance of the aged binders depended on the combined effect. After ageing, the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts showed an obvious viscous behaviour compare with the SBS-modified asphalts and this led to an improved low-temperature creep property. The rutting resistance of the SBS-modified asphalts declined by the addition of sulfur due to the structural instability of the SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. The rheological properties of the modified binders before and after ageing also depended strongly on the structural characteristics of SBS. The observation by using optical microscopy showed the compatibility between asphalt and SBS was improved with further ageing, especially for the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. PMID:20637542

  20. Cost Effectiveness of a Home-Based Intervention That Helps Functionally Vulnerable Older Adults Age in Place at Home

    PubMed Central

    Jutkowitz, Eric; Gitlin, Laura N.; Pizzi, Laura T.; Lee, Edward; Dennis, Marie P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating cost effectiveness of interventions for aging in place is essential for adoption in service settings. We present the cost effectiveness of Advancing Better Living for Elders (ABLE), previously shown in a randomized trial to reduce functional difficulties and mortality in 319 community-dwelling elders. ABLE involved occupational and physical therapy sessions and home modifications to address client-identified functional difficulties, performance goals, and home safety. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), expressed as additional cost to bring about one additional year of life, was calculated. Two models were then developed to account for potential cost differences in implementing ABLE. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to account for variations in model parameters. By two years, there were 30 deaths (9: ABLE; 21: control). Additional costs for 1 additional year of life was $13,179 for Model 1 and $14,800 for Model 2. Investment in ABLE may be worthwhile depending on society's willingness to pay. PMID:21876812

  1. Effects of Accelerated Aging on Fiber Damage Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Setchell, R.E.

    1999-02-15

    Laser-induced damage mechanisms that can occur during high-intensity fiber transmission have been under study for a number of years. Our particular interest in laser initiation of explosives has led us to examine damage processes associated with the transmission of Q-switched, Nd:YAG pulses at 1.06 {micro}m through step-index, multimode, fused silica fiber. Laser breakdown at the fiber entrance face is often the first process to limit fiber transmission but catastrophic damage can also occur at either fiber end face, within the initial entry segment of the fiber, and at other internal sites along the fiber path. Past studies have examined how these various damage mechanisms depend upon fiber end-face preparation, fiber fixturing and routing, laser characteristics, and laser-to-fiber injection optics. In some applications of interest, however, a fiber transmission system may spend years in storage before it is used. Consequently, an important additional issue for these applications is whether or not there are aging processes that can result in lower damage thresholds over time. Fiber end-face contamination would certainly lower breakdown and damage thresholds at these surfaces, but careful design of hermetic seals in connectors and other end-face fixtures can minimize this possibility. A more subtle possibility would be a process for the slow growth of internal defects that could lead to lower thresholds for internal damage. In the current study, two approaches to stimulating the growth of internal defects were used in an attempt to produce observable changes in internal damage thresholds. In the first approach test fibers were subjected to a very high tensile stress for a time sufficient for some fraction to fail from static fatigue. In the second approach, test fibers were subjected to a combination of high tensile stress and large, cyclic temperature variations. Both of these approaches were rather arbitrary due to the lack of an established growth mechanism for

  2. Consumer preference and effect of correct or misleading information after ageing beef longissimus muscle using vacuum, dry ageing, or a dry ageing bag.

    PubMed

    Stenström, Helena; Li, Xin; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which ageing treatment of beef was sensorially preferred by consumers and how their preference changed when given information about the ageing treatment used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from four young bulls were randomly assigned three ageing treatments: dry ageing, vacuum ageing and ageing in a highly moisture permeable bag (bag dry-ageing); each was aged at 1.6 °C for another 13 days. A preference test (171 consumers) with questions about overall liking, tenderness, and juiciness was performed. Thereafter, a deceptive test (61 consumers) was performed with two taste samples, the first taste sample with correct information about ageing treatment and the second with false information. In the preference test, consumers preferred dry ageing and bag dry-ageing to vacuum ageing. In the deceptive test, dry ageing was preferred, but the information given influenced preference.

  3. Mechanisms of cardioprotective effect of aged garlic extract against Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Alkreathy, Huda M; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Ahmed, Nessar; Slevin, Mark; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M

    2012-12-01

    Aged garlic has been extensively studied and has been shown to have a number of medicinal properties, including immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the cardioprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE), a widely used herbal medicine with potent antioxidant activity, against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Moreover, the study investigated if the cardioprotective effect of AGE might be at the expense of the antitumor effect of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Primary cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were treated with DOX, AGE, and their combination for 24 hours. DOX increased p53 and caspase 3 activity-induced apoptotic cell death, whereas AGE pretreatment suppressed the action of DOX. AGE pretreatment did not interfere with the cytotoxic activity of DOX, but it increased the DOX uptake into tumor cells and increased the long term survivors of tumor-bearing mice from 30% to 70%. In conclusion, DOX impairs viability of cardiac myocytes, at least partially by activating the p53-mediated apoptotic signaling. AGE can effectively and extensively counteract this action of DOX and may potentially protect the heart from severe toxicity of DOX. At the same time, AGE did not interfere with antitumor activity of DOX. PMID:22172987

  4. Alteration of lunar optical properties: age and composition effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, J B; McCord, T B

    1971-02-12

    A model for lunar surface processes is presented which explains the main albedo and color contrasts and the temporal changes in these optical properties. Evidence from Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 samples and telescopic spectral reflectivity measurements indicates that the maria are similar in mineralogy on a regional scale and that the highlands are consistent with an anorthositic-gabbro composition. Bright craters and rays in both regions expose materials that are relatively crystalline compared with their backgrounds, which are richer in dark glass. With age, bright craters and rays in the maria darken in place by meteorite impact-induced vitrification and mixing with the surrounding material. Highland bright craters and rays may, however, darken primarily through regional contamination by iron- and titanium-rich mare material.

