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  1. Battery Cell Voltage Sensing and Balancing Using Addressable Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the use of saturating transformers in a matrix arrangement to address individual cells in a high voltage battery. This arrangement is able to monitor and charge individual cells while limiting the complexity of circuitry in the battery. The arrangement has inherent galvanic isolation, low cell leakage currents, and allows a single bad cell in a battery of several hundred cells to be easily spotted.

  2. Relativity and the mercury battery.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka

    2011-10-06

    Comparative, fully relativistic (FR), scalar relativistic (SR) and non-relativistic (NR) DFT calculations attribute about 30% of the mercury-battery voltage to relativity. The obtained percentage is smaller than for the lead-acid battery, but not negligible.

  3. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  4. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  5. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2015-01-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms—increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.’s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use. PMID:25883116

  6. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  7. Battery related cobalt and REE flows in WEEE treatment.

    PubMed

    Sommer, P; Rotter, V S; Ueberschaar, M

    2015-11-01

    In batteries associated with waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), battery systems can be found with a higher content of valuable and critical raw materials like cobalt and rare earth elements (REE) relative to the general mix of portable batteries. Based on a material flow model, this study estimates the flows of REE and cobalt associated to WEEE and the fate of these metals in the end-of-life systems. In 2011, approximately 40 Mg REE and 325 Mg cobalt were disposed of with WEEE-batteries. The end-of-life recycling rate for cobalt was 14%, for REE 0%. The volume of waste batteries can be expected to grow, but variation in the battery composition makes it difficult to forecast the future secondary raw material potential. Nevertheless, product specific treatment strategies ought to be implemented throughout the stages of the value chain.

  8. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 2, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This report contains the Appendices to the findings from the first year of the program's operations.

  9. Relativity and the lead-acid battery.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev; Blomqvist, Andreas; Larsson, Peter; Pyykkö, Pekka; Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk

    2011-01-07

    The energies of the solid reactants in the lead-acid battery are calculated ab initio using two different basis sets at nonrelativistic, scalar-relativistic, and fully relativistic levels, and using several exchange-correlation potentials. The average calculated standard voltage is 2.13 V, compared with the experimental value of 2.11 V. All calculations agree in that 1.7-1.8 V of this standard voltage arise from relativistic effects, mainly from PbO2 but also from PbSO4.

  10. Relativity and the Lead-Acid Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Rajeev; Blomqvist, Andreas; Larsson, Peter; Pyykkö, Pekka; Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    The energies of the solid reactants in the lead-acid battery are calculated ab initio using two different basis sets at nonrelativistic, scalar-relativistic, and fully relativistic levels, and using several exchange-correlation potentials. The average calculated standard voltage is 2.13 V, compared with the experimental value of 2.11 V. All calculations agree in that 1.7-1.8 V of this standard voltage arise from relativistic effects, mainly from PbO2 but also from PbSO4.

  11. TOMORROW: EPA Administrator to Address Council on Foreign Relations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Tomorrow, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy will address the Council on Foreign Relations to discuss the agency's work to cut carbon pollution from power plans and lead U.S. efforts to implement the presid

  12. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  14. Related studies in long term lithium battery stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horning, R. J.; Chua, D. L.

    1984-09-01

    The continuing growth of the use of lithium electrochemical systems in a wide variety of both military and industrial applications is primarily a result of the significant benefits associated with the technology such as high energy density, wide temperature operation and long term stability. The stability or long term storage capability of a battery is a function of several factors, each important to the overall storage life and, therefore, each potentially a problem area if not addressed during the design, development and evaluation phases of the product cycle. Design (e.g., reserve vs active), inherent material thermal stability, material compatibility and self-discharge characteristics are examples of factors key to the storability of a power source.

  15. Related Studies in Long Term Lithium Battery Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, R. J.; Chua, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The continuing growth of the use of lithium electrochemical systems in a wide variety of both military and industrial applications is primarily a result of the significant benefits associated with the technology such as high energy density, wide temperature operation and long term stability. The stability or long term storage capability of a battery is a function of several factors, each important to the overall storage life and, therefore, each potentially a problem area if not addressed during the design, development and evaluation phases of the product cycle. Design (e.g., reserve vs active), inherent material thermal stability, material compatibility and self-discharge characteristics are examples of factors key to the storability of a power source.

  16. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  17. The Construction and Analysis of a Test Battery Related to Volleyball Playing Capacity in Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disch, James G.; And Others

    The purpose of this report was to analyze a test battery constructed to describe and predict volleyball playing capacity in college and high school women. The following criteria were used for selecting a test for initial inclusion into the battery: (1) The test is related to a basic motor ability important to playing volleyball; (2) The test can…

  18. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles could significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependence on imported petroleum. However, for mass adoption, EV costs have historically been too high to be competitive with conventional vehicle options due to the high price of batteries, long refuel time, and a lack of charging infrastructure. A number of different technologies and business strategies have been proposed to address some of these cost and utility issues: battery leasing, battery fast-charging stations, battery swap stations, deployment of charge points for opportunity charging, etc. In order to investigate these approaches and compare their merits on a consistent basis, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a new techno-economic model. The model includes nine modules to examine the levelized cost per mile for various types of powertrain and business strategies. The various input parameters such as vehicle type, battery, gasoline, and electricity prices; battery cycle life; driving profile; and infrastructure costs can be varied. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of the model; describe key modules; give examples of how various assumptions, powertrain configurations, and business strategies impact the cost to the end user; and show the vehicle's levelized cost per mile sensitivity to seven major operational parameters.

  19. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  20. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  1. Reliability of the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tejero-Gonzalez, Carlos M; Martinez-Gomez, David; Bayon-Serna, Jorge; Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocio; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Veiga, Oscar L

    2013-11-01

    The Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) health-related fitness test battery is a set of reliable, valid, and feasible tests to assess health-related physical fitness in children and in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of this battery in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). The extended ALPHA health-related fitness test battery was performed twice within 1 month in 17 apparently healthy adolescents, aged 12-18 years, with DS who had an intelligence quotient ≥ 35. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determinate test-retest reliability, and nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare mean differences between measurements. With the exception of subscapular skinfold test, which obtained a moderate agreement (ICC = 0.64), all tests had a very high reliability: the 20-m shuttle-run test (ICC = 0.86), the right handgrip strength test (ICC = 0.86), the left handgrip strength test (ICC = 0.86), the standing broad jump test (ICC = 0.85), body mass index (ICC = 0.95), waist circumference (ICC = 0.98), triceps skinfold (ICC = 0.85), and the 4 × 10-m shuttle-run test (ICC = 0.92). There were no significant differences (all p > 0.05) in any of the tests. The ALPHA health-related fitness battery is reliable for measuring health-related components of fitness in adolescents with DS.

  2. Additional experiments relative to the shelf life of Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, J. Q.; Armijo, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    A continuing effort to develop a new thermal battery technology based on the Li(Si)/FeS2 electrochemical couple is reported. The results relate to the long shelf life requirement for thermal batteries designed by Sandia, and include topics relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal and accelerated aging experiments with materials new to the technology. Conclusions relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal are that the maximum leak rate must not exceed 1.8 x 10(-7) w, where w is the grams of Li(Si) contained by a battery, and that a bomb type leak test can be designed that is adequate for most Li(Si)/FeS2 batteries. Conclusions relevant to long term compatibility of new materials include the following: nickel is not compatible with the iron disulfide in the cathode; the CaSi2 additive used to suppress the initial voltage transient does not react or degrade during accelerated aging experiments, but the use of that material can lead to an increase in the variability of the activated lives, especially for long life batteries; Grafoil current collectors used with the cathode do not degrade in accelerated aging experiments.

  3. Treating and Precepting with RESPECT: A Relational Model Addressing Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Medical Training

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Julie; Gordon, Sandra; Chapman, Sheila; Gonzalez, Peter; Hardt, Eric; Delgado, Leyda; James, Thea; David, Michele

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2000 a diverse group of clinicians/educators at an inner-city safety-net hospital identified relational skills to reduce disparities at the point of care. DESCRIPTION The resulting interviewing and precepting model helps build trust with patients as well as with learners. RESPECT adds attention to the relational dimension, addressing documented disparities in respect, empathy, power-sharing, and trust while incorporating prior cross-cultural models. Specific behavioral descriptions for each component make RESPECT a concrete, practical, integrated model for teaching patient care. CONCLUSIONS Precepting with RESPECT fosters a safe climate for residents to partner with faculty, address challenges with patients at risk, and improve outcomes. PMID:20352510

  4. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  5. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  6. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health to Reduce Tobacco-Related Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Bridgette E.; Dube, Shanta R.; Babb, Stephen; McAfee, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Comprehensive tobacco prevention and control efforts that include implementing smoke-free air laws, increasing tobacco prices, conducting hard-hitting mass media campaigns, and making evidence-based cessation treatments available are effective in reducing tobacco use in the general population. However, if these interventions are not implemented in an equitable manner, certain population groups may be left out causing or exacerbating disparities in tobacco use. Disparities in tobacco use have, in part, stemmed from inequities in the way tobacco control policies and programs have been adopted and implemented to reach and impact the most vulnerable segments of the population that have the highest rates of smokings (e.g., those with lower education and incomes). Methods Education and income are the 2 main social determinants of health that negatively impact health. However, there are other social determinants of health that must be considered for tobacco control policies to be effective in reducing tobacco-related disparities. This article will provide an overview of how tobacco control policies and programs can address key social determinants of health in order to achieve equity and eliminate disparities in tobacco prevention and control. Results Tobacco control policy interventions can be effective in addressing the social determinants of health in tobacco prevention and control to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities when they are implemented consistently and equitably across all population groups. Conclusions Taking a social determinants of health approach in tobacco prevention and control will be necessary to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities. PMID:25516538

  7. The role of law in addressing mental health-related aspects of disasters and promoting resilience.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie

    2012-01-01

    Law plays a critical role in emergency preparedness and disaster response by establishing an infrastructure for the response and facilitating coordination among the federal, state, and local governments. Once a disaster occurs, certain legal mechanisms are activated to ensure that individuals' needs for mental health care are met, both for pre-existing and emergent conditions. This includes the rapid deployment of mental health care personnel and the implementation of crisis counseling programs in affected regions. By facilitating an influx of resources, including personnel, supplies, and financial assistance, the law can help communities quickly rebound and return to a sense of normal. Drawing on examples from the United States, this article illustrates the diverse ways in which the law simultaneously addresses mental health-related aspects of disasters and promotes resilience within affected communities.

  8. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; O'Donnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high-performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  9. NASA aerospace flight battery systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  10. Child and youth participatory interventions for addressing lifestyle-related childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, L; Ataga, O; Corbie-Smith, G; Tessler Lindau, S

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of childhood obesity interventions involve children and youth in participatory roles, but these types of interventions have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to identify child and youth participatory interventions in the peer-reviewed literature in order to characterize the approaches and examine their impact on obesity and obesity-related lifestyle behaviours. We searched PubMed/Medline, psychINFO and ERIC for quasi-experimental and randomized trials conducted from date of database initiation through May 2015 that engaged children or youth in implementing healthy eating, physical activity or weight management strategies. Eighteen studies met our eligibility criteria. Most (n = 14) trained youth to implement pre-defined strategies targeting their peers. A few (n = 4) assisted youth to plan and implement interventions that addressed environmental changes. Thirteen studies reported at least one statistically significant weight, physical activity or dietary change outcome. Participatory approaches have potential, but variation in strategies and outcomes leave questions unanswered about the mechanisms through which child and youth engagement impact childhood obesity. Future research should compare child-delivered or youth-delivered to adult-delivered health promotion interventions and more rigorously evaluate natural experiments that engage youth to implement environmental changes. With careful attention to theoretical frameworks, process and outcome measures, these studies could strengthen the effectiveness of child and youth participatory approaches.

  11. A vaccine manufacturer's approach to address medical needs related to seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Baras, Benoit; Bouveret, Nancy; Devaster, Jeanne-Marie; Fries, Louis; Gillard, Paul; Sänger, Roland; Hanon, Emmanuel

    2008-11-01

    Vaccination is considered to be one of the most effective tools to decrease morbidity as well as mortality caused by influenza viruses. For the prevention of seasonal influenza, Fluarix and FluLaval have been marketed since 1987 and 1992, respectively. Both vaccines have consistently been shown to meet or exceed the regulatory criteria for immunogenicity against the three strains H1N1, H3N2 and B, have a good safety profile, and are recommended for vaccinating children and adults of all ages. For the prevention of pandemic influenza, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has obtained licensure of a pre-pandemic vaccine, Prepandrix. This split-virus H5N1 adjuvanted with AS03, a proprietary oil-in-water emulsion-based adjuvant system, has demonstrated broad immunity against drifted H5N1 strains and has been shown to be effective in preventing mortality and viral shedding in animal studies. The influenza vaccine portfolio of GSK addresses specific medical needs related to seasonal or pandemic influenza viruses, which remain an important public health threat worldwide.

  12. Identification of a senior superfund official for addressing special npl site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive identifies a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at NPL (National Priorities List) sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level and identifies criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  13. Addressing Ebola-related Stigma: Lessons Learned from HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davtyan, Mariam; Brown, Brandon; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) are contemporary epidemics associated with significant social stigma in which communities affected suffer from social rejection, violence, and diminished quality of life. Objective To compare and contrast stigma related to HIV/AIDS and EVD, and strategically think how lessons learned from HIV stigma can be applied to the current EVD epidemic. Methods To identify relevant articles about HIV/AIDS and EVD-related stigma, we conducted an extensive literature review using multiple search engines. PubMed was used to search for relevant peer-reviewed journal articles and Google for online sources. We also consulted the websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the National Institutes of Health to retrieve up-to-date information about EVD and HIV/AIDS. Results Many stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors directed towards those with EVD are strikingly similar to those with HIV/AIDS but there are significant differences worthy of discussion. Both diseases are life-threatening and there is no medical cure. Additionally misinformation about affected groups and modes of transmission runs rampant. Unlike in persons with EVD, historically criminalized and marginalized populations carry a disproportionately higher risk for HIV infection. Moreover, mortality due to EVD occurs within a shorter time span as compared to HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Stigma disrupts quality of life, whether it is associated with HIV infection or EVD. When addressing EVD, we must think beyond the immediate clinical therapeutic response, to possible HIV implications of serum treatment. There are emerging social concerns of stigma associated with EVD infection and double stigma associated with EVD and HIV infection. Drawing upon lessons learned from HIV, we must work to empower and mobilize prominent members of the community, those who recovered from the disease, and organizations working at the grassroots

  14. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  15. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 1, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume I: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries of the program's operations.

  16. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements. Volume 1, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 2 - Volume I: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements of the program's operations.

  17. Addressing Individual Difficulties in Reading: Issues Relating to Reading Recovery and Pause, Prompt, Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Recently the DfES has issued guidance on ways to address the needs of students who experience difficulties in literacy through Wave Three provision in the National Literacy Strategy (DfES, 2002). This guidance raises the issue of what kind of programmes might be initiated in mainstream schools that will improve what is available generally for…

  18. Identification of a senior Superfund official for addressing special NPL site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive describes the process for identifying a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at National Priorities List sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level, and for identifying criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  19. The Role of Nutrition-Related Initiatives in Addressing Community Health Needs Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Dillon, Judy; Snyder, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Academic Health Centers and nonprofit hospitals are exploring strategies to meet Affordable Care Act mandates requiring tax-exempt institutions to address community health needs, which commonly include major chronic illnesses. We explore the implications of this regulatory landscape, describing methods that nonprofit health care institutions are…

  20. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  1. Supporting adaptation decisions to address climate related impacts and hazards in the Caribbean (the CARIWIG project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aidan

    2015-04-01

    Managers and policy makers from regional and national institutions in the Caribbean require knowledge of the likely impacts and hazards arising from the present and future climate that are specific to their responsibility and geographical range, and relevant to their planning time-horizons. Knowledge, experience and the political support to develop appropriate adaptation strategies are also required. However, the climate information available for the region is of limited use as: observational records are intermittent and typically of short duration; climate model projections of the weather suffer from scale and bias issues; and statistical downscaling to provide locally relevant unbiased climate change information remains sporadic. Tropical cyclone activity is a considerable sporadic hazard in the region and yet related weather information is limited to historic events. Further, there is a lack of guidance for managers and policy makers operating with very limited resources to utilize such information within their remit. The CARIWIG project (June 2012 - May 2015) will be presented, reflecting on stakeholder impact, best practice and lessons learned. This project seeks to address the climate service needs of the Caribbean region through a combination of capacity building and improved provision of climate information services. An initial workshop with regional-scale stakeholders initiated a dialogue to develop a realistic shared vision of the needed information services which could be provided by the project. Capacity building is then achieved on a number of levels: knowledge and expertise sharing between project partners; raising understanding and knowledge of resources that support national and regional institutions' adaptation decisions; developing case studies in key sectors to test and demonstrate the information services; training for stakeholder technical staff in the use of the provided services; the development of a support network within and out

  2. Hazard detection in noise-related incidents - the role of driving experience with battery electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cocron, Peter; Bachl, Veronika; Früh, Laura; Koch, Iris; Krems, Josef F

    2014-12-01

    The low noise emission of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has led to discussions about how to address potential safety issues for other road users. Legislative actions have already been undertaken to implement artificial sounds. In previous research, BEV drivers reported that due to low noise emission they paid particular attention to pedestrians and bicyclists. For the current research, we developed a hazard detection task to test whether drivers with BEV experience respond faster to incidents, which arise due to the low noise emission, than inexperienced drivers. The first study (N=65) revealed that BEV experience only played a minor role in drivers' response to hazards resulting from low BEV noise. The tendency to respond, reaction times and hazard evaluations were similar among experienced and inexperienced BEV drivers; only small trends in the assumed direction were observed. Still, both groups clearly differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios and responded accordingly. In the second study (N=58), we investigated additionally if sensitization to low noise emission of BEVs had an effect on hazard perception in incidents where the noise difference is crucial. Again, participants in all groups differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios. Even though trends in response rates and latencies occurred, experience and sensitization to low noise seemed to only play a minor role in detecting hazards due to low BEV noise. An additional global evaluation of BEV noise further suggests that even after a short test drive, the lack of noise is perceived more as a comfort feature than a safety threat.

  3. 76 FR 3118 - Notice of Availability of Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... early registration is encouraged. 1. ARL 01-37--Choosing Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries (US 7... Electrolytes and Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Cells Comprising the Same (US 7,442,471 B1). 3. ARL 02-27--Additive... solvent electrolyte battery with additive alkali metal salt of a mixed anhydride combination of...

  4. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries (US 7,585,579). 2. ARL 02-06--Solvent Systems Comprising a Mixture of Lactams and Esters for Non-Aqueous Electrolytes and Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Cells Comprising the Same (US...,172,834 B1). 4. ARL 02-27 D1--Non-aqueous solvent electrolyte battery with additive alkali metal...

  5. Premature capacity loss in lead/acid batteries: a discussion of the antimony-free effect and related phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenkamp, A. F.

    Instances of severe capacity loss in apparently healthy lead/acid batteries have been reported over a period of many years, and are still common today. In most cases, these phenomena are linked to the use of antimony-free positive grids and are invoked by repetitive deep-discharge duties. This situation represents probably the greatest barrier to the expansion of markets for lead/acid batteries. To date, research has focused on several possible explanations for capacity loss; notably, degradation of the positive active mass (e.g., relaxable insufficient mass utilization) and the development of electrical barriers around the grid. Although much of the evidence gathered is circumstantial, it does point to the key issues that must be addressed in future work.

  6. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  7. Addressing dysfunctional relations among healthcare teams: improving team cooperation through applied organizational theories.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Sujin K; Horwitz, Irwin B; Barshes, Neal R

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that communication failure and interpersonal conflicts are significant impediments among health-care teams to assess complex information and engage in the meaningful collaboration necessary for optimizing patient care. Despite the prolific research on the role of effective teamwork in accomplishing complex tasks, such findings have been traditionally applied to business organizations and not medical contexts. This chapter, therefore, reviews and applies four theories from the fields of organizational behavior (OB) and organization development (OD) as potential means for improving team interaction in health-care contexts. This study is unique in its approach as it addresses the long-standing problems that exist in team communication and cooperation in health-care teams by applying well-established theories from the organizational literature. The utilization and application of the theoretical constructs discussed in this work offer valuable means by which the efficacy of team work can be greatly improved in health-care organizations.

  8. Building non-traditional collaborations to innovatively address climate-related scientific and management needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamzai, A.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The South Central Climate Science Center (SC-CSC) is one of eight regional centers formed by the U.S. Department of the Interior in order to provide decision makers with the science, tools, and information they need to address the impacts of climate variability and change on their areas of responsibility. The SC-CSC is operated through the U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with a consortium led by the University of Oklahoma that also includes Texas Tech University, Oklahoma State University, Louisiana State University, the Chickasaw Nation, the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, and NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab (GFDL). The SC-CSC is distinct from all other CSCs in that we have strategically included non-traditional collaborators directly within our governing consortium. The SC-CSC is the only CSC to include any Tribal nations amongst our consortium (the Chickasaw Nation and the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma) and to employ a full-time tribal liaison. As a result and in partnership with Tribes, we are able to identify the unique challenges that the almost 70 federally recognized Tribes within our region face. We also can develop culturally sensitive research projects or outreach efforts that bridge western science and traditional knowledge to address their needs. In addition, the SC-CSC is the only CSC to include another federal institution (GFDL) amongst our consortium membership. GFDL is a world-leader in climate modeling and model interpretation. Partnering GFDL's expertise in the evaluation of climate models and downscaling methods with the SC-CSC's stakeholder-driven approach allows for the generation and dissemination of guidance documents and training to accompany the high quality datasets already in development. This presentation will highlight the success stories and co-benefits of the SC-CSC's collaborations with Tribal nations and with GFDL, as well as include information on how other partners can connect to our ongoing efforts.

  9. Inquiry to Action: Diagnosing and Addressing Students' Relational Thinking About the Equal Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Kristin E.; Karp, Karen S.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    One area of algebraic thinking essential for students' success is a relational understanding of the equal sign. Research has indicated a positive correlation between students' relational understanding of the equal sign and their equation-solving performance, suggesting that students' early conception of the equal sign may affect their learning and…

  10. Review of Selected Dissertations Addressing School Public Relations, Administrator Communication, and Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decman, John M.; Simieou, Felix, III

    2009-01-01

    This article is an extension to Kowalski's (2005) identification of possible lines of scholarly inquiry into themes related to schools and public relations. The article first cites professional accreditation standards for educational leaders as significant factors in providing a framework for increased scholarly inquiry. It then summarizes the…

  11. Using Relational Dialectics to Address Differences in Community-Campus Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumlao, Rebecca J.; Janke, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    Community and campus partners face inherent differences due to their distinct cultures, assumptions, practices, and constituencies. How partners handle the resulting tensions can impact how well the partnership functions. This article introduces relational dialectics as a framework to think about recurring tensions as natural and normal when…

  12. Preparing School Counselors to Address Concerns Related to Giftedness: A Study of Accredited Counselor Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Morris, Carrie Wachter

    2010-01-01

    Professional school counselors are responsible for serving students across a wide range of cognitive ability, yet counselor educators may not attend to issues related to giftedness, such as how and when developmental phenomena may be experienced by highly able students, and the need to differentiate counseling approaches for this population. This…

  13. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare: A Latin American Perspective.

    PubMed

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2016-03-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms-increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients' clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.'s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use.

  14. Practical state of health estimation of power batteries based on Delphi method and grey relational grade analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bingxiang; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zheng, Fangdan; Zhao, Wei; Liaw, Bor Yann; Ruan, Haijun; Han, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Weige

    2015-05-01

    The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. Here, we used a unique hybrid approach to enable complex SOH estimations. The approach hybridizes the Delphi method known for its simplicity and effectiveness in applying weighting factors for complicated decision-making and the grey relational grade analysis (GRGA) for multi-factor optimization. Six critical factors were used in the consideration for SOH estimation: peak power at 30% state-of-charge (SOC), capacity, the voltage drop at 30% SOC with a C/3 pulse, the temperature rises at the end of discharge and charge at 1C; respectively, and the open circuit voltage at the end of charge after 1-h rest. The weighting of these factors for SOH estimation was scored by the 'experts' in the Delphi method, indicating the influencing power of each factor on SOH. The parameters for these factors expressing the battery state variations are optimized by GRGA. Eight battery cells were used to illustrate the principle and methodology to estimate the SOH by this hybrid approach, and the results were compared with those based on capacity and power capability. The contrast among different SOH estimations is discussed.

