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Sample records for address beacon system

  1. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  2. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Bigi, A.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; de Botton, N.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Cafagna, F.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, P.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Cussatlegras, A.-S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Vita, R.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Denans, D.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dinkespieler, B.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galeotti, S.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Gojak, C.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Hallewell, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hoffman, C.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kudryavstev, V. A.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laschinsky, H.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Megna, R.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Milovanovic, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Naumann, C.; Niess, V.; Noble, T.; Olivetto, C.; Ostasch, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Perez, A.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pillet, R.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; van Rens, B.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca, V.; Roda, C.; Rolin, J. F.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Roux, J.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Rusydi, G.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Sokalski, I.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Stolarczyk, T.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Terreni, G.; Thompson, L. F.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Vaudaine, G.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; de Witt Huberts, P.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yao, A.-F.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2007-08-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented.

  3. Omnidirectional beacon-localization using a catadioptric system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Thomas C; Drost, Robert J; Sadler, Brian M; Rzasa, John R; Davis, Christopher C

    2016-04-01

    We present a catadioptric beacon localization system that can provide mobile network nodes with omnidirectional situational awareness of neighboring nodes. In this system, a receiver composed of a hyperboloidal mirror and camera is used to estimate the azimuth, elevation, and range of an LED beacon. We provide a general framework for understanding the propagation of error in the angle-of-arrival estimation and then present an experimental realization of such a system. The situational awareness provided by the proposed system can enable the alignment of communication nodes in an optical wireless network, which may be particularly useful in addressing RF-denied environments. PMID:27136988

  4. Omnidirectional beacon-localization using a catadioptric system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Thomas C; Drost, Robert J; Sadler, Brian M; Rzasa, John R; Davis, Christopher C

    2016-04-01

    We present a catadioptric beacon localization system that can provide mobile network nodes with omnidirectional situational awareness of neighboring nodes. In this system, a receiver composed of a hyperboloidal mirror and camera is used to estimate the azimuth, elevation, and range of an LED beacon. We provide a general framework for understanding the propagation of error in the angle-of-arrival estimation and then present an experimental realization of such a system. The situational awareness provided by the proposed system can enable the alignment of communication nodes in an optical wireless network, which may be particularly useful in addressing RF-denied environments.

  5. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, D.G.; Black, B.D.

    1991-12-17

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed. 6 figures.

  6. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    SciTech Connect

    Skogmo, David G.; Black, Billy D.

    1991-01-01

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed.

  7. Bootstrap beacon creation for overcoming the effects of beacon anisoplanatism in a laser beam projection system.

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, Aleksandr V; Piatrou, Piotr; Roggemann, Michael C

    2008-05-01

    We address the problem of using adaptive optics to deliver power from an airborne laser platform to a ground target through atmospheric turbulence under conditions of strong scintillation and anisoplanatism. We explore three options for creating a beacon for use in adaptive optics beam control: scattering laser energy from the target, using a single uncompensated Rayleigh beacon, and using a series of compensated Rayleigh beacons. We demonstrate that using a series of compensated Rayleigh beacons distributed along the path provides the best beam compensation.

  8. Experience with the BEACON core monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.L. ); Icide, C.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The BEACON operational core support system was developed for use in pressurized water reactors to provide an integrated system to perform reactor core monitoring, core measurement reduction, core analysis and follow, and core predictions. It is based on the very fast and accurate three-dimensional SPNOVA nodal program. The experience to date has shown the importance of an accurate integrated system. The benefits accrued are greater for the total system than the benefits that are possible separately.

  9. Portable-Beacon Landing System for Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Clary, George R.; Chisholm, John P.; Macdonald, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype beacon landing system (BLS) allows helicopters to make precise landings in all weather. BLS easily added to existing helicopter avionic equipment and readily deployed at remote sites. Small and light, system employs X-band radar and digital processing. Variety of beams pulsed sequentially by ground station after initial interrogation by weather radar of approaching helicopter. Airborne microprocessor processes pulses to determine glide slope, course deviation, and range.

  10. Performance of a demonstration system for simultaneous laser beacon tracking and low data rate optical communications with multiple platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, R. C.; Cosgrove, M.; Clark, D. L.; Oleski, P.

    1991-06-01

    The ability of a system based on a high-speed area array detector to simultaneously track and receive data from multiple low-power optical communication beacons is demonstrated. Specifically, the MOCTR POC system has achieved tracking precision of order 0.1 pixel with 2.7 picowatts, the minimum beacon power for the assumed system architecture; a data rate of 1 kbps with BER of order 1 to 10 x 10 exp -5, readily correctable with forward error correction; tracking and communication with simulated maximum earth background in the detector FOV; and simultaneous tracking of asynchronously modulated beacons. Areas needed to be addressed before an operational system can be implemented include reduction in size, weight and power, the demonstration of independent acquisition of multiple beacons, and the implementation of a full tracking algorithm in firmware.

  11. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  12. Laser beacon system for aircraft collision hazard determination.

    PubMed

    Miles, R B

    1980-07-01

    A laser beacon collision hazard determination system is capable of simultaneously determining range, bearing, and heading of threat aircraft. Calculations demonstrate that threat aircraft may be observed at > 10 km under good visibility conditions. When the visibility is limited to 5.6 km (3 nautical miles), the shortest possible warning time for aircraft below 3000 m (10,000 ft) can be > 15 sec. A wide variety of detection systems may be chosen based on cost, detection range, and sophistication. Traffic saturation is not a problem since closer aircraft produce easily distinguishable signals so traffic may be prioritized. Preliminary tests demonstrate that accurate range measurements are possible under daylight conditions.

  13. Low profile optical system for an aircraft beacon.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, A H

    1971-02-01

    An optical system producing an annular cone of radiation from a point source using a low profile front lens is shown to have application as a beacon for high speed vehicles. The system comprises a high pressure short are light source with axial electrodes and integral collector, a conical reflector, and a divergent meniscus lens that has low protrusion over the surface of the vehicle. The system has minimal drag, and the radiation is distributed in directions close to the plane perpendicular to the optical axis. The influences of various parameters such as lens camber, lens aperture, source size, collector shape, collection efficiency, and beam divergence are discussed. A prototype was built at Eimae Division of Varian using a xenon short arc lamp with metal ceramic structure and integral collector.

  14. Molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Tan, Weihong; Wang, Kemim; Drake, Timothy J

    2004-10-01

    This opinion covers the field of molecular beacons (MBs), in which nucleic acids are molecularly engineered to have unique functions for the investigation of biomolecules. Molecular beacons have been used in a variety of formats, and this review discusses four: first, in vitro RNA and DNA monitoring; second, biosensors and biochips based on MBs; third, real-time monitoring of genes and gene expression in living systems; and finally, the next generation of molecular beacons that will be highly useful for studies with proteins, molecular beacon aptamers. These unique applications have shown that MBs holds great potential in genomics and proteomics where real-time molecular recognition with high sensitivity and excellent specificity is critical.

  15. SILEX beacon equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepin, P. J.; Leblay, P.; Malaise, D.

    The design and breadboarding of the beacon of the SILEX experimental optical link between geosynchronous Earth orbit and low Earth orbit terminals are considered. The aim of the SILEX experiment is to establish an intersatellite optical telecommunication link. The beacon will provide a powerful continuous wave light beam to allow terminal telescope alignment during acquisition phase. The beacon consists of four parts: the beacon electronics, the beacon emission unit, the optical fiber harness, and the beacon head. The system is described, special attention being given to the optical features.

  16. Preliminary performance analysis of an interplanetary navigation system using asteroid based beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, J. Rodney; Khatib, Ahmad R.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Williams, Bobby G.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    A futuristic interplanetary navigation system using transmitters placed on selected asteroids is introduced. This network of space beacons is seen as a needed alternative to the overly burdened Deep Space Network. Covariance analyses on the potential performance of these space beacons located on a candidate constellation of eight real asteroids are initiated. Simplified analytic calculations are performed to determine limiting accuracies attainable with the network for geometric positioning. More sophisticated computer simulations are also performed to determine potential accuracies using long arcs of range and Doppler data from the beacons. The results from these computations show promise for this navigation system.

  17. Hybrid diagnostic system: beacon-based exception analysis for multimissions - Livingstone integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Han G.; Cannon, Howard; Bajwa, Anupa; Mackey, Ryan; James, Mark; Maul, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the initial integration of a hybrid reasoning system utilizing a continuous domain feature-based detector, Beacon-based Exceptions Analysis for Multimissions (BEAM), and a discrete domain model-based reasoner, Livingstone.

  18. Improving adaptive optical systems by the use of multiple laser beacon configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Rue, Imelda Atencio

    The field of adaptive optics (AO) and laser-beacon AO has been successfully implemented in the last part of the 20th century. Adaptive optics greatly improves the resolution capabilities of ground-based telescopes by correcting for atmospheric turbulence. The initial implementation of laser-beacon AO was done on relatively small telescopes, on the order of 1.5 m. However, with larger aperture telescopes being built, such as the 8-m class Gemini telescopes, there is much room for improvement. Errors resulting from laser-beacon AO, such as focus anisoplanatism, become worse with an increase in aperture diameter. Tilt anisoplanatism is also a problem, regardless of the size of telescope, and also needs to be reduced to enhance the resolution of the objects being observed. This dissertation investigates alternate laser-beacon AO configurations, to reduce the effects of focus and tilt anisoplanatism for larger aperture telescopes. The configurations investigated include single and multiple laser beacons at single altitudes and single and multiple laser beacons at multiple altitudes. These second configurations are referred to as hybrid beacon systems and consist of Rayleigh beacons at altitudes of 10 to 20˜km and sodium beacons at about 90˜km, the location of the sodium layer. Hybrid systems are shown to reduce both focus and tilt anisoplanatism as opposed to the first configurations which only aid in reducing focus anisoplanatism. An addition to the hybrid systems with multiple beacons, the use of multiple deformable mirrors (DM's) is investigated. These additional DM's are placed conjugate to atmospheric altitudes with predominant turbulence, beyond the traditional conjugate location of the primary mirror. They correct for turbulence at these atmospheric layers and are referred to as multi-conjugate adaptive optical (MCAO) systems. The purpose of MCAO configurations is to increase the corrected field of view. For the types of systems investigated in this

  19. A polycation-chaperoned in-stem molecular beacon system.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Hiroyuki; Osawa, Takuya; Kashida, Hiromu; Fujii, Taiga; Liang, Xingguo; Niwa, Kosuke; Yoshida, Yasuko; Shimada, Naohiko; Maruyama, Atsushi

    2012-02-01

    In the presence of poly(L-lysine)-graft-dextran, an in-stem molecular beacon involving three perylene-anthraquinone pairs in the stem region had a signal/background ratio of as high as 570. Response speed was also remarkable; equilibrium was attained within 5 minutes after addition of substrate DNA at 20 °C.

  20. Development of satellite position location system for aircraft and boat distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    An international satellite system for the detection and location of distress beacons carried on aircraft and vessels is in its technical checkout phase. User demonstration and evaluation (D&E) will start in early 1983 and continue for two years. The D&E phase and a subsequent transition period will form the basis for improved search and rescue operations for the 1980's and beyond. The system, called COSPAS/SARSAT, has international participation involving the U.S., Canada, and France as SARSAT members and joint participation with the Soviet Union's COSPAS Project. Norway and the U.K. have recently joined as investigators. Average position location error of the satellite aided processing is expected to be from 10-20KM for the existing 121.5/243 MHz distress beacons and from 2-5KM for experimental beacons transmitting in the 406 MHz band.

  1. Polarization Methods of Measuring the Roll Angle of an Object in Motion in Radio Beacon Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulko, V. L.; Mescheryakov, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Polarization methods of measuring the roll angle of an object in motion with the help of radio beacon systems are considered. The polarization properties of the beacon signals received on board the object and amplitude-phase processing of their orthogonal polarized components are used to accomplish this goal.

  2. Lunar radio-beacons and geodetic VLBI system for determination of physical libration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Alexander; Hanada, Hideo; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Matsumoto, Koji; Kosov, Alexander; Nefedyev, Yuri; Petrova, Natalia; Ping, Jinsong; Titov, Oleg

    Many space agencies plan a lunar missions, including scientific observations in the near lunar space and/or on the surface of the Moon. One of these experiments propose to place two landers with radio beacons on the Lunar near side and to launch one or more Orbiters on the Lunar orbit. The difference of the distances between two radio beacons and Earth will be assumed to be measured by the methods of Inverse VLBI: radio-signal from the various radio beacons will be sent to Earth antenna systems using the Orbiter. The estimation of the physical libration angle accuracy is made for various location and configuration of the radio beacons, which are in polar or equatorial zones of the Moon. The planned accuracy of difference distance determination for radio beacons at 60- 100 mm and the length of base line of 1700-3400 km in the Inverse VLBI experiment will be sufficient to improve accuracy of lunar physical libration, better than 10-30 msec of arc. Analogous estimation of latitude libration has shown the same results: location of the Radio Beacon I and Radio Beacon II in the vicinity of the Lunar limb equator and the prime meridian will give the best estimations for the physical libration angeles. For radio beacons experiment the best accuracy of longitudinal and latitudinal librations will be achieved in the equatorial limb and polar zones of the Moon. Geodetic VLBI network managed by the International VLBI Service provides high accurate positions of the reference radio sources, radio telescope coordinates, Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), etc. A small radio telescope being installed on the Moon surface and incorporated to this existing network will help to improve these traditional IVS products by a factor of ten or even more. In addition, this new instrument will be able to detect some known effects with an unprecedented accuracy, and new effects which are not available for other ground-based instruments or space missions. The main navigational task is to

  3. Conceptual development of a ground-based radio-beacon navigation system for use on the surface of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggins, Andrew J.; Canney, Lora M.; Dolezal, Anna Belle

    1988-01-01

    A spread-spectrum radio-beacon navigation system for use on the lunar surface is described. The subjects discussed are principle of operation and specifications to include power requirements, operating frequencies, weight, size, and range.

  4. A digital beacon receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransome, Peter D.

    1988-01-01

    A digital satellite beacon receiver is described which provides measurement information down to a carrier/noise density ratio approximately 15 dB below that required by a conventional (phase locked loop) design. When the beacon signal fades, accuracy degrades gracefully, and is restored immediately (without hysteresis) on signal recovery, even if the signal has faded into the noise. Benefits of the digital processing approach used include the minimization of operator adjustments, stability of the phase measuring circuits with time, repeatability between units, and compatibility with equipment not specifically designed for propagation measuring. The receiver has been developed for the European Olympus satellite which has continuous wave (CW) beacons at 12.5 and 29.7 GHz, and a switched polarization beacon at 19.8 GHz approximately, but the system can be reconfigured for CW and polarization-switched beacons at other frequencies.