  5. Alteration of lunar optical properties: age and composition effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, J B; McCord, T B

    1971-02-12

    A model for lunar surface processes is presented which explains the main albedo and color contrasts and the temporal changes in these optical properties. Evidence from Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 samples and telescopic spectral reflectivity measurements indicates that the maria are similar in mineralogy on a regional scale and that the highlands are consistent with an anorthositic-gabbro composition. Bright craters and rays in both regions expose materials that are relatively crystalline compared with their backgrounds, which are richer in dark glass. With age, bright craters and rays in the maria darken in place by meteorite impact-induced vitrification and mixing with the surrounding material. Highland bright craters and rays may, however, darken primarily through regional contamination by iron- and titanium-rich mare material. PMID:17734782

  6. Summary of Session 6: Aging Effects in RPC Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, Jaroslav

    2003-09-26

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are a very important part of present and future large-scale experiments. The present B-factory experiments, Belle and BaBar, operate at much larger luminosity (>3 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}) compared to their predecessors at LEP, where the RPC rates were not much higher than cosmic ray rates. Both Belle and BaBar RPC detectors operate in streamer mode. On the other hand, the LHC RPC detectors will operate in proportional mode, which is advantageous in terms of lower accumulated charge per track; however, it may be offset by considerably higher rates, assuming that the aging scales simply as total accumulated charge. The fear that the LHC RPC detectors may encounter similar difficulties as the B-factory RPCs prompted a very intensive R&D effort of rate-related deterioration.

  7. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  8. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  9. Effect of young extrinsic environment stimulated by hypoxia on the function of aged tendon stem cell.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dapeng; Jiang, Zhitao; Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Shulong; Xu, Bo; Yang, Mowen; Li, Zhaozhu

    2014-11-01

    Tendon stem cells (TSCs), recently identified as tendon cells, play an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of tendon tissue. Age-related decrease in the function of TSCs has been reported. Recent reports demonstrated that hypoxic condition is advantageous for efficient expansion of TSCs. Moreover, the impaired function of aged stem cells could be modulated by exposing them to a young environment. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypoxic-conditioned culture medium (HCCM) from young TSCs on the proliferation, migration, senescence, and tenocyte phenotype of aged TSCs. TSCs were isolated, and the conditioned medium was collected. There were 4 groups: young TSCs, aged TSCs, aged TSCs + aged HCCM, and aged TSCs + young HCCM. The proliferative capacity, migration, β-galactosidase activity, and tenogenic differentiation potential of TSCs were assessed. Our results showed that HCCM enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of aged TSCs. Moreover, the senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity of aged TSCs was decreased by young HCCM. After being cultured in the young HCCM, the expressions of tenocyte-related genes in aged TSCs were significantly enhanced. Together, results of this study indicate that HCCM from young TSCs may represent an effective strategy to improve the impaired function of aged TSCs.

  10. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, Tadas; North, Peter; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2015-04-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. A new method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences insize distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland/natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. The implications of this work for improved modeling of aerosol radiative effects, which are relevant to both climate modelling and satellite

  11. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland - natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have a SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095 μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. These estimates have implications for

  12. The effects of stress and physical aging on the creep compliance of a polymeric composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas E.; Feldman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to determine the effects of stress and physical aging on the matrix dominated viscoelastic properties of IM7/8320, a high temperature fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite. Established creep/aging test techniques developed for polymers were adapted for testing of the composite material. The transverse and shear compliance for an orthotropic plate were found from creep compliance measurements at constant, sub-Tg temperatures. These compliance terms were shown to be effected by physical aging. Aging time shift factors and shift rates were found to be a function of applied stress.

  13. The effect of aging on fronto-striatal reactive and proactive inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Kleerekooper, Iris; van Rooij, Sanne J H; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; de Leeuw, Max; Kahn, Rene S; Vink, Matthijs

    2016-05-15

    Inhibitory control, like most cognitive processes, is subject to an age-related decline. The effect of age on neurofunctional inhibition processing remains uncertain, with age-related increases as well as decreases in activation being reported. This is possibly because reactive (i.e., outright stopping) and proactive inhibition (i.e., anticipation of stopping) have not been evaluated separately. Here, we investigate the effects of aging on reactive as well as proactive inhibition, using functional MRI in 73 healthy subjects aged 30-70years. We found reactive inhibition to slow down with advancing age, which was paralleled by increased activation in the motor cortex. Behaviorally, older adults did not exercise increased proactive inhibition strategies compared to younger adults. However, the pattern of activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) showed a clear age-effect on proactive inhibition: rather than flexibly engaging the rIFG in response to varying stop-signal probabilities, older subjects showed an overall hyperactivation. Whole-brain analyses revealed similar hyperactivations in various other frontal and parietal brain regions. These results are in line with the neural compensation hypothesis of aging: processing becomes less flexible and efficient with advancing age, which is compensated for by overall enhanced activation. Moreover, by disentangling reactive and proactive inhibition, we can show for the first time that the age-related increase in activation during inhibition that is reported generally by prior studies may be the result of compensation for reduced neural flexibility related to proactive control strategies.

  14. Effect of advanced glycation end product intake on inflammation and aging: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Katrien; Mets, Tony; Njemini, Rose; Beyer, Ingo; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Aging is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory status that contributes to chronic diseases such as age-related muscle wasting, kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to be proinflammatory, this systematic review examined the relation between the dietary intake of AGEs and inflammatory processes. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were screened systematically. Seventeen relevant studies in humans or animals were included. The intervention studies in humans showed mainly a decrease in inflammation in subjects on a low-AGE diet, while an increase in inflammation in subjects on a high-AGE diet was less apparent. About half of the observational studies found a relationship between inflammatory processes and AGEs in food. When the results are considered together, the dietary intake of AGEs appears to be related to inflammatory status and the level of circulating AGEs. Moreover, limiting AGE intake may lead to a decrease in inflammation and chronic diseases related to inflammatory status. Most of the trials were conducted in patients with chronic kidney disease or diabetes, and thus additional studies in healthy individuals are needed. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the effects of lifetime exposure of dietary AGEs on aging and health.