  15. Dispersion of nanocrystalline Fe3O4 within composite electrodes: Insights on battery-related electrochemistry

    DOE PAGES

    David C. Bock; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Pelliccione, Christopher J.; ...

    2016-04-20

    Aggregation of nanosized materials in composite lithium-ion-battery electrodes can be a significant factor influencing electrochemical behavior. In this study, aggregation was controlled in magnetite, Fe3O4, composite electrodes via oleic acid capping and subsequent dispersion in a carbon black matrix. A heat treatment process was effective in the removal of the oleic acid capping agent while preserving a high degree of Fe3O4 dispersion. Electrochemical testing showed that Fe3O4 dispersion is initially beneficial in delivering a higher functional capacity, in agreement with continuum model simulations. However, increased capacity fade upon extended cycling was observed for the dispersed Fe3O4 composites relative to themore » aggregated Fe3O4 composites. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of electrodes post cycling indicated that the dispersed Fe3O4 electrodes are more oxidized in the discharged state, consistent with reduced reversibility compared with the aggregated sample. Higher charge-transfer resistance for the dispersed sample after cycling suggests increased surface-film formation on the dispersed, high-surface-area nanocrystalline Fe3O4 compared to the aggregated materials. Furthermore, this study provides insight into the specific effects of aggregation on electrochemistry through a multiscale view of mechanisms for magnetite composite electrodes.« less

  16. NASA flight cell and battery issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents the important battery and cell problems, encompassing both test failures and accidents, which were encountered during the past year. Practical issues facing programs, which have to be considered in the development of a battery program strategy, are addressed. The problems of one program, the GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory), during the past year are focused on to illustrate the fundamental types of battery problems that occur. Problems encountered by other programs are briefly mentioned to complete the accounting. Two major categories of issues are defined, namely, whose which are quality and design related, i.e., problems having inherent manufacturing-process-related aspects with an impact on cell reliability, and these which are accident triggered or man induced, i.e., those operational issues having an impact on battery and cell reliability.

  17. Addressing the Interface Issues in All-Solid-State Bulk-Type Lithium Ion Battery via an All-Composite Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ru-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Liu, Ting; Xu, Bing-Qing; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Shen, Yang

    2017-03-22

    All-solid-state bulk-type lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are considered ultimate solutions to the safety issues associated with conventional LIBs using flammable liquid electrolyte. The development of bulk-type all-solid-state LIBs has been hindered by the low loading of active cathode materials, hence low specific surface capacity, and by the high interface resistance, which results in low rate and cyclic performance. In this contribution, we propose and demonstrate a synergistic all-composite approach to fabricating flexible all-solid-state LIBs. PEO-based composite cathode layers (filled with LiFePO4 particles) of ∼300 μm in thickness and composite electrolyte layers (filled with Al-LLZTO particles) are stacked layer-by-layer with lithium foils as negative layer and hot-pressed into a monolithic all-solid-state LIB. The flexible LIB delivers a high specific discharge capacity of 155 mAh/g, which corresponds to an ultrahigh surface capacity of 10.8 mAh/cm(2), exhibits excellent capacity retention up to at least 10 cycles and could work properly under harsh operating conditions such as bending or being sectioned into pieces. The all-composite approach is favorable for improving both mesoscopic and microscopic interfaces inside the all-solid-state LIB and may provide a new toolbox for design and fabrication of all-solid-state LIBs.

  18. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements. Volume 2/Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 2 - Volume II Appendix A to Part 2 - Volume I.

  19. To address surface reaction network complexity using scaling relations machine learning and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Zachary W; Medford, Andrew J; Bligaard, Thomas; Nørskov, Jens K

    2017-03-06

    Surface reaction networks involving hydrocarbons exhibit enormous complexity with thousands of species and reactions for all but the very simplest of chemistries. We present a framework for optimization under uncertainty for heterogeneous catalysis reaction networks using surrogate models that are trained on the fly. The surrogate model is constructed by teaching a Gaussian process adsorption energies based on group additivity fingerprints, combined with transition-state scaling relations and a simple classifier for determining the rate-limiting step. The surrogate model is iteratively used to predict the most important reaction step to be calculated explicitly with computationally demanding electronic structure theory. Applying these methods to the reaction of syngas on rhodium(111), we identify the most likely reaction mechanism. Propagating uncertainty throughout this process yields the likelihood that the final mechanism is complete given measurements on only a subset of the entire network and uncertainty in the underlying density functional theory calculations.

  20. To address surface reaction network complexity using scaling relations machine learning and DFT calculations

    PubMed Central

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Medford, Andrew J.; Bligaard, Thomas; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2017-01-01

    Surface reaction networks involving hydrocarbons exhibit enormous complexity with thousands of species and reactions for all but the very simplest of chemistries. We present a framework for optimization under uncertainty for heterogeneous catalysis reaction networks using surrogate models that are trained on the fly. The surrogate model is constructed by teaching a Gaussian process adsorption energies based on group additivity fingerprints, combined with transition-state scaling relations and a simple classifier for determining the rate-limiting step. The surrogate model is iteratively used to predict the most important reaction step to be calculated explicitly with computationally demanding electronic structure theory. Applying these methods to the reaction of syngas on rhodium(111), we identify the most likely reaction mechanism. Propagating uncertainty throughout this process yields the likelihood that the final mechanism is complete given measurements on only a subset of the entire network and uncertainty in the underlying density functional theory calculations. PMID:28262694

  1. Understanding and Addressing AIDS-Related Stigma: From Anthropological Theory to Clinical Practice in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Arachu; Farmer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    For the past several years, diverse and often confused concepts of stigma have been invoked in discussions on AIDS. Many have argued compellingly that AIDS-related stigma acts as a barrier to voluntary counseling and testing. Less compelling are observations regarding the source of stigma or its role in decreasing interest in HIV care. We reviewed these claims as well as literature from anthropology, sociology, and public health. Preliminary data from research in rural Haiti suggest that the introduction of quality HIV care can lead to a rapid reduction in stigma, with resulting increased uptake of testing. Rather than stigma, logistic and economic barriers determine who will access such services. Implications for scale-up of integrated AIDS prevention and care are explored. PMID:15623859

  2. To address surface reaction network complexity using scaling relations machine learning and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Medford, Andrew J.; Bligaard, Thomas; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2017-03-01

    Surface reaction networks involving hydrocarbons exhibit enormous complexity with thousands of species and reactions for all but the very simplest of chemistries. We present a framework for optimization under uncertainty for heterogeneous catalysis reaction networks using surrogate models that are trained on the fly. The surrogate model is constructed by teaching a Gaussian process adsorption energies based on group additivity fingerprints, combined with transition-state scaling relations and a simple classifier for determining the rate-limiting step. The surrogate model is iteratively used to predict the most important reaction step to be calculated explicitly with computationally demanding electronic structure theory. Applying these methods to the reaction of syngas on rhodium(111), we identify the most likely reaction mechanism. Propagating uncertainty throughout this process yields the likelihood that the final mechanism is complete given measurements on only a subset of the entire network and uncertainty in the underlying density functional theory calculations.

  3. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  4. Serratus Anterior Plane Block to Address Post-thoracotomy and Chest Tube-related Pain: A Report on 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Chu, George M; Jarvis, G Craig

    2017-03-16

    In this case report, the serratus anterior plane block was used in conjunction with multilevel continuous thoracic paravertebral blocks (TPVB) and general anesthesia in 3 thoracotomy cases. All blocks were accompanied by use of catheters that allowed continuous local anesthetic infusions and intermittent local anesthetic bolus injections to address postoperative pain. In all 3 patients, the serratus anterior plane block provided analgesia for chest tube-related pain that was not provided by the TPVB alone.

  5. Screening for Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes: Matching Pathophysiology and Addressing Current Challenges.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Valérie; Reynaud, Quitterie; Dubois, Catherine Lehoux; Coriati, Adèle; Desjardins, Katherine; Durieu, Isabelle; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2016-10-01

    Nearly 50% of adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have diabetes. The occurrence of CF-related diabetes (CFRD) is preceded and is associated with deterioration of lung function and nutritional status. Microvascular complications can occur, but the main cause of death is respiratory failure rather than cardiovascular causes as in type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Because other methods such as glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels are less sensitive in patients with CF, the recommended screening test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with a 75 g glucose dose. However, OGTT is poorly suited for patients with CF, who are already facing a high disease-care burden, and appropriate CF-glucose cut-off for diagnosis and prognosis are also questioned. Thus, alternative screening methods are compared to the classical test (2-hour OGTT), including shorter OGTTs and continuous glucose monitoring. Moreover, many challenges complicate the screening for diabetes such as the complex medical care time for a patient, which is reflected by low adherence to screening tests. The best screening test should take into account the particularities of CFRD and the complexity of the CF medical care.

  6. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    PubMed

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  7. [BOUGE-fitness test battery: health-related field-based fitness tests assessment in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, J; Béghin, L; Czaplicki, G; Ulmer, Z

    2014-01-01

    Physical fitness is an important determinant of global health in children and adolescents. Key components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, speed, and muscular and endurance strength. The school environment provides a great opportunity to assess the physical fitness level in children and adolescents. The french national program "Bouge... Une priorité pour ta santé! "(Move ... A priority for your health!) aims to assess the physical fitness of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years old in French schools. The aim of this paper is to describe the interest to assess different health-related physical fitness components. It presents the chosen tests within said battery for children and adolescents and explains how the battery was conceived. The health-related physical fitness tests included in "BOUGE" were chosen for their validity, reliability, low cost and feasibility for all schools.

  8. General Overview and Summary of Concepts Regarding Tendon Disease Topics Addressed Related to Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Paul W; Hart, David A

    2016-01-01

    Painful and non-healing musculoskeletal disorders, eg. tendinopathy, pose a tremendous burden on society and the quality of life for patients. New advances in the understanding of connective tissue disorders such as tendinopathy reveal that common health problems such as obesity, atherosclerosis, hormonal dysfunctions and diabetes mellitus are closely linked to the metabolism of components of the musculoskeletal system, particularly tendons. As tendons function as multi-component "organ systems" (Muscle-TMJ-Tendon-Enthesis to Bone), tendons can be influenced directly, or indirectly via, for instance, alterations to muscle. However, this volume/set of chapters focus mainly on the tendon.Emerging findings in musculoskeletal research have established important new links in our understanding of tendon metabolism. Thereby, the function of the neuroendocrine/-immune axis, as well as supply of neuro-vascular factors, can be directly linked to the quality of tendon metabolism.Since some conditions, eg. atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, are more common in individuals as they age, and aging can also affect pain and tissue repair, convergence of such complications will potentially exert an increasingly significant impact on tendons as the demographics of many societies change with expanding percentages of the populations >60-65 years of age.Comorbidities related to metabolic dysfunction have to be identified early in patients with musculoskeletal disorders, such as acute tendon injuries or chronic tendinopathy, for therapeutic considerations regarding both operative and non-operative treatment protocols. Necessary interactions between researchers and clinicians with different subspecialties have to be initiated in order to optimize tissue metabolism for improved healing potentials.

  9. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  10. Genetic insights into age-related macular degeneration: controversies addressing risk, causality, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gorin, Michael B

    2012-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common condition among the elderly population that leads to the progressive central vision loss and serious compromise of quality of life for its sufferers. It is also one of the few disorders for whom the investigation of its genetics has yielded rich insights into its diversity and causality and holds the promise of enabling clinicians to provide better risk assessments for individuals as well as to develop and selectively deploy new therapeutics to either prevent or slow the development of disease and lessen the threat of vision loss. The genetics of AMD began initially with the appreciation of familial aggregation and increase risk and expanded with the initial association of APOE variants with the disease. The first major breakthroughs came with family-based linkage studies of affected (and discordant) sibs, which identified a number of genetic loci and led to the targeted search of the 1q31 and 10q26 loci for associated variants. Three of the initial four reports for the CFH variant, Y402H, were based on regional candidate searches, as were the two initial reports of the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus variants. Case-control association studies initially also played a role in discovering the major genetic variants for AMD, and the success of those early studies have been used to fuel enthusiasm for the methodology for a number of diseases. Until 2010, all of the subsequent genetic variants associated with AMD came from candidate gene testing based on the complement factor pathway. In 2010, several large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified genes that had not been previously identified. Much of this historical information is available in a number of recent reviews (Chen et al., 2010b; Deangelis et al., 2011; Fafowora and Gorin, 2012b; Francis and Klein, 2011; Kokotas et al., 2011). Large meta analysis of AMD GWAS has added new loci and variants to this collection (Chen et al., 2010a; Kopplin et al., 2010; Yu et

  11. Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Proposed Model to Address Intimate Partner Violence-Related PTSD in Parenting and Pregnant Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Quinn, Camille R; Resch, Kathryn; Sommers, Marilyn S; Wieling, Elizabeth; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-09-29

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its sequelae posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is an innovative intervention that has demonstrated strong preliminary evidence in improving mental health. The specific aims of this article are 3-fold: (1) provide a brief background about IPV-related PTSD and depression among pregnant and parenting adolescents; (2) describe NET's theoretical principles, its therapeutic process, and provide a review of existing evidence; and (3) discuss NET as a potential treatment to address the mental health burden among adolescents experiencing IPV-related PTSD and depression.

  12. Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Proposed Model to Address IPV-related PTSD in Parenting and Pregnant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Quinn, Camille R.; Resch, Kathryn; Sommers, Marilyn S.; Wieling, Elizabeth; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents often experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its sequelae posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) is an innovative intervention that has demonstrated strong preliminary evidence in improving mental health. The specific aims of this article are threefold: a) provide a brief background about IPV-related PTSD and depression among pregnant and parenting adolescents, b) describe NET’s theoretical principals, its therapeutic process, and provide review of existing evidence and c) to discuss NET as a potential treatment to address that mental health burden among adolescents experiencing IPV-related PTSD and depression. PMID:26422231

  13. Microscopic properties of lithium, sodium, and magnesium battery anode materials related to possible dendrite growth

    SciTech Connect

    Jäckle, Markus; Groß, Axel

    2014-11-07

    Lithium and magnesium exhibit rather different properties as battery anode materials with respect to the phenomenon of dendrite formation which can lead to short-circuits in batteries. Diffusion processes are the key to understanding structure forming processes on surfaces. Therefore, we have determined adsorption energies and barriers for the self-diffusion on Li and Mg using periodic density functional theory calculations and contrasted the results to Na which is also regarded as a promising electrode material in batteries. According to our calculations, magnesium exhibits a tendency towards the growth of smooth surfaces as it exhibits lower diffusion barriers than lithium and sodium, and as an hcp metal it favors higher-coordinated configurations in contrast to the bcc metals Li and Na. These characteristic differences are expected to contribute to the unequal tendencies of these metals with respect to dendrite growth.

  14. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance, and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program was initiated in 1985 to address battery problems experienced by NASA and other space battery users over the previous ten years. The original program plan was approved in May 1986 and modified in 1990 to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. The NASA Battery Workshop is supported by the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program. The main objective of the discussions is to aid in defining the direction which the agency should head with respect to aerospace battery issues. Presently, primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to issues revolving around the future availability of nickel-cadmium batteries as a result of the proposed OSHA standards with respect to allowable cadmium levels in the workplace. The decision of whether or not to pursue the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs hinges on the impact of the OSHA ruling. As part of a unified Battery Program, the evaluation of a nickel-hydrogen cell design options and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  15. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation uses a vehicle simulator and economics model called the Battery Ownership Model to examine the levelized cost per mile of conventional (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in comparison with the cost to operate an electric vehicle (EV) under a service provider business model. The service provider is assumed to provide EV infrastructure such as charge points and swap stations to allow an EV with a 100-mile range to operate with driving profiles equivalent to CVs and HEVs. Battery cost, fuel price forecast, battery life, and other variables are examined to determine under what scenarios the levelized cost of an EV with a service provider can approach that of a CV. Scenarios in both the United States as an average and Hawaii are examined. The levelized cost of operating an EV with a service provider under average U.S. conditions is approximately twice the cost of operating a small CV. If battery cost and life can be improved, in this study the cost of an EV drops to under 1.5 times the cost of a CV for U.S. average conditions. In Hawaii, the same EV is only slightly more expensive to operate than a CV.

  16. NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch Battery and Fuel Cell Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of NASA Glenn s history and heritage in the development of electrochemical systems for aerospace applications. Current developments related to batteries and fuel cells are addressed. Specific areas of focus are Li-ion batteries and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cells systems and their development for future Exploration missions.

  17. The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program: addressing the challenge of infections related to war injuries and skin and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J; Tribble, David R

    2010-07-01

    The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-funded network of military treatment and research facilities coordinated through USU and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine (HJF). IDCRP functions in collaboration with the NIAID, universities, and industry to address infectious diseases threats to the U.S. military and to the nation. Although IDCRP has projects in diseases from HIV to tuberculosis, a major focus has been on skin, soft-tissue, and war-related infections.

  18. Neutron imaging methods for the investigation of energy related materials. Fuel cells, battery, hydrogen storage and nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Boillat, Pierre; Kaestner, Anders; Vontobel, Peter; Mannes, David

    2015-10-01

    After a short explanation of the state-of-the-art in the field of neutron imaging we give some examples how energy related materials can be studied successfully. These are in particular fuel cell studies, battery research approaches, the storage of hydrogen, but also some investigations with nuclear fuel components. The high contrast for light isotopes like H-1, Li-6 or B-10 are used to trace low amounts of material even within compact sealing of metals which are relatively transparent for neutrons at the same time.

  19. Addressing the next challenges: A summary of the 22nd international symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Thomas F; Schuster, Catherine; Cosset, François-Loïc; Dubuisson, Jean; Hofmann, Maike; Tautz, Norbert; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Thimme, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Following the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) more than 25 years ago the field has succeeded to develop methods that have changed the safety of blood products, understand the molecular virology, epidemiology and clinical disease of HCV, and identify specific targets for the development of direct-acting antivirals for HCV cure. Nevertheless, major clinical and scientific challenges remain: therapy is still only available to a fraction of infected patients worldwide and many patients remain undiagnosed and/or live in countries where therapy is unattainable. An urgently needed HCV vaccine to eradicate infection remains still elusive. Scientifically, major questions remain regarding the life cycle, pathogenesis and mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence. Addressing these challenges, this meeting report reviews key findings of the 22nd International Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus and Related Viruses in Strasbourg, France from October 9 to 13, 2015.

  20. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 2, Part 3; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S,; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume II Appendices to Part 3 - Volume I.

  1. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Courtney D.; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  2. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  3. Competitive systems - Ambient temperature rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, R. M.

    Recent in designs of aqueous electrolyte secondary batteries are presented. Operation principles, performance characteristics, and applications of various types of lead/acid batteries, alkaline electrolyte batteries, flow batteries, and battery/fuel cell hybrids (such as metal/air and hydrogen/metal oxide systems) are discussed. Consideration is given to the relative importance of such battery parameters as deep discharge capability, freedom from maintenance, shelf life, and cost, depending upon the specific application.

  4. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  5. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  6. Relative accuracy of grid references derived from postcode and address in UK epidemiological studies of overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Bunch, K J

    2014-12-01

    In the UK, the location of an address, necessary for calculating the distance to overhead power lines in epidemiological studies, is available from different sources. We assess the accuracy of each. The grid reference specific to each address, provided by the Ordnance Survey product Address-Point, is generally accurate to a few metres, which will usually be sufficient for calculating magnetic fields from the power lines. The grid reference derived from the postcode rather than the individual address is generally accurate to tens of metres, and may be acceptable for assessing effects that vary in the general proximity of the power line, but is probably not acceptable for assessing magnetic-field effects.

  7. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

  8. Batteries: Discharging the right product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Sampson; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-03-01

    The chemistry of the discharge products of metal-oxygen batteries is related to the battery's efficiency but knowledge of their formation mechanism is incomplete. Now, the initial discharge product in sodium-oxygen batteries is shown to be sodium superoxide, which undergoes dissolution and then transforms to sodium peroxide dihydrate.

  9. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  10. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  11. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... length, a battery powered bullhorn may serve as the public address system if audible throughout the accommodation spaces of the vessel during normal operating conditions. The bullhorn's batteries are to be continually maintained at a fully charged level by use of a battery charger or other means acceptable to...

  12. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... length, a battery powered bullhorn may serve as the public address system if audible throughout the accommodation spaces of the vessel during normal operating conditions. The bullhorn's batteries are to be continually maintained at a fully charged level by use of a battery charger or other means acceptable to...

  13. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  14. Opioid abuse in the United States and Department of Health and Human Services actions to address opioid-drug-related overdoses and deaths.

    PubMed

    U S Department Of Health And Human Services

    2015-06-01

    On March 26, 2015, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HSS) published an online Issue Brief that addresses opioid abuse in the United States and (HHS) actions to address opioid-drug-related overdoses and deaths. This report, which contains the full content of the Issue Brief, is adapted from that document.

  15. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002764.htm Button batteries To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... in the United States. Where Found These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches Symptoms If ...

  16. The auditory cross-section (AXS) test battery: A new way to study afferent/efferent relations linking body periphery (ear, voice, heart) with brainstem and cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauter, Judith

    2002-05-01

    Several noninvasive methods are available for studying the neural bases of human sensory-motor function, but their cost is prohibitive for many researchers and clinicians. The auditory cross section (AXS) test battery utilizes relatively inexpensive methods, yet yields data that are at least equivalent, if not superior in some applications, to those generated by more expensive technologies. The acronym emphasizes access to axes-the battery makes it possible to assess dynamic physiological relations along all three body-brain axes: rostro-caudal (afferent/efferent), dorso-ventral, and right-left, on an individually-specific basis, extending from cortex to the periphery. For auditory studies, a three-level physiological ear-to-cortex profile is generated, utilizing (1) quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG); (2) the repeated evoked potentials version of the auditory brainstem response (REPs/ABR); and (3) otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Battery procedures will be explained, and sample data presented illustrating correlated multilevel changes in ear, voice, heart, brainstem, and cortex in response to circadian rhythms, and challenges with substances such as antihistamines and Ritalin. Potential applications for the battery include studies of central auditory processing, reading problems, hyperactivity, neural bases of voice and speech motor control, neurocardiology, individually-specific responses to medications, and the physiological bases of tinnitus, hyperacusis, and related treatments.

  17. Next Generation of Launcher & Space Vehicles Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroye, J. F.; Brochard, P.; Grassien, J.-Y.; Masgrangeas, D.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents several examples of Saft lithium batteries in use onboard launchers & space vehicles: ATV primary lithium manganese dioxide (LiMnO2) batteries and Rosetta primary lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) batteries as well as the VEGA rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) avionics & thrust vector control (TVC) batteries.It gives an overview of possible chemistries and tradeoff to address these needs.

  18. Study on microstructures of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries using variational multi-scale enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangmin; Sastry, Ann Marie; Park, Jonghyun

    2016-05-01

    Performance and degradation of a Li-ion battery reflect the transport and kinetics of related species within the battery's electrode microstructures. The variational multi-scale principle is adapted to a Li-ion battery system in order to improve the predictions of battery performance by including multi-scale and multiphysics phenomena among the particle aggregates in the electrode; this physics cannot be addressed by conventional homogenized approaches. The developed model is verified through the direct numerical solutions and compared with the conventional pseudo-2D (P2D) model method. The developed model has revealed more dynamic battery behaviors related to the variation of the microstructure-such as particle shape, tortuosity, and material composition-while the corresponding result from P2D shows a monotonous change within different structures.

  19. The 1982 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Various topics concerned with advanced battery technology are addressed including lithium cell and battery safety developments, mathematical modelling, charge control of aerospace power systems, and the application of nickel hydrogen cells/batteries vis-a-vis nickel cadmium cells/batteries.

  20. Battery separators.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

    2004-10-01

    The ideal battery separator would be infinitesimally thin, offer no resistance to ionic transport in electrolytes, provide infinite resistance to electronic conductivity for isolation of electrodes, be highly tortuous to prevent dendritic growths, and be inert to chemical reactions. Unfortunately, in the real world the ideal case does not exist. Real world separators are electronically insulating membranes whose ionic resistivity is brought to the desired range by manipulating the membranes thickness and porosity. It is clear that no single separator satisfies all the needs of battery designers, and compromises have to be made. It is ultimately the application that decides which separator is most suitable. We hope that this paper will be a useful tool and will help the battery manufacturers in selecting the most appropriate separators for their batteries and respective applications. The information provided is purely technical and does not include other very important parameters, such as cost of production, availability, and long-term stability. There has been a continued demand for thinner battery separators to increase battery power and capacity. This has been especially true for lithiumion batteries used in portable electronics. However, it is very important to ensure the continued safety of batteries, and this is where the role of the separator is greatest. Thus, it is essential to optimize all the components of battery to improve the performance while maintaining the safety of these cells. Separator manufacturers should work along with the battery manufacturers to create the next generation of batteries with increased reliability and performance, but always keeping safety in mind. This paper has attempted to present a comprehensive review of literature on separators used in various batteries. It is evident that a wide variety of separators are available and that they are critical components in batteries. In many cases, the separator is one of the major factors

  1. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  2. Relative and absolute addressability of global disease burden in maternal and perinatal health by investment in R&D.