  5. Catalytic molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, M N; de Prada, P; Landry, D W

    2001-06-01

    We have constructed catalytic molecular beacons from a hammerhead-type deoxyribozyme by a modular design. The deoxyribozyme was engineered to contain a molecular beacon stem-loop module that, when closed, inhibits the deoxyribozyme module and is complementary to a target oligonucleotide. Binding of target oligonucleotides opens the beacon stem-loop and allosterically activates the deoxyribozyme module, which amplifies the recognition event through cleavage of a doubly labeled fluorescent substrate. The customized modular design of catalytic molecular beacons allows for any two single-stranded oligonucleotide sequences to be distinguished in homogenous solution in a single step. Our constructs demonstrate that antisense conformational triggers based on molecular beacons can be used to initiate catalytic events. The selectivity of the system is sufficient for analytical applications and has potential for the construction of deoxyribozyme-based drug delivery tools specifically activated in cells containing somatic mutations.

  6. Digital Controller For Emergency Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Prototype digital controller intended for use in 406-MHz emergency beacon. Undergoing development according to international specifications, 406-MHz emergency beacon system includes satellites providing worldwide monitoring of beacons, with Doppler tracking to locate each beacon within 5 km. Controller turns beacon on and off and generates binary codes identifying source (e.g., ship, aircraft, person, or vehicle on land). Codes transmitted by phase modulation. Knowing code, monitor attempts to communicate with user, monitor uses code information to dispatch rescue team appropriate to type and locations of carrier.

  7. Laser addressed holographic memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Wagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Holographic recall and storage system uses red-lipid microcrystalline wax as storage medium. When laser beam strikes wax, its energy heats point of incidence enough to pass wax through transition temperature. Holograph image can then be written or erased in softened wax.

  8. Silex Beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaise, D.; Renard, M.

    1992-06-01

    A beacon developed and breadboarded by the SPACEBEL Instrumentation in the framework of the ESA Semiconducter Intersatellite Experiment (Silex) is described. The Silex Beacon is a powerful source aboard the GEO terminal, used by the LEO terminal to locate the latter. The paper describes the general architecture of the Silex Beacon and the flight model design and discusses the future developments. The far field pattern obtained by the breadboard is presented.

  9. Multiple systems for spatial learning: dead reckoning and beacon homing in rats.

    PubMed

    Shettleworth, Sara J; Sutton, Jennifer E

    2005-04-01

    Rats homed with food in a large lighted arena. Without visual cues, they used dead reckoning. When a beacon indicated the home, rats could also use the beacon. Homing did not differ in 2 groups of rats, 1 provided with the beacon and 1 without it; tests without the beacon gave no evidence that beacon learning overshadowed dead reckoning (Experiment 1). When the beacon was at the home for 1 group and in random locations for another, there was again no evidence of cue competition (Experiment 2). Dead reckoning experience did not block acquisition of beacon homing (Experiment 3). Beacon learning and dead reckoning do not compete for predictive value but acquire information in parallel and are used hierarchically.

  10. A mobile indoor positioning system based on iBeacon technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xin-Yu; Ho, Te-Wei; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Zui-Shen; Yang, Bey-Jing; Lai, Feipei

    2015-01-01

    To increase the efficiency in the emergency room, the goal of this research is to implement a mobile-based indoor positioning system using mobile applications (APP) with the iBeacon solution based on the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology. We use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) based localization method to estimate the patients' locations. Our positioning algorithm achieves 97.22% (95% Confidence Interval = 95.90% - 98.55%) accuracy of classification. As the result, our mechanism is reliable enough to satisfy the need for medical staff to track the locations of their patients. PMID:26737407

  11. A mobile indoor positioning system based on iBeacon technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xin-Yu; Ho, Te-Wei; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Zui-Shen; Yang, Bey-Jing; Lai, Feipei

    2015-01-01

    To increase the efficiency in the emergency room, the goal of this research is to implement a mobile-based indoor positioning system using mobile applications (APP) with the iBeacon solution based on the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology. We use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) based localization method to estimate the patients' locations. Our positioning algorithm achieves 97.22% (95% Confidence Interval = 95.90% - 98.55%) accuracy of classification. As the result, our mechanism is reliable enough to satisfy the need for medical staff to track the locations of their patients.

  12. Implantable acoustic-beacon automatic fish-tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhue, R. J.; Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.; Richards, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A portable automatic fish tracking system was developed for monitoring the two dimensional movements of small fish within fixed areas of estuarine waters and lakes. By using the miniature pinger previously developed for this application, prototype tests of the system were conducted in the York River near the Virginia Institute of Marine Science with two underwater listening stations. Results from these tests showed that the tracking system could position the miniature pinger signals to within + or - 2.5 deg and + or - 135 m at ranges up to 2.5 km. The pingers were implanted in small fish and were successfully tracked at comparable ranges. No changes in either fish behavior or pinger performance were observed as a result of the implantation. Based on results from these prototype tests, it is concluded that the now commercially available system provides an effective approach to underwater tracking of small fish within a fixed area of interest.

  13. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  14. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  15. BEACON PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM AT LUDLOW SCHOOL, IN A PREDOMINANTLY PUERTO RICAN AND NEGRO NEIGHBORHOOD, HAS BEEN LABLED "BEACON" (BE A CITIZEN OF OUR NATION). IT ENDEAVORS TO ENRICH THE EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE STUDENTS THEREBY DEVELOPING THEIR MAXIMUM POTENTIALS FOR ACHIEVEMENT, AND CONTRIBUTING TO THEIR USEFULNESS AS CITIZENS.…

  16. Personal Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

  17. Neuronal beacon.

    PubMed

    Black, B; Mondal, A; Kim, Y; Mohanty, S K

    2013-07-01

    The controlled navigation of the axonal growth cone of a neuron toward the dendrite of its synaptic partner neuron is the fundamental process in forming neuronal circuitry. While a number of technologies have been pursued for axonal guidance over the past decades, they are either invasive or not controllable with high spatial and temporal resolution and are often limited by low guidance efficacy. Here, we report a neuronal beacon based on light for highly efficient and controlled guidance of cortical primary neurons.

  18. Universal molecular beacon-based tracer system for real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Guan, Yuan; Zhao, Meiping; Li, Yuanzong

    2006-11-15

    DNA diagnostic has been moving from expensive, low-throughput, multistep methods to inexpensive, higher throughput, closed-tube, and automated methods. Fluorescence is the favored signaling technology for such assays. In this method, we describe a universal molecular beacon (U-MB) as the fluorescent tracer in the real-time PCR technique. A 5'-universal template primer (5'-UT primer) has been designed with a tail in complementary to the loop and 5'-side arm sequence of U-MB at the 5'-end of forward target specific primer. As PCR cycles increase, a new DNA fragment with a 5'-UT primer tail is synthesized, which is used as the template for next PCR cycle. As the reverse primer extends to the 5'-UT primer tail, the U-MB hybridized is displaced and the fluorescence from the fluorophore of the U-MB is quenched, indicating that the allele-specific PCR is in progress. This tracing system combined with an allele-specific reverse primer and vent (exo-) DNA polymerase, a polymerase that lacks 3'- to 5'-exonuclease activity, was used for the detection of point mutations of base G in codon 259 (AGA) of exon 7 of p53 gene on a panel of breast cancer individuals.

  19. Beacon system based on light-emitting diode sources for runways lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Mario González; Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio A.; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2014-06-01

    New aeronautical ground lighting techniques are becoming increasingly important to ensure the safety and reduce the maintenance costs of the plane's tracks. Until recently, tracks had embedded lighting systems whose sources were based on incandescent lamps. But incandescent lamps have several disadvantages: high energy consumption and frequent breakdowns that result in high maintenance costs (lamp average life-time is ˜1500 operating hours) and the lamp's technology has a lack of new lighting functions, such as signal handling and modification. To solve these problems, the industry has developed systems based on light-emitting diode (LED) technology with improved features: (1) LED lighting consumes one tenth the power, (2) it improves preventive maintenance (an LED's lifetime range is between 25,000 and 100,000 hours), and (3) LED lighting technology can be controlled remotely according to the needs of the track configuration. LEDs have been in use for more than three decades, but only recently, around 2002, have they begun to be used as visual aids, representing the greatest potential change for airport lighting since their inception in the 1920s. Currently, embedded LED systems are not being broadly used due to the specific constraints of the rules and regulations of airports (beacon dimensions, power system technology, etc.). The fundamental requirements applied to embedded lighting systems are to be hosted on a volume where the dimensions are usually critical and also to integrate all the essential components for operation. An embedded architecture that meets the lighting regulations for airport runways is presented. The present work is divided into three main tasks: development of an optical system to optimize lighting according to International Civil Aviation Organization, manufacturing prototype, and model validation.

  20. Evaluation of acoustic beacon characteristics for navigation tasks.

    PubMed

    Tran, T V; Letowski, T; Abouchacra, K S

    2000-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the human factors issues related to acoustic beacons used for auditory navigation. Specific issues addressed were: (1) the effect of various beacon characteristics on human accuracy in turning toward the direction of the acoustic beacon; (2) the difference between real and virtual environments on human accuracy in turning toward the acoustic beacon; and (3) the perceived sound quality of various acoustic beacons. Three experiments were conducted in which acoustic beacons were presented in a background of 80 dBA pink noise. Results of the localization tasks revealed that (a) presentation mode (continuous versus pulsed beacon sound) did not affect the overall localization accuracy or number of front-back confusion errors; and (b) the type of acoustic beacon affected the size of localization error. Results of the sound quality assessment indicated that listeners had definite preferences regarding the type of sound being used as a beacon, with (a) non-speech beacons preferred over speech beacons, (b) a beacon repetition rate of 1.1 rps preferred over either the 0.7 or 2.5 rps rates, and (c) a continuous operation of a beacon preferred over a pulsed operation. Finally, sound quality ratings and localization errors were highly negatively correlated. This finding demonstrates the usefulness and practical values of sound quality judgements for audio display design and evaluation.

  1. Tester for Distress Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Distress beacons on aircraft and boats checked for proper operation with aid of onboard monitor. Monitor mounted in aircraft cockpit or at wheel of boat. Connected to beacon electronics by cable. Monitor used with interface circuitry in beacon, which acts as buffer so that operation of beacon is not adversely affected if monitor is removed or if connecting cable is accidentally short circuited.

  2. 33 CFR 62.23 - Beacons and buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Beacons and buoys. 62.23 Section... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.23 Beacons and buoys. (a... navigation. The primary components of the U.S. Aids to Navigation System are beacons and buoys. (b)...

  3. 33 CFR 62.23 - Beacons and buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Beacons and buoys. 62.23 Section... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.23 Beacons and buoys. (a... navigation. The primary components of the U.S. Aids to Navigation System are beacons and buoys. (b)...

  4. 33 CFR 62.23 - Beacons and buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beacons and buoys. 62.23 Section... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.23 Beacons and buoys. (a... navigation. The primary components of the U.S. Aids to Navigation System are beacons and buoys. (b)...

  5. 33 CFR 62.23 - Beacons and buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Beacons and buoys. 62.23 Section... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.23 Beacons and buoys. (a... navigation. The primary components of the U.S. Aids to Navigation System are beacons and buoys. (b)...

  6. 33 CFR 62.23 - Beacons and buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Beacons and buoys. 62.23 Section... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.23 Beacons and buoys. (a... navigation. The primary components of the U.S. Aids to Navigation System are beacons and buoys. (b)...

  7. Olympus beacon receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostergaard, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A medium-size Beacon Receiving System for reception and processing of the B1 (20 GHz) and B2 (30 GHz) beacons from Olympus has been developed. Integration of B1 and B2 receiving equipment into one system using one antenna and a common computer for control and data processing provides the advantages of a compact configuration and synchronization of the two receiver chains. Range for co-polar signal attenuation meaurement is about 30 dB for both beacons, increasing to 40 dB for B2 if the receivers are synchronized to B1. The accuracy is better than 0.5 dB. Cross-polarization discriminations of the order of 10 to 30 dB may be determined with an accuracy of 1 to 2 dB. A number of radiometers for complementary measurements of atmospheric attenuation of 13 to 30 GHz has also been constructed. A small multi-frequency system for operation around 22 GHz and 31 GHz is presently under development.

  8. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (d) below, each vessel must be equipped with a public address system. (b) On... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  9. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (d) below, each vessel must be equipped with a public address system. (b) On... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  10. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (d) below, each vessel must be equipped with a public address system. (b) On... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  11. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (d) below, each vessel must be equipped with a public address system. (b) On... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  12. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (d) below, each vessel must be equipped with a public address system. (b) On... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  13. 14 CFR 171.269 - Marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marker beacon performance requirements. 171.269 Section 171.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.269 Marker beacon performance requirements. ISMLS marker beacon...

  14. 14 CFR 171.269 - Marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marker beacon performance requirements. 171.269 Section 171.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.269 Marker beacon performance requirements. ISMLS marker beacon...

  15. 14 CFR 171.269 - Marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marker beacon performance requirements. 171.269 Section 171.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.269 Marker beacon performance requirements. ISMLS marker beacon...

  16. 14 CFR 171.269 - Marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marker beacon performance requirements. 171.269 Section 171.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.269 Marker beacon performance requirements. ISMLS marker beacon...

  17. 14 CFR 171.269 - Marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marker beacon performance requirements. 171.269 Section 171.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.269 Marker beacon performance requirements. ISMLS marker beacon...

  18. Rapid and amplification-free detection of fish pathogens by utilizing a molecular beacon-based microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Chih; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2015-01-15

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) and iridovirus are highly infectious pathogens that can cause lethal diseases in various species of fish. These infectious diseases have no effective treatments and the mortality rate is over 80%, which could cause dramatic economic losses in the aquaculture industry. Conventional diagnostic methods of NNV or iridovirus infected fishes, such as virus culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and nucleic acid assays usually require time-consuming and complex procedures performed by specialized technicians with delicate laboratory facilities. Rapid, simple, accurate and on-site detection of NNV and iridovirus infections would enable timely preventive measures such as immediate sacrifice of infected fishes, and is therefore critically needed for the aquaculture industry. In this study, a microfluidic-based assay that employ magnetic beads conjugated with viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) capturing probes and fluorescent DNA molecular beacons were developed to rapidly detect NNV and iridovirus. Importantly, this new assay was realized in an integrated microfluidic system with a custom-made control system. With this approach, direct and automated NNV and iridovirus detection from infected fishes can be achieved in less than 30 min. Therefore, this molecular-beacon based microfluidic system presents a potentially promising tool for rapid diagnosis of fish pathogens in the field in the future.