  15. Effects of aging on the characteristics of TiNiPd shape memory alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Congchun

    2008-07-15

    TiNiPd thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using R.F. magnetron sputtering. Effects of annealing and aging on the microstructure, phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of these thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimeter, tensile tests and internal friction characteristics. The TiNiPd thin films annealed at 750 deg. C exhibit uniform martensite/austenite transformations and shape memory effect. Aging at 450 deg. C for 1 h improved the uniformity of transformations and shape memory effect. Long time aging decreased transformation temperatures and increased the brittleness of TiNiPd thin films.

  16. Conference on Correlations of Aging and Space Effects on Biosystems, Oct. 30-Nov. 1, 1989, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprott, Richard L. (Editor); Combs, Carol A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This volume includes papers on correlations between aging effects and space effects on biosystems, with particular attention given to the effects on the cardiovascular system, bone, sleep, cellular systems, immunological system, and genetics. Papers are presented on NASA and NIA plans and opportunities, the age effect on the posture and circulation, the cardiovascular physiology in space flight, and age-related bone changes. Attention is given to research on sleep, circulation rhythms, and aging and its applications to manned spaceflight; sleep and circadian rhythms; altered cell function in microgravity; and the heterogeneity of changes in lymphoproliferative ability with increasing age. Also included is a review of cellular immunosenescence, a paper on the immune response during space flight, and a paper on Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system for space biology studies.

  17. The effects of early grade retention: Effect modification by prior achievement and age.

    PubMed

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the effects of early grade retention and different effects according to prior achievement and age. Within a population of children at risk of early retention, we compared the development throughout primary school in mathematics achievement after kindergarten retention, first-grade retention, and continuous promotion. Analyzing data from a large-scale longitudinal study using covariate balancing propensity score weighting, the findings revealed that early grade repeaters would score higher in mathematics if they were promoted each year instead. However, the effects diminished or even disappeared in the long term. Compared to kindergarten retention, first-grade retention was found to be more harmful for the mathematics development of younger children specifically. PMID:26790704

  18. Effects of aging temperature on microstructural evolution at dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Taeho; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-07-01

    From the earlier study which characterized the region of a fusion boundary between a low-alloy steel (LAS) and a Ni-based weld metal of as-welded and aged samples at 450 °C for a 30-y-equivalent time, it was observed in the microstructure that the aging treatment induced the formation and growth of Cr precipitates in the fusion boundary region because of the thermodynamic driving force. Now, this research extends the text matrix and continues the previous study by compiling all the test data, with an additional aging heat treatment conducted at 400 °C for 15- and 30-y-equivalent times (6450 and 12,911 h, respectively). The results for the extended test matrix primarily represent the common features of and disparities in the effects of thermal aging on the aged samples at two different heat-treatment temperatures (400 and 450 °C). Although no difference was expected between the samples, because the heat treatment conditions simulate thermal aging effects during the same service time of 30 y, the sample aged at 450 °C exhibited slightly more severe effects of thermal aging than the sample aged at 400 °C. Nevertheless, the trends for these effects are similar and the simulation of thermal aging effects for a light-water reactor appears to be reliable. However, according to a simulation of the same degree of thermal aging effects, it appears that the activation energy for Cr diffusion should be larger than the numerical value used in this study.

  19. Effects of aging on processing of novel musical structure.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M P; Steffens, M L

    1994-07-01

    Musical processing involves long-term memory representations of invariant properties of auditory patterns and working memory representations of patterns heard in the present moment. Musical scales are formalized sets of pitches on which much of musical composition and improvisation is based, and frequency relations among scale notes are invariant within categorical boundaries. Studies of young adults have indicated that adjustments of frequency relations are better detected when melodies are based on culturally familiar scales than on culturally unfamiliar scales. A proposed account for this finding has been that knowledge about musical frequency relations is stored in long-term memory. In the present study, old and young adults performed equivalently well in detection of frequency relation adjustments in a culturally familiar scale context, but young adults performed better than old adults in culturally unfamiliar scale contexts. The performance of old adults in a culturally unfamiliar scale context was correlated with high-frequency (8 kHz) hearing sensitivity. These findings suggest that influences of aging on processing of auditory events involve relations of auditory cognition and hearing sensitivity.

  20. Effect of ozone on indicators of leaf aging. [Solanum tuberosum

    SciTech Connect

    Yisheng Ni; Yaoren Dai; Fayek Negm; Reddy, N. Flores, H.; Arteca, R.; Pell, E. )

    1991-05-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) stress induces accelerated foliar senescence, as measured by a decline in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). The authors wish to determine (1) whether the decline in rubisco is under genetic regulation and (2) what role is played by ethylene and polyamines in modulating this response. Plants of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland were grown in a charcoal filtered greenhouse and treated with 0.15 {mu}1 1{sup {minus}1} O{sub 3} in continuous stirred tank reactors for 4 h. Immediately, 4 h and 20 h after O{sub 3} exposure, the fourth, seventh and tenth leaves from the apex were harvested and the tissue analyzed for ethylene emission, ethylene forming enzyme, malonyl transferase, ACC, malonyl ACC, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, ornithine decarboxylase and messenger RNA for the large and small subunits of rubisco. Ozone induced changes in most of the variables studied and the response was most evident in the younger tissue. In contrast O{sub 3} induces accelerated senescence of the oldest tissue. The relationship between O{sub 3}-induced changes in younger foliage and accelerated aging of older tissue will be the subject of further investigation.