    PubMed

    Fisk, Nicholas M; McKee, Martin; Atun, Rifat

    2011-06-01

    Maternal and perinatal disease accounts for nearly 10% of the global burden of disease, with only modest progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Despite a favourable new global health landscape in research and development (R&D) to produce new drugs for neglected diseases, R&D investment in maternal/perinatal health remains small and non-strategic. Investment in obstetric R&D by industry or the not-for-profit sector has lagged behind other specialties, with the number of registered pipeline drugs only 1-5% that for other major disease areas. Using a Delphi exercise with maternal/perinatal experts in global and translational research, we estimate that equitable pharmaceutical R&D and public sector research funding over the next 10-20 years could avert 1.1% and 1.9% of the global disease burden, respectively. In contrast, optimal uptake of existing research would prevent 3.0%, justifying the current focus on health service provision. Although R&D predominantly occurs in high-income countries, more than 98% of the estimated reduction in disease burden in this field would be in developing countries. We conclude that better pharmaceutical and public sector R&D would prevent around 1/3 and 2/3, respectively, of the disease burden addressable by optimal uptake of existing research. Strengthening R&D may be an important complementary strategy to health service provision to address global maternal and perinatal disease burden.

  3. Primary lithium batteries, some consumer considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bro, P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether larger size lithium batteries would be commercially marketable, the performance of several D size lithium batteries was compared with that of an equivalent alkaline manganese battery, and the relative costs of the different systems were compared. It is concluded that opportunities exist in the consumer market for the larger sizes of the low rate and moderate rate lithium batteries, and that the high rate lithium batteries need further improvements before they can be recommended for consumer applications.

  4. Relating the 3D electrode morphology to Li-ion battery performance; a case for LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Singh, Deepak P.; Wang, Hongqian; Wagemaker, Marnix; Barnett, Scott

    2016-08-01

    One of the main goals in lithium ion battery electrode design is to increase the power density. This requires insight in the relation between the complex heterogeneous microstructure existing of active material, conductive additive and electrolyte providing the required electronic and Li-ion transport. FIB-SEM is used to determine the three phase 3D morphology, and Li-ion concentration profiles obtained with Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) are compared for two cases, conventional LiFePO4 electrodes and better performing carbonate templated LiFePO4 electrodes. This provides detailed understanding of the impact of key parameters such as the tortuosity for electron and Li-ion transport though the electrodes. The created hierarchical pore network of the templated electrodes, containing micron sized pores, appears to be effective only at high rate charge where electrolyte depletion is hindering fast discharge. Surprisingly the carbonate templating method results in a better electronic conductive CB network, enhancing the activity of LiFePO4 near the electrolyte-electrode interface as directly observed with NDP, which in a large part is responsible for the improved rate performance both during charge and discharge. The results demonstrate that standard electrodes have a far from optimal charge transport network and that significantly improved electrode performance should be possible by engineering the microstructure.

  5. Two-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Next-Generation Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Liao, Ting; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Ziqi

    2017-04-10

    The exponential increase in research focused on two-dimensional (2D) metal oxides has offered an unprecedented opportunity for their use in energy conversion and storage devices, especially for promising next-generation rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (NIBs), as well as some post-lithium batteries, including lithium-sulfur batteries, lithium-air batteries, etc. The introduction of well-designed 2D metal oxide nanomaterials into next-generation rechargeable batteries has significantly enhanced the performance of these energy-storage devices by providing higher chemically active interfaces, shortened ion-diffusion lengths, and improved in-plane carrier-/charge-transport kinetics, which have greatly promoted the development of nanotechnology and the practical application of rechargeable batteries. Here, the recent progress in the application of 2D metal oxide nanomaterials in a series of rechargeable LIBs, NIBs, and other post lithium-ion batteries is reviewed relatively comprehensively. Current opportunities and future challenges for the application of 2D nanomaterials in energy-storage devices to achieve high energy density, high power density, stable cyclability, etc. are summarized and outlined. It is believed that the integration of 2D metal oxide nanomaterials in these clean energy devices offers great opportunities to address challenges driven by increasing global energy demands.

  6. Addressing Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

  7. Research funding for addressing tobacco-related disease: an analysis of UK investment between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Mary; Bogdanovica, Ilze; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the UK. However, research spending on tobacco-related disease, and particularly smoking prevention, is thought to be low. We therefore aimed to assess the relation between tobacco-related research investment and disease burden from 2008 to 2012. Methods We used the Health Research Classification System to classify UK government and charitable research funding by broad health category and then by tobacco prevention research and 18 WHO defined tobacco-related diseases. We used UK mortality figures to calculate disease-specific tobacco attributable deaths and then compared disease specific and tobacco prevention research investment with all cause and tobacco attributable mortality over the 5-year period and as annual averages. Results 12 922 research grants were identified with a total value of £6.69bn, an annual average of £1.34bn. Annually an average of 110 000 people die from tobacco-related disease, approximately 20% of total deaths. £130m is invested in researching tobacco-related disease each year and £5m on tobacco prevention, 10.8% and 0.42% of total annual research funding, respectively. Prevention research equated to an annual average of £46 per tobacco attributable death or one pound for every £29 spent on tobacco-related disease. Funding varied widely for diseases with different numbers of deaths (eg, lung cancer £68 per all cause death, cervical cancer £2500), similar numbers of deaths (leukaemia £983 per death, stomach cancer £43) or similar numbers of tobacco attributable deaths (eg, colorectal cancer £5k, pancreatic cancer £670, bladder cancer £340). Conclusions Tobacco-related research funding is not related to burden of disease or level of risk. As a result certain diseases receive a disproportionately low level of research funding and disease prevention funding is even lower. PMID:27377637

  8. Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  9. Especially for daughters: parent education to address alcohol and sex-related risk taking among urban young adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Myint-U, Athi; Duran, Richard; Stueve, Ann

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluates the Especially for Daughters intervention, which aims to provide urban Black and Latino parents with information and skills to support their daughters in delaying sexual initiation and alcohol use. In a randomized field trial, 268 families with sixth-graders were recruited from New York City public schools and assigned either to the intervention, a set of audio CDs mailed home; an attention-controlled condition (print materials); or controls. Girls completed classroom baseline and three follow-up surveys, and telephone surveys were conducted with parents. At follow-up, girls in the intervention reported fewer sexual risks (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.39, confidence interval [CI] = 0.17-0.88) and less drinking (AOR = 0.38, CI = 0.15-0.97, p < .05). Their parents reported greater self-efficacy to address alcohol and sex and more communication on these topics. This gender-specific parent education program was for communities with high rates of HIV, where early sexual onset is common and often fueled by alcohol.

  10. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  11. The 1984 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, G. W. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various topics related to spacecraft power supply systems are discussed. Regenerative fuel cells, lithium molybdenum batteries, nickel hydrogen batteries, nickel cadmium batteries, failure analysis, and performance testing are covered.

  12. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  13. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  14. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  15. OAO battery data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Orourke, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Summary, consolidation and analysis of specifications, manufacturing process and test controls, and performance results for OAO-2 and OAO-3 lot 20 Amp-Hr sealed nickel cadmium cells and batteries are reported. Correlation of improvements in control requirements with performance is a key feature. Updates for a cell/battery computer model to improve performance prediction capability are included. Applicability of regression analysis computer techniques to relate process controls to performance is checked.

  16. Addressing Pre-Service Teachers' Understandings and Difficulties with Some Core Concepts in the Special Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and…

  17. Sociology, Music Education, and Social Change: The Prospect of Addressing Their Relations by Attending to Some Central, Expanded Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Studies on sociology and music education are important because they can enlighten how music education relates to social change. By studying how music education changes and is changed by society we enable ourselves to describe how it can contribute to the understanding of social change generally. This may lay the ground for us in contributing to…

  18. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  19. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  20. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  1. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Discusses four issues related to music: (1) music as a form of intelligence and the misconceptions that have arisen; (2) music as a discipline focusing on mastering the discipline of music and obstacles to musicality; (3) a rationale for music education; and (4) the future of music education. (CMK)

  2. Sensitivity of Battery Electric Vehicle Economics to Drive Patterns, Vehicle Range, and Charge Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.

    2012-07-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs discourage many potential purchasers. Making an economic comparison with conventional alternatives is complicated in part by strong sensitivity to drive patterns, vehicle range, and charge strategies that affect vehicle utilization and battery wear. Identifying justifiable battery replacement schedules and sufficiently accounting for the limited range of a BEV add further complexity to the issue. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Battery Ownership Model to address these and related questions. The Battery Ownership Model is applied here to examine the sensitivity of BEV economics to drive patterns, vehicle range, and charge strategies when a high-fidelity battery degradation model, financially justified battery replacement schedules, and two different means of accounting for a BEV's unachievable vehicle miles traveled (VMT) are employed. We find that the value of unachievable VMT with a BEV has a strong impact on the cost-optimal range, charge strategy, and battery replacement schedule; that the overall cost competitiveness of a BEV is highly sensitive to vehicle-specific drive patterns; and that common cross-sectional drive patterns do not provide consistent representation of the relative cost of a BEV.

  3. Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

  4. Comparisons of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Anandamide on a Battery of Cognition-Related Behavior in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Michael Z.; Shukla, Vidyanand G.; Alapafuja, Shakiru O.; Nikas, Spyros P.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Bergman, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The primary psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), has medicinal value but also produces unwanted deleterious effects on cognitive function, promoting the search for improved cannabinergic therapeutics. The present studies used a battery of touchscreen procedures in squirrel monkeys to compare the effects of different types of cannabinergic drugs on several measures of performance including learning (repeated acquisition), cognitive flexibility (discrimination reversal), short-term memory (delayed matching-to-sample), attention (psychomotor vigilance), and motivation (progressive ratio). Drugs studied included the cannabinoid agonist Δ9-THC, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester (URB597), and endocannabinoid anandamide and its stable synthetic analog methanandamide [(R)-(+)-arachidonyl-1′-hydroxy-2′-propylamide]. The effects of Δ9-THC and anandamide after treatment with the cannabinoid receptor type 1 inverse agonist/antagonist rimonabant [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1Hpyrazole-3-carboxamide] and the FAAH inhibitor URB597, respectively, also were examined. The results showed the following: 1) Δ9-THC produced dose-related impairments of discrimination-based cognitive behavior with potency that varied across tasks (discriminative capability < learning < flexibility < short-term memory); 2) anandamide alone and URB597 alone were without effect on all endpoints; 3) anandamide following URB597 pretreatment and methanandamide had negligible effects on discriminative capability, learning, and reversal, but following large doses affected delayed matching-to-sample performance in some subjects; 4) all drugs, except anandamide and URB597, disrupted attention; and 5) progressive ratio breakpoints were generally unaffected by all drugs tested, suggesting little to no effect on motivation. Taken together, these data indicate that

  5. Uncovering Clinical Principles and Techniques to Address Minority Stress, Mental Health, and Related Health Risks Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men disproportionately experience depression, anxiety, and related health risks at least partially because of their exposure to sexual minority stress. This paper describes the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention capable of targeting the psychosocial pathways through which minority stress operates. Interviews with key stakeholders, including gay and bisexual men with depression and anxiety and expert providers, suggested intervention principles and techniques for improving minority stress coping. These principles and techniques are consistent with general cognitive behavioral therapy approaches, the empirical tenets of minority stress theory, and professional guidelines for LGB-affirmative mental health practice. If found to be efficacious, the psychosocial intervention described here would be one of the first to improve the mental health of gay and bisexual men by targeting minority stress. PMID:25554721

  6. Use of the CogState Brief Battery in the assessment of Alzheimer's disease related cognitive impairment in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yen Ying; Ellis, Kathryn A; Harrington, Karra; Ames, David; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher; Savage, Greg; Szoeke, Cassandra; Darby, David; Maruff, Paul; The Aibl Research Group

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the CogState Brief Battery, which assesses psychomotor, attentional, working memory, and visual learning functions, in healthy older people and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study. In healthy older adults, weak relationships between demographic variables (e.g., education, depression) and cognitive performance were observed. In AD and MCI groups, the magnitude of impairment was greatest for tasks of working memory and memory, with a negative influence of apolipoprotein E ϵ4 status on learning but not working memory. These results suggest that the CogState Brief Battery can be used to screen for AD-related cognitive changes.

  7. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  8. Addressing reverse inference in psychiatric neuroimaging: Meta-analyses of task-related brain activation in common mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Sprooten, Emma; Rasgon, Alexander; Goodman, Morgan; Carlin, Ariella; Leibu, Evan; Lee, Won Hee; Frangou, Sophia

    2017-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychiatry use various tasks to identify case-control differences in the patterns of task-related brain activation. Differently activated regions are often ascribed disorder-specific functions in an attempt to link disease expression and brain function. We undertook a systematic meta-analysis of data from task-fMRI studies to examine the effect of diagnosis and study design on the spatial distribution and direction of case-control differences on brain activation. We mapped to atlas regions coordinates of case-control differences derived from 537 task-fMRI studies in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder comprising observations derived from 21,427 participants. The fMRI tasks were classified according to the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). We investigated whether diagnosis, RDoC domain or construct and use of regions-of-interest or whole-brain analyses influenced the neuroanatomical pattern of results. When considering all primary studies, we found an effect of diagnosis for the amygdala and caudate nucleus and an effect of RDoC domains and constructs for the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and nucleus accumbens. In contrast, whole-brain studies did not identify any significant effect of diagnosis or RDoC domain or construct. These results resonate with prior reports of common brain structural and genetic underpinnings across these disorders and caution against attributing undue specificity to brain functional changes when forming explanatory models of psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1846-1864, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Addressing reverse inference in psychiatric neuroimaging: Meta‐analyses of task‐related brain activation in common mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sprooten, Emma; Rasgon, Alexander; Goodman, Morgan; Carlin, Ariella; Leibu, Evan; Lee, Won Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychiatry use various tasks to identify case‐control differences in the patterns of task‐related brain activation. Differently activated regions are often ascribed disorder‐specific functions in an attempt to link disease expression and brain function. We undertook a systematic meta‐analysis of data from task‐fMRI studies to examine the effect of diagnosis and study design on the spatial distribution and direction of case‐control differences on brain activation. We mapped to atlas regions coordinates of case‐control differences derived from 537 task‐fMRI studies in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder comprising observations derived from 21,427 participants. The fMRI tasks were classified according to the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). We investigated whether diagnosis, RDoC domain or construct and use of regions‐of‐interest or whole‐brain analyses influenced the neuroanatomical pattern of results. When considering all primary studies, we found an effect of diagnosis for the amygdala and caudate nucleus and an effect of RDoC domains and constructs for the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and nucleus accumbens. In contrast, whole‐brain studies did not identify any significant effect of diagnosis or RDoC domain or construct. These results resonate with prior reports of common brain structural and genetic underpinnings across these disorders and caution against attributing undue specificity to brain functional changes when forming explanatory models of psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1846–1864, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28067006

  10. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  11. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  12. An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xia, Gordon; Kirby, Brent W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-11-13

    Aiming to explore low-cost redox flow battery systems, a novel iron-polysulfide (Fe/S) flow battery has been demonstrated in a laboratory cell. This system employs alkali metal ferri/ferrocyanide and alkali metal polysulfides as the redox electrolytes. When proper electrodes, such as pretreated graphite felts, are used, 78% energy efficiency and 99% columbic efficiency are achieved. The remarkable advantages of this system over current state-of-the-art redox flow batteries include: 1) less corrosive and relatively environmentally benign redox solutions used; 2) excellent energy and utilization efficiencies; 3) low cost for redox electrolytes and cell components. These attributes can lead to significantly reduced capital cost and make the Fe/S flow battery system a promising low-cost energy storage technology. The major drawbacks of the present cell design are relatively low power density and possible sulfur species crossover. Further work is underway to address these concerns.

  13. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  14. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  15. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  16. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  17. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  18. NASA Engineering Safety Center NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group 2007 Proactive Task Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) chartered the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to bring forth and address critical battery-related performance/manufacturing issues for NASA and the aerospace community. A suite of tasks identifying and addressing issues related to Ni-H2 and Li-ion battery chemistries was submitted and selected for implementation. The current NESC funded are: (1) Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries (2) Binding Procurement (3) NASA Lithium-Ion Battery Guidelines (3a) Li-Ion Performance Assessment (3b) Li-Ion Guidelines Document (3b-i) Assessment of Applicability of Pouch Cells for Aerospace Missions (3b-ii) High Voltage Risk Assessment (3b-iii) Safe Charge Rates for Li-Ion Cells (4) Availability of Source Material for Li-Ion Cells (5) NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop This presentation provides a brief overview of the tasks in the 2007 plan and serves as an introduction to more detailed discussions on each of the specific tasks.

  19. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen spacecraft cell and battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Wright, Doug; Repplinger, Ron

    1995-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) NiH2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth orbital satellites and have accumulated more than 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard NiH2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV NiH2 technology flight heritage and database. The advanced cell design offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell configuration and a reduced parts count. The internal electrode stack is a prismatic flat-plate arrangement. The flat individual cell pressure vessel provides a maximum direct thermal path for removing heat from the electrode stack. The cell geometry also minimizes multiple-cell battery packaging constraints by using an established end-plateltie-rod battery design. A major design advantage is that the battery support structure is efficiently required to restrain only the force applied to a portion of the end cell. As the cells are stacked in series to achieve the desired system voltage, this increment of the total battery weight becomes small. The geometry of the DPV cell promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and places all cell terminals along the length of the battery. The resulting ability to minimize intercell wiring offers additional design simplicity and significant weight savings. The DPV battery design offers significant cost and weight savings advantages while providing minimal design risks. Cell and battery level design issues will be addressed including mechanical, electrical and thermal design aspects. A design performance analysis will be presented at both

  20. NASA Battery Working Group - 2007-2008: Battery Task Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides a summary of the 2007-2008 NASA Battery Working Group efforts completed in support of the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC). The effort covered a series of pro-active tasks that address the following: Binding Procurements -- guidelines related to requirements for the battery system that should be considered at the time of contract award Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries -- issues/strategies for effective storage and impact of long-term storage on performance and life Generic Guidelines for Lithium-ion Safety, Handling and Qualification -- Standardized approaches developed and risk assessments (1) Lithium-ion Performance Assessment -- survey of manufacturers and capabilities to meet mission needs. Guidelines document generated (2) Conditions Required for using Pouch Cells in Aerospace Missions -- focus on corrosion, thermal excursions and long-term performance issues. Document defining requirements to maintain performance and life (3) High Voltage Risk Assessment -- focus on safety and abuse tolerance of battery module assemblies. Recommendations of features required for safe implementation (4) Procedure for Determination of Safe Charge Rates -- evaluation of various cell chemistries and recommendation of safe operating regimes for specific cell designs

  1. Optically Addressable Silicon Vacancy-Related Spin Centers in Rhombic Silicon Carbide with High Breakdown Characteristics and ENDOR Evidence of Their Structure.

    PubMed

    Soltamov, V A; Yavkin, B V; Tolmachev, D O; Babunts, R A; Badalyan, A G; Davydov, V Yu; Mokhov, E N; Proskuryakov, I I; Orlinskii, S B; Baranov, P G

    2015-12-11

    We discovered a family of uniaxially oriented silicon vacancy-related centers with S=3/2 in a rhombic 15R-SiC crystalline matrix. We demonstrate that these centers exhibit unique characteristics such as optical spin alignment up to the temperatures of 250°C. Thus, the range of robust optically addressable vacancy-related spin centers is extended to the wide class of rhombic SiC polytypes. To use these centers for quantum applications it is essential to know their structure. Using high frequency electron nuclear double resonance, we show that the centers are formed by negatively charged silicon vacancies V_{Si}^{-} in the paramagnetic state with S=3/2 that is noncovalently bonded to the neutral carbon vacancy V_{C}^{0} in the nonparamagnetic state, located on the adjacent site along the SiC symmetry c axis.

  2. 29 CFR 1917.157 - Battery charging and changing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery charging and changing. 1917.157 Section 1917.157..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.157 Battery charging and changing. (a) Only designated persons shall change or charge batteries. (b) Battery...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.157 - Battery charging and changing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery charging and changing. 1917.157 Section 1917.157..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.157 Battery charging and changing. (a) Only designated persons shall change or charge batteries. (b) Battery...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.157 - Battery charging and changing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Battery charging and changing. 1917.157 Section 1917.157..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.157 Battery charging and changing. (a) Only designated persons shall change or charge batteries. (b) Battery...

  5. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  6. Urinary and fecal elimination of nickel in relation to air-borne nickel in a battery factory.

    PubMed

    Hassler, E; Lind, B; Nilsson, B; Piscator, M

    1983-01-01

    Nickel in urine and in air from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in a battery factory was determined weekly during 11 consecutive weeks. The study started immediately following three weeks of Christmas vacation. The nickel levels in air varied but did not increase with time. The average urinary excretion of nickel showed an increase during the first weeks, after which a steady state seemed to have been reached. There was a considerable individual variation in both exposure levels and urine nickel levels. However, a correlation between the averages of nickel in air and urine could be demonstrated on a group basis. In a second study, during one week, measurements of nickel in air and feces were made on 15 of the workers. A significant correlation was found between nickel in air and fecal nickel. Smoking habits did not seem to influence neither urinary nor fecal nickel concentrations.

  7. NASA aerospace battery systems program update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Schulze, Norman R.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of a battery systems program designed to enhance the safety, reliability, and performance of NASA's aerospace primary and secondary batteries as well as battery power systems is presented. The status of research in all three areas is reviewed. The approach to achieving the program objectives involves increasing the fundamental understanding of primary and secondary cells; providing for improved nickel-cadmium manufacturing process control; providing for the establishment of a NASA standard nickel-hydrogen cell design; establishing specifications, design and operational guidelines for both primary and secondary cells and batteries; providing training relating to the above areas; and opening and maintaining communication lines within NASA and the aerospace battery community.

  8. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  9. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  10. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  11. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  12. Multi-modal demands of a smartphone used to place calls and enter addresses during highway driving relative to two embedded systems

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Reagan, Ian; Kidd, David; Dobres, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is limited research on trade-offs in demand between manual and voice interfaces of embedded and portable technologies. Mehler et al. identified differences in driving performance, visual engagement and workload between two contrasting embedded vehicle system designs (Chevrolet MyLink and Volvo Sensus). The current study extends this work by comparing these embedded systems with a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy S4). None of the voice interfaces eliminated visual demand. Relative to placing calls manually, both embedded voice interfaces resulted in less eyes-off-road time than the smartphone. Errors were most frequent when calling contacts using the smartphone. The smartphone and MyLink allowed addresses to be entered using compound voice commands resulting in shorter eyes-off-road time compared with the menu-based Sensus but with many more errors. Driving performance and physiological measures indicated increased demand when performing secondary tasks relative to ‘just driving’, but were not significantly different between the smartphone and embedded systems. Practitioner Summary: The findings show that embedded system and portable device voice interfaces place fewer visual demands on the driver than manual interfaces, but they also underscore how differences in system designs can significantly affect not only the demands placed on drivers, but also the successful completion of tasks. PMID:27110964

  13. Creating a cadre of junior investigators to address the challenges of cancer-related health disparities: lessons learned from the community networks program.

    PubMed

    Felder, Tisha M; Brandt, Heather M; Armstead, Cheryl A; Cavicchia, Philip P; Braun, Kathryn L; Adams, Swann A; Friedman, Daniela B; Tanjasiri, Sora; Steck, Susan E; Smith, Emily R; Daguisé, Virginie G; Hébert, James R

    2012-06-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiatives such as the National Cancer Institute's Community Networks Program (CNP) (2005-2010) often emphasize training of junior investigators from underrepresented backgrounds to address health disparities. From July to October 2010, a convenience sample of 80 participants from the 25 CNP national sites completed our 45-item, web-based survey on the training and mentoring of junior investigators. This study assessed the academic productivity and CBPR-related experiences of the CNP junior investigators (n=37). Those from underrepresented backgrounds reported giving more presentations in non-academic settings (nine vs. four in the last 5 years, p=0.01), having more co-authored publications (eight vs. three in the last 5 years, p=0.01), and spending more time on CBPR-related activities than their non-underrepresented counterparts. Regardless of background, junior investigators shared similar levels of satisfaction with their mentors and CBPR experiences. This study provides support for the success of the CNP's training program, especially effort directed at underrepresented investigators.