  19. In-cell protease assay systems based on trans-localizing molecular beacon proteins using HCV protease as a model system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Min Jun; Hwang, Inhwan; Hwang, Hyun Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a sensitive in-cell protease detection system that enables direct fluorescence detection of a target protease and its inhibition inside living cells. This live-cell imaging system provides a fluorescent molecular beacon protein comprised of an intracellular translocation signal sequence, a protease-specific cleavage sequence, and a fluorescent tag sequence(s). The molecular beacon protein is designed to change its intracellular localization upon cleavage by a target protease, i.e., from the cytosol to a subcellular organelle or from a subcellular organelle to the cytosol. Protease activity can be monitored at the single cell level, and accordingly the entire cell population expressing the protease can be accurately enumerated. The clear cellular change in fluorescence pattern makes this system an ideal tool for various life science and drug discovery research, including high throughput and high content screening applications.

  20. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  1. SILEX Beacon equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepin, Pierre-Jean; Leblay, Pierrick; Haller, Regine; Tremillon, Isabelle; Sonon, Jean-Pierre

    1990-07-01

    The design of this equipment based on the use of nineteen 500 mW laser diodes is presented. The Beacon is a powerful and collimated optical source based upon semi-conductor lasers. This equipment is implemented in the SILEX GEO2 terminal and its function is to provide a continuous wave light beam towards the LEO or GEO1 satellites during the acquisition phases. The design was experimentally validated with a functional breadboard, and test results demonstrated the feasibility of every performance required by the SILEX system.

  2. Screening for the breast cancer gene (BRCA1) using a biochip system and molecular beacon probes immobilized on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Culha, Mustafa; Stokes, David L; Griffin, Guy D; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2004-01-01

    We describe the use of a biochip based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for detection of specific genetic sequences using molecular beacons (MB) immobilized on solid surfaces as probes. The applicability of this miniature detection system for screening for the BRCA1 gene is evaluated using MB probes, designed especially for the BRCA1 gene. MB probes are immobilized on a zeta-probe membrane by biotin-streptavidin immobilization. Two immobilization strategies are investigated to obtain optimal assay sensitivity. The MB is immobilized by manual spotting on zeta-probe membrane surfaces with the use of a custom-made stamping system. The detection of the BRCA1 gene using an MB probe is successfully demonstrated and expands the use of the CMOS biochip for medical applications.

  3. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  4. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  5. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  6. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  7. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  8. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passengers unless it is equipped with a public address system which— (a) Is capable of operation independent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public address system. 121.318 Section 121...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  9. Uncertainty evaluation in BEACON power distribution monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, T.; Goldstein, N.P. )

    1989-11-01

    BEACON is an advanced operational core support package that has a three-dimensional nodal code as its cornerstone. The three-dimensional calculation includes all necessary pressurized water reactor feedback effects. The generation of the measured power distribution from the core instrumentation is one of the primary functions of the core-monitoring software. The purpose of this paper is to discuss evaluation of the uncertainty in the measured assembly power from the BEACON system. The study covers not only the normal operating conditions, but off-normal situations to demonstrate BEACON's applicability for that condition.

  10. Cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon: A novel efficient signal translator for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pan; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-15

    Due to its unique features such as high sensitivity, homogeneous format, and independence on fluorescent intensity, fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay has become a hotspot of study in oligonucleotide-based bioassays. However, until now most FA probes require carefully customized structure designs, and thus are neither generalizable for different sensing systems nor effective to obtain sufficient signal response. To address this issue, a cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was successfully engineered for signal amplified FA bioassay, via combining the unique stable structure of molecular beacon and the large molecular mass of streptavidin. Compared with single DNA strand probe or conventional molecular beacon, the DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon exhibited a much higher FA value, which was potential to obtain high signal-background ratio in sensing process. As proof-of-principle, this novel DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was further applied for FA bioassay using DNAzyme-Pb(2+) as a model sensing system. This FA assay approach could selectively detect as low as 0.5nM Pb(2+) in buffer solution, and also be successful for real samples analysis with good recovery values. Compatible with most of oligonucleotide probes' designs and enzyme-based signal amplification strategies, the molecular beacon can serve as a novel signal translator to expand the application prospect of FA technology in various bioassays. PMID:26592607

  11. Cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon: A novel efficient signal translator for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pan; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-15

    Due to its unique features such as high sensitivity, homogeneous format, and independence on fluorescent intensity, fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay has become a hotspot of study in oligonucleotide-based bioassays. However, until now most FA probes require carefully customized structure designs, and thus are neither generalizable for different sensing systems nor effective to obtain sufficient signal response. To address this issue, a cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was successfully engineered for signal amplified FA bioassay, via combining the unique stable structure of molecular beacon and the large molecular mass of streptavidin. Compared with single DNA strand probe or conventional molecular beacon, the DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon exhibited a much higher FA value, which was potential to obtain high signal-background ratio in sensing process. As proof-of-principle, this novel DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was further applied for FA bioassay using DNAzyme-Pb(2+) as a model sensing system. This FA assay approach could selectively detect as low as 0.5nM Pb(2+) in buffer solution, and also be successful for real samples analysis with good recovery values. Compatible with most of oligonucleotide probes' designs and enzyme-based signal amplification strategies, the molecular beacon can serve as a novel signal translator to expand the application prospect of FA technology in various bioassays.

  12. Label-free molecular beacon system based on DNAs containing abasic sites and fluorescent ligands that bind abasic sites.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yusuke; Nishizawa, Seiichi; Teramae, Norio

    2011-10-01

    A new class of label-free molecular beacon (MB) system based on DNA strands that contain abasic (AP) sites (AP-DNA) and adopt stem-loop structures, in combination with fluorescent ligands that bind these AP sites, has been developed. Unlike a conventional MB, which requires covalent labeling of the MB with a fluorophore and a quencher, the developed system (APMB) does not require covalent attachment of signal transduction units. Detailed sensing functions of a series of APMB systems were examined with the aid of the fluorescent ligand named ATMND to provide insight into the design strategy for APMB systems. The effects of the stem length and the position of the AP site in the stem moiety on the fluorescence response of the APMB system were examined. Genotyping of a G/C SNP of PCR amplification products was successfully demonstrated with the APMB system and blue-fluorescent ATMND as a ligand. The APMB system was further extended to a system that utilized green-fluorescent lumiflavin.

  13. Beacon Beware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    1999-01-01

    Addresses Edward Hopper's painting "Light at Two Lights" and the painting's real life subject, Cape Elizabeth Light (Maine). Discusses the fate of lighthouses; includes lessons in visual arts, mathematics and science, language arts, geography, and social studies; and lists internet sites for Edward Hopper and lighthouses. (CMK)

  14. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  15. Great Plains Beacon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Mary-Margaret, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The 7 newsletter issues presented here review the efforts of 10 Midwestern community colleges to achieve greater leadership diversity on their campuses. Called Beacon projects (or collectively, the Beacon Project) after the grant that provided the funding for these efforts, the projects described cover a wide range of approaches. Among them are…

  16. Antarctic field tests of SARSAT personal locater beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Field tests of SARSAT personal locater beacons were conducted in the Antarctic to assess the viability of using these beacons to increase the safety of Antarctic field parties. Data were collected on the extent to which dry or wet snow, melting conditions, crevasse walls and snow bridges affected the ability of the SARSAT satellite to calculate an accurate position of the beacon. Average response time between beacon turn on and alert reception in McMurdo was between 4 and 5 hours for these tests. It is concluded that the SARSAT system is viable for Antarctic operations and it is recommended that it be implemented for future field operations. Because of obstruction of line-of-sight between beacon and satellite degrades the accuracy of the location calculation (particularly in wet snow), it is further recommended that field parties have sufficient numbers of beacons to insure that in an emergency, one will be able to operate from the surface.

  17. Searching for Cost-Optimized Interstellar Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Gregory; Benford, James; Benford, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    What would SETI beacon transmitters be like if built by civilizations that had a variety of motives but cared about cost? In a companion paper, we presented how, for fixed power density in the far field, a cost-optimum interstellar beacon system could be built. Here, we consider how we should search for a beacon if it were produced by a civilization similar to ours. High-power transmitters could be built for a wide variety of motives other than the need for two-way communication, this would include beacons built to be seen over thousands of light-years. Extraterrestrial beacon builders would likely have to contend with economic pressures just as their terrestrial counterparts do. Cost, spectral lines near 1GHz, and interstellar scintillation favor radiating frequencies substantially above the classic "water hole." Therefore, the transmission strategy for a distant, cost-conscious beacon would be a rapid scan of the galactic plane with the intent to cover the angular space. Such pulses would be infrequent events for the receiver. Such beacons built by distant, advanced, wealthy societies would have very different characteristics from what SETI researchers seek. Future searches should pay special attention to areas along the galactic disk where SETI searches have seen coherent signals that have not recurred on the limited listening time intervals we have used. We will need to wait for recurring events that may arrive in intermittent bursts. Several new SETI search strategies have emerged from these ideas. We propose a new test for beacons that is based on the Life Plane hypotheses.

  18. Searching for cost-optimized interstellar beacons.

    PubMed

    Benford, Gregory; Benford, James; Benford, Dominic

    2010-06-01

    What would SETI beacon transmitters be like if built by civilizations that had a variety of motives but cared about cost? In a companion paper, we presented how, for fixed power density in the far field, a cost-optimum interstellar beacon system could be built. Here, we consider how we should search for a beacon if it were produced by a civilization similar to ours. High-power transmitters could be built for a wide variety of motives other than the need for two-way communication; this would include beacons built to be seen over thousands of light-years. Extraterrestrial beacon builders would likely have to contend with economic pressures just as their terrestrial counterparts do. Cost, spectral lines near 1 GHz, and interstellar scintillation favor radiating frequencies substantially above the classic "water hole." Therefore, the transmission strategy for a distant, cost-conscious beacon would be a rapid scan of the galactic plane with the intent to cover the angular space. Such pulses would be infrequent events for the receiver. Such beacons built by distant, advanced, wealthy societies would have very different characteristics from what SETI researchers seek. Future searches should pay special attention to areas along the galactic disk where SETI searches have seen coherent signals that have not recurred on the limited listening time intervals we have used. We will need to wait for recurring events that may arrive in intermittent bursts. Several new SETI search strategies have emerged from these ideas. We propose a new test for beacons that is based on the Life Plane hypotheses.

  19. Searching for cost-optimized interstellar beacons.

    PubMed

    Benford, Gregory; Benford, James; Benford, Dominic

    2010-06-01

    What would SETI beacon transmitters be like if built by civilizations that had a variety of motives but cared about cost? In a companion paper, we presented how, for fixed power density in the far field, a cost-optimum interstellar beacon system could be built. Here, we consider how we should search for a beacon if it were produced by a civilization similar to ours. High-power transmitters could be built for a wide variety of motives other than the need for two-way communication; this would include beacons built to be seen over thousands of light-years. Extraterrestrial beacon builders would likely have to contend with economic pressures just as their terrestrial counterparts do. Cost, spectral lines near 1 GHz, and interstellar scintillation favor radiating frequencies substantially above the classic "water hole." Therefore, the transmission strategy for a distant, cost-conscious beacon would be a rapid scan of the galactic plane with the intent to cover the angular space. Such pulses would be infrequent events for the receiver. Such beacons built by distant, advanced, wealthy societies would have very different characteristics from what SETI researchers seek. Future searches should pay special attention to areas along the galactic disk where SETI searches have seen coherent signals that have not recurred on the limited listening time intervals we have used. We will need to wait for recurring events that may arrive in intermittent bursts. Several new SETI search strategies have emerged from these ideas. We propose a new test for beacons that is based on the Life Plane hypotheses. PMID:20624057

  20. A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Gabor E.; Roth, Titus

    1988-01-01

    Total ionospheric electron contents (TEC) were measured by global positioning system (GPS) dual-frequency receivers developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The measurements included P-code (precise ranging code) and carrier phase data for six GPS satellites during multiple five-hour observing sessions. A set of these GPS TEC measurements were mapped from the GPS lines of sight to the line of sight of a Faraday beacon satellite by statistically fitting the TEC data to a simple model of the ionosphere. The mapped GPS TEC values were compared with the Faraday rotation measurements. Because GPS transmitter offsets are different for each satellite and because some GPS receiver offsets were uncalibrated, the sums of the satellite and receiver offsets were estimated simultaneously with the TEC in a least squares procedure. The accuracy of this estimation procedure is evaluated indicating that the error of the GPS-determined line of sight TEC can be at or below 1 x 10 to the 16th el/sq cm. Consequently, the current level of accuracy is comparable to the Faraday rotation technique; however, GPS provides superior sky coverage.

  1. Building and Strengthening Infrastructure for Data Exchange: Lessons from the Beacon Communities

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Gretchen W.; Swietek, Karen; Ubri, Petry S.; Singer, Rachel F.; Lowell, Kristina H.; Miller, Wilhelmine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program supports interventions, including care-delivery innovations, provider performance measurement and feedback initiatives, and tools for providers and consumers to enhance care. Using a learning health system framework, we examine the Beacon Communities’ processes in building and strengthening health IT (HIT) infrastructures, specifically successes and challenges in sharing patient information to improve clinical care. Background: In 2010, the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) launched the three-year program, which provided $250 million to 17 Beacon Communities to invest in HIT and health information exchange (HIE) infrastructure. Beacon Communities used this funding to develop and disseminate HIT-enabled quality improvement practices found effective in particular community and practice environments. Methods: NORC conducted 7 site visits, November 2012–March 2013, selecting Communities to represent diverse program features. From August–October 2013, NORC held discussions with the remaining 10 Communities. Following each visit or discussion, NORC summarized the information gathered, including transcripts, team observations, and other documents the Community provided, to facilitate a within-Community analysis of context and stakeholders, intervention strategies, enabling factors, and challenges. Results: Although each Community designed and implemented data-sharing strategies in a unique environment, similar challenges and enabling factors emerged across the Beacons. From a learning health system perspective, their strategies to build and strengthen data-sharing infrastructures address the following crosscutting priorities: promoting technical advances and innovations by helping providers adapt EHRs for data exchange and performance measurement with customizable IT and offering technical support to smaller, independent providers; engaging key stakeholders; and

  2. Autonomous navigation using lunar beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, A. R.; Ellis, J.; French, J.; Null, G.; Yunck, T.; Wu, S.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of using lunar beacon signal transmission for on-board navigation for earth satellites and near-earth spacecraft is described. The system would require powerful transmitters on the earth-side of the moon's surface and black box receivers with antennae and microprocessors placed on board spacecraft for autonomous navigation. Spacecraft navigation requires three position and three velocity elements to establish location coordinates. Two beacons could be soft-landed on the lunar surface at the limits of allowable separation and each would transmit a wide-beam signal with cones reaching GEO heights and be strong enough to be received by small antennae in near-earth orbit. The black box processor would perform on-board computation with one-way Doppler/range data and dynamical models. Alternatively, GEO satellites such as the GPS or TDRSS spacecraft can be used with interferometric techniques to provide decimeter-level accuracy for aircraft navigation.