  1. Effects of Age on Temperature Responses During Exposure to Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, C.K.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Wang, T. J.; Yuan, F.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Wade, C. E.; Dalfan, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rats subjected to centrifugation show a marked decrease in body temperature relating to gravity level. Several studies have indicated, that an initial response to centrifugation is followed by acclimation. To test for differences between young (Y; 2 months) and mature (M; 8 months) rats in their response in temperature, both groups were exposed to hypergravity induced by centrifugation. Thirty-six male rats were divided into four groups according to age and G-load (control (1.0G-Y and 1.0G-M), 2.0G-Y or 2.0G-M) and were housed in pairs in standard vivarium cages. During the 7-day period of centrifugation, temperature was measured every five minutes by surgically implanted telemeters. Body mass was measured daily. We found that initial body temperature in 2.0G-M was less than that of 2.0G-Y. Both hypergravity groups (2.0G-Y and 2.0G-M) showed a decrease in temperature at the onset of centrifugation, and the change in temperature (Delta = 0.5 C) remained the same between the groups. Significant differences persisted with 2.0G-Y recovering to control values in four days and 2.0G-M recovering in five days. These results indicate that the mature animals have a similar response as the younger animals, but take longer to acclimate.

  2. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of structural evaluations on several parachute systems were examined to determine if any trends could be found that would indicate significant aging in the materials. All of the parachutes were more than 20 years old. Five 64 ft diameter parachutes were evaluated along with three 16.5 ft diameter ribbon parachutes and one 4 ft diameter guide surface parachute. Another group included six 48 ft diameter ribbon parachutes, two 4 ft diameter guide surface parachutes, and two 16.5 ft diameter extraction ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Data were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. Generally speaking, after 25 years the material properties of the 64 ft parachutes were within specifications. The same generalization cannot be made for the 48 ft parachutes which were about 23 years old. The explanation for their differences may lie in their respective histories. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-07-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground-based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near northern temperate and boreal forests for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types and plume age. Smallest fine mode median radius (Rfv) are attributed to plumes from cropland and/or natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grassland (0.157 μm) fires. North American evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller Rfv (0.164 μm) than plumes from Eurasian mixed forests (0.193 μm) and plumes attributed to the land cover types with sparse tree cover - open shrubland (0.185 μm) and woody savannas (0.184 μm). The differences in size distributions are related to inferred variability in plume concentrations between the land cover types. Significant differences are observed between day and night emissions, with daytime emissions showing larger particle sizes. Smoke is predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0

  4. Public health approach to preventing frailty in the community and its effect on healthy aging in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Shoji; Yoshida, Hiroto; Taniguchi, Yu; Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Amano, Hidenori; Nofuji, Yu; Seino, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2016-03-01

    Effective methods to prevent or delay the onset of frailty are urgently required in aging societies, such as Japan. As a public health approach, we carried out a 10-year community intervention for frailty prevention, and examined its impact on healthy aging among older adults. The target population was all residents aged 65 years or older in the town of Kusatsu, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. For community empowerment, we organized a community forum, and discussed how to address the frailty issue in the community. For primary prevention, we attempted to promote physical activity, nutrition and social participation by means of a health education program to motivate older residents. For secondary prevention, we added a comprehensive geriatric assessment to routine annual health check-ups, which helped older participants improve self-care ability of functional health. High-risk persons were screened and encouraged to participate in a frailty prevention class with a multicomponent program. The attendance rate at annual health check-ups has remained constant at 30-40% of the target population; however, over 80% of the population appeared at least once during the 10 year-period. For evaluation, we carried out biennial health monitoring surveys, and reviewed the records of the local Long-Term Care Insurance system. The functional health of older residents was significantly improved as a result of the interventions; the incidence rate of Long-Term Care Insurance system certification in the old-old population (age ≥75 years) was decreased by one second, and healthy life expectancy at age 70 years was extended by 1.2 years for women and 0.5 years for men. Such trends greatly contrasted with those in the reference area, and Japan as a whole. In summary, the present public health approach to frailty prevention appears to promote healthy aging among older adults. PMID:27018287

  5. When I am (almost) 64: The effect of normal ageing on implicit motor imagery in young elderlies.

    PubMed

    Zapparoli, Laura; Saetta, Gianluca; De Santis, Carlo; Gandola, Martina; Zerbi, Alberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Paulesu, Eraldo

    2016-04-15

    Motor imagery (M.I.) is a cognitive process in which movements are mentally evoked without overt actions. Behavioral and fMRI studies show a decline of explicit M.I. ability (e.g., the mental rehearsal of finger oppositions) with normal ageing: this decline is accompanied by the recruitment of additional cortical networks. However, none of these studies investigated behavioral and the related fMRI ageing modifications in implicit M.I. tasks, like the hand laterality task (HLT). To address this issue, we performed a behavioral and fMRI study: 27 younger subjects (mean age: 31 years) and 29 older subjects (mean age: 61 years) underwent two event-related design fMRI experiments. In the HLT, participants were asked to decide whether a hand rotated at different angles was a left or right hand. To test the specificity of any age related difference in the HLT, we used a letter rotation task as a control experiment: here subjects had to decide whether rotated letters were presented in a standard or a mirror orientation. We did not find any group difference in either behavioral task; however, we found significant additional neural activation in the elderly group in occipito-temporal regions: these differences were stronger for the HLT rather than for the LRT with group by task interactions effects in right occipital cortices. We interpret these results as evidence of compensatory processes associated with ageing that permit a behavioral performance comparable to that of younger subjects. This process appears to be more marked when the task specifically involves motor representations, even when these are implicitly evoked. PMID:26851363