  14. Multi-modal demands of a smartphone used to place calls and enter addresses during highway driving relative to two embedded systems.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Reagan, Ian; Kidd, David; Dobres, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    There is limited research on trade-offs in demand between manual and voice interfaces of embedded and portable technologies. Mehler et al. identified differences in driving performance, visual engagement and workload between two contrasting embedded vehicle system designs (Chevrolet MyLink and Volvo Sensus). The current study extends this work by comparing these embedded systems with a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy S4). None of the voice interfaces eliminated visual demand. Relative to placing calls manually, both embedded voice interfaces resulted in less eyes-off-road time than the smartphone. Errors were most frequent when calling contacts using the smartphone. The smartphone and MyLink allowed addresses to be entered using compound voice commands resulting in shorter eyes-off-road time compared with the menu-based Sensus but with many more errors. Driving performance and physiological measures indicated increased demand when performing secondary tasks relative to 'just driving', but were not significantly different between the smartphone and embedded systems. Practitioner Summary: The findings show that embedded system and portable device voice interfaces place fewer visual demands on the driver than manual interfaces, but they also underscore how differences in system designs can significantly affect not only the demands placed on drivers, but also the successful completion of tasks.

  15. Creating a Cadre of Junior Investigators to Address the Challenges of Cancer-Related Health Disparities: Lessons Learned from the Community Networks Program

    PubMed Central

    Felder, Tisha M.; Brandt, Heather M.; Armstead, Cheryl; Cavicchia, Philip P.; Braun, Kathryn L.; Adams, Swann A.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Tanjasiri, Sora; Steck, Susan E.; Smith, Emily R.; Daguisé, Virginie G.; Hébert, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiatives such as the National Cancer Institute’s Community Networks Program (CNP) (2005–2010) often emphasize training of junior investigators from underrepresented backgrounds to address health disparities. From July to October 2010, a convenience sample of 80 participants from the 25 CNP national sites completed our 45-item, web-based survey on the training and mentoring of junior investigators. This study assessed the academic productivity and CBPR-related experiences of the CNP junior investigators (n=37). Those from underrepresented backgrounds reported giving more presentations in non-academic settings (9 vs. 4 in last 5 years, p=0.01), having more co-authored publications (8 vs. 3 in last 5 years, p=0.01), and spending more time on CBPR-related activities than their non-underrepresented counterparts. Regardless of background, junior investigators shared similar levels of satisfaction with their mentors and CBPR experiences. This study provides support for the success of the CNP’s training program, especially effort directed at underrepresented investigators. PMID:22528636

  16. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  17. Battery research at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has, for many years, been engaged in battery-related R and D programs for DOE and the transportation industry. In particular, from 1973 to 1995, ANL played a pioneering role in the technological development of the high-temperature (400 C) lithium-iron disulfide battery. With the emphasis of battery research moving away from high temperature systems toward ambient temperature lithium-based systems for the longer term, ANL has redirected its efforts toward the development of a lithium-polymer battery (60--80 C operation) and room temperature systems based on lithium-ion technologies. ANL`s lithium-polymer battery program is supported by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), 3M and Hydro-Quebec, and the lithium-ion battery R and D efforts by US industry and by DOE.

  18. Batteries and fuel cells: Design, employment, chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, K.-J.

    The history of electrochemical current sources is considered along with primary cells, standard cells, high-energy primary cells, high-energy storage batteries, and fuel cells. Aspects of battery research and development are also discussed, taking into account general considerations related to technological development projects, the introduction of mathematical methods into battery research, resistance measurements, autoradiography and other radiochemical methods, color photography as an aid in research, electron microscopy, X-ray and electron diffraction, spin resonance methods, and electrical measurements involving powders. Attention is given to zinc/manganese dioxide cells, zinc/mercury cells, zinc/silver oxide primary cells, cells utilizing atmospheric oxygen, lead-acid batteries, nickel-iron and nickel-cadmium storage batteries, zinc/silver storage batteries, dry cells with organic depolarizers, dry cells with solid electrolyte, and storage batteries utilizing hydrogen.

  19. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Brad

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  20. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  1. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  2. Cadmium in blood and urine related to present and past exposure. A study of workers in an alkaline battery factory.

    PubMed

    Hassler, E; Lind, B; Piscator, M

    1983-11-01

    Blood and urinary cadmium concentrations together with cadmium in air concentrations from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in an alkaline battery factory were determined at regular intervals for 11 consecutive weeks. Nine of the workers examined were smokers and nine non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in age or years of employment. Cadmium in air concentrations varied, but no definite trend was observed. The concentrations of cadmium in the blood and urine were found to be stable. Exposure to airborne cadmium was identical for smokers and non-smokers but average cadmium concentrations in the blood and urine of smokers were approximately twice as high as those in non-smokers. For the whole group, urinary cadmium was significantly correlated with years of employment, but no correlation was found between blood cadmium concentrations and exposure. For non-smokers, the correlation between cadmium in blood and years of employment was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). This finding indicated that blood concentrations of cadmium reflect body burden in non-smokers at current low exposure levels.

  3. Cell-surface area codes: mobile-element related gene switches generate precise and heritable cell-surface displays of address molecules that are used for constructing embryos.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, W J; Roman-Dreyer, J

    1999-01-01

    We present an updated area code hypothesis supporting the proposal that cell surface display of seven-transmembrane olfactory receptors, protocadherins and other cell surface receptors provide codes that enable cells to find their correct partners as they sculpture embryos. The genetic mechanisms that program the expression of such displays have been largely unknown until very recently. However, increasing evidence now suggests that precise developmental control of the expression of these genes during embryogenesis is achieved in part by permanent and heritable changes in DNA. Using the developing immune system as a model, we discuss two different types of developmentally programmed genetic switches, each of which relies on recombination mechanisms related to mobile elements. We review new evidence suggesting the involvement of mobile element related switch mechanisms in the generation of protocadherin molecules, and their possible involvement in the control of expressions of olfactory receptors. As both recombinase and reverse transcriptase mechanisms play a role in the switching of the immunoglobulin genes, we searched the databases of expressed sequence tags (dbEST) for expression of related genes in other tissues. We present data revealing that transposases and reverse transcriptases are widely expressed in most tissues. We also searched these databases for expression of env (envelope) gene products, stimulated by provocative results suggesting that these molecules might function as cellular address receptors. We found that env genes are also expressed in large numbers in normal human tissues. One must assume that these three different types of mobile-element-related messenger RNA molecules (transposases, reverse transcriptases, and env proteins) are expressed for use in functions of value in the various tissues and have been preserved in the genome because of their selective advantages. We conclude that it is possible that many specific cell lineage decisions

  4. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  5. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  6. Validity Studies Using the Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB): I. Academic Achievement Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph; Bennet, Richard W.

    1977-01-01

    A new multiple abilities battery, the Comprehensive Ability Battery, is described, and the results of five criterion-related validity studies using eleven tests of the battery are reported. (Author/JKS)

  7. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  10. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  11. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  12. Cold charge nickel hydrogen geosynchronous satellite batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.C.

    1997-12-01

    It has been well recognized for the last twenty years that the capacity of nickel hydrogen batteries is improved if the batteries are operated at relatively cool temperatures ({approximately}0 to 10 C). This is somewhat contra-intuitive relative to other batteries and is generally ascribed to the competition between the useful nickel electrode recharge reaction and the parasitic electrolysis of water. The Cold Charge concept exploits the difference in charge vs. discharge kinetics and the fixed rates and periods of geosynchronous operation to increase the name plate capacity of IPV Ni/H{sub 2} by forcing discharge to occur at a higher temperature than charge. In practice battery recharge is completed ({approximately}90% {yields} 100% SOC) under taper charge conditions (C/10 {yields} C/100) with a battery temperature {approximately}{minus}20 C. Prior to high rate discharge the temperature of the battery is artificially increased (via the battery heaters) to {minus}10C to 0C. The net result is a 15% increase in practical battery capacity and hence reduction in battery weight. This is achieved with essentially no increase in battery cell cost. The Cold Charge process is fully qualified and is presently in use on two large geosynchronous communications satellites. It is base lined for all future Space Systems/Loral geosynchronous spacecraft.

  13. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  14. Nickel hydrogen batteries: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A LeRC innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass,volume, and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in

  15. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  16. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christoph J.; Geiger, Sigrid; Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m2 mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  17. Block copolymer battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  18. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery.

    PubMed

    Van Esch, T E M; Dreschler, W A

    2015-12-08

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test battery implemented in four languages. Tests of the intelligibility of speech, resolution, loudness recruitment, and lexical decision making were measured using headphones in five centers: in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Correlations and stepwise linear regression models were calculated. In sum, 72 hearing-impaired listeners aged 22 to 91 years with a broad range of hearing losses were included in the study. Several significant correlations were found with the intelligibility of speech in noise. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that pure-tone average, age, spectral and temporal resolution, and loudness recruitment were significant predictors of the intelligibility of speech in fluctuating noise. Complex interrelationships between auditory factors and the intelligibility of speech in noise were revealed using the Auditory Profile data set in four languages. After taking into account the effects of pure-tone average and age, spectral and temporal resolution and loudness recruitment had an added value in the prediction of variation among listeners with respect to the intelligibility of speech in noise. The results of the lexical decision making test were not related to the intelligibility of speech in noise, in the population studied.

  19. Motor impairments screened by the movement assessment battery for children-2 are related to the visual-perceptual deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Ju, Yan-Ying; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Tseng, Kevin C; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2014-09-01

    This study was to examine to what extent the motor deficits of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) verified by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) are linked to their visual-perceptual abilities. Seventeen children with DCD and seventeen typically developing children (TD) aged 5-10 years screened from a total of 250 children were recruited. The assessments included MABC-2, traditional test of visual perceptual skills (TVPS-R), and computerized test for sequential coupling of eye and hand as well as motion coherence. The results indicated that children with DCD scored lower than TD in MABC-2, and their total scores were highly correlated with manual dexterity component scores. DCD group also showed poor visual-perceptual abilities in various aspects. The visual discrimination and visual sequential memory from the TVPS-R, the sequential coupling of eye and hand, and the motion coherence demonstrated a moderate or strong correlation with the MABC-2 in the DCD rather than the TD group. It was concluded that the motor problems screened by MABC-2 were significantly related to the visual-perceptual deficits of children with DCD. MABC-2 is suggested to be a prescreening tool to identify the visual-perceptual related motor deficits.

  20. Sodium-Oxygen Battery: Steps Toward Reality.

    PubMed

    Landa-Medrano, Imanol; Li, Chunmei; Ortiz-Vitoriano, Nagore; Ruiz de Larramendi, Idoia; Carrasco, Javier; Rojo, Teófilo

    2016-04-07

    Rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries are receiving significant interest as a possible alternative to current state of the art lithium ion batteries due to their potential to provide higher gravimetric energies, giving significantly lighter or longer-lasting batteries. Recent advances suggest that the Na-O2 battery, in many ways analogous to Li-O2 yet based on the reversible formation of sodium superoxide (NaO2), has many advantages such as a low charge overpotential (∼100 mV) resulting in improved efficiency. In this Perspective, we discuss the current state of knowledge in Na-O2 battery technology, with an emphasis on the latest experimental studies, as well as theoretical models. We offer special focus on the principle outstanding challenges and issues and address the advantages/disadvantages of the technology when compared with Li-O2 batteries as well as other state-of-the-art battery technologies. We finish by detailing the direction required to make Na-O2 batteries both commercially and technologically viable.

  1. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  2. Summary of NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; Odonnell, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    A summary of NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Activities is presented. The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program represents a unified NASA wide effort with the overall objective of providing NASA with the policy and posture which will increase the safety, performance, and reliability of space power systems. The specific objectives of the program are to: enhance cell/battery safety and reliability; maintain current battery technology; increase fundamental understanding of primary and secondary cells; provide a means to bring forth advanced technology for flight use; assist flight programs in minimizing battery technology related flight risks; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  3. The development of aluminum-air batteries for application in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, E. J.; Lott, S.

    1990-12-01

    The recently concluded program, jointly funded by ELTECH Research Corporation and the Department of Energy, focused upon the development of an aluminum-air battery system for electric vehicle applications. The operation of the aluminum-air battery involves the dissolution of aluminum to produce a current and aluminate. Initially the objectives were to evaluate and optimize the battery design that was developed prior to this program (designated as the B300 cell) and to design and evaluate the components of the auxiliary system. During the program, three additional tasks were undertaken, addressing needs identified by ELTECH and by Sandia National Laboratories. First, the capability to produce aluminum alloys as relatively large ingots (100 to 150 lbs), with the required electrochemical performance, was considered essential to the development of the battery. The second additional task was the adoption of an advanced cell (designated as the AT400 cell), designed by ELTECH in a different program. Finally, it was recognized that a system model would allow evaluation of the interactions of the several unit operations involved in the battery. Therefore, the development of a mathematical model, based upon material and energy balances for the battery, was undertaken. At a systems level, sufficient information was obtained in the completion of this program to support the design, fabrication and operation of a batch or solids-free battery system. For the first time, the components of the auxiliary system, i.e., a heat exchanger, carbon dioxide scrubber and hydrogen disposal technology, have been defined for a vehicle battery. Progress on each component or system is summarized in the following sections.

  4. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  5. Optimization of station battery replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  6. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  7. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  8. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  9. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is an agency-wide effort aimed at ensuring the quality, safety, reliability and performance of flight battery systems for NASA applications. The program provides for the validation of primary and secondary cell and battery level technology advances to ensure their availability and readiness for use in NASA missions. It serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization and incorporation of these advances into mission applications. The program is led by the Glenn Research Center and involves funded task activities at each of the NASA mission centers and JPL. The overall products are safe, reliable, high quality batteries for mission applications. The products are defined along three product lines: 1. Battery Systems Technology - Elements of this task area cover the systems aspects of battery operation and generally apply across chemistries. This includes the development of guidelines documents, the establishment and maintenance of a central battery database that serves a central repository for battery characterization and verification test data from tests performed under the support of this program, the NASA Battery Workshop, and general test facility support. 2. Secondary Battery Technology - l h s task area focuses on the validation of battery technology for nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion secondary battery systems. Standardized test regimes are used to validate the quality of a cell lot or cell design for flight applications. In this area, efforts are now concentrated on the validation and verification of lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. 3. Primary Battery Technology - The safety and reliability aspects for primary lithium battery systems that are used in manned operations on the Shuttle and International Space Station are addressed in the primary battery technology task area. An overview of the task areas

  10. Smart battery controller for lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries. Technical report, Jan 89-Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, T.; Bard, A.; Testa, B.; Shader, W.

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  11. Lithium-sulfur batteries: electrochemistry, materials, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ya-Xia; Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-12-09

    With the increasing demand for efficient and economic energy storage, Li-S batteries have become attractive candidates for the next-generation high-energy rechargeable Li batteries because of their high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. Starting from a brief history of Li-S batteries, this Review introduces the electrochemistry of Li-S batteries, and discusses issues resulting from the electrochemistry, such as the electroactivity and the polysulfide dissolution. To address these critical issues, recent advances in Li-S batteries are summarized, including the S cathode, Li anode, electrolyte, and new designs of Li-S batteries with a metallic Li-free anode. Constructing S molecules confined in the conductive microporous carbon materials to improve the cyclability of Li-S batteries serves as a prospective strategy for the industry in the future.

  12. Field investigation of the relationship between battery size and PV system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.; Kratochvil, J.; Harrington, S.

    1993-07-01

    Four photovoltaic-powered lighting systems were installed in a National Forest Service campground in June of 1991. These systems have identical arrays, loads and charge controllers. The only difference was in the rated capacity of the battery bank for each system. The battery banks all use the same basic battery as a building block with the four systems utilizing either one battery, two batteries, three batteries or four batteries. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the effect of the various battery sizes on the ability of the system to charge the battery, energy available to the load, and battery lifetime. Results show an important trend in system performance concerning the impact of charge controllers on the relation between array size and battery size which results in an inability to achieve the days of battery storage originally designed for.

  13. Field investigation of the relationship between battery size and PV system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.; Kratochvil, J. ); Harrington, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Four photovoltaic-powered lighting systems were installed in a National Forest Service campground in June of 1991. These systems have identical arrays, loads and charge controllers. The only difference was in the rated capacity of the battery bank for each system. The battery banks all use the same basic battery as a building block with the four systems utilizing either one battery, two batteries, three batteries or four batteries. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the effect of the various battery sizes on the ability of the system to charge the battery, energy available to the load, and battery lifetime. Results show an important trend in system performance concerning the impact of charge controllers on the relation between array size and battery size which results in an inability to achieve the days of battery storage originally designed for.

  14. Field investigation of the relationship between battery size and PV system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J.; Kratochvil, J.; Harrington, S.

    1993-05-01

    Four photovoltaic-powered lighting systems were installed in a National Forest Service campground in June of 1991. These systems have identical arrays, loads and charge controllers. The only difference was in the rated capacity of the battery bank for each system. The battery banks all use the same basic battery as a building block with the four systems utilizing either one battery, two batteries, three batteries or four batteries. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the effect of the various battery sizes on the ability of the system to charge the battery, energy available to the load, and battery lifetime. Results show an important trend in system performance concerning the impact of charge controllers on the relation between array size and battery size which results in an inability to achieve the days of battery storage originally designed for.

  15. A polyoxometalate flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.; Fang, Xikui; Anderson, Travis M.

    2013-08-01

    A redox flow battery utilizing two, three-electron polyoxometalate redox couples (SiVV3WVI9O407–/SiVIV3WVI9O4010- and SiVIV3WVI9O4010-/SiVIV3WV3WVI6O4013-) was investigated for use in stationary storage in either aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. The aqueous battery had coulombic efficiencies greater than 95% with relatively low capacity fading over 100 cycles. Infrared studies showed there was no decomposition of the compound under these conditions. The non-aqueous analog had a higher operating voltage but at the expense of coulombic efficiency. The spontaneous formation of these clusters by self-assembly facilitates recovery of the battery after being subjected to reversed polarity. Polyoxometalates offer a new approach to stationary storage materials because they are capable of undergoing multi-electron reactions and are stable over a wide range of pH values and temperatures.

  16. Dispersion of nanocrystalline Fe3O4 within composite electrodes: Insights on battery-related electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Bock; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Pelliccione, Christopher J.; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jiajun; Knehr, K. W.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Feng; West, Alan C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2016-04-20

    Aggregation of nanosized materials in composite lithium-ion-battery electrodes can be a significant factor influencing electrochemical behavior. In this study, aggregation was controlled in magnetite, Fe3O4, composite electrodes via oleic acid capping and subsequent dispersion in a carbon black matrix. A heat treatment process was effective in the removal of the oleic acid capping agent while preserving a high degree of Fe3O4 dispersion. Electrochemical testing showed that Fe3O4 dispersion is initially beneficial in delivering a higher functional capacity, in agreement with continuum model simulations. However, increased capacity fade upon extended cycling was observed for the dispersed Fe3O4 composites relative to the aggregated Fe3O4 composites. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of electrodes post cycling indicated that the dispersed Fe3O4 electrodes are more oxidized in the discharged state, consistent with reduced reversibility compared with the aggregated sample. Higher charge-transfer resistance for the dispersed sample after cycling suggests increased surface-film formation on the dispersed, high-surface-area nanocrystalline Fe3O4 compared to the aggregated materials. Furthermore, this study provides insight into the specific effects of aggregation on electrochemistry through a multiscale view of mechanisms for magnetite composite electrodes.

  17. Handbook of secondary storage batteries and charge regulators in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Solar photovoltaic systems often require battery subsystems to store reserve electrical energy for times of zero insolation. This handbook is designed to help the system designer make optimum choices of battery type, battery size and charge control circuits. Typical battery performance characteristics are summarized for four types of lead-acid batteries: pure lead, lead-calcium and lead-antimony pasted flat plate and lead-antimony tubular positive types. Similar data is also provided for pocket plate nickel cadmium batteries. Economics play a significant role in battery selection. Relative costs of each battery type are summarized under a variety of operating regimes expected for solar PV installations.

  18. Advanced batteries for electric vehicles-A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The candidate battery systems for electric vehicles have been evaluated on a common basis. The batteries with the highest probability of successful development and commercialization appear to be lead-acid, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, zinc-chlorine, lithium-metal sulfide, and sodium sulfur. The relative development risk was assessed and compared to the desirability of the corresponding batteries.

  19. Modeling and Design of Semi-Solid Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, Victor Eric

    A three-dimensional dynamic model of the recently introduced semi-solid flow battery system is developed and applied to address issues with important design and operation implications. Because of the high viscosity of semi-solid flow battery suspensions, alternative modes of operation not typically used in conventional redox flow battery systems must be explored to reduce pumping energy losses. Modeling results are presented .and compared to experimental observations to address important considerations for both stoichiometric and intermittent flow operation. The importance of active material selection, and its impact on efficient stoichiometric flow operation is discussed. Electrochemically active zone considerations relevant to intermittent flow operation of semi-solid flow batteries (or other potential electronically conductive flow battery systems) are addressed. Finally, the use of the model as a design tool for optimizing flow channel design to improve system level performance is demonstrated.(Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs@mit.edu)

  20. Using Community-Based Participatory Research and Human-Centered Design to Address Violence-Related Health Disparities Among Latino/a Youth.

    PubMed

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Santacrose, Diana E; Liu, Sabrina R; Adams, Jessica

    High rates of exposure to violence and other adversities among Latino/a youth contribute to health disparities. The current article addresses the ways in which community-based participatory research (CBPR) and human-centered design (HCD) can help engage communities in dialogue and action. We present a project exemplifying how community forums, with researchers, practitioners, and key stakeholders, including youths and parents, integrated HCD strategies with a CBPR approach. Given the potential for power inequities among these groups, CBPR + HCD acted as a catalyst for reciprocal dialogue and generated potential opportunity areas for health promotion and change. Future directions are described.

  1. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  2. Test-retest reliability of a battery of field-based health-related fitness measures for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Eather, Narelle; Riley, Nicholas; Smith, Chris J

    2011-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of existing tests of health-related fitness. Participants (mean age 14.8 years, s = 0.4) were 42 boys and 26 girls who completed the study assessments on two occasions separated by one week. The following tests were conducted: bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to calculate percent body fat, leg dynamometer, 90° push-up, 7-stage sit-up, and wall squat tests. Intra-class correlation (ICC), paired samples t-tests, and typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation were calculated. The mean percent body fat intra-class correlation coefficient was similar for boys (ICC = 0.95) and girls (ICC = 0.93), but the mean coefficient of variation was considerably higher for boys than girls (22.2% vs. 12.2%). The boys' coefficients of variation for the tests of muscular fitness ranged from 9.0% for the leg dynamometer test to 26.5% for the timed wall squat test. The girls' coefficients of variation ranged from 17.1% for the sit-up test to 21.4% for the push-up test. Although the BIA machine produced reliable estimates of percent body fat, the tests of muscular fitness resulted in high systematic error, suggesting that these measures may require an extensive familiarization phase before the results can be considered reliable.

  3. Battery cell for a primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, A.

    1984-12-11

    A battery cell for a primary battery, particularly a flat cell battery to be activated on being taken into use, e.g., when submerged into water. The battery cell comprises a positive current collector and a negative electrode. A separator layer which, being in contact with the negative electrode, is disposed between said negative electrode and the positive current collector. A depolarizing layer containing a depolarizing agent is disposed between the positive current collector and the separate layer. An intermediate layer of a porous, electrically insulating, and water-absorbing material is disposed next to the positive current collector and arranged in contact with the depolarizing agent.