  3. Messaging with Cost-Optimized Interstellar Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, James; Benford, Gregory; Benford, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    On Earth, how would we build galactic-scale beacons to attract the attention of extraterrestrials, as some have suggested we should do? From the point of view of expense to a builder on Earth, experience shows an optimum trade-off. This emerges by minimizing the cost of producing a desired power density at long range, which determines the maximum range of detectability of a transmitted signal. We derive general relations for cost-optimal aperture and power. For linear dependence of capital cost on transmitter power and antenna area, minimum capital cost occurs when the cost is equally divided between antenna gain and radiated power. For nonlinear power-law dependence, a similar simple division occurs. This is validated in cost data for many systems; industry uses this cost optimum as a rule of thumb. Costs of pulsed cost-efficient transmitters are estimated from these relations by using current cost parameters ($/W, $/sq m) as a basis. We show the scaling and give examples of such beacons. Galactic-scale beacons can be built for a few billion dollars with our present technology. Such beacons have narrow "searchlight" beams and short "dwell times" when the beacon would be seen by an alien observer in their sky. More-powerful beacons are more efficient and have economies of scale: cost scales only linearly with range R, not as R(exp 2), so number of stars radiated to increases as the square of cost. On a cost basis, they will likely transmit at higher microwave frequencies, -10 GHz. The natural corridor to broadcast is along the galactic radius or along the local spiral galactic arm we are in. A companion paper asks "If someone like us were to produce a beacon, how should we look for it?"

  4. Messaging with cost-optimized interstellar beacons.

    PubMed

    Benford, James; Benford, Gregory; Benford, Dominic

    2010-06-01

    On Earth, how would we build galactic-scale beacons to attract the attention of extraterrestrials, as some have suggested we should do? From the point of view of expense to a builder on Earth, experience shows an optimum trade-off. This emerges by minimizing the cost of producing a desired power density at long range, which determines the maximum range of detectability of a transmitted signal. We derive general relations for cost-optimal aperture and power. For linear dependence of capital cost on transmitter power and antenna area, minimum capital cost occurs when the cost is equally divided between antenna gain and radiated power. For nonlinear power-law dependence, a similar simple division occurs. This is validated in cost data for many systems; industry uses this cost optimum as a rule of thumb. Costs of pulsed cost-efficient transmitters are estimated from these relations by using current cost parameters ($/W, $/m(2)) as a basis. We show the scaling and give examples of such beacons. Galactic-scale beacons can be built for a few billion dollars with our present technology. Such beacons have narrow "searchlight" beams and short "dwell times" when the beacon would be seen by an alien observer in their sky. More-powerful beacons are more efficient and have economies of scale: cost scales only linearly with range R, not as R(2), so number of stars radiated to increases as the square of cost. On a cost basis, they will likely transmit at higher microwave frequencies, approximately 10 GHz. The natural corridor to broadcast is along the galactic radius or along the local spiral galactic arm we are in. A companion paper asks "If someone like us were to produce a beacon, how should we look for it?"

  5. Messaging with Cost-Optimized Interstellar Beacons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, James; Benford, Gregory; Benford, Dominic

    2010-06-01

    On Earth, how would we build galactic-scale beacons to attract the attention of extraterrestrials, as some have suggested we should do? From the point of view of expense to a builder on Earth, experience shows an optimum trade-off. This emerges by minimizing the cost of producing a desired power density at long range, which determines the maximum range of detectability of a transmitted signal. We derive general relations for cost-optimal aperture and power. For linear dependence of capital cost on transmitter power and antenna area, minimum capital cost occurs when the cost is equally divided between antenna gain and radiated power. For nonlinear power-law dependence, a similar simple division occurs. This is validated in cost data for many systems; industry uses this cost optimum as a rule of thumb. Costs of pulsed cost-efficient transmitters are estimated from these relations by using current cost parameters (/W, /m2) as a basis. We show the scaling and give examples of such beacons. Galactic-scale beacons can be built for a few billion dollars with our present technology. Such beacons have narrow "searchlight" beams and short "dwell times" when the beacon would be seen by an alien observer in their sky. More-powerful beacons are more efficient and have economies of scale: cost scales only linearly with range R, not as R2, so number of stars radiated to iincreases as the square of cost. On a cost basis, they will likely transmit at higher microwave frequencies, ˜10 GHz. The natural corridor to broadcast is along the galactic radius or along the local spiral galactic arm we are in. A companion paper asks "If someone like us were to produce a beacon, how should we look for it?"

  6. Selective Attention in Multi-Chip Address-Event Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the “Selective Attention Chip” (SAC), which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model. PMID:22346689

  7. Wide field of view laser beacon system for three dimensional aircraft range measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, E. Y.

    1982-01-01

    A system that measures accurately the distance from an aircraft to a helicoper for rotor noise flight testing was developed. The system measures the range and angles between two aircraft using laser optics. This system can be applied in collision avoidance, robotics and other measurement critical tasks.

  8. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  9. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems.

  10. A Beacon for Baltimore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    High on the mainmast of the clipper Pride of Baltimore, crew members have installed a NASA-developed satellite beacon which enables continual tracking of the ship as she roams the seas on goodwill tours. The simple 10-pound beacon affixed to Pride's mainmast allows Baltimore's Operational Sail to keep track of the ship on its voyages to distant places. Once every minute, the compact, battery powered unit sends a radio signal to NASA's Nimbus-6 research satellite where the frequency shift of successive signals provides information for computing the ship's latitude and longitude.

  11. Determining Locations by Use of Networks of Passive Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Gray, Andrew; Jennings, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Networks of passive radio beacons spanning moderate-sized terrain areas have been proposed to aid navigation of small robotic aircraft that would be used to explore Saturn s moon Titan. Such networks could also be used on Earth to aid navigation of robotic aircraft, land vehicles, or vessels engaged in exploration or reconnaissance in situations or locations (e.g., underwater locations) in which Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are unreliable or unavailable. Prior to use, it would be necessary to pre-position the beacons at known locations that would be determined by use of one or more precise independent global navigation system(s). Thereafter, while navigating over the area spanned by a given network of passive beacons, an exploratory robot would use the beacons to determine its position precisely relative to the known beacon positions (see figure). If it were necessary for the robot to explore multiple, separated terrain areas spanned by different networks of beacons, the robot could use a long-haul, relatively coarse global navigation system for the lower-precision position determination needed during transit between such areas. The proposed method of precise determination of position of an exploratory robot relative to the positions of passive radio beacons is based partly on the principles of radar and partly on the principles of radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. The robot would transmit radar-like signals that would be modified and reflected by the passive beacons. The distance to each beacon would be determined from the roundtrip propagation time and/or round-trip phase shift of the signal returning from that beacon. Signals returned from different beacons could be distinguished by means of their RFID characteristics. Alternatively or in addition, the antenna of each beacon could be designed to radiate in a unique pattern that could be identified by the navigation system. Also, alternatively or in addition, sets of identical beacons could

  12. Label-free molecular beacons for biomolecular detection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaohong; Wang, Yi; Armitage, Bruce A; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2014-11-01

    Biomolecular detection and imaging methods provide quantitative measurements essential for biological research. In this context, molecular beacon based sensors have emerged as powerful, no-wash imaging agents, providing target-specific fluorescent activation for nucleic acids, proteins, and small molecules. Conventional molecular beacons require double-labeled DNA sequences, which are costly and time-consuming to prepare. To address this issue, we developed DNA based label-free molecular beacons consisting of two regions: a signal-generating region based on human telomeric G-quadruplex sequence that activates Thioflavin T fluorescence and a target recognition sequence designed to interact in a molecular beacon format. We demonstrated the utility of these probes for the selective detection of DNA, RNA, and protein. Multiple probes were applied against a single target to achieve improved brightness in fluorescence detection of nucleic acid targets. This label-free strategy provides a straightforward, cost-effective alternative to fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides in biomolecular detection and imaging.

  13. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  14. Molecular Beacon-Based MicroRNA Imaging During Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence monitoring system for examining endogenous microRNA (miRNA) activity in cellular level provides crucial information on not only understanding a critical role of miRNA involving a variety of biological processes, but also evaluating miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this protocol, we report the details of a new procedure for a molecular beacon-based miRNA monitoring system, which includes the illustration scheme for miRNA detection strategy, exogenous miRNA detection, and measurement of endogenous miRNA expression level during neurogenesis. The fluorescence signal of miR-124a beacon quenched by BHQ2 was gradually recovered as increasing concentration of the miR-124a in tube. The functional work of miR-124a beacon was examined in intracellular environment, allowing for the internalization of the miR-124a beacon by lipofectamine, which resulted in activated fluorescent signals of the miR-124a beacon in the HeLa cells after the addition of synthetic miR-124a. The endogenous miR-124a expression level was detected by miR-124a beacon system during neurogenesis, showing brighter fluorescence intensity in cytoplasmic area of P19 cells after induction of neuronal differentiation by retinoic acid. The molecular beacon based-miRNA detection technique could be applicable to the simultaneous visualization of a variety of miRNA expression patterns using different fluorescence dyes. For the study of examining endogenous miRNA expression level using miRNA-beacon system, if cellular differentiation step is already prepared, transfection step of miR-124a beacon into P19 cells, and acquisition of activated fluorescence signal measured by confocal microscope can be conducted approximately within 6 h.

  15. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  16. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Lexi Bambas; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, J. Norberto W.; Delgado, Iris; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Moser, Kath; Rolfe, Liz; Vega, Jeanette; Zarowsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development. PMID:16184279

  17. Highly efficient quencher-free molecular beacon systems containing 2-ethynyldibenzofuran- and 2-ethynyldibenzothiophene-labeled 2'-deoxyuridine units.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiwon; Cho, Hyun Yi; Hwang, Gil Tae

    2013-07-22

    We have prepared two fluorescent DNA probes--UDBF and UDBT, containing 2-ethynyldibenzofuran and 2-ethynyldibenzothiophene moieties, respectively, covalently attached to the base dU--and incorporated them in the central positions of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) so as to develop new types of quencher-free linear beacon probes and investigate the effect of functionalization of the fluorene scaffold on the photophysical properties of the fluorescent ODNs. The ODNs containing adenine flanking bases (FBs) displayed a selective fluorescence "turn-off" response to mismatched targets with guanine bases; this suggests that these probes could be used as base-discriminating fluorescent nucleotides. On the other hand, we observed a "turn-on" response to matched targets when the UDBF and UDBT units of ODNs containing pyrimidine-based FBs were positioned opposite the four natural nucleobases. In particular, an ODN incorporating UDBT and cytosine FBs has potential use in single-nucleotide polymorphism typing.

  18. Development of a high-throughput detection system for HIV-1 using real-time NASBA based on molecular beacons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beuningen, Rinie; Marras, Salvatore A.; Kramer, Fred R.; Oosterlaken, Tom; Weusten, Jos; Borst, G.; van de Wiel, Paul

    2001-04-01

    HIV-1 viral load assays require accuracy and sensitivity at low RNA levels with the capability to detect all subtypes. Furthermore, the assay should be easy to perform and fast to be useful for routine diagnostics. In order to meet these demands we have combined isothermal NASBA amplification with molecular beacon probes for real-time detection and quantitation of HIV-1 RNA. Quantitation is based on co-amplification of the HIV-1 RNA in the clinical sample and a synthetic calibrator RNA which is amplified by the same primer set but detected with a differently labeled molecular beacon. The entire procedure is simple and analysis of 48 samples requires less than 1» hours with minimal hands-on time. A fluorescent plate reader is used for real-time detection and isothermal amplification. The linearity and precision of the assay was determined with the VQC HIV-1 type B standard of the Central Laboratory of the Dutch Red Cross Blood Banks, The Netherlands. Sensitivity was shown to be 50 copies per ml (cps/ml). The average assay precision was 0,19 log10 over a range of 100-300,000 cps/ml tested at nine concentrations. The linearity of dilution series of 15 cultured HIV-1 gag clades A-H was shown. The specificity was 100% on non HIV-1 samples HIV-2, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. The assay robustness in terms of valid results was 99%. In conclusion, the new real-time NASBA assay meets state-of-the-art HIV-1 viral load performance requirements combined with a high level of user convenience.

  19. Building a million beacon map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julier, Simon J.; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.

    2001-10-01

    Many future missions for mobile robots demand multi-robot systems which are capable of operating in large environments for long periods of time. A critical capability is that each robot must be able to localize itself. However, GPS cannot be used in many environments (such as within city streets, under water, indoors, beneath foliage or extra-terrestrial robotic missions) where mobile robots are likely to become commonplace. A widely researched alternative is Simultaneous Localization and Map Building (SLAM): the vehicle constructs a map and, concurrently, estimates its own position. In this paper we consider the problem of building and maintaining an extremely large map (of one million beacons). We describe a fully distributed, highly scaleable SLAM algorithm which is based on distributed data fusion systems. A central map is maintained in global coordinates using the Split Covariance Intersection (SCI) algorithm. Relative and local maps are run independently of the central map and their estimates are periodically fused with the central map.

  20. A molecular beacon DNA microarray system for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 that eliminates the risk of a false negative signal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanyoup; Kane, Michael D; Kim, Sol; Dominguez, Wilfredo; Applegate, Bruce M; Savikhin, Sergei

    2007-01-15

    A DNA hybridization based optical detection platform for the detection of foodborne pathogens has been developed with virtually zero probability of the false negative signal. This portable, low-cost and real-time assaying detection platform utilizes the color changing molecular beacon as a probe for the optical detection of the target sequence. The computer-controlled detection platform exploits the target hybridization induced change of fluorescence color due to the Förster (fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a pair of spectrally shifted fluorophores conjugated to the opposite ends of a beacon (oligonucleotide probe). Unlike the traditional fluorophore-quencher beacon design, the presence of two fluorescence molecules allows to actively visualize both hybridized and unhybridized states of the beacon. This eliminates false negative signal detection characteristic for the fluorophore-quencher beacon where bleaching of the fluorophore or washout of a beacon is indistinguishable from the absence of the target DNA sequence. In perspective, the two-color design allows also to quantify the concentration of the target DNA in a sample down to < =1 ng/microl. The new design is suitable for simultaneous reliable detection of hundreds of DNA target sequences in one test run using a series of beacons immobilized on a single substrate in a spatial format.