  6. Effect of Parental Age on Treatment Response in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Opler, Mark; Malaspina, Dolores; Gopal, Srihari; Nuamah, Isaac; Savitz, Adam J; Singh, Jaskaran; Hough, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, but its effect on treatment response has not been longitudinally studied. Methods Association of parental ages at the time of the child's birth with age of onset, initial symptom severity and treatment response (to placebo and three different weight-based doses of paliperidone ER) in adolescents with schizophrenia was assessed in a post-hoc analysis using data from a 6-week double-blind study, the primary results of which are published (NCT 00518323). Results The mean (SD) paternal age was 29.2 (6.2) years, range (16-50) and maternal age was 26.8 (5.7) years, range (17-42) at childbirth for the 201 adolescents (ages 12-17 years) included in the analysis. While parental ages were uncorrelated with age of onset or initial symptom severity, both maternal and paternal age showed significant effects on treatment response (p < 0.03) of all paliperidone ER arms versus placebo. Paternal age was significantly correlated to improvement in positive symptoms and maternal age significantly related to negative symptoms, although only paternal age remained significantly associated with the treatment response in analyses that included both parents’ ages. Conclusions APA was associated with greater treatment response to both paliperidone ER and placebo, but not to age of onset or initial symptom severity in adolescents with schizophrenia. The results support the contention that APA-related schizophrenia has distinct underpinnings from other cases. Further studies are required to explore the role of genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions, in treatment response in this complex disorder. PMID:24144440

  7. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yixuan; Kang, Xiangjin; Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Jianqiao

    2015-01-01

    Although the adverse effects of maternal aging on reproductive outcomes have been investigated widely, there is no consensus on the impact of paternal age. Therefore, we investigated the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes in a retrospective analysis of 9,991 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and October 2013. Samples were grouped according to maternal age [<30 (3,327 cycles), 30-34 (4,587 cycles), and 35-38 (2,077 cycles)] and then subgrouped according to paternal age (<30, 30-32, 33-35, 36-38, 39-41, and ≥42). The groups did not differ in terms of fertilization rate, numbers of viable and high-quality embryos and miscarriage rate when controlling maternal age (P >0.05). Chi-squared analysis revealed that there were no differences in implantation and pregnancy rates among the different paternal age groups when maternal age was <30 and 35-38 years (P >0.05). However, implantation and pregnancy rates decreased with paternal age in the 31-34 y maternal age group (P <0.05). Our study indicates that paternal age has no impact on fertilization rate, embryo quality at the cleavage stage and miscarriage rate. For the 30-34 y maternal age group, the implantation rate decreased with increased paternal age, with the pregnancy rate in this group being significantly higher in the paternal <30 y and 30-32 y age groups, compared with those in the 36-38 y and 39-41 y groups.

  8. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Jianqiao

    2015-01-01

    Although the adverse effects of maternal aging on reproductive outcomes have been investigated widely, there is no consensus on the impact of paternal age. Therefore, we investigated the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes in a retrospective analysis of 9,991 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and October 2013. Samples were grouped according to maternal age [<30 (3,327 cycles), 30–34 (4,587 cycles), and 35–38 (2,077 cycles)] and then subgrouped according to paternal age (<30, 30–32, 33–35, 36–38, 39–41, and ≥42). The groups did not differ in terms of fertilization rate, numbers of viable and high-quality embryos and miscarriage rate when controlling maternal age (P >0.05). Chi-squared analysis revealed that there were no differences in implantation and pregnancy rates among the different paternal age groups when maternal age was <30 and 35–38 years (P >0.05). However, implantation and pregnancy rates decreased with paternal age in the 31–34 y maternal age group (P <0.05). Our study indicates that paternal age has no impact on fertilization rate, embryo quality at the cleavage stage and miscarriage rate. For the 30–34 y maternal age group, the implantation rate decreased with increased paternal age, with the pregnancy rate in this group being significantly higher in the paternal <30 y and 30–32 y age groups, compared with those in the 36–38 y and 39–41 y groups. PMID:26352861

  9. Adrafinil: effects on behavior and cognition in aged canines.

    PubMed

    Siwak, C T; Callahan, H; Milgram, N W

    2000-07-01

    1. Adrafmil is a novel vigilance promoting agent developed in France by Louis Lafon Laboratories. 2. Adrafinil causes increased locomotion without producing stereotypical activity in canines tested in an open field. 3. The effectiveness of a single treatment is long-lasting, and the effectiveness persists over repeated treatments. 4. Acquisition of a size discrimination problem is enhanced by adrafinil. This may be linked to performance motivation. 5. Adrafinil causes a long-lasting increase in high frequency electroencephalographic activity recorded from cortical electrodes. 6. These results indicate that adrafinil is novel behavioral stimulant with cognitive enhancing potential. The underlying mechanisms of action are still unknown. PMID:11191710

  10. Effect of Aging on Periodontal Inflammation, Microbial Colonization, and Disease Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Dong, G; Xiao, W; Xiao, E; Miao, F; Syverson, A; Missaghian, N; Vafa, R; Cabrera-Ortega, A A; Rossa, C; Graves, D T

    2016-04-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by a biofilm that forms on the tooth surface. Increased periodontal disease is associated with aging. We investigated the effect of aging on challenge by oral pathogens, examining the host response, colonization, and osteoclast numbers in aged versus young mice. We also compared the results with mice with lineage-specific deletion of the transcription factor FOXO1, which reduces dendritic cell (DC) function. Periodontitis was induced by oral inoculation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in young (4 to 5 mo) and aged (14 to 15 mo) mice. Aged mice as well as mice with reduced DC function had decreased numbers of DCs in lymph nodes, indicative of a diminished host response. In vitro studies suggest that reduced DC numbers in lymph nodes of aged mice may involve the effect of advanced glycation end products on DC migration. Surprisingly, aged mice but not mice with genetically altered DC function had greater production of antibody to P. gingivalis, greater IL-12 expression, and more plasma cells in lymph nodes following oral inoculation as compared with young mice. The greater adaptive immune response in aged versus young mice was linked to enhanced levels of P. gingivalis and reduced bacterial diversity. Thus, reduced bacterial diversity in aged mice may contribute to increased P. gingivalis colonization following inoculation and increased periodontal disease susceptibility, reflected by higher TNF levels and osteoclast numbers in the periodontium of aged versus young mice. PMID:26762510