  4. A Preliminary Description and Factor Analysis of a Broad Spectrum Battery for Assessing "Progress toward Reading Maturity."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; Casale, Ula Price

    1983-01-01

    Describes a reading battery that was assembled to advance study and definitions of reading maturity. Factor analysis shows the battery to have greater implicit construct similarity to a popular taxonomy and diagnostic system than conventional measures typically address. (FL)

  5. Strengthening the Paediatricians Project 2: The effectiveness of a workshop to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders of adolescence in low-health related human resource countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Paediatricians can be empowered to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders at primary care level. To evaluate the effectiveness of a collaborative workshop in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge among paediatricians. Methods A 3-day, 27-hours workshop was held for paediatricians from different regions of India under the auspices of the National Adolescent Paediatric Task Force of the Indian Academy of Paediatrics. A 5-item pretest-posttest questionnaire was developed and administered at the beginning and end of the workshop to evaluate the participants' knowledge acquisition in adolescent psychiatry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed on an intention-to-participate basis. Results Forty-eight paediatricians completed the questionnaire. There was significant enhancement of the knowledge in understanding the phenomenology, identifying the psychopathology, diagnosing common mental disorder and selecting the psychotropic medication in the bivariate analysis. When the possible confounders of level of training in paediatrics and number of years spent as paediatrician were controlled, in addition to the above areas of adolescent psychiatry, the diagnostic ability involving multiple psychological concepts also gained significance. However, both in the bivariate and multivariate analyses, the ability to refer to appropriate psychotherapy remained unchanged after the workshop. Conclusions This workshop was effective in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge of paediatricians. Such workshops could strengthen paediatricians in addressing the priority mental health disorders at the primary-care level in countries with low-human resource for health as advocated by the World Health Organization. However, it remains to be seen if this acquisition of adolescent psychiatry knowledge results in enhancing their adolescent psychiatry practice. PMID:20167069

  6. Nanotechnology in Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaibo, Hitomi

    2010-06-04

    This is the second of three talks on nanostructures for li-ion batteries. The talks provide an up-to-date review of the issues and challenges facing Li-ion battery research with special focus on how nanostructures/ nanotechnology are being applied to this field. Novel materials reported as prospective candidates for anode, cathode and electrolyte will be summarized. The expected role of nanostructures in improving the performance of Li-ion batteries and the actual pros and cons of using such structures in this device will be addressed. Electrochemical experiments used to study Li-ion batteries will also be discussed. This includes the introduction to the standard experimental set-up and how experimental data (from charge-discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, etc) are interpreted.

  7. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  8. Secondary aerospace batteries and battery materials: A bibliography, 1969 - 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P.; Halpert, G.; Ekpanyaskun, S.; Nche, P.

    1976-01-01

    This annotated bibliography on the subject of secondary aerospace battery materials and related physical and electrochemical processes was compiled from references to journal articles published between 1969 and 1974. A total of 332 citations are arranged in chronological order under journal titles. Indices by system and component, techniques and processes, and author are included.

  9. Printable Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Route toward Shape-Conformable Power Sources with Aesthetic Versatility for Flexible Electronics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Hee; Choi, Keun-Ho; Cho, Sung-Ju; Choi, Sinho; Park, Soojin; Lee, Sang-Young

    2015-08-12

    Forthcoming flexible/wearable electronic devices with shape diversity and mobile usability garner a great deal of attention as an innovative technology to bring unprecedented changes in our daily lives. From the power source point of view, conventional rechargeable batteries (one representative example is a lithium-ion battery) with fixed shapes and sizes have intrinsic limitations in fulfilling design/performance requirements for the flexible/wearable electronics. Here, as a facile and efficient strategy to address this formidable challenge, we demonstrate a new class of printable solid-state batteries (referred to as "PRISS batteries"). Through simple stencil printing process (followed by ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking), solid-state composite electrolyte (SCE) layer and SCE matrix-embedded electrodes are consecutively printed on arbitrary objects of complex geometries, eventually leading to fully integrated, multilayer-structured PRISS batteries with various form factors far beyond those achievable by conventional battery technologies. Tuning rheological properties of SCE paste and electrode slurry toward thixotropic fluid characteristics, along with well-tailored core elements including UV-cured triacrylate polymer and high boiling point electrolyte, is a key-enabling technology for the realization of PRISS batteries. This process/material uniqueness allows us to remove extra processing steps (related to solvent drying and liquid-electrolyte injection) and also conventional microporous separator membranes, thereupon enabling the seamless integration of shape-conformable PRISS batteries (including letters-shaped ones) into complex-shaped objects. Electrochemical behavior of PRISS batteries is elucidated via an in-depth analysis of cell impedance, which provides a theoretical basis to enable sustainable improvement of cell performance. We envision that PRISS batteries hold great promise as a reliable and scalable platform technology to open a new concept of cell

  10. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  11. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  12. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  13. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  14. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  15. Auto Battery Safety Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the battery to spill through the vents. Use a battery carrier when available and always handle with extreme care. This publication is copyrighted. This sheet may be ... reprint, excerption or use is not permitted without written consent. Because of ...

  16. Redox flow batteries: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M; Meyers, Jeremy; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of RFBs with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  17. Handbook of Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  18. Study of bipolar batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, J. E.

    1984-06-01

    The status of development of bipolar batteries with an aqueous electrolyte was determined. Included in the study were lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-hydrogen batteries. The technical and patent literature is reviewed and a bibliography covering the past 15 years is presented. Literature data are supplemented by a survey of organizations. The principal interest was in bipolar lead-acid batteries and more recently in bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications.

  19. Battery Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  20. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development.

  1. Repurposing of Batteries from Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2015-06-11

    Energy storage for stationary use is gaining traction both at the grid scale and distributed level. As renewable energy generation increases, energy storage is needed to compensate for the volatility of renewable over various time scales. This requires energy storage that is tailored for various energy to power (E/P) ratios. Other applications for energy storage include peak shaving, time shifting, load leveling, VAR control, frequency regulation, spinning reserves and other ancillary applications. While the need for energy storage for stationary applications is obvious, the regulations that determine the economic value of adding storage are at various stages of development. This has created a reluctance on the part of energy storage manufacturers to develop a suite of storage systems that can address the myriad of applications associated with stationary applications. Deployment of battery energy storage systems in the transportation sector is ahead of the curve with respect to the stationary space. Batteries, along with battery management systems (BMS) have been deployed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). HEVs have now been deployed for 12 years, while PHEVs for 8 and EVs for 4 years. Some of the batteries are approaching end of life within the vehicle, and are ready to be taken off for recycling and disposal. Performance within a vehicle is non-negotiable in terms of miles traveled per charge, resulting in the batteries retaining a significant portion of their life. For stationary applications, the remaining energy and power of the battery can still be used by grouping together a few of these batteries. This enables getting the most of these batteries, while ensuring that performance is not compromised in either the automotive or stationary applications. This work summarizes the opportunities for such re-purposing of automotive batteries, along with the advantages and limitations

  2. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  3. State of charge indicators for a battery

    DOEpatents

    Rouhani, S. Zia

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to state of charge indicators for a battery. One aspect of the present invention utilizes expansion and contraction displacements of an electrode plate of a battery to gauge the state of charge in the battery. One embodiment of a battery of the present invention includes an anodic plate; a cathodic plate; an electrolyte in contact with the anodic and cathodic plates; plural terminals individually coupled with one of the anodic and cathodic plates; a separator intermediate the anodic and cathodic plates; an indicator configured to indicate an energy level of the battery responsive to movement of the separator; and a casing configured to house the anodic and cathodic plates, electrolyte, and separator.

  4. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  5. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  6. How to Address Citizens' Practices and Policies on Sustainability? A Consultative Tool for Brokering Policy-Related Knowledge between the Worlds of Policymaking and Everyday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espluga, Josep; Konrad, Wilfried; Mays, Claire; Oltra, Christian; Poumadére, Marc; Prades, Ana

    2016-01-01

    An innovative investigative approach (STAVE), combining elements of research, engagement and brokerage, was used to uncover policy assumptions and daily experiences related to energy use practices. Exploratory work within three policymaker institutions and eight reconvened focus groups were carried out in three different European countries…

  7. Health risks following ingestion of mercury and zinc air batteries.

    PubMed

    Nolan, M; Tucker, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a study set up to assess the corrosive behaviour of mercury and zinc air batteries in the gastric juice environment of the stomach. The results show a relatively rapid rate of corrosion for charged mercury batteries. In contrast, the zinc air battery showed no visible corrosion under the same conditions. In view of the toxic dangers from leakage of mercury batteries, it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure that such batteries do not remain in the acidic environment of the stomach, should ingestion occur.

  8. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  9. Prospects and Limits of Energy Storage in Batteries.

    PubMed

    Abraham, K M

    2015-03-05

    Energy densities of Li ion batteries, limited by the capacities of cathode materials, must increase by a factor of 2 or more to give all-electric automobiles a 300 mile driving range on a single charge. Battery chemical couples with very low equivalent weights have to be sought to produce such batteries. Advanced Li ion batteries may not be able to meet this challenge in the near term. The state-of-the-art of Li ion batteries is discussed, and the challenges of developing ultrahigh energy density rechargeable batteries are identified. Examples of ultrahigh energy density battery chemical couples include Li/O2, Li/S, Li/metal halide, and Li/metal oxide systems. Future efforts are also expected to involve all-solid-state batteries with performance similar to their liquid electrolyte counterparts, biodegradable batteries to address environmental challenges, and low-cost long cycle-life batteries for large-scale energy storage. Ultimately, energy densities of electrochemical energy storage systems are limited by chemistry constraints.

  10. Space batteries for mobile battlefield power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Patricia M.

    1991-01-01

    A review of space power systems was undertaken to identify advanced space batteries for mobile applications. State-of-the-art systems are described. The technology issues that need to be addressed in order to bring these systems along and meet the needs of the user are discussed. Future research directions are examined.

  11. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  12. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  13. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  14. A Call to Action: Setting the Research Agenda for Addressing Obesity and Weight-Related Topics in Children with Physical Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Geoff D.C.; Maltais, Désirée B.; Swift, Judy A.; Cairney, John; Knibbe, Tara Joy; Krog, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pediatric obesity is a world-wide challenge. Children with physical disabilities are particularly at risk of obesity, which is worrisome because obesity can result in serious secondary conditions that decrease health status, reduce independence, and increase impact on healthcare systems. However, the determinants of obesity and the health promotion needs of children with physical disabilities are relatively unexplored compared with their typically developing peers. Methods: This white paper describes a Canadian multistakeholder workshop on the topic of obesity and health in children with physical disabilities and provides recommendations for future research in this understudied area. Results: Seventy-one knowledge gaps identified by attendees using a modified nominal group technique clustered into six themes: (1) early, sustained engagement of families; (2) rethinking determinants of obesity and health; (3) maximizing impact of research; (4) inclusive integrated interventions; (5) evidence-informed measurement and outcomes; and (6) reducing weight biases. Attendees worked together to develop research plans in more detail for three areas identified through consensus as high priority: “early, sustained engagement of families;” “rethinking determinants of obesity and health;” and “evidence informed measurement and outcomes.” Conclusions: Using the workshop described here as a call to action, Canadian researchers are now well positioned to work toward a greater understanding of weight-related topics in children with physical disabilities, with the aim of developing evidence-based and salient obesity prevention and treatment approaches. PMID:26716496

  15. Caustic esophageal injury by impaction of cell batteries.

    PubMed

    García Fernández, Francisco José; León Montañés, Rafael; Bozada Garcia, Juan Manuel

    2016-12-01

    The ingestion of cell batteries can cause serious complications (fistula, perforation or stenosis) at the esophageal level. The damage starts soon after ingestion (approximately 2 hours) and is directly related to the amount of time the battery is lodged in said location, the amount of electrical charge remaining in the battery, and the size of the battery itself. Injury is produced by the combination of electrochemical and chemical mechanisms and pressure necrosis. The ingestion of multiple cells and a size > = 20 mm are related with more severe and clinically significant outcomes. A female patient, 39 years old, with a history of previous suicide attempts, was admitted to the Emergency Room with chest pain and dysphagia after voluntary ingestion of 2 cell batteries. Two cell batteries are easily detected in a routine chest X-ray, presenting a characteristic double-ring shadow, or peripheral halo. Urgent oral endoscopy was performed 10 hours after ingestion, showing a greenish-gray lumpy magma-like consistency due to leakage of battery contents. The 2 batteries were sequentially removed with alligator-jaw forceps. After flushing and aspiration of the chemical material, a broad and circumferential injury with denudation of the mucosa and two deep ulcerations with necrosis were observed where the batteries had been. The batteries' seals were eroded, releasing chemical contents. Despite the severity of the injuries, the patient progressed favorably and there was no esophageal perforation. Esophageal impaction of cell batteries should always be considered an endoscopic urgency.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  1. Research on lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  2. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  3. Can the sustainable development goals reduce the burden of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases without truly addressing major food system reforms?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-06-16

    While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change.

  4. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized.

  5. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  6. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  7. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-01-01

    A brief overview of the current set of unmanned missions that are currently in operation and those planned for the next 5 to 10 years was presented. The important role of batteries in the development of successful missions was discussed. The workhorse battery, the NiCd, and its use throughout historical missions was explored. Its role on Observers and Landers was discussed, and the success those batteries had. The recent events in the issues of quality and life for NiCd batteries were discussed. These discussions focused on the current design activities for Mars Observer (MO), TOPEX, and Mariner Mark II. Separator selection and the need for uniform testing procedures to develop a quality battery product that can perform to mission requirements were discussed. The recent experiences with the GRO battery failure and the other events have led JPL to the decision to develop a testing program in conjunction with other NASA centers to determine the best separator material for these two missions. The decision for separator material and battery design must be made a year from now. Thus there will not be time to perform a total 2-year accelerated test. The JPL plan for coping with this compromise was discussed. A discussion of where NiH2 batteries are beginning to have an impact and the difficulties with their implementation were addressed. Such missions at Earth Observing System (EOS) and the NOAA series of satellites rely upon NiH2 for success but were not chosen for TOPEX or MO due to their large volume requirements.

  8. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-03-01

    A brief overview of the current set of unmanned missions that are currently in operation and those planned for the next 5 to 10 years was presented. The important role of batteries in the development of successful missions was discussed. The workhorse battery, the NiCd, and its use throughout historical missions was explored. Its role on Observers and Landers was discussed, and the success those batteries had. The recent events in the issues of quality and life for NiCd batteries were discussed. These discussions focused on the current design activities for Mars Observer (MO), TOPEX, and Mariner Mark II. Separator selection and the need for uniform testing procedures to develop a quality battery product that can perform to mission requirements were discussed. The recent experiences with the GRO battery failure and the other events have led JPL to the decision to develop a testing program in conjunction with other NASA centers to determine the best separator material for these two missions. The decision for separator material and battery design must be made a year from now. Thus there will not be time to perform a total 2-year accelerated test. The JPL plan for coping with this compromise was discussed. A discussion of where NiH2 batteries are beginning to have an impact and the difficulties with their implementation were addressed. Such missions at Earth Observing System (EOS) and the NOAA series of satellites rely upon NiH2 for success but were not chosen for TOPEX or MO due to their large volume requirements.

  9. Redox Flow Batteries: An Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Chalamala, Babu R.; Soundappan, Thiagarajan; Fisher, Graham R.; Anstey, Mitchell A.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Perry, Mike L.

    2014-10-01

    Redox flow batteries are well suited to provide modular and scalable energy storage systems for a wide range of energy storage applications. In this paper, we review the development of redox flow battery technology including recent advances in new redox active materials and systems. We discuss cost, performance, and reliability metrics that are critical for deployment of large flow battery systems. The technology, while relatively young, has the potential for significant improvement through reduced materials costs, improved energy and power efficiency, and significant reduction in the overall system cost.

  10. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  11. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  12. Cathodes for molten-salt batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argade, Shyam D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of the discussion on cathodes for molten-salt batteries are presented. For the cathode reactions in molten-salt cells, chlorine-based and sulfur-based cathodes reactants have relatively high exchange current densities. Sulfur-based cathodes, metal sulfides, and disulfides have been extensively investigated. Primary thermal batteries of the Li-alloy/FeS2 variety have been available for a number of years. Chlorine based rechargable cathodes were investigated for the pulse power application. A brief introduction is followed by the experimental aspects of research, and the results obtained. Performance projections to the battery system level are discussed and the presentation is summarized with conclusions.

  13. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  14. Joint Battery Industry Sector Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-31

    prototp Fmr ectdc Vehicle uses nickel cadmium batteries PSA’s WEIT A uses nickel cadmium batteries Table 8-19. Nickel Cadmium Batteries in Electric...BMDO to develop a nickel oxidedhydrogen multilayer bipolar battery for pulsed power. These batteries will be used to operate directed energy weapons in

  15. The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

  16. A nickel-cadmium battery reconditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanier, R.

    1977-01-01

    The circuit presented is simple and small enough to be included in a typical battery charge/power control assembly, yet provides the advantage of a complete ground-type battery reconditioning discharge. Test results on the circuit when used to recondition two 24 cell, 20 A-h nickel-cadmium batteries are given. These results show that a battery reconditioned with this circuit returns to greater than 90 percent of its original capacity (greater than nameplate capacity) and follows a typical new battery degradation curve even after over 20,000 simulated orbital cycles for a 4 year period. Applications of the circuit are considered along with recommendations relative to its use. Its application in low voltage (22 to 36 Vdc) power systems and in high voltage (100 to 150 Vdc) power systems is discussed. The implications are that the high voltage systems have a greater need for battery reconditioning than their low voltage counterparts, and that using these circuit techniques, the expected life of a battery in low Earth orbit can be up to 5 years.

  17. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  18. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  19. A desalination battery.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

  20. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  1. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  2. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  3. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  4. Second Use of PEV Batteries: A Massive Storage Resource for Revolutionizing the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Wood, Eric; Smith, Kandler

    2015-05-27

    The market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are both presently impeded by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies-in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market-could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary repurposed PEV batteries to serve grid applications for energy storage. The authors view this as of significant importance, as our expectation is that such batteries will be both cheap and plentiful. Understanding the dynamics of B2U will be important for customers and utilities in need of storage to understand when and where such batteries will be applicable. It will also be important for suppliers of other energy storage technologies, as repurposed PEV batteries could pose a significant threat to their business model.

  5. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.

    2014-12-01

    The deployment and use of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the degradation mechanisms are sensitive to temperature, state-of-charge (SOC) histories, current levels, and cycle depth and frequency, it is important to model both the battery and the application to a high level of detail to ensure battery response is accurately predicted. To address these issues, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) suite. This suite of tools pairs NREL’s high-fidelity battery degradation model with a battery electrical and thermal performance model, application-specific electrical and thermal performance models of the larger system (e.g., an electric vehicle), application-specific system use data (e.g., vehicle travel patterns and driving data), and historic climate data from cities across the United States. This provides highly realistic long-term predictions of battery response and thereby enables quantitative comparisons of varied battery use strategies.

  6. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  7. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  8. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  9. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  10. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  11. Electronically configured battery pack

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  12. Nonleaking battery terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45 percent KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide (PPO) plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte in a plastic case are discussed.

  13. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  14. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  15. Identification and Addressing Reduction-Related Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Judith; Trakhtenbrot, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Reduction is one of the key techniques used for problem-solving in computer science. In particular, in the theory of computation and complexity (TCC), mapping and polynomial reductions are used for analysis of decidability and computational complexity of problems, including the core concept of NP-completeness. Reduction is a highly abstract…

  16. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  17. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  18. In situ, operando measurements of rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Howard; Wang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews recent in operando measurements (IOMs) for addressing challenges in advancing rechargeable battery (RB) technologies. As the demands on energy and power density of RBs for broader applications continue to grow, current RB technologies are pushed to their theoretical and engineering limits while new approaches are being extensively investigated. Also, IOMs have become more powerful and effective research tools in recent years; they will play an essential role in developing next generation RBs. This review is organized around outstanding issues in battery science and engineering. Finally, we emphasize the critical need for quantifying the distribution and transport ofmore » active ions in functioning batteries over wide temporal and spatial scales in real time.« less

  19. In situ, operando measurements of rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Howard; Wang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews recent in operando measurements (IOMs) for addressing challenges in advancing rechargeable battery (RB) technologies. As the demands on energy and power density of RBs for broader applications continue to grow, current RB technologies are pushed to their theoretical and engineering limits while new approaches are being extensively investigated. Also, IOMs have become more powerful and effective research tools in recent years; they will play an essential role in developing next generation RBs. This review is organized around outstanding issues in battery science and engineering. Finally, we emphasize the critical need for quantifying the distribution and transport of active ions in functioning batteries over wide temporal and spatial scales in real time.

  20. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  1. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications: Nontechnical summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, G. L.

    This paper provides an overview of the performance characteristics of the most prominent batteries under development for electric vehicles (EV's) and compares these characteristics to the USABC Mid-Term and Long-Term criteria, as well as to typical vehicle-related battery requirements. Most of the battery performance information was obtained from independent tests, conducted using simulated driving power profiles, for DOE and EPRI at Argonne National Laboratory. The EV batteries are categorized as near-term, mid-term, and long-term technologies based on their relative development status, as well as our estimate of their potential availability as commercial EV batteries. Also, the performance capabilities generally increase in going from the near-term to the mid-term and on to the long-term technologies. To date, the USABC has chosen to fund a few selected mid-term and long-term battery technologies.

  2. Pyrolysis of epoxies used for thermal-battery headers

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Campbell-Domme, B.

    1995-08-01

    Thermally activated batteries use an epoxy for encapsulation of the electrical feedthroughs in the header of the battery. When the thermal battery is thermally abused, the encapsulant can pyrolyze and generate large internal pressures. This causes the battery to vent in extreme cases. The nature of these gases has never been adequately documented. Therefore, a study was undertaken to address this deficiency. The pyrolysis of various encapsulants that have been used, or are being considered for use, in thermally activated batteries was studied over a temperature range of 155 to 455 C. The composition of the pyrolysis decomposition products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GS/MS). This determination is helpful in assessing the potential environmental and health effect for personnel exposed to such gases. In addition, the thermal stability of the various epoxies was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  3. Electrode Nanostructures in Lithium‐Based Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Lithium‐based batteries possessing energy densities much higher than those of the conventional batteries belong to the most promising class of future energy devices. However, there are some fundamental issues related to their electrodes which are big roadblocks in their applications to electric vehicles (EVs). Nanochemistry has advantageous roles to overcome these problems by defining new nanostructures of electrode materials. This review article will highlight the challenges associated with these chemistries both to bring high performance and longevity upon considering the working principles of the various types of lithium‐based (Li‐ion, Li‐air and Li‐S) batteries. Further, the review discusses the advantages and challenges of nanomaterials in nanostructured electrodes of lithium‐based batteries, concerns with lithium metal anode and the recent advancement in electrode nanostructures. PMID:27980896

  4. The NASA Aerospace Battery Safety Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Subbarao, Surampudi; Rowlette, John J.

    1986-01-01

    This handbook has been written for the purpose of acquainting those involved with batteries with the information necessary for the safe handling, storage, and disposal of these energy storage devices. Included in the document is a discussion of the cell and battery design considerations and the role of the components within a cell. The cell and battery hazards are related to user- and/or manufacturer-induced causes. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Payload Safety Guidelines for battery use in Shuttle applications are also provided. The electrochemical systems are divided into zinc anode and lithium anode primaries, secondary cells, and fuel cells. Each system is briefly described, typical applications are given, advantages and disadvantages are tabulated, and most importantly, safety hazards associated with its use are given.

  5. Electrode Nanostructures in Lithium-Based Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Nasir; Hou, Yanglong

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-based batteries possessing energy densities much higher than those of the conventional batteries belong to the most promising class of future energy devices. However, there are some fundamental issues related to their electrodes which are big roadblocks in their applications to electric vehicles (EVs). Nanochemistry has advantageous roles to overcome these problems by defining new nanostructures of electrode materials. This review article will highlight the challenges associated with these chemistries both to bring high performance and longevity upon considering the working principles of the various types of lithium-based (Li-ion, Li-air and Li-S) batteries. Further, the review discusses the advantages and challenges of nanomaterials in nanostructured electrodes of lithium-based batteries, concerns with lithium metal anode and the recent advancement in electrode nanostructures.

  6. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  7. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  8. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  9. Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; ODonnell, Patricia M.

    1996-01-01

    This article on nickel-hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel-hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results, and trends. There is more than one nickel-hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV), Common Pressure Vessel (CPV), bipolar, and low-pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel-cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous Earth orbit applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000-10,000 cycles at 60 - 80 % DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep Depths of Discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low-cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume, and cost. A key is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A CPV nickel-hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume, and manufacturing costs. A 10-A-h CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short-lived Clementine spacecraft. A bipolar nickel -hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 % DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high-pulse power capability. A low-pressure aerospace nickel-metal-hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design that has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in manufacturing cost.

  10. Computational study of electro-convection effects on dendrite growth in batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jinwang; Ryan, Emily M.