  1. Molecular beacon sequence design algorithm.

    PubMed

    Monroe, W Todd; Haselton, Frederick R

    2003-01-01

    A method based on Web-based tools is presented to design optimally functioning molecular beacons. Molecular beacons, fluorogenic hybridization probes, are a powerful tool for the rapid and specific detection of a particular nucleic acid sequence. However, their synthesis costs can be considerable. Since molecular beacon performance is based on its sequence, it is imperative to rationally design an optimal sequence before synthesis. The algorithm presented here uses simple Microsoft Excel formulas and macros to rank candidate sequences. This analysis is carried out using mfold structural predictions along with other free Web-based tools. For smaller laboratories where molecular beacons are not the focus of research, the public domain algorithm described here may be usefully employed to aid in molecular beacon design.

  2. Optical telecommunications: performance of the qualification model SILEX beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Michel; Dobie, Paul J.; Gollier, Jacques; Heinrichs, Theo; Woszczyk, Pawel; Sobeczko, Andre

    1995-04-01

    The Beacon is a powerful non-coherent CW infra-red laser source which is developed under the Semi-conductor Inter-satellite Link Experiment (SILEX). It will provide a high divergence beam used during the first tracking acquisition sequence of the Spot 4/Artemis optical communication link. The Beacon uses high efficiency anamorphic couplers to deliver output from 19 laser diodes into a single multi-mode Mixing Fiber, the exit of which is integrated at the focal plane of a collimator. Beacon output is maintained at the required level during unit life using an Optical Monitoring System and a Beacon output Tele-Command. The Engineering Qualification Model is now complete and overall performance with respect to the SILEX requirements is presented.

  3. Tripartite molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Nutiu, Razvan; Li, Yingfu

    2002-09-15

    Molecular beacons (MBs) are hairpin-like fluorescent DNA probes that have single-mismatch detection capability. Although they are extremely useful for many solution-based nucleic acid detections, MBs are expensive probes for applications that require the use of a large number of different DNA probes due to the high cost and tedious procedures associated with probe synthesis and purification. In addition, since both ends of MB probes are covalently modified with chromophores, they do not offer the flexibility for fluorophore change and the capability for surface immobilization through free DNA ends. In this report, we describe an alternative form of MB, denoted tripartite molecular beacon (TMB), that may help overcome these problems. A TMB uses an unmodified oligodeoxyribonucleotide that forms a MB-like structure with two universal single-stranded arms to bring on a universal pair of oligodeoxyribonucleotides modified separately with a fluorophore and a quencher. We found that TMBs are as effective as standard MBs in signaling the presence of matching nucleic acid targets and in precisely discriminating targets that differ by a single nucleotide. TMBs have the necessary flexibility that may make MBs more affordable for various nucleic acid detection applications.

  4. PNA beacons for duplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, H; Demidov, V V; Gildea, B D; Fiandaca, M J; Coull, J C; Frank-Kamenetskii, M D

    2001-08-01

    We report here on the hybridization of peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-based molecular beacons (MB) directly to duplex DNA sites locally exposed by PNA openers. Two stemless PNA beacons were tested, both featuring the same recognition sequence and fluorophore-quencher pair (Fluorescein and DABCYL, respectively) but differing in arrangement of these groups and net electrostatic charge. It was found that one PNA beacon rapidly hybridized, with the aid of openers, to its complementary target within duplex DNA at ambient conditions via formation of a PD-like loop. In contrast, the other PNA beacon bound more slowly to preopened duplex DNA target and only at elevated temperatures, although it readily hybridized to single-stranded (ss) DNA target. Besides a higher selectivity of hybridization provided by site-specific PNA openers, we expect this approach to be very useful in those MB applications when denaturation of the duplex DNA analytes is unfavorable or undesirable. Furthermore, we show that PNA beacons are advantageous over DNA beacons for analyzing unpurified/nondeproteinized DNA samples. This feature of PNA beacons and our innovative hybridization strategy may find applications in emerging fluorescent DNA diagnostics.

  5. Optical telecommunications: performance of the protoflight model SILEX beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Michel; Dobie, Paul J.; Grodent, C.; Woszczyk, Pawel; Sobeczko, Andre

    1996-04-01

    The beacon is a powerful non-coherent cw infra-red laser source which will provide a high divergence beam used during the first tracking acquisition sequence of the Spot 4/Artemis optical communication link. The beacon uses high efficiency anamorphic couplers to deliver output from 19 laser diodes into a single multi-mode mixing fiber, the exit of which is integrated at the focal plane of a collimator. Beacon output is maintained at the required level (nominally 8 KW/Sr) during unit life using an optical monitoring system and a beacon output tele-command. Following successful environmental testing, the proto-flight model (PFM) has recently been delivered ready for integration onto the SILEX terminal. This paper describes the overall performance of the PFM beacon with respect to SILEX requirements. An improved beacon using 1.2 W laser diodes which will be capable of delivering up to 17 KW/Sr is currently under construction. An analysis of the design aspects to be considered when using high power laser diodes in this type of application is presented. Finally, a brief summary is given of SPACEBEL activities associated with high power and more compact optical communication units for future missions.

  6. DNAzyme catalytic beacon sensors that resist temperature-dependent variations.

    PubMed

    Nagraj, Nandini; Liu, Juewen; Sterling, Stephanie; Wu, Jenny; Lu, Yi

    2009-07-21

    The temperature-dependent variability of a Pb2+-specific 8-17E DNAzyme catalytic beacon sensor has been addressed through the introduction of mismatches in the DNAzyme, and the resulting sensors resist temperature-dependent variations from 4 to 30 degrees C.

  7. Developing Cohesive Leadership Means Addressing All Parts of the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Troyce

    2010-01-01

    In her role with the School Administrators of Iowa leading Iowa's leadership grant from The Wallace Foundation, the author works with a coalition of individuals and groups striving to implement a cohesive leadership system for school leaders. Efforts to create a cohesive leadership system in Iowa for the past nine years have resulted in many…

  8. The Future of Systems Aeronomy in Addressing New Science Frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Paxton, L. J.; Ridley, A.

    2005-12-01

    The future will see a new era in our ability to characterize the state of the sun-Earth system using the SEC Great Observatory, new electronic data handling and data mining technologies, high-performance sun-to-Earth models, new techniques for assimilation of sparse data, and the development of innovative worldwide research tools through integration of ground-based observing sites. The time has come to pull these developing capabilities together into an investigation that seeks to understand aeronomy at a higher level than has previously been possible. Systems Aeronomy is a study of this global system behavior but, more than that, it investigates the large-scale systems-level features that result from elemental processes, like ion-neutral coupling, plasma drifts or radiative cooling. Currently the TIMED mission is making important contributions in identifying and characterizing the "building block" processes that change, evolve and combine to form the system response. Systems Aeronomy must have observational, theoretical and computational components to succeed. One of the key requirements is the ability to capture global data sets and integrate them into a coherent picture of the ITM system and its relationship to geospace. Success requires enhanced coordination between operating satellites throughout the sun-Earth system, new techniques for creating global maps from networks of ground-based and satellite-based sensors, and a new level of international cooperation leveraging off IPY2007, IHY2007, eGY2007, CAWSES, ICESTAR, and other planned worldwide programs. Twenty years down the road, Systems Aeronomy will provide the foundation for understanding planetary atmospheres, significantly extend the range of useful space weather prediction, and provide an important approach for investigating the impacts of anthropogenic and climatological changes in the ITM and on the geospace system as a whole.

  9. Development of in-cell imaging assay systems for MMP-2 and MMP-9 based on trans-localizing molecular beacon proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Jun; Cho, Young-Ah; Hwang, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive in-cell imaging MMP-2 and MMP-9 detection systems that enables direct fluorescence detection of a target protease and its inhibition inside living cells has been developed. This in-cell imaging system utilizes the concept of fluorescent molecular beacon reporter (MBR) protein comprising a masking protein, a mitochondrial targeting sequence, a protease specific cleavage sequence and a fluorescent marker sequence, green fluorescent protein (GFP). The MBR protein is designed to change its intracellular location upon cleavage by either MMP-2 or MMP-9 from cytosol to mitochondria. Full and partial MMP-2 and MMP-9 were tested for optimal expression and activity in the cell. The activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was approximately 65-71%. Among MMP clones, MMP-2 catalytic domain and MMP-9 clone containing pro, catalytic and hemopexin domain were most active. Both MMP-2 and MMP-9 required divalent ions Ca and Zn for its activity and MMP-9 was more active at higher Ca/Zn ratio. With the in-cell imaging assay the protease activity can be measured in cellular environment and cellular toxicity of candidate molecules can be monitored at the same time. These are great advantage when compared to other currently used in vitro biochemical assays. The in-cell imaging assay developed in this study can be modified for other MMPs and can be used in various life science and drug discovery researches including the high throughput screening and high contents screening applications.

  10. Validation of the Calypso Surface Beacon Transponder.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Maxwell; Saleh, Ziad; Volpe, Tom; Margiasso, Rich; Li, Xiang; Chan, Maria; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Calypso L-shaped Surface Beacon transponder has recently become available for clinical applications. We herein conduct studies to validate the Surface Beacon transponder in terms of stability, reproducibility, orientation sensitivity, cycle rate dependence, and respiratory waveform tracking accuracy. The Surface Beacon was placed on a Quasar respiratory phantom and positioned at the isocenter with its two arms aligned with the lasers. Breathing waveforms were simulated, and the motion of the transponder was tracked. Stability and drift analysis: sinusoidal waveforms (200 cycles) were produced, and the amplitudes of phases 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) were recorded at each breathing cycle. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the amplitudes were calculated. Linear least-squares fitting was performed to access the possible amplitude drift over the breathing cycles. Reproducibility: similar setting to stability and drift analysis, and the phantom generated 100 cycles of the sinusoidal waveform per run. The Calypso system's was re-setup for each run. Recorded amplitude and SD of 0% and 50% phase were compared between runs to assess contribution of Calypso electromagnetic array setup variation. Beacon orientation sensitivity: the Calypso tracks sinusoidal phantom motion with a defined angular offset of the beacon to assess its effect on SD and peak-to-peak amplitude. Rate dependence: sinusoidal motion was generated at cycle rates of 1 Hz, .33 Hz, and .2 Hz. Peak-to-peak displacement and SDs were assessed. Respiratory waveform tracking accuracy: the phantom reproduced recorded breathing cycles (by volunteers and patients) were tracked by the Calypso system. Deviation in tracking position from produced waveform was used to calculate SD throughout entire breathing cycle. Stability and drift analysis: Mean amplitude ± SD of phase 0% or 50% were 20.01 ± 0.04 mm and -19.65 ± 0.08 mm, respectively. No clinically significant drift was detected with drift measured as 5.1

  11. Validation of the Calypso Surface Beacon Transponder.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Maxwell; Saleh, Ziad; Volpe, Tom; Margiasso, Rich; Li, Xiang; Chan, Maria; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-07-08

    Calypso L-shaped Surface Beacon transponder has recently become available for clinical applications. We herein conduct studies to validate the Surface Beacon transponder in terms of stability, reproducibility, orientation sensitivity, cycle rate dependence, and respiratory waveform tracking accuracy. The Surface Beacon was placed on a Quasar respiratory phantom and positioned at the isocenter with its two arms aligned with the lasers. Breathing waveforms were simulated, and the motion of the transponder was tracked. Stability and drift analysis: sinusoidal waveforms (200 cycles) were produced, and the amplitudes of phases 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) were recorded at each breathing cycle. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the amplitudes were calculated. Linear least-squares fitting was performed to access the possible amplitude drift over the breathing cycles. Reproducibility: similar setting to stability and drift analysis, and the phantom generated 100 cycles of the sinusoidal waveform per run. The Calypso system's was re-setup for each run. Recorded amplitude and SD of 0% and 50% phase were compared between runs to assess contribution of Calypso electromagnetic array setup variation. Beacon orientation sensitivity: the Calypso tracks sinusoidal phantom motion with a defined angular offset of the beacon to assess its effect on SD and peak-to-peak amplitude. Rate dependence: sinusoidal motion was generated at cycle rates of 1 Hz, .33 Hz, and .2 Hz. Peak-to-peak displacement and SDs were assessed. Respiratory waveform tracking accuracy: the phantom reproduced recorded breathing cycles (by volunteers and patients) were tracked by the Calypso system. Deviation in tracking position from produced waveform was used to calculate SD throughout entire breathing cycle. Stability and drift analysis: Mean amplitude ± SD of phase 0% or 50% were 20.01 ± 0.04 mm and -19.65 ± 0.08 mm, respectively. No clinically significant drift was detected with drift measured as 5.1

  12. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  13. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  14. Digital detection and processing of laser beacon signals for aircraft collision hazard warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, L. M.; Miles, R. B.; Russell, G. F.; Tomeh, M. G.; Webb, S. G.; Wong, E. Y.

    1981-01-01

    A low-cost collision hazard warning system suitable for implementation in both general and commercial aviation is presented. Laser beacon systems are used as sources of accurate relative position information that are not dependent on communication between aircraft or with the ground. The beacon system consists of a rotating low-power laser beacon, detector arrays with special optics for wide angle acceptance and filtering of solar background light, microprocessors for proximity and relative trajectory computation, and pilot displays of potential hazards. The laser beacon system provides direct measurements of relative aircraft positions; using optimal nonlinear estimation theory, the measurements resulting from the current beacon sweep are combined with previous data to provide the best estimate of aircraft proximity, heading, minimium passing distance, and time to closest approach.

  15. Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Genene

    2011-01-01

    When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

  16. Design of a novel molecular beacon: modification of the stem with artificially genetic alphabet.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Pinpin; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Youngmi; Wu, Yanrong; Tan, Weihong; Benner, Steven A

    2008-11-01

    A molecular beacon that incorporates components of an artificially expanded genetic information system (Aegis) in its stem is shown not to be opened by unwanted stem invasion by adventitious standard DNA; this should improve the "darkness" of the beacon in real-world applications.