  11. Effect of genotype, gender and age on sheep meat quality and a case study illustrating integration of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D L; Mortimer, S I

    2014-11-01

    Subtle breed differences exist for meat quality traits and the Merino does stand out, although many comparisons are confounded by production site or lack of processing intervention. Despite this, the Merino does seem to have a propensity to produce meat with a higher pH and reduced colour stability under extended ageing. Use of the Merino in a crossbreeding system not only provides benefits from hybrid vigour, but also overcomes the meat quality constraints of pure Merinos. Genetic evaluation for lamb production has enabled impressive genetic gains, but an overemphasis on lean meat production has had to be addressed to counter adverse effects on meat quality traits like eating quality. In this regard, the development of genomic selection has provided a methodology for accurate prediction of genetic merit and applying balanced breeding objectives. The potential for negative meat quality effects has stemmed adoption of non-castration approaches, but ensuring that lamb is young when slaughtered does provide brand integrity. PMID:24930628

  12. Effect of genotype, gender and age on sheep meat quality and a case study illustrating integration of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D L; Mortimer, S I

    2014-11-01

    Subtle breed differences exist for meat quality traits and the Merino does stand out, although many comparisons are confounded by production site or lack of processing intervention. Despite this, the Merino does seem to have a propensity to produce meat with a higher pH and reduced colour stability under extended ageing. Use of the Merino in a crossbreeding system not only provides benefits from hybrid vigour, but also overcomes the meat quality constraints of pure Merinos. Genetic evaluation for lamb production has enabled impressive genetic gains, but an overemphasis on lean meat production has had to be addressed to counter adverse effects on meat quality traits like eating quality. In this regard, the development of genomic selection has provided a methodology for accurate prediction of genetic merit and applying balanced breeding objectives. The potential for negative meat quality effects has stemmed adoption of non-castration approaches, but ensuring that lamb is young when slaughtered does provide brand integrity.

  13. Feedback Effects on Spatial Egocentrism in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Norman R., Jr.; Hoyer, William J.

    1976-01-01

    Elderly men (N=18) and elderly women (N=18) were assigned to three treatment conditions: feedback, practice, or control. Subjects were post-tested on measures of spatial egocentrism, fluid intelligence, perceptual speed, and volume conservation. The effect of feedback was to improve scores on spatial egocentrism, but this influence did not…

  14. The Age of Clutter: Conducting Effective Research Using the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Charles J.; Roca, Maria F. Loffredo

    1999-01-01

    Problems in using the Internet for research include knowledge of the technology, data relevance, information overload, and website evaluation. Solutions include making research mindful, defining problems effectively, determining information needs, identifying and evaluating information, and questioning source credibility and quality. (SK)

  15. Effect of age on the outcome of renal transplantation: A single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Ozkul, Faruk; Erbis, Halil; Yilmaz, Vural Taner; Kocak, Huseyin; Osmanoglu, Ibrahim Ali; Dinckan, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the effects of old age on renal transplantation (Tx) results and graft survival, and compared elderly patient population with the young patients. Methods: A total of 1946 renal transplant were performed from 1537 living and 409 cadaveric donors between 2003 and 2014. The recipients were divided into two groups according to their age at the time of transplantation. The young age group consisted of 18-59-year-old, and the elderly group consisted of the ones ≥ 60 years. Results: Acute rejection was seen in 19.5% of the young age group while this rate was 16.7% in the old age group (p=0.535). DGF was seen in 6.3% of the young age group, and in 13.5% of the old age group (p<0.001). Analysis of the overall survival rates demonstrated that 1.6% of the patients in the young age group and 6.8% of the patients in the old age groups died (p=0.003). Conclusions: Renal transplant had high graft survival rates in the elderly as in the young patients. However, the risks for complications were higher in the older age group compared to the younger age group. Thus, it is important to make a careful selection among elderly candidates for renal transplantation. PMID:27648022

  16. Effect of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment in Gambusia affinis

    PubMed Central

    Billman, Eric J; Belk, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    We examined the multivariate life-history trajectories of age 0 and age 1 female Gambusia affinis to determine relative effects of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment. Age 0 females decreased reproductive investment prior to the onset of fall and winter months, while age 1 females increased reproductive investment as the summer progressed. The reproductive restraint and terminal investment patterns exhibited by age 0 and age 1 females, respectively, were consistent with the predictions from the cost of reproduction hypothesis. Age 0 females responded to environment-based cues, decreasing reproductive investment to increase the probability of overwinter survival and subsequent reproductive opportunities in the following summer. Age 1 females responded to age-based cues, or the proximity of death, increasing investment to current reproduction as future reproductive opportunities decreased late in life. Thus, individuals use multiple cues to determine the level of reproductive investment, and the response to each cue is dependent on the age of an individual. PMID:24967079

  17. How old are you, really? Communicating chronic risk through 'effective age' of your body and organs.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalter, David

    2016-01-01

    In communicating chronic risks, there is increasing use of a metaphor that can be termed 'effective-age': the age of a 'healthy' person who has the same risk profile as the individual in question. Popular measures include 'real-age', 'heart-age', 'lung-age' and so on.Here we formally define this concept, and illustrate its use in a variety of areas. We explore conditions under which the years lost or gained that are associated with exposure to risk factors depends neither on current chronological age, nor the period over which the risk is defined. These conditions generally hold for all-cause adult mortality, which enables a simple and vivid translation from hazard-ratios to years lost or gained off chronological age. Finally we consider the attractiveness and impact of this concept.Under reasonable assumptions, the risks associated with specific behaviours can be expressed in terms of years gained or lost off your effective age. The idea of effective age appears a useful and attractive metaphor to vividly communicate risks to individuals. PMID:27496144