    2016-08-01

    Dendrite formation on the anode surface of a battery is closely related to the safety and capacity of high energy density batteries, thus suppressing dendrite growth will significantly improve the performance of batteries. Many experimental reports reveal that convection near the dendrite nucleation site can change the local mass transport, and ultimately affect dendrite growth. Investigation of the convection effect in batteries will guide the development of strategies to suppress dendrite growth in a convective electrolyte. Most of the existing electro-convection computational models for dendrite growth studies are based on Eulerian frameworks. These methods have difficulty modeling the moving boundaries associated with dendrite growth and are less computationally efficient in simulating convective fluid motion. In this paper we adopt a mesh-free particle based Lagrangian method to address the challenges of previous grid based Eulerian electro-convection models. The developed model is verified by comparison to analytical solutions, including verification of ion migration and the electric potential. Simulation results show that the predicted dendrite growth and electro-convective flow patterns compare well with experimental results during early dendrite growth stages. Parametric studies reveal that low viscosity electrolytes suppress the dendrite growth by increasing the mass transport of ions near the anode/electrolyte interface.

  11. Challenges and Prospect of Non-aqueous Non-alkali (NANA) Metal-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Danny; Shvartsev, Boris; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-12-01

    Non-aqueous non-alkali (NANA) metal-air battery technologies promise to provide electrochemical energy storage with the highest specific energy density. Metal-air battery technology is particularly advantageous being implemented in long-range electric vehicles. Up to now, almost all the efforts in the field are focused on Li-air cells, but other NANA metal-air battery technologies emerge. The major concern, which the research community should be dealing with, is the limited and rather poor rechargeability of these systems. The challenges we are covering in this review are related to the initial limited discharge capacities and cell performances. By comprehensively reviewing the studies conducted so far, we show that the implementation of advanced materials is a promising approach to increase metal-air performance and, particularly, metal surface activation as a prime achievement leading to respectful discharge currents. In this review, we address the most critical areas that need careful research attention in order to achieve progress in the understanding of the physical and electrochemical processes in non-aqueous electrolytes applied in beyond lithium and zinc air generation of metal-air battery systems.

  12. Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Solid Electrolyte Membrane and Lithium Polysulfide Catholyte.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xingwen; Bi, Zhonghe; Zhao, Feng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-08-05

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are receiving great attention as the most promising next-generation power source with significantly high charge-storage capacity. However, the implementation of Li-S batteries is hampered by a critical challenge because of the soluble nature of the intermediate polysulfide species in the liquid electrolyte. The use of traditional porous separators unavoidably allows the migration of the dissolved polysulfide species from the cathode to the lithium-metal anode and results in continuous loss of capacity. In this study, a LiSICON (lithium super ionic conductor) solid membrane is used as a cation-selective electrolyte for lithium-polysulfide (Li-PS) batteries to suppress the polysulfide diffusion. Ionic conductivity issue at the lithium metal/solid electrolyte interface is successfully addressed by insertion of a "soft", liquid-electrolyte integrated polypropylene interlayer. The solid LiSICON lithium-ion conductor maintains stable ionic conductivity during the electrochemical cycling of the cells. The Li-PS battery system with a hybrid solid/liquid electrolyte exhibits significantly enhanced cyclability relative to the cells with the traditional liquid-electrolyte integrated porous separator.

  13. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J M

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  14. Battery thermal management unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  15. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  16. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  17. The GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

  18. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  19. Parametric tests of a 40-Ah bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of tests were performed to characterize battery performance relating to certain operating parameters which include charge current, discharge current, temperature, and pressure. The parameters were varied to confirm battery design concepts and to determine optimal operating conditions.

  20. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  1. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  2. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  3. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  4. Polyacene (PAS) batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yata, Shizukuni

    1995-12-31

    Human activity has been recognized to seriously influence the earth`s environment. Therefore, a clean battery with long-life and safe-use is important and its demand has increased at present. Of the ``clean`` batteries proposed, polymer batteries are the best candidate for environment-friendly and highly-reliable because they do not contain a toxic heavy metal such as cadmium and mercury. The author has developed polyacenic semiconductor (PAS) materials prepared from pyrolytic treatment of phenol-formaldehyde resin. PAS is a conductive polymer which can be doped to either P-type or N-type quite successfully and is extremely resistant to oxidation, chemicals and heat. Because PAS can be doped with both electron acceptors and donors, it is possible to design an all polymer battery using PAS for both electrodes. By taking advantage of stability of PAS, PAS battery can embody greater and longer-lasting reliability than conventional secondary batteries. Usually, lithium metal, which is used in the lithium secondary batteries for an anode-active material, makes dendrites during charging/discharging cycles, which limits the life of the batteries to a few dozen cycles. Furthermore, the dendrites of lithium metal have a safety problem because of its reactivity with water. An investigation of a new anode-material aiming to replace the lithium metal with another safety electrode, is one of the major trend, in secondary batteries. In this paper, the author first describes the structure and the properties of the PAS material, and second its application as an electrode material for rechargeable batteries.

  5. Single potential electrodeposition of nanostructured battery materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, James Matthew

    The increasing reliance on portable electronics is continuing to fuel research in the area of low power lithium-ion batteries, while a new surge in research for high power lithium-ion batteries has been sparked by the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). To compete with current lead-acid battery chemistry, a few of the shortcomings of lithium-ion battery chemistry need to be addressed. The three main drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for this application are: (1) low power density, (2) safety, and (3) the high cost of manufacturing. This dissertation covers the development of a low cost fabrication technique for an alternative anode material with high surface area geometries. The anode material is safer than the conventional anode material in lithium-ion batteries and the high surface area geometries permit higher power densities to be achieved. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive alternative method for synthesizing materials for electronics, energy conversion and energy storage applications relative to traditional solid state techniques. These techniques led to expensive device fabrication. Unlike most solid state synthesis routes, electrodeposition can usually be performed from common solutions and at moderate conditions. Three other benefits of using electrodeposition are: (1) it allows precise control of composition and crystallinity, (2) it provides the ability to deposit on complex shapes, and (3) it can deposit materials with nanoscale dimensions. The use of electrodeposition for alternative anode materials results in the deposition of the material directly onto the current collector that is used for the battery testing and applications without the need of additional binders and with excellent electrical contact. While this improves the characterization of the material and lowers the weight of the non-active materials within a battery, it also allows the anode to be deposited onto current collectors with

  6. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting, This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Two color-imaging techniques were employed to differentiate between the phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hyroxide surface loading on each electrode, thereby relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  7. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  8. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  9. Recent atomistic modelling studies of energy materials: batteries included.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Saiful

    2010-07-28

    Advances in functional materials for energy conversion and storage technologies are crucial in addressing the global challenge of green sustainable energy. This article aims to demonstrate the valuable role that modern modelling techniques now play in providing deeper fundamental insight into novel materials for rechargeable lithium batteries and solid oxide fuel cells. Recent work is illustrated by studies on important topical materials encompassing transition-metal phosphates and silicates for lithium battery electrodes, and apatite-type silicates for fuel cell electrolytes.

  10. Extraction of battery parameters of the equivalent circuit model using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Jonathan; Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K.

    2014-02-01

    A simple but reasonably accurate battery model is required for simulating the performance of electrical systems that employ a battery for example an electric vehicle, as well as for investigating their potential as an energy storage device. In this paper, a relatively simple equivalent circuit based model is employed for modeling the performance of a battery. A computer code utilizing a multi-objective genetic algorithm is developed for the purpose of extracting the battery performance parameters. The code is applied to several existing industrial batteries as well as to two recently proposed high performance batteries which are currently in early research and development stage. The results demonstrate that with the optimally extracted performance parameters, the equivalent circuit based battery model can accurately predict the performance of various batteries of different sizes, capacities, and materials. Several test cases demonstrate that the multi-objective genetic algorithm can serve as a robust and reliable tool for extracting the battery performance parameters.

  11. Battery hydrometer with analog output

    SciTech Connect

    Patis, B.L.

    1982-09-21

    There is disclosed a battery hydrometer for providing an analog electrical signal having a magnitude related to the specific gravity of a battery electrolyte. The hydrometer includes a source of radiation for providing a detectable beam of radiation and a piston member arranged to be submerged within the electrolyte and to intercept and modulate the beam of radiation in response to the specific gravity of the electrolyte. The piston member is suspended within the electrolyte by a spring which exerts a compressive force upon the piston member against which the electrolyte must act. The hydrometer further includes a radiation detector aligned with the radiation source for providing an analog electrical signal having a magnitude responsive to the modulated beam of radiation.

  12. Quasi-fluid storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Doundoulakis, G.J.

    1988-04-05

    A storage battery is described comprising: a casing; negative globules at least partially made out of a cathodic active substance; positive globules at least partially made out of an anodic active substance; appropriate electrolyte for interacting with the negative and the positive globules; at least one negative compartment close-packed exclusively with the negative globules in the electrolyte; at least one positive compartment close-packed exclusively with the positive globules in the electrolyte, and positioned adjacent to and in contact with negative compartment so that the combination of the negative and the positive compartments in tendem, form a battery storage cell; negative and positive electrode terminals on the casing; and at least two conductive separators allowing relatively free passage to the electrolyte and establishing electrical continuity between two cells or between the compartments at the ends of the casing and the terminals of the casing.

  13. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 2, Battery recycling and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D

    1992-09-01

    Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

  14. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  15. Artificial neural network simulation of battery performance

    SciTech Connect

    O`Gorman, C.C.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    Although they appear deceptively simple, batteries embody a complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes. While the discrete engineering characteristics of a battery such as the physical dimensions of the individual components, are relatively straightforward to define explicitly, their myriad chemical and physical processes, including interactions, are much more difficult to accurately represent. Within this category are the diffusive and solubility characteristics of individual species, reaction kinetics and mechanisms of primary chemical species as well as intermediates, and growth and morphology characteristics of reaction products as influenced by environmental and operational use profiles. For this reason, development of analytical models that can consistently predict the performance of a battery has only been partially successful, even though significant resources have been applied to this problem. As an alternative approach, the authors have begun development of a non-phenomenological model for battery systems based on artificial neural networks. Both recurrent and non-recurrent forms of these networks have been successfully used to develop accurate representations of battery behavior. The connectionist normalized linear spline (CMLS) network has been implemented with a self-organizing layer to model a battery system with the generalized radial basis function net. Concurrently, efforts are under way to use the feedforward back propagation network to map the {open_quotes}state{close_quotes} of a battery system. Because of the complexity of battery systems, accurate representation of the input and output parameters has proven to be very important. This paper describes these initial feasibility studies as well as the current models and makes comparisons between predicted and actual performance.

  16. The 1988 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual Battery Workshop held at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland on November 1-3, 1988. The Workshop attendees included manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest developments in battery technology as they relate to high reliability operations and aerospace use. The subjects covered included battery testing methodologies and criteria, life testing of nickel-cadmium cells, testing and operation of nickel-hydrogen batteries in low earth orbit, and nickel-hydrogen technology issues and concerns.

  17. Computational multiobjective topology optimization of silicon anode structures for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Sarah L.; Ortiz, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study utilizes computational topology optimization methods for the systematic design of optimal multifunctional silicon anode structures for lithium-ion batteries. In order to develop next generation high performance lithium-ion batteries, key design challenges relating to the silicon anode structure must be addressed, namely the lithiation-induced mechanical degradation and the low intrinsic electrical conductivity of silicon. As such this work considers two design objectives, the first being minimum compliance under design dependent volume expansion, and the second maximum electrical conduction through the structure, both of which are subject to a constraint on material volume. Density-based topology optimization methods are employed in conjunction with regularization techniques, a continuation scheme, and mathematical programming methods. The objectives are first considered individually, during which the influence of the minimum structural feature size and prescribed volume fraction are investigated. The methodology is subsequently extended to a bi-objective formulation to simultaneously address both the structural and conduction design criteria. The weighted sum method is used to derive the Pareto fronts, which demonstrate a clear trade-off between the competing design objectives. A rigid frame structure was found to be an excellent compromise between the structural and conduction design criteria, providing both the required structural rigidity and direct conduction pathways. The developments and results presented in this work provide a foundation for the informed design and development of silicon anode structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, E.Z. ); Henriksen, G.L. )

    1990-02-01

    This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc/air battery; lithium/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium/sulfur battery; nickel/cadmium battery; nickel/iron battery; iron/oxygen battery and iron/air battery. (FI)

  19. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  20. Flow Battery Solution for Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-30

    To address future grid requirements, a U.S. Department of Energy ARRA Storage Demonstration program was launched in 2009 to commercialize promising technologies needed for stronger and more renewables-intensive grids. Raytheon Ktech and EnerVault received a cost-share grant award from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a grid-scale storage system based on EnerVault’s iron-chromium redox flow battery technology.

  1. Advanced Thermal Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    demonstrated that a thermal battery with a LiAl alloy anode, a NaAlCl4 anolyte , and a catholyte made primarily with MoCl5 was at least feasible. However, the...Varying Amounts of Mg Arranged In order Of Increasing Magnesiun 33 Battery Test Data For Batteries Made With 102 Anodes That Contained Anolyte and LiAl...1.75 gm anolyte , and 1.9 grams catholyte, to prepare the first McO 3 cells. The cells averaged 0.081 inches thick. These cells were tested on the

  2. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  3. Battery scanning system

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, L.F.

    1984-11-20

    A battery scanning system which is capable of monitoring and displaying the voltage of each cell in a battery or upon command provides the cell voltage distribution by displaying the cell number and voltage value of highest and lowest cell. The system has a digital logic system, display, input switches for operator generated variables, an alarm, relays, relay selection gates, an optically coupled isolation amplifier, power source and an analog-digital converter. The optically coupled analog amplifier electrically isolates the system from the battery so that large voltage offsets will not adversely affect the automatic measuring of the cells.

  4. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  5. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  6. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  7. Development of cooling strategy for an air cooled lithium-ion battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongguang; Dixon, Regan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a cooling strategy development method for an air cooled battery pack with lithium-ion pouch cells used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The challenges associated with the temperature uniformity across the battery pack, the temperature uniformity within each individual lithium-ion pouch cell, and the cooling efficiency of the battery pack are addressed. Initially, a three-dimensional battery pack thermal model developed based on simplified electrode theory is correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Optimal Latin-hypercube technique is then developed by incorporating a DOE design model, the correlated battery pack thermal model, and a morphing model. Analytical DOE studies are performed to examine the effects of cooling strategies including geometries of the cooling duct, cooling channel, cooling plate, and corrugation on battery pack thermal behavior and to identify the design concept of an air cooled battery pack to maximize its durability and its driving range.

  8. Limiting the public cost of stationary battery deployment by combining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, A.; Battke, B.; Beuse, M. D.; Clausdeinken, J. H.; Schmidt, T. S.

    2016-07-01

    Batteries could be central to low-carbon energy systems with high shares of intermittent renewable energy sources. However, the investment attractiveness of batteries is still perceived as low, eliciting calls for policy to support deployment. Here we show how the cost of battery deployment can potentially be minimized by introducing an aspect that has been largely overlooked in policy debates and underlying analyses: the fact that a single battery can serve multiple applications. Batteries thereby can not only tap into different value streams, but also combine different risk exposures. To address this gap, we develop a techno-economic model and apply it to the case of lithium-ion batteries serving multiple stationary applications in Germany. Our results show that batteries could be attractive for investors even now if non-market barriers impeding the combination of applications were removed. The current policy debate should therefore be refocused so as to encompass the removal of such barriers.

  9. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  10. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  11. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  12. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  13. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  14. 49 CFR 369.6 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.6 Address. The following address must be used by motor carriers when submitting a report, requesting an exemption from filing...

  15. A PSPICE macromodel for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, S.

    1997-12-01

    Battery models for simulation are useful for estimating operating life, stability, transient response, and related characteristics in circuits and systems. This paper presents a parametric PSPICE macromodel for simulating Lithium-Ion batteries. Comparisons of the simulation with experimental data from 1.25 Ah Lithium-Ion cells are then made.

  16. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Develop an understanding of the safety issues relating to space use and qualification of new Li-Ion technology for manned applications. Enable use of new technology batteries into GFE equipment - laptop computers, camcorders. Establish a data base for an optimized set of cells (and batteries) exhibiting acceptable performance and abuse characteristics for utilization as building blocks for numerous applications.

  17. Lessons learned in acquiring new regulations for shipping advanced electric vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Gary; Hammel, Carol; Altemos, Edward A.

    1994-12-01

    In 1990, the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the US Department of Energy established its ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group to identify regulatory barriers to the commercialization of advanced EV battery technologies and facilitate the removal of these barriers. A Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) was formed to address the regulatory issues associated with the domestic and international shipment of these new battery technologies. The SSWG invites major industrial developers of advanced battery technologies to join as members and work closely with appropriate domestic and international regulatory authorities to develop suitable regulations and procedures for the safe transport of these new battery technologies. This paper describes the domestic and international regulatory processes for the transport of dangerous goods; reviews the status of shipping regulations for sodium-beta and lithium batteries; and delineates the lessons learned to date in this process. The sodium-beta battery family was the first category of advanced EV batteries to be addressed by the SSWG. It includes both sodium/sulfur and sodium/metal chloride batteries. Their efforts led to the establishment of a UN number (UN 3292) in the UN Recommendations, for cold cells and batteries, and establishment of a US Department of Transportation general exemption (DOT-E-10917) covering cold and hot batteries, as well as cold cells. The lessons learned for sodium-beta batteries, over the period of 1990--94, are now being applied to the development of regulations for shipping a new generation of lithium battery technologies (lithium-polymer and lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries).

  18. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  19. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  20. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  1. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  2. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  3. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  4. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  5. United States Marine Corps (USMC) Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) Rechargeable Battery Trade-off Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-18

    m 0OX01~i) Cost estimates for USMC SINCGARS usage of BB-5-90/U Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (LiSO2) Batteries, BA-590/U Sealed Lead- Acid Batteries, and BB...and for mix of Li502 and Lead- Acid batteries over the same range. Estimated hourly battery-related costs are $2~.66 per hour for LiSO2 batteriez $0.34...for Ni-Cad batteries, and $0.’-0 for Lead- Acid batteries. Disposal related regulations and related documents are discussed and included in Appendices

  6. Electrode structures and surfaces for Li batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Croy, Jason

    2017-03-14

    This invention relates to methods of preparing positive electrode materials for electrochemical cells and batteries. It relates, in particular, to a method for fabricating lithium-metal-oxide electrode materials for lithium cells and batteries. The method comprises contacting a hydrogen-lithium-manganese-oxide material with one or more metal ions, preferably in an acidic solution, to insert the one or more metal ions into the hydrogen-lithium-manganese-oxide material; heat-treating the resulting product to form a powdered metal oxide composition; and forming an electrode from the powdered metal oxide composition.

  7. 78 FR 33849 - Battery-Powered Medical Devices Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities; Public Workshop; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... No. FDA-2013-N-0580] Battery-Powered Medical Devices Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities; Public... entitled ``Battery-Powered Medical Devices Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities''. The purpose of this workshop is to create awareness of the challenges related to battery-powered medical devices...

  8. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Electrochemical properties of SnO2 nanorods as anode materials in lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Song-Lin; Liu, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Jing-Yuan; Wang, Tai-Hong

    2009-10-01

    Well-dispersed SnO2 nanorods with diameter of 4-15 nm and length of 100-200 nm are synthesised through a hydrothermal route and their potential as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries is investigated. The observed initial discharge capacity is as high as 1778 mA·h/g, much higher than the theoretical value of the bulk SnO2 (1494 mA·h/g). During the following 15 cycles, the reversible capacity decreases from 929 to 576 mA·h/g with a fading rate of 3.5% per cycle. The fading mechanism is discussed. Serious capacity fading can be avoided by reducing the cycling voltages from 0.05-3.0 to 0.4-1.2 V. At the end, SnO2 nanorods with much smaller size are synthesized and their performance as anode materials is studied. The size effect on the electrochemical properties is briefly discussed.

  9. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    1985-03-01

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150 °C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. he lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0 °C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60 °C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  10. Calcium/calcium chromate thermal battery and thermal battery assignment at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, J.B.; Walton, R.D.

    1980-10-10

    A nontechnical overview of thermal battery design and fabrication methods is given, along with a description of the role of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) in the Department of Energy's battery program. A thermal battery is a primary, reserve electrochemical power source; that is, it can be used only once and then for a relatively short period, measured in minutes. To energize the battery, an external electrical signal ignites a heat source in the battery to melt the electrolyte and initiate an electrochemical reaction. The battery is made up of several series-connected cells, each with an anode, a cathode, and a current collector. A cell's anode is calcium; its cathode is hexavalent chromium. The electrochemical reaction takes place when the electrolyte is melted by heat supplied from ignition of an iron-potassium perchlorate disk. Since no reaction occurs while the electrolyte is in the solid state, the battery does not deteriorate with time and has a shelf life exceeding 20 years. Presented are such critical battery operating characteristics as temperature, rise time, active life, current capacity, etc. Design factors described include size and shape, pellet density, ignition methods, anode construction, etc. These batteries are designed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. GEND acts as a procurement agency and provides engineering support to suppliers. 18 figures.

  11. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  12. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.

    1992-09-01

    Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  14. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery Thermal Balance Testing and Heat Dissipation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be on the thermal balance testing for the Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery. The Standard Bus thermal design required that the battery be isolated from the bus itself. This required the battery to have its own thermal control, including heaters and a radiator surface. Since the battery was not ready for testing during the overall bus thermal balance testing, a separate test was conducted to verify the thermal design for the battery. This paper will discuss in detail, the test set up, test procedure, and results from this test. Additionally this paper will consider the methods taken to determine the heat dissipation of the battery during charge and discharge. It seems that the heat dissipation for Lithium Ion batteries is relatively unknown and hard to quantify. The methods used during test and the post test analysis to estimate the heat dissipation of the battery will be discussed.

  16. Bipolar Nickel-hydrogen Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Vanommering, G.; Puester, N. H.; Puglisi, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    A bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery which effectively addresses all key requirements for a spacecraft power system, including long-term reliability and low mass, is discussed. The design of this battery is discussed in the context of system requirements and nickel-hydrogen battery technology in general. To achieve the ultimate goal of an aerospace application of a bipolar Ni-H2 battery several objectives must be met in the design and development of the system. These objectives include: maximization of reliability and life; high specific energy and energy density; reasonable cost of manufacture, test, and integration; and ease in scaling for growth in power requirements. These basic objectives translate into a number of specific design requirements, which are discussed.

  17. Electric car batteries: Avoiding the environmental drawbacks via alternative technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warlimont, Hans; Olper, Marco

    1996-07-01

    In this article, we address the question of whether air pollution resulting from the pyrometallurgical winning, recycling, and casting of lead for car batteries is a serious threat to the environmental acceptability of introducing electric cars. Specifically, we describe an alternative to pyrometallurgical processes—an electrochemical process called CX-EWS that can be used for the winning and recycling of lead. Also presented is a new manufacturing route for battery grids; it employs a combination of electroforming, the codeposition of dispersoids, and the electrowinning of spent batteries. The technology cannot only eliminate the casting of conventional or expanded metal grids but can also serve to reduce battery weight and, thus, increase energy density.

  18. NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch Battery Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of NASA Glenn s history and heritage in the development of electrochemical systems for aerospace applications. Specific areas of focus are Li-ion batteries and their development for future Exploration missions. Current component development efforts for high energy and ultra high energy Li-ion batteries are addressed. Electrochemical systems are critical to the success of Exploration, Science and Space Operations missions. NASA Glenn has a long, successful heritage with batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications. GRC Battery capabilities and expertise span basic research through flight hardware development and implementation. There is a great deal of synergy between energy storage system needs for aerospace and terrestrial applications.

  19. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOEpatents

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  20. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  1. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  2. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  3. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  4. Monitoring the battery status for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myungsoo; Hwang, Euijin

    Photovoltaic power systems in Korea have been installed in remote islands where it is difficult to connect the utilities. Lead/acid batteries are used as an energy storage device for the stand-alone photovoltaic system. Hence, monitoring the battery status of photovoltaic systems is quite important to extend the total system service life. To monitor the state-of-charge of batteries, we adopted a current interrupt technique to measure the internal resistance of the battery. The internal resistance increases at the end of charge/discharge steps and also with cycles. The specific gravity of the electrolyte was measured in relation to the state-of-charge. A home-made optical hydrometer was utilized for automatic monitoring of the specific gravity. It is shown that the specific gravity and stratification increase with cycle number. One of the photovoltaic systems in a remote island, Ho-do, which has 90 kW peak power was checked for actual operational conditions such as solar generation, load, and battery status.

  5. Circulating current battery heater

    DOEpatents

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  6. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  7. Ferroresonant Flux-Coupled Battery Charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Portable battery charger operates at about 20 kHz to take advantage of relatively low weight and low acoustical noise of ferroresonant circuits operating in this frequency range. Charger split into stationary unit connected to powerline and mobile unit connected to battery or other load. Power transferred to mobile unit by magnetic coupling between mating transformer halves. Advantage where sparking at electrical connection might pose explosion hazard or where operator disabled and cannot manipulate plug into wall outlet. Likely applications for charger include wheelchairs and robots.