  17. Integrated wireless systems: The future has arrived (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoir, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    It is believed that we are just at the beginning with wireless, and that a new age is dawning for this breakthrough technology. Thanks to several years of industrial manufacturing in mass-market applications such as cellular phones, wireless technology has nowadays reached a level of maturity that, combined with other achievements arising from different fields, such as information technology, artificial intelligence, pervasive computing, science of new materials, and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), will enable the realization of a networked stream-flow of real-time information, that will accompany us in our daily life, in a total seamless, transparent fashion. As almost any application scenario will require the deployment of complex, miniaturized, almost "invisible" systems, operating with different wireless standards, hard technological challenges will have to be faced for designing and fabricating ultra-low-cost, reconfigurable, and multi-mode heterogeneous smart micro-devices. But ongoing, unending progresses on wireless technology keeps the promise of helping to solve important societal problems in the health-care, safety, security, industry, environment sectors, and in general opening the possibility for an improved quality of life at work, on travel, at home, practically "everywhere, anytime".

  18. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  19. Indoor Navigation using Direction Sensor and Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel; Jeganathan, Muthu

    2004-01-01

    A system for indoor navigation of a mobile robot includes (1) modulated infrared beacons at known positions on the walls and ceiling of a room and (2) a cameralike sensor, comprising a wide-angle lens with a position-sensitive photodetector at the focal plane, mounted in a known position and orientation on the robot. The system also includes a computer running special-purpose software that processes the sensor readings to obtain the position and orientation of the robot in all six degrees of freedom in a coordinate system embedded in the room.

  20. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A holder of...

  1. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A holder of...

  2. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A holder of...

  3. Quantitative detection of the M204V hepatitis B virus minor variants by amplification refractory mutation system real-time PCR combined with molecular beacon technology.

    PubMed

    Ntziora, F; Paraskevis, D; Haida, C; Magiorkinis, E; Manesis, E; Papatheodoridis, G; Manolakopoulos, S; Beloukas, A; Chryssoy, S; Magiorkinis, G; Sypsa, V; Hatzakis, A

    2009-08-01

    Mutations in the highly conserved tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) motif are frequently associated with resistance to antivirals and represent a major concern in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Conventional methods fail to detect minority populations of drug-resistant viral quasispecies if they represent less than 25% of the total sample virus population. The amplification refractory mutation system real-time PCR (ARMS RT-PCR) was combined with molecular beacon technology using the LightCycler system. The samples from HBV patients selected for assay evaluation included (i) 57 samples from treatment-naïve patients for biological discriminatory ability (cutoff) estimation, (ii) 12 samples from patients with treatment failure that were M204V positive by sequencing, and (iii) 13 samples from patients with treatment failure that were negative for mutation at codon 204 by sequencing. The discriminatory ability of the assay was 0.25% when tested with laboratory-synthesized DNA target sequences. The median mutant-to-wild-type ratio for samples from naive patients tested positive for the wild type and for mutant variants was 0.01% (5th and 95th percentiles = 0.0001 and 0.04%, respectively). A value of 0.04% was selected as the biological cutoff of the assay of clinical samples. In all samples M204V positive by sequencing (12/12), the mutant variant was detected as the predominant population (range, 82.76 to 99.43%). Interestingly, in 5 (38%) of 13 samples negative by sequencing, the M204V variant was detected at a ratio above the biological cutoff (0.05 to 28%). The assay represents an efficient technique for the early detection and quantification of M204V variants before mutant strains emerge to dominate the population.

  4. Weak beacon detection for air-to-ground optical wireless link establishment.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaoqiang; Dang, Anhong; Tang, Junxiong; Guo, Hong

    2010-02-01

    In an air-to-ground free-space optical communication system, strong background interference seriously affects the beacon detection, which makes it difficult to establish the optical link. In this paper, we propose a correlation beacon detection scheme under strong background interference conditions. As opposed to traditional beacon detection schemes, the beacon is modulated by an m-sequence at the transmitting terminal with a digital differential matched filter (DDMF) array introduced at the receiving end to detect the modulated beacon. This scheme is capable of suppressing both strong interference and noise by correlation reception of the received image sequence. In addition, the DDMF array enables each pixel of the image sensor to have its own DDMF of the same structure to process its received image sequence in parallel, thus it makes fast beacon detection possible. Theoretical analysis and an outdoor experiment have been demonstrated and show that the proposed scheme can realize fast and effective beacon detection under strong background interference conditions. Consequently, the required beacon transmission power can also be reduced dramatically.

  5. Expression of the beacon gene in endocrine glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Di Liddo, Rosa; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2004-01-01

    Beacon gene has been recently identified in the rat hypothalamus, and reported to be overexpressed in obese animals. This pattern of expression suggests that beacon may be involved in the functional regulation of neuroendocrine axes. Hence, we have investigated the expression of beacon in the endocrine system of the rat. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed the expression of beacon mRNA in the hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, testis, ovary and pancreatic islets. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of the beacon immunoreactivity in all tissues studied, the staining being very intense in the neurons of paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, the basophils of adenohypophysis, the parathyroid gland, adrenocortical cells, testis Leydig cells, ovary thecal, granulosa and lutein cells, and pancreatic islets. Due the fact that beacon has been included in the ubiquitin-like protein family, its widespread expression in rat endocrine tissues is not astonishing. The in vivo administration of beacon[47-73] (3.5 nmol/100 body weight) elicited within 60 min a marked decrease in the plasma concentration of ACTH, aldosterone and corticosterone, and a moderate lowering of the blood levels of testosterone and estradiol. This finding suggests that beacon exerts a negative modulatory action on the pituitary-adrenal axis and gonad secretory activity, whose physiological relevance remains, however, to be established.

  6. Short PNA molecular beacons for real-time PCR allelic discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kenneth; Vogel, Ulla; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Nielsen, Kirsten Vang; Kølvraa, Steen; Bolund, Lars; Nexø, Bjørn

    2004-04-01

    The typing of a single nucleotide polymorphism with DNA probes is sometimes problematic because of the limited discriminating power of long DNA probes. As an alternative to existing assays, we have developed a real-time PCR assay for the genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms using short peptide nucleic acid (PNA) molecular beacons. A single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 6 of the XPD gene was chosen as the model system. The genotyping experiments were performed in the ABI 7700 using beacons labeled with either fluorescein or JOE, and in the Lightcycler using a fluorescein labeled beacon. QSY-7 was used as the quencher in all the beacons. The result of the genotyping was the same on both instruments and was in agreement with a previously performed RFLP genotyping of 79 samples. The length of PNA molecular beacons is significantly shorter than that of TaqMan or Lightcycler probes, making probe design and genotype discrimination easier.

  7. Hybridization kinetics and thermodynamics of molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Tsourkas, Andrew; Behlke, Mark A; Rose, Scott D; Bao, Gang

    2003-02-15

    Molecular beacons are increasingly being used in many applications involving nucleic acid detection and quantification. The stem-loop structure of molecular beacons provides a competing reaction for probe-target hybridization that serves to increase probe specificity, which is particularly useful when single-base discrimination is desired. To fully realize the potential of molecular beacons, it is necessary to optimize their structure. Here we report a systematic study of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the molecular beacon structure-function relationship. Both probe and stem lengths are shown to have a significant impact on the binding specificity and hybridization kinetic rates of molecular beacons. Specifically, molecular beacons with longer stem lengths have an improved ability to discriminate between targets over a broader range of temperatures. However, this is accompanied by a decrease in the rate of molecular beacon-target hybridization. Molecular beacons with longer probe lengths tend to have lower dissociation constants, increased kinetic rate constants, and decreased specificity. Molecular beacons with very short stems have a lower signal-to-background ratio than molecular beacons with longer stems. These features have significant implications for the design of molecular beacons for various applications.

  8. Earth laser beacon sensor for earth-oriented geosynchronous satellites.

    PubMed

    Sepp, G

    1975-07-01

    Geosynchronous satellites are often required to maintain accurately their orientation with respect to a selected point at the earth surface. Precise attitude determination of these satellites may be achieved using a laser beacon from ground to the satellite as a directional reference. Four simple implementations of this principle are analyzed, and the influence of the cloudy atmosphere on the laser beacon and, therefore, on the accuracy of the method is discussed. All-weather operation is not possible; for normal cloudiness conditions, however, two analyzed systems (pulsed Nd:YAG laser with photomultiplier and CO(2) laser with cryogenic detector) appear to be feasible.

  9. Indwelling rumino-reticulum bolus radio beacon.

    PubMed

    Kath, G S; Egerton, J R; Geiger, R

    1985-01-01

    A miniature battery-powered radio beacon attached to a stainless steel bolus housing an osmotic pump is described. When the bolus, of sufficient size and density to be retained in the reticulum, is administered to ruminants the radio signal can be received, using a standard AM broadcast receiver up to a range of 1.5 m. The unit allows making a simple and inexpensive verification that the drug delivery system is still within the rumino-reticulum during long-term drug delivery studies and making an external estimation of the internal anatomic location of the device.

  10. Building the San Francisco Beacons.

    PubMed

    Eldredge, Sue; Piha, Sam; Levin, Fodi

    2002-01-01

    San Francisco's Beacon Initiative is designed to foster youth development on a large scale. Its intermediary, Community Network for Youth Development, used a theory of change process to forge consensus and create a road map to guide this large collaborative toward its long-term goals.

  11. Near Infrared Imaging of Molecular Beacons in Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Britton

    2001-03-01

    The recent demonstrations of the efficacy of the tumor to background contrast in breast cancer using the tricarbo-cyanine near infrared (NIR) agent with time domain 2-D imaging presages the greater efficacy of site-directed optical contrast agents for early detection of cancers which show contrast (tissue to background) of over 20 fold. Further increases of contrast are obtained with structures that quench the fluorescence until the agent is delivered, recognized, and opened by specific enzymatic activity of the tumor. These are termed ``Molecular Beacons". In order to image the localization of the Beacons, we employ light pen (< 40μ) scanning of the freeze trapped tumor in order to immobilize the tissue, to increase the fluorescence quantum yield and to limit the penetration of the excitation to a thin superficial layer (< 20μ). Precision milling of layers (> 20μ) in LN2 gives the desired 3D high resolution image of the location of the Beacon within in the cancer cell. Since cancer prevention is linked to early detection, the high signal to background obtainable with Molecular Beacons enables the detection of very early subsurface cancers, especially breast and prostate (NIH, UIP). Thus the fluorescent Beacon excites and emits in the NIR window and signals from several cm deep in breast are detected by diffusive wave optical tomography (DWOT). Detection of objects (< 1 mm) is achieved by phased array optical system using 0^O, 180^O 50 MHz modulation of pairs of laser diodes (780 nm) and fluorescence detection (> 800 nm) affording 0.2 mm object detection of even low Beacon concentrations. One, two, and 3-D localization is made possible by one, two, and three orthogonal phase array null planes.

  12. A Digitally Addressable Random-Access Image Selector and Random-Access Audio System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitzer, Donald L.; And Others

    The requirements of PLATO IV, a computer based education system at the University of Illinois, have led to the development of an improved, digitally addressable, random access image selector and a digitally addressable, random access audio device. Both devices utilize pneumatically controlled mechanical binary adders to position the mecahnical…

  13. Fluorescent nanoparticle beacon for logic gate operation regulated by strand displacement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Shen, Lingjing; Ma, Jingjing; Schlaberg, H Inaki; Liu, Shi; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Cheng

    2013-06-26

    A mechanism is developed to construct a logic system by employing DNA/gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugates as a basic work unit, utilizing a fluorescent beacon probe to detect output signals. To implement the logic circuit, a self-assembly DNA structure is attached onto nanoparticles to form the fluorescent beacon. Moreover, assisted by regulation of multilevel strand displacement, cascaded logic gates are achieved. The computing results are detected by methods using fluorescent signals, gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This work is expected to demonstrate the feasibility of the cascaded logic system based on fluorescent nanoparticle beacons, suggesting applications in DNA computation and biotechnology.

  14. Development of BEACON technology. Quarterly report, October-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of a highly reactive form of carbon from a gas stream which contains carbon monoxide. The carbon-depleted gas is combusted with air to produce power, and the carbon is reacted with steam to produce methane or hydrogen. During the quarter both SOHIO and TRW worked on catalysts which would suppress methane formation during steaming thus increasing the amount of hydrogen formed. At SOHIO a C77-K2 catalyst promoted with a Class II compound showed promise in laboratory tests for suppressing methane. At TRW a K-1 unsupported catalyst promoted with 10% of Additive F maintained methane suppression over 30 cycles in laboratory scale tests. Shakedown of the Tandem Reactor Apparatus was completed and testing was initiated under quasi-continuous transfer of solids between reactors. Nine short term tests were performed with K-1 based BEACON solids. The data from these tests indicate that the Tandem Reactor concept is valid and BEACON solids can be transferred efficiently in the fluidized state between the deposition and gasification reactors. A preliminary analysis of the potential of a BEACON combined cycle/hydrogen system with a hydrogen fuel cell has been performed. The BEACON process can be used to coproduce hydrogen and electric power, and the efficiency of the overall system is quite high when the electricity is produced by a combined cycle power system. If fuel cells are used to convert the hydrogen to electricity then a system for making only electricity results, and such a system gives an overall efficiency of 54%. 7 figures, 14 tables.

  15. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipped with— (a) A public address system which— (1) Is capable of operation independent of the crewmember... of this chapter. (b) A crewmember interphone system which— (1) Is capable of operation independent of... systems. 135.150 Section 135.150 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  16. Adaptive-optics compensation by distributed beacons for non-kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Rao, C; Jiang, W; Ling, N

    2001-07-20

    In optical propagation through atmospheric turbulence, the performance of compensation with adaptive optics depends on a beacon's spatial distribution. With distributed beacons, the inefficiency of the modal correction, which is defined as the ratio of the anisoplanatic error of the jth mode and the Zernike-coefficient variance, is derived by use of the wave-front expansion on the Zernike polynomials for non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Numerical results are presented for laser beam propagation through constant turbulence with an offset point beacon and an on-axis uniform circular beacon. The results show that compensation for an on-axis uniform circular beacon is much more effective than that for an offset point beacon. The low-order modes are much more correlated than the higher-order modes. The larger the power-law exponent of the refractive-index power spectrum beta, the smaller the propagation path length L and the larger the diameter D of the telescope aperture, the more effective the compensation is. For a specific extended degree of beacon for which there are a maximum number of modes N(max) to be corrected, only low-order-correction systems are useful.