  18. How old are you, really? Communicating chronic risk through 'effective age' of your body and organs.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalter, David

    2016-08-05

    In communicating chronic risks, there is increasing use of a metaphor that can be termed 'effective-age': the age of a 'healthy' person who has the same risk profile as the individual in question. Popular measures include 'real-age', 'heart-age', 'lung-age' and so on.Here we formally define this concept, and illustrate its use in a variety of areas. We explore conditions under which the years lost or gained that are associated with exposure to risk factors depends neither on current chronological age, nor the period over which the risk is defined. These conditions generally hold for all-cause adult mortality, which enables a simple and vivid translation from hazard-ratios to years lost or gained off chronological age. Finally we consider the attractiveness and impact of this concept.Under reasonable assumptions, the risks associated with specific behaviours can be expressed in terms of years gained or lost off your effective age. The idea of effective age appears a useful and attractive metaphor to vividly communicate risks to individuals.

  19. Differential effect of age on posterior and anterior hippocampal functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Damoiseaux, Jessica S; Viviano, Raymond P; Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2016-06-01

    Aging is associated with declines in cognitive performance and multiple changes in the brain, including reduced default mode functional connectivity (FC). However, conflicting results have been reported regarding age differences in FC between hippocampal and default mode regions. This discrepancy may stem from the variation in selection of hippocampal regions. We therefore examined the effect of age on resting state FC of anterior and posterior hippocampal regions in an adult life-span sample. Advanced age was associated with lower FC between the posterior hippocampus and three regions: the posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. In addition, age-related reductions of FC between the left and right posterior hippocampus, and bilaterally along the posterior to anterior hippocampal axis were noted. Age differences in medial prefrontal and inter-hemispheric FC significantly differed between anterior and posterior hippocampus. Older age was associated with lower performance in all cognitive domains, but we observed no associations between FC and cognitive performance after controlling for age. We observed a significant effect of gender and a linear effect of COMT val158met polymorphism on hippocampal FC. Females showed higher FC of anterior and posterior hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex than males, and the dose of val allele was associated with lower posterior hippocampus - posterior cingulate FC, independent of age. Vascular and metabolic factors showed no significant effects on FC. These results suggest differential age-related reduction in the posterior hippocampal FC compared to the anterior hippocampus, and an age-independent effect of gender and COMT on hippocampal FC.

  20. Investigation of mineral filler effects on the aging process of asphalt mastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Raquel

    Aging of asphalt binders is induced by chemical and/or physicochemical changes during production of pavement and throughout its service life. Although binder aging in pavement always occurs while binder is in contact with aggregates and mineral filler, in most laboratory aging studies, and in current specifications, asphalt binders are individually aged without accounting for aggregate induced interactions. Past research has had conflicting findings, attributing both mitigating and/or catalytic effects to the presence of mineral filler in asphalt binder with regards to oxidative aging. Thus, in the present study it was hypothesized that evaluation of asphalt oxidative aging without regard to interactive effect of the presence of mineral filler is inadequate as a specification tool. Effects of mineral fillers on oxidative aging of asphalt is investigated by means of accelerated aging of mastics (asphalt and fillers) in Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV). Testing matrix included aging evaluation of mastics containing different fillers content, mineralogy, and surface area. Results showed that low-temperature behavior of aged mastic can be modified by controlling filler concentration and type. Fillers acts as an agent adsorbing heavy fractions of asphalt binder, therefore reducing stiffness and changing glass-transition temperature. Also, during oxidative aging of asphalt binders and mastics, both diffusion and adsorption mechanisms play a role in the rate of aging of asphaltic material. A method to characterize the behavior of mastics with aging was also developed by monitoring the mastics |G*| aging index (ratio of complex modulus before and after aging). Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) testing results supported mentioned findings regarding |G*| changes, as the presence of mineral filler appears to decelerate the rate of production of larger molecular size oxidation products in the binder phase of mastics. Implication of the findings is that change in molecular size

  1. Homeostatic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats: long-term effects of early exercise

    PubMed Central

    Merkley, Christina M.; Jian, Charles; Mosa, Adam; Tan, Yao-Fang; Wojtowicz, J. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological factors. The majority of studies to date have examined short-term consequences of enhancing or blocking neurogenesis but long-term changes remain less well understood. Current evidence for age-related declines in neurogenesis warrant further investigation into these long-term changes. In this report we address the hypothesis that early life experience, such as a period of voluntary running in juvenile rats, can alter properties of adult neurogenesis for the remainder of the animal's life. The results indicate that the number of proliferating and differentiating neuronal precursors is not altered in runners beyond the initial weeks post-running, suggesting homeostatic regulation of these processes. However, the rate of neuronal maturation and survival during a 4 week period after cell division was enhanced up to 11 months of age (the end of the study period). This study is the first to show that a transient period of physical activity at a young age promotes changes in neurogenesis that persist over the long-term, which is important for our understanding of the modulation of neurogenesis by exercise with age. Functional integration of adult-born neurons within the hippocampus that resist homeostatic regulation with aging, rather than the absolute number of adult-born neurons, may be an essential feature of adult neurogenesis that promotes the maintenance of neural plasticity in old age. PMID:25071426

  2. Moderating Effect of Age on the Association between Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk in MSM: Evidence for Elevated Risk among Younger MSM