  8. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  9. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  10. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  11. Proton enhanced dynamic battery chemistry for aprotic lithium–oxygen batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Liu, Qi; Rong, Yangchun; ...

    2017-02-06

    Water is generally considered to be deteriorating to the performance of aprotic Li-air batteries, while it is challenged by the disparate effects observed recently. This has provoked a range of discussion on the role of water and its impact on the battery operation. In this work, a distinct battery chemistry that prevails in water-contaminated aprotic Li-O2 batteries was discovered. Both lithium ions and protons were found to be involved in the oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution reactions (OER), and LiOOH and LiOH were identified as predominant materials in the discharge product. As a new lithium compound, the crystallographic and spectroscopicmore » characteristics of LiOOH∙H2O were scrutinized both experimentally and theoretically. The structure of LiOOH∙H2O was found to be closely related to that of LiOH∙H2O implying a fast conversion kinetics between the two phases. Intriguingly, LiOOH∙H2O exhibits superior dynamic property towards the reaction with I3-, which renders considerably lower overpotential during the charging process. We anticipate that the new battery chemistry unveiled in this mechanistic study would provide important insights to the understanding of nominally aprotic Li-O2 batteries and help to tackle the critical issues confronted.« less

  12. Carbon fiber electrode for redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, M.; Tsuzuki, Y.; Iizuka, Y.; Shimada, M.

    1987-03-01

    Advanced secondary batteries have been developed as electrical energy storage systems for use in electrical utility load-levelling and stand-alone photovoltaic installations. Among them, the redox flow system based on aqueous iron and chromium redox couple is one of the most advanced. An important key to its feasibility is electrode fabrication. Woven and non-woven fabrics of carbon fibers have been used as thin but three dimensional electrodes of the redox flow system in view of their electric conductivity, chemical stability, and economy. One of the electrochemical problems of iron-chromium redox battery related to the electrode is the slow reaction rate of reduction and oxidation of chromium complex ion. As the electron transfer rate of chromium complex ion is lower than that of iron ion, the voltaic efficiency of the battery tends to decrease.

  13. Anode-Free Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Adams, Brian D.; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A.; Wang, Jun; Bowden, Mark E.; Xu, Suochang; Hu, Jianzhi; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-18

    Anode-free rechargeable lithium (Li) batteries (AFLBs) are phenomenal energy storage systems due to their significantly increased energy density and reduced cost relative to Li-ion batteries, as well as ease of assembly owing to the absence of an active (reactive) anode material. However, significant challenges, including Li dendrite growth and low cycling Coulombic efficiency (CE), have prevented their practical implementation. Here, we report for the first time an anode-free rechargeable lithium battery based on a Cu||LiFePO4 cell structure with an extremely high CE (> 99.8%). This results from the utilization of both an exceptionally stable electrolyte and optimized charge/discharge protocols which minimize the corrosion of the in-situ formed Li metal anode.

  14. Iron-air battery development program

    SciTech Connect

    Buzzelli, E.S.; Liu, C.T.; Bryant, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The progress and status of the research and development program on the iron-air advanced technology battery system at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation during the period June 1978-December 1979 are described. This advanced battery system is being developed for electric vehicle propulsion applications. Testing and evaluation of 100 cm/sup 2/ size cells was undertaken while individual iron and air electrode programs continued. Progress is reported in a number of these study areas. Results of the improvements made in the utilization of the iron electrode active material coupled with manufacturing and processing studies related to improved air electrodes continue to indicate that a fully developed iron-air battery system will be capable of fulfilling the performance requirements for commuter electric vehicles.

  15. Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, J. J.

    1986-09-01

    Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

  16. Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

  17. Neuropsychological studies on lead battery workers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Husain, S G; Murthy, R C; Srivastava, S P; Anand, M; Ali, M M; Seth, P K

    2002-04-01

    This study assessed the psychological status of 60 lead-acid battery workers occupationally exposed to low level lead and 30 referents in Lucknow. Digit spans and symbol, Bourdon-wiersma vigilance and Raven's Progressive matrices tests were administered. Significant impairments in concentration, attention, auditory and visual memory, psycho-motor speed, perceptual accuracy, and visual reasoning were observed in the workers compared to the referents. The deficits were not related to exposure duration since the magnitude of the impairments observed in workers with 1-y duration was the same as in those with more (up to 30 years) work duration. The blood lead of the battery workers was significantly elevated. There were functional deficits of the central nervous system in the lead-acid battery workers.

  18. The European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudel, J. L.

    The European lead/acid battery industry is examined from a general perspective that covers wide economic, industrial and technical issues. It would appear that the upheavals witnessed in Eastern Europe two years ago together with the more recent political and monetary events throw two points into sharp relief: first, the merely relative value of general speeches, that are liable to sound technocratic and out of touch with the realities of the world; second, the need for an industrialist to be able to stand back and view things from a distance. Given this background, the review is divided into four parts, namely: (i) general remarks about Europe; (ii) the wider context of the lead/acid battery industry; (iii) changes in demand; (iv) structural changes in market supply. Finally, a number of observations are made about the key issues that will prove decisive for the future of battery manufacturers in Europe within the context of a rapidly changing environment.

  19. Nebraska Wisconsin Cognitive Assessment Battery (NEWCAB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, V.; Marshall, W.

    This report discusses the construct and criterion-related validity of the Nebraska Wisconsin Cognitive Assessment Battery (NEWCAB), on the basis of pooled regional data collected in Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Wisconsin on a 3-year longitudinal sample of 107 6-year-old, 141 7-year-old, and 160 8-year-old children. Designed to assess the cognitive…

  20. High energy density aluminum battery

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  1. Microfluidic redox battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  2. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  3. Ordnance thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1993-04-01

    This invention pertains to thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode, e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy, a cathode, e.g., composed of iron disulfide, and an electrolyte, e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic, the electrolyte being inactive at ambient temperature but being activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices, in system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components, to vent an ordnance case, preventing its explosion in a fire.

  4. Intelligent battery charging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobert R., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.

  5. Safe battery solvents

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  6. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  7. Nickel-cadium batteries for Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, W. W.; Shikoh, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    The operational testing and evaluation program is presented which was conducted on 20-ampere-hour nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries for use on the Apollo telescope mount (ATM). The test program was initiated in 1967 to determine if the batteries could meet ATM mission requirements and to determine operating characteristics and methods. The ATM system power and charging power for the Ni-Cd secondary batteries is provided by a solar array during the 58-minute daylight portion of the orbit; during the 36-minute night portion of the orbit, the Ni-Cd secondary batteries will supply ATM system power. The test results reflect battery operating characteristics and parameters relative to simulated ATM orbital test conditions. Maximum voltage, charge requirements, capacity, temperature, and cyclic characteristics are presented.

  8. An Experiment to Determine the Discharge Characteristics of Common Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn

    2003-04-01

    An experiment is presented to investigate the discharge characteristics of common batteries using readily available equipment in an introductory physics laboratory. We used PASCO-750 science workshop interface, their two voltage sensors, and their DataStudio software to collect the data for some popular name brand AA and AAA batteries. The significant advantages are that it is relatively easy to carry out, the measurements are precise, and the topic is relevant to every day life with practical applications. It also serves as an experiment to introduce computer interfacing in data collection, as well as the Spread Sheet in data analysis and graphing. The spin off of this experiment is an accurate method to study the longevity of common batteries. Our results indicate that some of the popular name brand batteries don't last long as mentioned in their advertisements and some of the not so popular batteries are more cost effective.

  9. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Battery charge control: Which approach is best?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The question of the best approach for battery charge control is addressed from two points of view: from the battery point-of-view; and from the spacecraft/mission point-of-view. In terms of performance, more aggressive charging can result in higher discharge voltage and capacity; however, aggressive charging usually implies more overcharge at higher rates and a concomitant higher end of charge temperature (higher stress, shorter life). In terms of life, benign charging can result in lower discharge voltage and capacity (poorer performance). Additionally, benign, or low stress charging, usually implies less overcharge at lower rates with lower end of charge temperature (lower stress, longer life). A discussion of these topics is presented in viewgraph form.

  11. Battery-Charge-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

  12. Magellan battery operations: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Glueck, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    The Magellan Spacecraft's mission to map Venus's surface provides a unique application for Nickel-Cadmium batteries. An overview of the spacecraft, power subsystem, battery, and mission requirements are presented. The reliability and performance of the batteries were extensively studied with a comprehensive test and analysis program. Actual data for cruise and a limited number of mapping orbits is also presented.

  13. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  14. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  15. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  16. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  17. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    PubMed

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable

  18. Kurt Goldstein's test battery.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Kurt Goldstein was a founder of clinical neuropsychology. This thesis is illustrated with a description of Goldstein's test battery that he used as a screening instrument in a special clinic for soldiers in World War I. Parts of the battery were also used for neuropsychological rehabilitation. Goldstein's early work in Germany focused on both neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation. He was interested in how individuals go about compensating for their deficits, The notion of ecological validity (Lebenswahr vs Lebensfremd), only becoming widely popular in the nineteen-eighties, played an important role in Goldstein's selection of test procedures.

  19. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  20. Polyanion‐Type Electrode Materials for Sodium‐Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qiao; Wu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Sodium‐ion batteries, representative members of the post‐lithium‐battery club, are very attractive and promising for large‐scale energy storage applications. The increasing technological improvements in sodium‐ion batteries (Na‐ion batteries) are being driven by the demand for Na‐based electrode materials that are resource‐abundant, cost‐effective, and long lasting. Polyanion‐type compounds are among the most promising electrode materials for Na‐ion batteries due to their stability, safety, and suitable operating voltages. The most representative polyanion‐type electrode materials are Na3V2(PO4)3 and NaTi2(PO4)3 for Na‐based cathode and anode materials, respectively. Both show superior electrochemical properties and attractive prospects in terms of their development and application in Na‐ion batteries. Carbonophosphate Na3MnCO3PO4 and amorphous FePO4 have also recently emerged and are contributing to further developing the research scope of polyanion‐type Na‐ion batteries. However, the typical low conductivity and relatively low capacity performance of such materials still restrict their development. This paper presents a brief review of the research progress of polyanion‐type electrode materials for Na‐ion batteries, summarizing recent accomplishments, highlighting emerging strategies, and discussing the remaining challenges of such systems. PMID:28331782

  1. Polyanion-Type Electrode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qiao; Bai, Ying; Wu, Feng; Wu, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Sodium-ion batteries, representative members of the post-lithium-battery club, are very attractive and promising for large-scale energy storage applications. The increasing technological improvements in sodium-ion batteries (Na-ion batteries) are being driven by the demand for Na-based electrode materials that are resource-abundant, cost-effective, and long lasting. Polyanion-type compounds are among the most promising electrode materials for Na-ion batteries due to their stability, safety, and suitable operating voltages. The most representative polyanion-type electrode materials are Na3V2(PO4)3 and NaTi2(PO4)3 for Na-based cathode and anode materials, respectively. Both show superior electrochemical properties and attractive prospects in terms of their development and application in Na-ion batteries. Carbonophosphate Na3MnCO3PO4 and amorphous FePO4 have also recently emerged and are contributing to further developing the research scope of polyanion-type Na-ion batteries. However, the typical low conductivity and relatively low capacity performance of such materials still restrict their development. This paper presents a brief review of the research progress of polyanion-type electrode materials for Na-ion batteries, summarizing recent accomplishments, highlighting emerging strategies, and discussing the remaining challenges of such systems.

  2. Micro-battery Development for Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honghao; Cartmell, Samuel; Wang, Qiang; Lozano, Terence; Deng, Z. Daniel; Li, Huidong; Chen, Xilin; Yuan, Yong; Gross, Mark E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act requires actions that improve the passage and survival rates for migrating salmonoids and other fish species that sustain injury and mortality when passing through hydroelectric dams. To develop a low-cost revolutionary acoustic transmitter that may be injected instead of surgically implanted into the fish, one major challenge that needs to be addressed is the micro-battery power source. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of micro-batteries for injectable fish tags. High pulse current and required service life have both been achieved as well as doubling the gravimetric energy density of the battery. The newly designed micro-batteries have intrinsically low impedance, leading to significantly improved electrochemical performances at low temperatures as compared with commercial SR416 batteries. Successful field trial by using the micro-battery powered transmitters injected into fish has been demonstrated, providing an exemplary model of transferring fundamental research into practical devices with controlled qualities. PMID:24445689

  3. Micro-battery Development for Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Honghao; Cartmell, Samuel; Wang, Qiang; Lozano, Terence; Deng, Z. Daniel; Li, Huidong; Chen, Xilin; Yuan, Yong; Gross, Mark E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act requires actions that improve the passage and survival rates for migrating salmonoids and other fish species that sustain injury and mortality when passing through hydroelectric dams. To develop a low-cost revolutionary acoustic transmitter that may be injected instead of surgically implanted into the fish, one major challenge that needs to be addressed is the micro-battery power source. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of micro-batteries for injectable fish tags. High pulse current and required service life have both been achieved as well as doubling the gravimetric energy density of the battery. The newly designed micro-batteries have intrinsically low impedance, leading to significantly improved electrochemical performances at low temperatures as compared with commercial SR416 batteries. Successful field trial by using the micro-battery powered transmitters injected into fish has been demonstrated, providing an exemplary model of transferring fundamental research into practical devices with controlled qualities.

  4. Micro-battery development for juvenile salmon acoustic telemetry system applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honghao; Cartmell, Samuel; Wang, Qiang; Lozano, Terence; Deng, Z Daniel; Li, Huidong; Chen, Xilin; Yuan, Yong; Gross, Mark E; Carlson, Thomas J; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-21

    The Endangered Species Act requires actions that improve the passage and survival rates for migrating salmonoids and other fish species that sustain injury and mortality when passing through hydroelectric dams. To develop a low-cost revolutionary acoustic transmitter that may be injected instead of surgically implanted into the fish, one major challenge that needs to be addressed is the micro-battery power source. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of micro-batteries for injectable fish tags. High pulse current and required service life have both been achieved as well as doubling the gravimetric energy density of the battery. The newly designed micro-batteries have intrinsically low impedance, leading to significantly improved electrochemical performances at low temperatures as compared with commercial SR416 batteries. Successful field trial by using the micro-battery powered transmitters injected into fish has been demonstrated, providing an exemplary model of transferring fundamental research into practical devices with controlled qualities.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope On-orbit NiH2 Battery Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Krol, Stanley J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery performance from launch to the present time. Over the life of HST vehicle configuration, charge system degradation and failures together with thermal design limitations have had a significant effect on the capacity of the HST batteries. Changes made to the charge system configuration in order to protect against power system failures and to maintain battery thermal stability resulted in undercharging of the batteries. This undercharging resulted in decreased usable battery capacity as well as battery cell voltage/capacity divergence. This cell divergence was made evident during on-orbit battery capacity measurements by a relatively shallow slope of the discharge curve following the discharge knee. Early efforts to improve the battery performance have been successful. On-orbit capacity measurement data indicates increases in the usable battery capacity of all six batteries as well as improvements in the battery cell voltage/capacity divergence. Additional measures have been implemented to improve battery performance, however, failures within the HST Power Control Unit (PCU) have prevented verification of battery status. As this PCU fault prevents the execution of on-orbit capacity testing, the HST Project has based the battery capacity on trends, which utilizes previous on-orbit battery capacity test data, for science mission and servicing mission planning. The Servicing Mission 38 (SM-3B) in March 2002 replaced the faulty PCU. Following the servicing mission, on-orbit capacity test resumed. A summary of battery performance is reviewed since launch in this paper.

  6. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  7. Application features and considerations in advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.F.; Rajan, J.B.; Lee, T.S.; Christianson, C.C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries, major efforts have focussed on improving specific energy, specific power, cycle life, and cost. Nonetheless, other battery characteristics related to application needs are also important features which must be considered during the battery development process. This paper describes various application features and improvements incorporated in these advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries. Their volumetric energy density and packaging flexibility are presented: their charged-stand capabilities and energy efficiencies are reported; and development work on the safe control of battery off-gases and the implementation of single-point watering systems is discussed.

  8. Li-ion battery thermal runaway suppression system using microchannel coolers and refrigerant injections

    DOEpatents

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-11-08

    A battery management system with thermally integrated fire suppression includes a multiplicity of individual battery cells in a housing; a multiplicity of cooling passages in the housing within or between the multiplicity of individual battery cells; a multiplicity of sensors operably connected to the individual battery cells, the sensors adapted to detect a thermal runaway event related to one or more of the multiplicity of individual battery cells; and a management system adapted to inject coolant into at least one of the multiplicity of cooling passages upon the detection of the thermal runaway event by the any one of the multiplicity of sensors, so that the thermal runaway event is rapidly quenched.

  9. Still Just 1 "g": Consistent Results from Five Test Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; te Nijenhuis, Jan; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper, Johnson, Bouchard, Krueger, McGue, and Gottesman (2004) addressed a long-standing debate in psychology by demonstrating that the g factors derived from three test batteries administered to a single group of individuals were completely correlated. This finding provided evidence for the existence of a unitary higher-level general…

  10. Mechanistic Modeling Framework for Predicting Extreme Battery Response

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Anthony S.

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this project are to address the root cause implications of thermal runaway of Li-ion batteries by delivering a software architecture solution that can lead to the development of predictive mechanisms that are based on identification of species.

  11. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  12. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  13. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  14. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-02-01

    Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.

  15. A self-forming composite electrolyte for solid-state sodium battery with ultra-long cycle life

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Zhizhen; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhang, Qinghua; ...

    2016-10-31

    Replacing organic liquid electrolyte with inorganic solid electrolytes (SE) can potentially address the inherent safety problems in conventional rechargeable batteries. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries have been plagues by the relatively low ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes and large charge-transfer resistance resulted from solid-solid interfaces between electrode materials and solid electrolytes. Here we report a new design strategy for improving the ionic conductivity of solid electrolyte by self-forming a composite material. An optimized Na+ ion conducting composite electrolyte derived from the NASICON structure was successfully synthesized, yielding ultra-high ionic conductivity of 3.4 mS cm–1 at 25°C and 14 ms cm–1 at 80°C.

  16. A self-forming composite electrolyte for solid-state sodium battery with ultra-long cycle life

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhizhen; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhang, Qinghua; Shi, Jinan; Chu, Yong S.; Yu, Xiqian; Xu, Kaiqi; Ge, Mingyuan; Yan, Hanfei; Li, Wenjun; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2016-10-31

    Replacing organic liquid electrolyte with inorganic solid electrolytes (SE) can potentially address the inherent safety problems in conventional rechargeable batteries. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries have been plagues by the relatively low ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes and large charge-transfer resistance resulted from solid-solid interfaces between electrode materials and solid electrolytes. Here we report a new design strategy for improving the ionic conductivity of solid electrolyte by self-forming a composite material. An optimized Na+ ion conducting composite electrolyte derived from the NASICON structure was successfully synthesized, yielding ultra-high ionic conductivity of 3.4 mS cm–1 at 25°C and 14 ms cm–1 at 80°C.

  17. Honeycomb Betavoltaic Battery for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin R.; Ulmen, Ben; Miley, George H.

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotopic batteries offer advantages relative to conventional chemical batteries for applications requiring a long lifetime with minimum maintenance. Thus, thermoelectric type cells fueled with Pu have been used extensively on NASA space missions. The design for a small beta battery using nickel-63 (Ni-63) and a vacuum direct collection method is described here. A honeycomb nickel wire structure is employed to achieve bi-directional direct collection by seeding Ni-63 onto honeycomb shaped wires that will provide structural support as well. The battery design is intended to power low power electronics and distribute power needs in space probes as well as space colonies. Ni-63 is chosen as the source emitter because it has a long half-life and ease of manufacturing. The use of vacuum is especially well mated to space use; hence, vacuum insulation is employed to gain a higher efficiency than prior beta batteries with a dielectric insulator. A unique voltage down-converter is incorporated to efficiently reduce the inherent output voltage from 17.4 kV to ~17.4 V. This converter operates like a ``reverse'' Marx circuit where capacitor charging occurs in series but the discharge is in parallel. The reference battery module described here is about 100 cm×100 cm×218 cm and has a power of ~10 W with a conversion efficiency of ~15.8%. These modules can be stacked for higher powers and are very attractive for various applications in space colonization due to their long life (half-life for Ni-63~100 yrs) and low maintenance.

  18. Rechargeable zinc halogen battery

    SciTech Connect

    Spaziante, P.M.; Nidola, A.

    1980-01-01

    A rechargeable zinc halogen battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing ions of zinc and halogen and an amount of polysaccharide and/or sorbitol sufficient to prevent zinc dendrite formation during recharging. The electrolyte may also contain trace amounts of metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and lead. 7 tables.

  19. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  20. Batteries: Imaging degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    The degradation and failure of Li-ion batteries is strongly associated with electrode microstructure change upon (de)lithiation. Now, an operando X-ray tomography approach is shown to correlate changes in the microstructure of electrodes to cell performance, and thereby predict degradation pathways.

  1. Secondary alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  2. Challenges for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, J. B.; Kim, Youngsik

    Strategies for Li-ion batteries that are based on lithium-insertion compounds as cathodes are limited by the capacities of the cathode materials and by the safe charging rates for Li transport across a passivating SEI layer on a carbon-based anode. With these strategies, it is difficult to meet the commercial constraints on Li-ion batteries for plug-in-hybrid and all-electric vehicles as well as those for stationary electrical energy storage (EES) in a grid. Existing alternative strategies include a gaseous O 2 electrode in a Li/air battery and a solid sulfur (S 8) cathode in a Li/S battery. We compare the projected energy densities and EES efficiencies of these cells with those of a third alternative, a Li/Fe(III)/Fe(II) cell containing a redox couple in an aqueous solution as the cathode. Preliminary measurements indicate proof of concept, but implementation of this strategy requires identification of a suitable Li +-ion electrolyte.

  3. Strong lightweight battery housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perreault, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Unit holds fifteen cells weighing 1.3 kilogram each, withstands vibration continuously, can be pressurized to 25 psig (175 x 1000 N/M to the 2nd power). Unit offers potential of low-cost fabrication and increased accessibility to enclosed battery cells. Device may double as utility chest for tool storage and other items.

  4. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  5. Batteries: Sieving the ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The major obstacle in the development of Li-S batteries is the undesired dissolution of polysulfide intermediates produced during electrochemical reactions. Now, a metal-organic framework-based separator is shown to mitigate the problem, leading to stable long cycles.

  6. Solar batteries: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, M.

    1981-01-01

    A bibliography with 621 references is presented on solar batteries. Listings are alphabetical according to the author's name and all types of solar cells (organic and inorganic) are considered as well as articles of general interest in the area. In addition, an author index and a journal index are included. (MJJ)

  7. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  8. Special Test Methods for Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  9. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOEpatents

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1996-12-03

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery. 35 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOEpatents

    Rouhani, S. Zia

    1996-01-01

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery.

  11. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  12. Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Verhoog, Roelof; Barbotin, Jean-Loup

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

  13. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  14. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  15. Spondylodiscitis associated with button battery ingestion: prompt evaluation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Young, Allen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2015-10-01

    Spondylodiscitis is a rare complication of unwitnessed button battery ingestion in children. We report a case of a 20-month-old girl who presented to the emergency room 2 weeks after endoscopic removal of unwitnessed, impacted esophageal battery. Delayed presentation of spondylodiscitis after foreign body removal is related to local injury, pressure necrosis, and perforation. The bilaminar shape of an unknown ingested foreign body should alert the treating physician that it might be a battery rather than a coin. Prompt evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging is essential to prevent neurological deficit and/or spinal deformities.

  16. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  17. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and The Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges.

  18. New electric-vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1994-12-31

    Electric vehicles that can`t reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900`s electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car`s worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today`s electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors` Impact, for example, uses starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon`s new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda travelled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck travelled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour. 12 refs.

  19. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  20. SMM parallel battery operation in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, R.

    1982-01-01

    A parallel battery system for the SMM spacecraft is described. The battery system performance as a function of lifetime over orbit was evaluated. The following equipment performance specifications were examined during a typical orbit: battery current and discharges, voltage limitations, battery temperature variations, and current sensor performance. Tabulated battery performance data is also included.