  17. Switchable cucurbituril-bipyridine beacons.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mantosh K; Reany, Ofer; Parvari, Galit; Karmakar, Ananta; Keinan, Ehud

    2010-08-01

    4-Aminobipyridine derivatives form strong inclusion complexes with cucurbit[6]uril, exhibiting remarkably large enhancements in fluorescence intensity and quantum yields. The remarkable complexation-induced pK(a) shift (DeltapK(a)=3.3) highlights the strong charge-dipole interaction upon binding. The reversible binding phenomenon can be used for the design of switchable beacons that can be incorporated into cascades of binding networks. This concept is demonstrated herein by three different applications: 1) a switchable fluorescent beacon for chemical sensing of transition metals and other ligands; 2) direct measurement of binding constants between cucurbit[6]uril and various nonfluorescent guest molecules; and 3) quantitative monitoring of biocatalytic reactions and determination of their kinetic parameters. The latter application is illustrated by the hydrolysis of an amide catalyzed by penicillin G acylase and by the elimination reaction of a beta-cabamoyloxy ketone catalyzed by aldolase antibody 38C2.

  18. Molecular beacons: an optimal multifunctional biological probe.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongsheng; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Ye, Duyun

    2008-09-01

    Molecular beacon technology is set up based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and the complementary pairing principles. These fluorescent molecular probes, which are very highly specific and sensitive, have now become one important tool in medical and biological researches. This review introduces the molecular beacons structure, principle, the main impact factors, the labeling of the molecular beacons, and research progress on molecular beacons fluorescent-label in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequence analysis, gene dynamic detection in living cells, protein (enzyme)-nucleic acid interactions and applications in clinical medicine.

  19. Locked nucleic acid molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Yang, Chaoyong James; Medley, Colin D; Benner, Steven A; Tan, Weihong

    2005-11-16

    A novel LNA-MB (molecular beacon based on locked nucleic acid bases) has been designed and investigated. It exhibits very high melting temperature and is thermally stable, shows superior single base mismatch discrimination capability, and is stable against digestion by nuclease and has no binding with single-stranded DNA binding proteins. The LNA-MB will be widely useful in a variety of areas, especially for in vivo hybridization studies.

  20. Addressing Two-Level Systems Variably Coupled to an Oscillating Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Nir; Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Almog, Ido; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-08-01

    We propose a simple method to spectrally resolve an array of identical two-level systems coupled to an inhomogeneous oscillating field. The addressing protocol uses a dressing field with a spatially dependent coupling to the atoms. We validate this scheme experimentally by realizing single-spin addressing of a linear chain of trapped ions that are separated by ˜3μm, dressed by a laser field that is resonant with the micromotion sideband of a narrow optical transition.

  1. A molecular beacon, bead-based assay for the detection of nucleic acids by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Horejsh, Douglas; Martini, Federico; Poccia, Fabrizio; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R

    2005-01-01

    Molecular beacons are dual-labelled probes that are typically used in real-time PCR assays, but have also been conjugated with solid matrices for use in microarrays or biosensors. We have developed a fluid array system using microsphere-conjugated molecular beacons and the flow cytometer for the specific, multiplexed detection of unlabelled nucleic acids in solution. For this array system, molecular beacons were conjugated with microspheres using a biotin-streptavidin linkage. A bridged conjugation method using streptavidin increased the signal-to-noise ratio, allowing for further discrimination of target quantitation. Using beads of different sizes and molecular beacons in two fluorophore colours, synthetic nucleic acid control sequences were specifically detected for three respiratory pathogens, including the SARS coronavirus in proof-of-concept experiments. Considering that routine flow cytometers are able to detect up to four fluorescent channels, this novel assay may allow for the specific multiplex detection of a nucleic acid panel in a single tube.

  2. Integrated Formulation of Beacon-Based Exception Analysis for Multimissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Ryan; James, Mark; Park, Han; Zak, Mickail

    2003-01-01

    Further work on beacon-based exception analysis for multimissions (BEAM), a method of real-time, automated diagnosis of a complex electromechanical systems, has greatly expanded its capability and suitability of application. This expanded formulation, which fully integrates physical models and symbolic analysis, is described. The new formulation of BEAM expands upon previous advanced techniques for analysis of signal data, utilizing mathematical modeling of the system physics, and expert-system reasoning,

  3. Design of a molecular beacon PNA.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Ohori, Youji; Ikeda, Hisafumi; Fujimori, Humihiro; Murakami, Yasuhumi; Nakamura, Yushin

    2002-01-01

    We have designed a novel dual-labeled PNA oligomer, having both a fluorescent dye and a quencher, by utilizing key compounds 1 and 2. We showed that the designed dual-labeled PNA oligomer works as a molecular beacon PNA. We also investigated the optimization of a stem-loop structure which can supersensitize the function as a molecular beacon PNA.

  4. Quantum dot molecular beacons for DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Cady, Nathaniel C

    2009-01-01

    Molecular beacons have become an important fluorescent probe for sequence-specific DNA detection. To improve the sensitivity and robustness of molecular beacon assays, fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are now being used as the fluorescent moiety for molecular beacon synthesis. Multiple linkage strategies can be used for attaching molecular beacon DNA to QDs, and multiple quenchers, including gold particles, can be used for fluorescence quenching. Covalent attachment of QDs to DNA can be achieved through amide linkage, and affinity-based attachment can be achieved with streptavidin-biotin linkage. We have shown that these linkage strategies can be used to successfully create quantum dot molecular beacons that can be used in DNA detection assays with high specificity.

  5. An early status report on the Beacon Communities' plans for transformation via health information technology.

    PubMed

    McKethan, Aaron; Brammer, Craig; Fatemi, Parastou; Kim, Minyoung; Kirtane, Janhavi; Kunzman, Jason; Rao, Shaline; Jain, Sachin H

    2011-04-01

    The Beacon Community Program is part of a federal strategy for using health information technology as a foundation to improve the nation's health care system. In particular, Beacon Communities seek to increase the quality and efficiency of health care, improve the health of individuals and communities, and inform similar initiatives in other parts of the country. Each Beacon Community has set quality, efficiency, and health-related goals, and each is deploying multiple technology-enabled interventions to achieve them. Yet achieving large-scale and sustainable health care improvement also requires an implementation framework that can foster innovation and continuous learning from results. Based on the early experiences of the seventeen diverse Beacon Communities, this paper describes program design features that characterize how these initiatives are organized.

  6. Data Governance and Data Sharing Agreements for Community-Wide Health Information Exchange: Lessons from the Beacon Communities

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Claudia; Des Jardins, Terrisca R.; Heider, Arvela; Lyman, Kristin A.; McWilliams, Lee; Rein, Alison L.; Schachter, Abigail A.; Singh, Ranjit; Sorondo, Barbara; Topper, Joan; Turske, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Unprecedented efforts are underway across the United States to electronically capture and exchange health information to improve health care and population health, and reduce costs. This increased collection and sharing of electronic patient data raises several governance issues, including privacy, security, liability, and market competition. Those engaged in such efforts have had to develop data sharing agreements (DSAs) among entities involved in information exchange, many of whom are “nontraditional” health care entities and/or new partners. This paper shares lessons learned based on the experiences of six federally funded communities participating in the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, and offers guidance for navigating data governance issues and developing DSAs to facilitate community-wide health information exchange. Innovation: While all entities involved in electronic data sharing must address governance issues and create DSAs accordingly, until recently little formal guidance existed for doing so – particularly for community-based initiatives. Despite this lack of guidance, together the Beacon Communities’ experiences highlight promising strategies for navigating complex governance issues, which may be useful to other entities or communities initiating information exchange efforts to support delivery system transformation. Credibility: For the past three years, AcademyHealth has provided technical assistance to most of the 17 Beacon Communities, 6 of whom contributed to this collaborative writing effort. Though these communities varied widely in terms of their demographics, resources, and Beacon-driven priorities, common themes emerged as they described their approaches to data governance and DSA development. Conclusions: The 6 Beacon Communities confirmed that DSAs are necessary to satisfy legal and market-based concerns, and they identified several specific issues, many of which have been noted by others involved in

  7. In vitro selection of molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Manjula; Ellington, Andrew D

    2003-10-01

    While molecular beacons are primarily known as biosensors for the detection of nucleic acids, it has proven possible to adapt other nucleic acid binding species (aptamers) to function in a manner similar to molecular beacons, yielding fluorescent signals only in the presence of a cognate ligand. Unfortunately, engineering aptamer beacons requires a detailed knowledge of aptamer sequence and structure. In order to develop a general method for the direct selection of aptamer beacons we have first developed a selection method for molecular beacons. A pool of random sequence DNA molecules were immobilized via a capture oligonucleotide on an affinity column, and those variants that could be released from the column by a target oligonucleotide were amplified. After nine rounds of selection and amplification the elution characteristics of the population were greatly improved. A fluorescent reporter in the selected beacons was located adjacent to a DABCYL moiety in the capture oligonucleotide; addition of the target oligonucleotide led to release of the capture oligonucleotide and up to a 17-fold increase in fluorescence. Signaling was specific for the target oligonucleotide, and occurred via a novel mechanism, relative to designed molecular beacons. When the target oligonucleotide is bound it can form a stacked helical junction with an intramolecular hairpin in the selected beacon; formation of the intramolecular hairpin in turn leads to release of the capture oligonucleotide. The ability to select molecular beacons may prove useful for identifying available sites on complex targets, such as mRNAs, while the method for selection can be easily generalized to other, non-nucleic acid target classes.

  8. Near-infrared compressive line sensing imaging system using individually addressable laser diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Bing; Hou, Weilin; Caimi, Frank M.; Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.; Gong, Sue; Britton, Walter

    2015-05-01

    The compressive line sensing (CLS) active imaging system was proposed and validated through a series of test-tank experiments. As an energy-efficient alternative to the traditional line-scan serial image, the CLS system will be highly beneficial for long-duration surveillance missions using unmanned, power-constrained platforms such as unmanned aerial or underwater vehicles. In this paper, the application of an active spatial light modulator (SLM), the individually addressable laser diode array, in a CLS imaging system is investigated. In the CLS context, active SLM technology can be advantageous over passive SLMs such as the digital micro-mirror device. Initial experimental results are discussed.

  9. Polyvalent carbocyanine molecular beacons for molecular recognitions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yunpeng; Bloch, Sharon; Achilefu, Samuel

    2004-06-30

    Polyvalent carboxylate-terminating near-infrared (NIR) carbocyanine molecular beacons were prepared by homologation of reactive carboxyl groups of the beacon with imino diacetic acid. Their conjugation with unprotected d-(+)-glucosamine gave dendritic arrays of the carbohydrate on an inner NIR chromophore core. In vivo evaluation of the dendritic glucosamine constructs shows enhanced uptake in proliferating tumor cells relative to surrounding normal tissue. The structural framework of these polyvalent beacons permits the amplification by synergistic effects of a variety of bioactive motifs or chemical sensors in molecular recognition interactions without dramatic change of their desirable NIR spectral properties.

  10. Leveraging Health IT to Reduce Disparities in Three Underserved Beacon Communities.

    PubMed

    Des Jardins, Terrisca; Drone, Shenetta A; Hashisaka, Susan; Hazzard, Jobyna; Hunt, Susan B; Massey, Kimberly; Rein, Alison; Schachter, Abigail; Turske, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Using health information technology (IT) can potentially address health disparities by increasing access to care, delivering higher-quality care, improving patient-provider communication, and enhancing patient safety. It describes challenges encountered by three underserved Beacon Communities that implemented health IT interventions, including inadequate connectivity infrastructure, technical support, expertise, and financial resources; provider shortages and staff turnover; and equipment theft.

  11. Leveraging Health IT to Reduce Disparities in Three Underserved Beacon Communities.

    PubMed

    Des Jardins, Terrisca; Drone, Shenetta A; Hashisaka, Susan; Hazzard, Jobyna; Hunt, Susan B; Massey, Kimberly; Rein, Alison; Schachter, Abigail; Turske, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Using health information technology (IT) can potentially address health disparities by increasing access to care, delivering higher-quality care, improving patient-provider communication, and enhancing patient safety. It describes challenges encountered by three underserved Beacon Communities that implemented health IT interventions, including inadequate connectivity infrastructure, technical support, expertise, and financial resources; provider shortages and staff turnover; and equipment theft. PMID:27180682

  12. Development of BEACON technology. Quarterly report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of a highly reactive form of carbon from a gas stream which contains carbon monoxide. The carbon-depleted gas is combusted with air to produce power, and the carbon is reacted with steam to produce methane or hydrogen. Process conditions favoring the production of hydrogen were explored this quarter. Excess steam was found to suppress methane formation, and reduction of catalyst methanation activity was demonstrated. The effect of carbon loading on the physical stability of catalyst C77-K2 and the effect of trace sulfur levels on the chemical stability of the catalyst were examined. The carbon loading tests did not show the catalyst breakup that was expected. Tests of chemical stability of the catalyst in the presence of sulfur-containing gases showed a decline in performance even at levels as low as 4 ppM. Experiments conducted using a Paraho-type oil shale retort offgas as a feedstock showed that acceptable performance could be obtained by removing carbon dioxide from the feedgas. Design of the tandem two reactor system is continuing, along with cold flow testing of the proposed solids transfer system. A simplified thermodynamic analysis of the BEACON process shows that BEACON's increased efficiency over competing processes results from more hot gas going to the turbine with less power required to compress the air for combustion. 16 figures, 13 tables.

  13. Inside Beacon Hill: Bertrand Russell as Schoolmaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Shirley

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the life and theories of Bertrand Russell, founder of Beacon Hill School. Russell's educational theories centered on the personal autonomy of the student and democratization of the learning process. (CH)

  14. Direct selection of RNA beacon aptamers.

    PubMed

    Morse, Daniel P

    2007-07-20

    A method for the direct selection of RNA molecules that can be easily converted into beacon aptamers is presented. Beacon aptamers are fluorescently labeled nucleic acids that signal the presence of a specific ligand through changes in fluorescence intensity. Typically, ligand binding causes an increase in fluorescence intensity by inducing a conformational change that separates a fluorophore/quencher pair. The method presented here simultaneously selects for ligand binding and induction of an appropriate conformational change. The method was tested by selecting RNA molecules that can detect the aminoglycoside antibiotic tobramycin. After 14 rounds of selection, two sequence families emerged. Upon conversion into beacon aptamers, representatives of the two selected sequence families specifically detected tobramycin, while a negative control RNA that did not survive the selection protocol did not function as a tobramycin beacon aptamer.