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS in the United States. Alcohol use is frequently studied as a predictor of sexual risk in MSM, but findings for this association have been mixed. Developmental differences in this effect may help to explain equivocal findings. 143 MSM (analytic sample 137) ages 16–40 completed weekly diaries of sexual encounters and associated situational factors for 12 weeks. Analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Alcohol use before sex was not associated with sexual risk across all participants. Participant age moderated this effect; alcohol use before sex was associated with increased odds of sexual risk in younger MSM only. These analyses expand on previous findings by utilizing a wider age range than most prior studies and adjusting for the effects of several theoretically-selected covariates. Young MSM are an important group to target for addressing alcohol use in the context of sexual behavior. PMID:23553348

  3. Age effects on the social interaction test in early adulthood male rats.

    PubMed

    Garau, A; Martí, M A; Sala, J; Balada, F

    2000-01-01

    The effects of age on active and passive social interaction were studied in Wistar rats using the social interaction test (S.I.T.). Individual behaviors such as ambulation, rearing, and defecation were also studied. Despite the widespread use of the S.I.T. in anxiety research, the effects of age on the S.I.T. have not been studied thoroughly. Male Wistar rats of 75, 135, and 180 days old were used. Our results showed age effects on active social contact, passive social contact, ambulation, rearing, and defecation. At 135 days old, animals presented the lowest scores on active social behavior and the highest scores on defecation. Moreover, exploratory behavior measured by ambulation and rearing decreased with age. These results suggest that age could be a relevant variable in the social interaction test.

  4. Efficacy and effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Coelingh, Kathleen; Olajide, Ifedapo Rosemary; MacDonald, Peter; Yogev, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of high efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from randomized controlled trials is strong for children 2-6 years of age, but fewer data exist for older school-age children. We reviewed the published data on efficacy and effectiveness of LAIV in children ≥5 years. QUOSA (Elsevier database) was searched for articles published from January 1990 to June 2014 that included 'FluMist', 'LAIV', 'CAIV', 'cold adapted influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated cold adapted' or 'flu mist'. Studies evaluated included randomized controlled trials, effectiveness and indirect protection studies. This review demonstrates that LAIV has considerable efficacy and effectiveness in school-age children.

  5. Effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected food portions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: Whether developmental periods exist in which children become particularly sensitive to environmental influences on eating is unclear. This research evaluated the effects of age on intake of large and self-selected portions among children 2 to 9 years of age. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURE...

  6. Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Aging on Long-Term and Remote Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Park, Alan J.; Khatib, Nora; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) following hippocampus-dependent learning in young mice impairs memory when tested the following day. Here, we examined the effects of SD on remote memory in both young and aged mice. In young mice, we found that memory is still impaired 1 mo after training. SD also impaired memory in aged mice 1 d after training, but, by a…

  7. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behavior, and neuronal function in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry or blueberry supplementations, when fed to rats from 19-21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenol...

  8. Lexical Knowledge in Instructed Language Learning: The Effects of Age and Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miralpeix, Inmaculada

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the possible effects of Age of Onset (AO), Cognitive Maturity (Age at Testing--AT) and Amount of Exposure (AE) on the productive vocabularies of learners of English as a Foreign Language (FL). Three groups of bilingual Catalan/Spanish students were tested towards the end of Secondary Education. The groups…

  9. Talking Relative Age Effects: A Fictional Analysis Based on Scientific Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been a considerable amount of scientific attention dedicated to the reported age discrimination which occurs in youth and elite sport. The purpose of this paper is to examine the notion of relative age effects (RAEs) through a slightly different lens. This paper therefore presents a fictional conversation…

  10. The Development of Morphological Awareness in Young Bilinguals: Effects of Age and L1 Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Boji Pak-Wing; Sheng, Li

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current understanding about the effect of first language (L1) background on morphological awareness (MA) development in those who are bilingual is largely limited to school-aged second-language learners. This study examined the development of MA in bilingual Mandarin-English (ManEngBi) and Spanish-English (SpaEngBi) children ages 4 to 7…

  11. How Gender Influences the Effect of Age on Self-Efficacy and Training Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Sonja; Michel, Alexandra; Sonntag, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown age and gender differences in training, but the results have been mixed and their combined influence is only rarely examined. We fill those gaps by analysing age and gender effects on self-efficacy and training success. Study participants were trainees in an e-learning time- and self-management behaviour modelling…

  12. Early Child L2 Acquisition: Age or Input Effects? Neither, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores whether there is evidence for age and/or input effects in child L2 acquisition across three different linguistic domains, namely morphosyntax, vocabulary, and syntax-semantics. More specifically, it compares data from English-speaking children whose age of onset to L2 Dutch was between one and three years with data from…

  13. Early Enrollees and Peer Age Effect: First Evidence from INVALSI Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordine, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppe; Sposato, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates peer age effect on educational outcomes of Italian pupils attending primary school by exploiting changes in enrollment rules over the last few years. The empirical procedure allows to understand if there is selection in classroom formation, arguing that in the absence of pupils sorting by early age at school entry, it is…

  14. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  15. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  16. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  17. An analysis of the parental age effect for inv dup (15).

    PubMed Central

    Connor, J M; Gilmore, D H

    1984-01-01

    Parental ages and birth order were analysed in 16 sporadic cases of inv dup (15) using the method of Smith. A significant maternal age effect was apparent (dm = 5.989, SE 1.86; df = 2.02, SE 2.496; db = 0.138, SE 0.46). PMID:6748017

  18. Effects of Age and Schooling on 22 Ability and Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, James Lamar

    2013-01-01

    Although much educational research has investigated the relative effectiveness of different educational interventions and policies, little is known about the absolute net benefits of K-12 schooling independent of growth due to chronological age and out-of-school experience. The nearly universal policy of age tracking in schools makes this a…

  19. Effects of Gender, Age, and Education on Assertiveness in a Nigerian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…

  20. Effects of Aging and Adult Development Education and Service Learning on Attitude, Anxiety, and Occupational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…