  1. Batteries and fuel cells working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, J. . Office of Advanced Transportation Materials); Landgrebe, A. . Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Systems); Lemons, R.; Wilson, M. ); MacAurther, D. (CH

    1991-01-01

    Electrochemical energy systems are dominated by interfacial phenomena. Catalysis, corrosion, electrical and ionic contact, and wetting behavior are critical to the performance of fuel cells and batteries. Accordingly, development of processing techniques to control these surface properties is important to successful commercialization of advanced batteries and fuel cells. Many of the surface processing issues are specific to a particular electrochemical system. Therefore, the working group focused on systems that are of specific interest to DOE/Conservation and Renewable Energy. These systems addressed were: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells, Direct Methanol Oxidation (DMO) Fuel Cells, and Lithium/Polymer Batteries. The approach used by the working group for each of these systems was to follow the current path through the system and to identify the principal interfaces. The function of each interface was specified together with its desired properties. The degree to which surface properties limit performance in present systems was rated. Finally, the surface processing needs associated with the performance limiting interfaces were identified. This report summarizes this information.

  2. Batteries and fuel cells working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, J.; Landgrebe, A.; Lemons, R.; Wilson, M.; MacAurther, D.; Savenell, R.; Swathirajan, S.; Wilson, D.

    1991-12-31

    Electrochemical energy systems are dominated by interfacial phenomena. Catalysis, corrosion, electrical and ionic contact, and wetting behavior are critical to the performance of fuel cells and batteries. Accordingly, development of processing techniques to control these surface properties is important to successful commercialization of advanced batteries and fuel cells. Many of the surface processing issues are specific to a particular electrochemical system. Therefore, the working group focused on systems that are of specific interest to DOE/Conservation and Renewable Energy. These systems addressed were: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells, Direct Methanol Oxidation (DMO) Fuel Cells, and Lithium/Polymer Batteries. The approach used by the working group for each of these systems was to follow the current path through the system and to identify the principal interfaces. The function of each interface was specified together with its desired properties. The degree to which surface properties limit performance in present systems was rated. Finally, the surface processing needs associated with the performance limiting interfaces were identified. This report summarizes this information.

  3. 14. Station Control Batteries and Battery Chargers, view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Station Control Batteries and Battery Chargers, view to the northeast. The original battery charger is the center cabinet on the left side of photograph, with the new charger on the far left of photograph and a circuit breaker unit for the chargers is visible in the center of the photograph. The batteries are visible on three racks through the open doorway. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  4. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  5. A working memory test battery for MATLAB.

    PubMed

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Oberauer, Klaus; Yang, Lee-Xieng; Ecker, Ullrich K H

    2010-05-01

    We present a battery of four working memory tasks that are implemented using MATLAB and the free Psychophysics Toolbox. The package includes preprocessing scripts in R and SPSS to facilitate data analysis. The four tasks consist of a sentence-span task, an operation-span task, a spatial short-term memory test, and a memory updating task. These tasks were chosen in order to provide a heterogeneous set of measures of working memory capacity, thus reducing method variance and tapping into two content domains of working memory (verbal, including numerical, vs. spatial) and two of its functional aspects (storage in the context of processing and relational integration). The task battery was validated in three experiments conducted in two languages (English and Chinese), involving more than 350 participants. In all cases, the tasks were found to load on a single latent variable. In a further experiment, the latent working memory variable was found to correlate highly but not perfectly with performance on Raven's matrices test of fluid intelligence. We suggest that the battery constitutes a versatile tool to assess working memory capacity with either English- or Chinese-speaking participants. The battery can be downloaded from www.cogsciwa.com ("Software" button).

  6. Multiple cell booster battery switch assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Mejia, S.

    1986-04-08

    A switch assembly is described for a multiple power cell battery unit, which have positive and negative terminals on each cell. The assembly consists of (a) a base connected to the battery unit and including a terminal connector for each battery terminal which is physically and electrically connected therewith, (b) a top plate which is relatively movable with respect to the base and on which a plurality of conducting bus members which have contact elements are mounted, (c) the terminal connectors having electrical contacts for engaging the contact element of the conducting bus member, (d) each contact element member being positioned with respect to and adapted to engage with the electrical contacts of one of the terminal connectors when the top plate is in one position, and to be disengaged therefrom when the top plate is in a second position, (e) each conducting bus member being electrically interconnected with at least one other conducting bus member so that when their respective contact elements are in engagement with the electrical contact members of the terminal connector with which it is associated, the two battery cell terminals are electrically interconnected with each other.

  7. Bacteria-powered battery on paper.

    PubMed

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2014-12-21

    Paper-based devices have recently emerged as simple and low-cost paradigms for fluid manipulation and analytical/clinical testing. However, there are significant challenges in developing paper-based devices at the system level, which contain integrated paper-based power sources. Here, we report a microfabricated paper-based bacteria-powered battery that is capable of generating power from microbial metabolism. The battery on paper showed a very short start-up time relative to conventional microbial fuel cells (MFCs); paper substrates eliminated the time traditional MFCs required to accumulate and acclimate bacteria on the anode. Only four batteries connected in series provided desired values of current and potential to power an LED for more than 30 minutes. The battery featured (i) a low-cost paper-based proton exchange membrane directly patterned on commercially available parchment paper and (ii) paper reservoirs for holding the anolyte and the catholyte for an extended period of time. Based on this concept, we also demonstrate the use of paper-based test platforms for the rapid characterization of electricity-generating bacteria. This paper-based microbial screening tool does not require external pumps/tubings and represents the most rapid test platform (<50 min) compared with the time needed by using traditional screening tools (up to 103 days) and even recently proposed MEMS arrays (< 2 days).

  8. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  9. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  10. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  11. Method of making a lead storage battery and lead storage battery made according to this method

    SciTech Connect

    Jache, O.; Schroeder, H.

    1983-11-08

    This invention is related to a method of making a lead storage battery with a thixotropic gel as electrolyte consisting substantially of a sulphuric acid and a gelling agent. The object is to provide a lead storage battery which is maintenance free, leak-proof and of a long cycle life while permitting filling of the electrolyte independently of the plate dimensions including the superficial extent of the plate. To achieve this object: (a) the sulphuric acid is electrochemically bonded in the active material of the electrodes; and (b) the gel forming electrolyte is filled into the battery in the form of a gelling agent and a sulphuric acid concentration which is insufficient for the formation of a gel, but which is sufficient for initiating a charging process upon application of a charging voltage. During the charging process the sulfuric acid that is bonded to the electrodes, together with the gel forming electrolyte, will start the formation of the gel.

  12. Batteries not included.

    PubMed

    Hand, F; McDowell, D; Gillick, J

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of oesophageal lodgement of ingested button batteries (BB) in young children. In one case the diagnosis and subsequent treatment was made in a timely fashion and the patient suffered no sequelae. In the second case there was a delay in diagnosis and the patient subsequently suffered both early and late complications. The purpose of this report is to highlight theingestion importance of the correct management of suspected BB ingestion.

  13. Modular Battery Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  14. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  15. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  16. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  17. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1996-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphorus lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  18. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil. PMID:22540987

  19. Improving battery charging with solar panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boico, Florent Michael

    Recent technological developments in thin-film photovoltaics, such as amorphous silicon and hybrid dye sensitized photovoltaic (PV) cells are leading to new generations of portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, flexible, and have been reported to achieve power efficiencies of up to 10%. Already, commercial-off-the-shelf arrays exist that have panels embedded in fabric that can be folded to dimensions of less than 12" x 12", yet are able to produce up to 50Watts of power at 12V. These new products make solar power available to various types of applications. In particular, military applications are emerging to give soldier a source of power that can always be at reach. In parallel with these developments, NiMH and Li-ion batteries are increasingly being used to power various equipment. Currently, the military is field testing solar charging of its batteries with portable solar arrays. However, so far, all known charge control algorithm have failed as they commonly falsely detect overcharge at random times in the charging and leave the battery partially charged. The goal of our research is to investigate the origins of failure in existing charge control algorithms and to propose adequate algorithms that would improve the battery charging. Additionally, ways to optimize the generated photovoltaic power is critical for portable solar application as the energy produced is limited. It is known that the use of a DC-DC converter between the solar panel and the load allows optimization of the power delivered by the solar panel when "Maximum Power Point Tracking" is utilized. Therefore we are developing new solutions that address the specific problem of Maximum Power Point Tracking for modular solar panels.

  20. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  1. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L.; Jabbour, S.J.; Clark, H.K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  2. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  3. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  4. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  5. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  6. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N.Srinivasa

    2004-01-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future. PMID:16943934

  7. Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PRIMARY BATTERIES , TEMPERATURE, LITHIUM , CATHODES, ELECTRODES, PROTECTIVE COATINGS, PLATINUM, NICKEL, SULFUR, STORAGE, GOLD, RELIABILITY(ELECTRONICS...CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, CARBON BLACK, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, THIONYL CHLORIDE , REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY).

  8. Summary of LDEF battery analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chris; Thaller, Larry; Bittner, Harlin; Deligiannis, Frank; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David; Bene, James

    1992-01-01

    Tests and analyses of NiCd, LiSO2, and LiCf batteries flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) includes results from NASA, Aerospace, and commercial labs. The LiSO2 cells illustrate six-year degradation of internal components acceptable for space applications, with up to 85 percent battery capacity remaining on discharge of some returned cells. LiCf batteries completed their mission, but lost any remaining capacity due to internal degradation. Returned NiCd batteries tested an GSFC showed slight case distortion due to pressure build up, but were functioning as designed.

  9. Trends in cardiac pacemaker batteries.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N Srinivasa

    2004-10-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring the state of charge in a battery based on volume of battery components

    DOEpatents

    Rouhani, S. Zia

    1996-10-22

    The state of charge of electrochemical batteries of different kinds is determined by measuring the incremental change in the total volume of the reactive masses in the battery. The invention is based on the principle that all electrochemical batteries, either primary or secondary (rechargeable), produce electricity through a chemical reaction with at least one electrode, and the chemical reactions produce certain changes in the composition and density of the electrode. The reactive masses of the electrodes, the electrolyte, and any separator or spacers are usually contained inside a battery casing of a certain volume. As the battery is used, or recharged, the specific volume of at least one of the electrode masses will change and, since the masses of the materials do not change considerably, the total volume occupied by at least one of the electrodes will change. These volume changes may be measured in many different ways and related to the state of charge in the battery. In one embodiment, the volume change can be measured by monitoring the small changes in one of the principal dimensions of the battery casing as it expands or shrinks to accommodate the combined volumes of its components.

  11. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  12. NiH2 Reliability Impact Upon Hubble Space Telescope Battery Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was designed to be deployed and later serviced for maintenance and upgrades, as required, by the space shuttle fleet, with a Goodyear mission life for the batteries. HST was deployed 380 miles above the Earth, from Space Shuttle Discovery, on April 25, 1990. Four servicing missions, (SM1, SM2, SM3A, AND SM3B) have been performed. Astronauts have replaced or modified optics, solar arrays, a power control unit, and various science packages. A fifth Servicing Mission, SM4 scheduled for early 2004, is planned to replace the batteries for the first time. The HST is powered by solar array wings and nickel hydrogen (NiH2) Duracell batteries, which are grouped into two parallel battery modules of three parallel batteries each. With a design life of 7 years at launch, these batteries have surpassed 12 years in orbit, which gives HST the highest number of charge/discharge cycles of any NiH2 battery currently in low earth orbit (LEO) application. Being in a LEO orbit, HST has a 45-minute umbra period, during which spacecraft power requirements normally force the batteries into discharge, and a 60-minute sun period, which is available for battery recharge. The intent of this paper is to address the issue of NiH2 battery reliability and how battery capacity degradation can impact scheduling of a Servicing Mission to bring replacement batteries to HST, and extend mission life till deployment of Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), planned for 2008 at the earliest.

  13. Influence of the degree of exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and the biological indices of lead exposure: epidemiological study in a lead acid battery factory.

    PubMed Central

    Cezard, C; Demarquilly, C; Boniface, M; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol has been shown to interact with lead to influence haem biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to define the dependence of this interaction on the degree of exposure to lead. Exposure to alcohol was estimated by measurement of alcohol concentrations in a sample of urine collected during the morning (AlcUM) (0.82 (SD 4.36) mmol/l) and in a sample collected during the afternoon (AlcUA) (1.15 (SD 3.49) mmol/l). The biological monitoring of exposure to lead included measurements of blood lead (Pb-B) (1.82 (SD 0.72) mumol/l), urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU) (35.33 (SD 28.00) mumol/l; d = 1.015), and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) (112.90 (SD 83.71) nmol/mmol Hb) concentrations. The study of the influence of the degree of occupational exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and effects of the exposure to lead led to the consideration of two different groups--namely, mildly and strongly exposed subjects. In the first group, individual biological susceptibility seemed to play a preponderant part. In the second, the pool of lead present in the body seemed to be sufficiently important to mask the effects of individual susceptibility. PMID:1390270

  14. Novel aqueous dual-channel aluminum-hydrogen peroxide battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Catherine; Licht, Stuart

    1994-06-01

    A dual-channel aluminum hydrogen peroxide battery is introduced with an open-circuit voltage of 1.9 volts, polarization losses of 0.9 mV cm(exp 2) mA(exp -1), and power densities of 1 W/cm(exp 2). Catholyte and anolyte cell compartments are separated by an Ir/Pd modified porous nickel cathode. Separation of catholyte and anolyte chambers prevents hydrogen peroxide poisoning of the aluminum anode. The battery is expressed by aluminum oxidation and aqueous solution phase hydrogen peroxide reduction for an overall battery discharge consisting of 2Al + 3H2O2 + 2OH(-) yields 2AlO2(-) + 4H2O E = 2.3 V. The search for electrical propulsion sources which fit the requirements for electrically powered vehicles has blurred the standard characteristics associated with electrochemical storage systems. Presently, electrochemical systems comprised of mechanically rechargeable primary batteries, secondary batteries, and fuel cells are candidates for electrochemical propulsion sources. While important advances in energy and power density continue for nonaqueous and molten electrolytes, aqueous electrolyte batteries often have an advantage in simplicity, conductivity, cost effectiveness, and environmental impact. Systems coupling aluminum anodes and aqueous electrolytes have been investigated. These systems include: aluminum/silver oxide, aluminum/manganese dioxide, aluminum air, aluminum/hydrogen peroxide aqueous batteries, and the recently introduced aluminum/ferricyanide and aluminum sulfur aqueous batteries. Conventional aqueous systems such as the nickel cadmium and lead-acid batteries are characterized by their relatively low energy densities and adverse environmental impact. Other systems have substantially higher theoretical energy capacities. While aluminum-silver oxide has demonstrated the highest steady-state power density, its high cost is an impediment for widespread utilization for electric propulsion.

  15. High-power batteries for use in hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, Christian; Newman, John

    The idea of hybrid vehicles is not a recent development; as early as the 1960s, several have companies attempted to develop bipolar lead/acid batteries for hybrid-electric vehicles [J.L. Arias, J.J. Rowlett, E.D. Drake, Journal of Power Sources, 40 (1993) 63-73.]. Hybrid vehicles have the potential to increase fuel economy by using a primary engine operating at a constant power to supply average power requirements and a surge power unit for peak power demands and to recover braking energy. To date, no detailed system optimization analysis has been performed for hybrid vehicles. This study combines a simplified version of the lithium-ion battery model developed by Doyle [C.M. Doyle, Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries, Dissertation, Fall, 1995.] with a vehicle model that determines battery-power requirements for a given driving cycle. Batteries are designed for either the highest vehicle mileage or minimal acceptable battery dimensions. Hybrid vehicles have the potential to more than double mileage as compared to conventional vehicles, and have a limited electric vehicle range. The battery goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) are investigated and often found to be differing with actual requirements. Specifically, PNGV overstates power and especially energy requirements for load-leveling devices and calls for unnecessary demands on the development of alternate technologies. The role of the driving cycle was investigated and found to be relatively unimportant as long as it contains several essential features. The important parameters in the driving cycle are the time of discharge and the maximum current (or power) level. This study suggests that a combination of both a vehicle model and a battery model is required to determine the complex interaction between hybrid-vehicle weight and battery power.

  16. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  17. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-10-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  18. A design optimization methodology for Li+ batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golmon, Stephanie; Maute, Kurt; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-05-01

    Design optimization for functionally graded battery electrodes is shown to improve the usable energy capacity of Li batteries predicted by computational simulations and numerically optimizing the electrode porosities and particle radii. A multi-scale battery model which accounts for nonlinear transient transport processes, electrochemical reactions, and mechanical deformations is used to predict the usable energy storage capacity of the battery over a range of discharge rates. A multi-objective formulation of the design problem is introduced to maximize the usable capacity over a range of discharge rates while limiting the mechanical stresses. The optimization problem is solved via a gradient based optimization. A LiMn2O4 cathode is simulated with a PEO-LiCF3SO3 electrolyte and both a Li Foil (half cell) and LiC6 anode. Studies were performed on both half and full cell configurations resulting in distinctly different optimal electrode designs. The numerical results show that the highest rate discharge drives the simulations and the optimal designs are dominated by Li+ transport rates. The results also suggest that spatially varying electrode porosities and active particle sizes provides an efficient approach to improve the power-to-energy density of Li+ batteries. For the half cell configuration, the optimal design improves the discharge capacity by 29% while for the full cell the discharge capacity was improved 61% relative to an initial design with a uniform electrode structure. Most of the improvement in capacity was due to the spatially varying porosity, with up to 5% of the gains attributed to the particle radii design variables.

  19. Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-08-31

    Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ≥20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ≤4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children.

  20. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  1. Review on Current State of Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaibo, Hitomi

    2010-06-04

    This is an up-to-date review of the issues and challenges facing Li-ion battery research with special focus on how nanostructures/ nanotechnology are being applied to this field. Novel materials reported as prospective candidates for anode, cathode and electrolyte will be summarized. The expected role of nanostructures in improving the performance of Li-ion batteries and the actual pros and cons of using such structures in this device will be addressed. Electrochemical experiments used to study Li-ion batteries will also be discussed. This includes the introduction to the standard experimental set-up and how experimental data (from charge-discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, etc) are interpreted.

  2. Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Larcher, D; Tarascon, J-M

    2015-01-01

    Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

  3. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; ...

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed reviewmore » of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.« less

  4. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed review of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.

  5. Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

  6. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  7. A novel design including cooling media for Lithium-ion batteries pack used in hybrid and electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel design including cooling media for packing the rechargeable Lithium (Li)-ion batteries used in hybrid and electric vehicles is proposed. The proposed battery pack satisfies all thermal and physical issues relating to the battery packs used in vehicles such as operating temperature range and volume, and furthermore it increases the battery life cycle and charge and discharge performances. The temperature and voltage distributions of the proposed battery pack are calculated using the characteristics of a sample Li-ion battery and heat transfer principles. The proposed battery pack uses several distributed thin ducts for cooling which is based on distributed natural convection. Ultra uniform voltage and temperature distributions, minimum temperature dispersion in each battery unit, minimum increase in the battery pack volume, natural convection (no extra energy consumption for cooling), the maximum observed temperature less than that in other proposed battery packs and high thermal performance for different ambient temperatures until 48 °C are some advantages of the proposed Li-ion battery pack including proposed distributed cooling media. Simulation results and a comparison between the parameters of the proposed cooling media and other related work are presented to validate the theoretical results and to prove the superiority of the proposed battery pack design.

  8. Online impedance spectroscopy of lead acid batteries for storage management of a standalone power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depernet, Daniel; Ba, Oumar; Berthon, Alain

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a contribution to implementation of hybrid power plants in rural areas without electricity in Senegal. Wind and photovoltaic generators coupling is used to benefit from renewable energy resources in this country. Lead acid storage batteries are coupled with the generators to ensure smoothness of the electricity generation. This work is focused in particular on the development of a low cost online impedance spectroscopy method to address the problem of limited lifetime of batteries and the difficulties of their maintenance in isolated areas. Control of static converter associated with the battery is adapted to integrate the functionality of characterization of batteries by impedance spectroscopy. An experimental platform developed in the laboratory has validated the method for online measurement of battery impedance spectrum and to initiate a phase of data monitoring.

  9. Overview of the Design, Development, and Application of Nickel-hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    2003-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the design, development, and application of nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery technology for aerospace applications. It complements and updates the information presented in NASA RP-1314, NASA Handbook for Nickel- Hydrogen Batteries, published in 1993. Since that time, nickel-hydrogen batteries have become widely accepted for aerospace energy storage requirements and much more has been learned. The intent of this document is to capture some of that additional knowledge. This document addresses various aspects of nickel-hydrogen technology including the electrochemical reactions, cell component design, and selection considerations; overall cell and battery design considerations; charge control considerations; and manufacturing issues that have surfaced over the years that nickel-hydrogen battery technology has been the major energy storage technology for geosynchronous and low-Earth-orbiting satellites.

  10. Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-09-05

    Sodium-beta alumina batteries, have been extensively developed for a few decades and encouraging progress has been achieved so far. The anode is typically molten sodium while the cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). The electrolyte typically used is a β"-Al2O3 solid membrane. The issues prohibiting broad commercialization of this type of technology are dependent on the materials used, but can be broadly described as relatively high cost, safety (particularly for the Na-S couple), and low power. This paper offers a review on materials and designs for the batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

  11. High power rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Huajun; Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Luo, Chao; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Suo, Liumin; Ma, Zhaohui; Han, Weiqiang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted considerable attention because of their potential high energy density and low cost. However, their development has been severely hindered because of the lack of appropriate cathode materials. Here we report a rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery, in which the soluble iodine reacts with Mg2+ to form a soluble intermediate and then an insoluble final product magnesium iodide. The liquid-solid two-phase reaction pathway circumvents solid-state Mg2+ diffusion and ensures a large interfacial reaction area, leading to fast reaction kinetics and high reaction reversibility. As a result, the rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery shows a better rate capability (180 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C and 140 mAh g-1 at 1 C) and a higher energy density (~400 Wh kg-1) than all other reported rechargeable magnesium batteries using intercalation cathodes. This study demonstrates that the liquid-solid two-phase reaction mechanism is promising in addressing the kinetic limitation of rechargeable magnesium batteries.

  12. High power rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Huajun; Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; ...

    2017-01-10

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted considerable attention because of their potential high energy density and low cost. However, their development has been severely hindered because of the lack of appropriate cathode materials. Here we report a rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery, in which the soluble iodine reacts with Mg2+ to form a soluble intermediate and then an insoluble final product magnesium iodide. The liquid–solid two-phase reaction pathway circumvents solid-state Mg2+ diffusion and ensures a large interfacial reaction area, leading to fast reaction kinetics and high reaction reversibility. As a result, the rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery shows a better rate capability (180 mAh g–1more » at 0.5 C and 140 mAh g–1 at 1 C) and a higher energy density (~400 Wh kg–1) than all other reported rechargeable magnesium batteries using intercalation cathodes. As a result, this study demonstrates that the liquid–solid two-phase reaction mechanism is promising in addressing the kinetic limitation of rechargeable magnesium batteries.« less

  13. High power rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Huajun; Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Luo, Chao; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Suo, Liumin; Ma, Zhaohui; Han, Weiqiang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted considerable attention because of their potential high energy density and low cost. However, their development has been severely hindered because of the lack of appropriate cathode materials. Here we report a rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery, in which the soluble iodine reacts with Mg2+ to form a soluble intermediate and then an insoluble final product magnesium iodide. The liquid–solid two-phase reaction pathway circumvents solid-state Mg2+ diffusion and ensures a large interfacial reaction area, leading to fast reaction kinetics and high reaction reversibility. As a result, the rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery shows a better rate capability (180 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C and 140 mAh g−1 at 1 C) and a higher energy density (∼400 Wh kg−1) than all other reported rechargeable magnesium batteries using intercalation cathodes. This study demonstrates that the liquid–solid two-phase reaction mechanism is promising in addressing the kinetic limitation of rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:28071666

  14. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  15. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  16. Battery system with temperature sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  17. What Do Battery Testers Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagnon, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities to determine whether it is better to test dry cells with an ammeter than with a voltmeter and how best to test alkaline batteries. Discusses classification of disposable testers as instruments. Concludes that a laboratory voltmeter gives a good indication of the condition of an alkaline cell while carbon batteries are best…

  18. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  19. [Micro fabricated enzyme battery].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Karube, I

    1996-10-01

    Although various work has been done in the field of implantable micro actuators such as artificial organs and micro surgery robots, a suitable electric power supply for these is yet to be developed. For this purpose a micro fabricated enzyme fuel cell was developed which uses glucose contained in the human body as a fuel. In order to obtain enough voltage each cell was formed as part of a serial array on a silicon wafer. Glucose solution enters the cells by a capillary effect. In this article fuel cells already developed using biocatalysts are described, and the future possibility of a micro fabricated enzyme battery is discussed.

  20. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…