  15. Optical bidirectional beacon based visible light communications.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Samrat Vikramaditya; Sewaiwar, Atul; Chung, Yeon Ho

    2015-10-01

    In an indoor bidirectional visible light communications (VLC), a line-of-sight (LOS) transmission plays a major role in obtaining adequate performance of a VLC system. Signals are often obstructed in the LOS transmission path, causing an effect called optical shadowing. In the absence of LOS, the performance of the VLC system degrades significantly and, in particular, at uplink transmission this degradation becomes severe due to design constraints and limited power at uplink devices. In this paper, a novel concept and design of an optical bidirectional beacon (OBB) is presented as an efficient model to counter the performance degradation in a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) VLC system. OBB is an independent operating bidirectional transceiver unit installed on walls, composed of red, green, and blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors (PDs) and color filters. OBB improves the coverage area in the form of providing additional or alternate paths for transmission and enhances the performance of the VLC system in terms of bit error rate (BER). To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, simulations were carried out under optical shadowing conditions at various locations in an indoor environment. The simulation results and analysis show that the implementation of OBB improves the performance of the VLC system significantly, especially when the LOS bidirectional transmission paths are completely or partially obstructed.

  16. Monitoring helicase activity with molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Belon, Craig A; Frick, David N

    2008-10-01

    A high-throughput, fluorescence-based helicase assay using molecular beacons is described. The assay is tested using the NS3 helicase encoded by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is shown to accurately monitor helicase action on both DNA and RNA. In the assay, a ssDNA oligonucleotide molecular beacon, featuring a fluorescent moiety attached to one end and a quencher attached to the other, is annealed to a second longer DNA or RNA oligonucleotide. Upon strand separation by a helicase and ATP, the beacon strand forms an intramolecular hairpin that brings the tethered fluorescent and quencher molecules into juxtaposition, quenching fluorescence. Unlike currently available real-time helicase assays, the molecular beacon-based helicase assay is irreversible. As such, it does not require the addition of extra DNA strands to prevent products from re-annealing. Several variants of the new assay are described and experimentally verified using both Cy3 and Cy5 beacons, including one based on a sequence from the HCV genome. The HCV genome-based molecular beacon helicase assay is used to demonstrate how such an assay can be used in high-throughput screens and to analyze HCV helicase inhibitors.

  17. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii with a DNA molecular beacon probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cun; Xu, Shichao; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Jimei; Dai, Zhao; Zheng, Guo; Sun, Bo; Sun, Shuqing; Feng, Teilin; Zi, Yan; Liang, Chu; Luo, Hao

    2009-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a kind of microscopic parasite that may infect humans, and there are increasing concerns on the early detection of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection in recent years. This research highlights a new type of molecular beacon (MB) fluorescent probe for Toxoplasma DNA testing. We combined high-efficiency fluorescent inorganic core-shell quantum dots-CdTe/ZnS (as fluorescent energy donor) and BHQ-2 (energy acceptor) to the single-strand DNA of Toxoplasma gondii, and a molecular beacon sensing system based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was achieved. Core-shell quantum dots CdTe/ZnS was firstly prepared in aqueous solution, and the influencing factor of its fluorescent properties, including CdTe/Na2S/Zn(CH3COO)2 (v/v), dependence of reaction time, temperature, and pH, is investigated systematically. The synthesized quantum dots and molecular beacon were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), fluorescent spectrophotometer (FS), respectively. The TEM results showed that CdTe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots is ~11nm in size, and the quantum dots is water-soluble well. The sensing ability of target DNA of assembled MB was investigated, and results showed that the target Toxoplasma gonddi DNA can be successfully detected by measuring the change of fluorescence intensity. The results showed that the current sensing probe will be a useful and convenient tool in Toxoplasma gondii early detection.

  18. The Beacon Project: Challenges, Solutions, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, R. Glenn

    2014-03-01

    With physical limitations imposing increasingly significant performance limitations on future generations of computing hardware, computer architects are turning to increased parallelism and specialized hardware to accelerate key applications and workloads. As a result, emerging high-performance computing (HPC) systems are much more heterogeneous than their predecessors, leading to both operational challenges and application challenges that must be overcome to effectively utilize the associated architectures. With support from the National Science Foundation, the Application Acceleration Center of Excellence (AACE) at the University of Tennessee is currently exploring the impact of the Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor on computational science and engineering through the Beacon Project, an ongoing research project that encompasses the deployment and operation of an energy-efficient supercomputer and the coordination of an associated research program allowing project teams across the country to explore the applicability of the associated architecture to a variety of scientific codes and libraries. This talk presents an overview of encountered challenges along with associated solutions, highlights some of the current results of the application project teams, and summarizes many of the lessons learned through the Beacon Project to date. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1137097 and by the University of Tennessee through the Beacon Project.

  19. Continental-Scale Stable Isotope Measurements at NEON to Address Ecological Processes Across Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Goodman, K. J.; Hinckley, E. S.; West, J. B.; Williams, D. G.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform. The overarching goal of NEON is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology (such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, ecohydrology, etc.). NEON focuses explicitly on questions that relate to grand challenges in environmental science, are relevant to large regions, and would otherwise be very difficult to address with traditional ecological approaches. The use of stable isotope approaches in ecological research has grown steadily during the last two decades. Stable isotopes at natural abundances in the environment trace and integrate the interaction between abiotic and biotic components across temporal and spatial scales. In this poster, we will present the NEON data products that incorporate stable isotope measurements in atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems in North America. We further outline current questions in the natural sciences community and how these data products can be used to address continental-scale ecological questions, such as the ecological impacts of climate change, terrestrial-aquatic system linkages, land-atmosphere exchange, landscape ecohydrological processes, and linking biogeochemical cycles across systems. Specifically, we focus on the use of stable isotopes to evaluate water availability and residence times in terrestrial systems, as well as nutrient sources to terrestrial systems, and cycling across ecosystem boundaries.

  20. Rural system addresses social, economic needs. Cooperation, education, and advocacy revitalize a region's healthcare delivery.

    PubMed

    Rheinecker, P

    1992-01-01

    In recent years leaders at Presentation Health System (PHS), Sioux Falls, SD, have expanded their mission to help strengthen local communities economically and socially. PHS now offers support to rural leaders in business, politics, and healthcare through its Center for Rural Health and Economic Development. In addition, educational outreach coordinators have created programs that address the needs of the entire rural community. To establish an effective network of services in the region, two of the system's tertiary care hospitals are collaborating to provide emergency helicopter service. These larger facilities also extend outreach services to rural hospitals and clinics. PHS assists rural hospitals in grant writing and in adapting to changing government reimbursement rules. In addition, the healthcare system coordinates a group purchasing program and a debt collection agency. An important voice for its region's healthcare needs, PHS has worked with the state of South Dakota to address problems and concerns about emergency medical services. The system also publishes Report, a quarterly newsletter that keeps rural residents abreast of healthcare issues affecting them. Two years ago, PHS's Center for Rural Health and Economic Development sponsored its first Invitational Rural Health Leadership Conference. These annual conferences bring together leaders to examine ways to improve rural healthcare delivery by strengthening the social and economic fabric of rural communities. PMID:10119539

  1. Electrochemical determination of microRNA-21 based on graphene, LNA integrated molecular beacon, AuNPs and biotin multifunctional bio bar codes and enzymatic assay system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Zhang, Haixia; Meng, Xiaomeng; Ai, Shiyun

    2012-03-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a kind of small, endogenous, noncoding RNAs (∼22 nucleotides), might play a crucial role in early cancer diagnose due to its abnormal expression in many solid tumors. As a result, label-free and PCR-amplification-free assay for miRNAs is of great significance. In this work, a highly sensitive biosensor for sequence specific miRNA-21 detection without miRNA-21 labeling and enrichment was constructed based on the substrate electrode of dendritic gold nanostructure (DenAu) and graphene nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode. Sulfydryl functionalized locked nucleic acid (LNA) integrated hairpin molecule beacon (MB) probe was used as miRNA-21 capture probe. After hybridized with miRNA-21 and reported DNA loading in gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and biotin multi-functionalized bio bar codes, streptavidin-HRP was brought to the electrode through the specific interaction with biotin to catalyze the chemical oxidation of hydroquinone by H(2)O(2) to form benzoquinone. The electrochemical reduction signal of benzoquinone was utilized to monitor the miRNA-21 hybridization event. The effect of experimental variables on the amperometric response was investigated and optimized. Based on the specific confirmation of probe and signal amplification, the biosensor showed excellent selectivity and high sensitivity with low detection limit of 0.06 pM. Successful attempts are made in miRNA-21 expression analysis of human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 cells and normal human hepatic L02 cells.

  2. Semiautomated clone verification by real-time PCR using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    van Schie, R C; Marras, S A; Conroy, J M; Nowak, N J; Catanese, J J; de Jong, P J

    2000-12-01

    Conventional, high-throughput PCR analysis of common elements utilizing numerous primer sets and template DNA requires multiple rounds of PCR to ensure optimal conditions. Laborious gel electrophoresis and staining is then necessary to visualize amplification products. We propose novel multicolor molecular beacons, to establish a high-throughput, PCR-based sequence tagged site (STS) detection system that swiftly and accurately confirms marker content in template containing common repeat elements. A simple, one-tube, real-time PCR assay system was developed to specifically detect regions containing CA and GATA repeats. Ninety-six samples can be confirmed for marker content in a closed-tube format in 3 h, eliminating product confirmation on agarose gels and avoiding crossover contamination. Multiple STSs can be detected simultaneously in the same reaction tube by utilizing molecular beacons labeled with multicolor fluorophores. Template DNA from 260 RPCI-11 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones was examined for the presence of CA and/or GATA repeats using molecular beacon PCR and compared with conventional PCR results of the same clones. Of the 205 clones containing CA and GATA repeats, we were able to identify 129 clones (CA, n = 99; GATA, n = 30) by using molecular beacons and only 121 clones (CA, n = 92; GATA, n = 29) by conventional PCR amplification. As anticipated, 55 clones that contained sequences other than CA or GATA failed molecular beacon detection. Molecular beacon PCR, employing beacons specific for tandem repeat elements, provides a fast, accurate, and sensitive multiplex detection assay that will expedite verification of marker content in a multitude of template containing these repeats.

  3. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change. PMID:27610050

  4. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change.

  5. BEACON/MOD: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor containments - user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Broadus, C.R.; Doyle, R.J.; James, S.W.; Lime, J.F.; Mings, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    The BEACON code is a best-estimate, advanced containment code designed to perform a best-estimate analysis of the flow of a mixture of air, water, and steam in a nuclear reactor containment system under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The code can simulate two-component, two-phase fluid flow in complex geometries using a combination of two-dimensional, one-dimensional, and lumped-parameter representations for the various parts of the system. The current version of BEACON, which is designated BEACON/MOD3, contains mass and heat transfer models for wall film and wall conduction. It is suitable for the evaluation of short-term transients in dry-containment systems. This manual describes the models employed in BEACON/MOD3 and specifies code implementation requirements. It provides application information for input data preparation and for output data interpretation.

  6. Chemical imaging sensor and laser beacon.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Arthur H

    2003-05-20

    Design and functional aspects of PANSPEC, a panoramic-imaging chemical vapor sensor (PANSPEC is an abbreviation for infrared panoramic-viewing spectroradiometer), were advanced and its optical system reoptimized accordingly. The PANSPEC model unites camera and fused solid-state interferometer and photopolarimeter subsystems. The camera is an eye of the open atmosphere that collects, collimates, and images ambient infrared radiance from a panoramic field of view (FOV). The passive interferometer rapidly measures an infrared-absorbing (or infrared-emitting) chemical cloud traversing the FOV by means of molecular vibrational spectroscopy. The active photopolarimeter system provides a laser beam beacon. This beam carries identification (feature spectra measured by the interferometer) and heading (detector pixels disclosing these feature spectra) information on the hazardous cloud through a binary encryption of Mueller matrix elements. Interferometer and photopolarimeter share a common configuration of photoelastic modulation optics. PANSPEC was optimized for minimum aberrations and maximum resolution of image. The optimized design was evaluated for tolerances in the shaping and mounting of the optical system, stray light, and ghost images at the focal plane given a modulation transfer function metric.

  7. Identification of manganese as a toxicant in a groundwater treatment system: Addressing naturally occurring toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W. Jr.; Sohn, V.; Richey, M.; Yost, J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent from a groundwater remediation system at a bulk oil storage and distribution terminal has been chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The remediation system was designed in response to a hydrocarbon plume in the area of the terminal. The remediation system consists of a series of groundwater recovery wells and groundwater intercept trench systems with groundwater treatment and phased-separated hydrocarbon recovery systems. The groundwater treatment and petroleum recovery systems consist of oil/water separators, product recovery tanks, air strippers, filters, and carbon adsorption units. The characteristics of this effluent are low total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and hardness concentrations as well as meeting stringent NPDES permit requirements for lead, copper, zinc, mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX. Additional priority pollutant evaluations revealed no compounds of concern. Performance of a Toxicity identification Evaluation (TIE) indicated that manganese was the principle toxicant in the effluent. Manganese is a naturally occurring constituent in this groundwater source and is not added to the treatment system. This paper will present the results of the TIE with a discussion of treatability/control options for manganese control at this facility. Recommendations for addressing naturally occurring toxicants that are not a result of the facility`s operations will also be presented.

  8. Analytical performance of molecular beacons on surface immobilized gold nanoparticles of varying size and density.

    PubMed

    Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-11-25

    The high quenching efficiency of metal nanoparticles has facilitated its use as quenchers in molecular beacons. To optimize this system, a good understanding of the many factors that influence molecular beacon performance is required. In this study, molecular beacon performance was evaluated as a function of gold nanoparticle size and its immobilization characteristics. Gold nanoparticles of 4 nm, 15 nm and 87 nm diameter, were immobilized onto glass slides. Each size regime offered distinctive optical properties for fluorescence quenching of molecular dyes that were conjugated to oligonucleotides that were immobilized to the gold nanoparticles. Rigid double stranded DNA was used as a model to place fluorophores at different distances from the gold nanoparticles. The effect of particle size and also the immobilization density of nanoparticles was evaluated. The 4 nm and 87 nm gold nanoparticles offered the highest sensitivity in terms of the change in fluorescence intensity as a function of distance (3-fold improvement for Cy5). The optical properties of the molecular fluorophore was of significance, with Cy5 offering higher contrast ratios than Cy3 due to the red-shifted emission spectrum relative to the plasmon peak. A high density of gold nanoparticles reduced contrast ratios, indicating preference for a monolayer of immobilized nanoparticles when considering analytical performance. Molecular beacon probes were then used in place of the double stranded oligonucleotides. There was a strong dependence of molecular beacon performance on the length of a linker used for attachment to the nanoparticle surface. The optimal optical performance was obtained with 4 nm gold nanoparticles that were immobilized as monolayers of low density (5.7×10(11)particles cm(-2)) on glass surfaces. These nanoparticle surfaces offered a 2-fold improvement in analytical performance of the molecular beacons when compared to other nanoparticle sizes investigated. The principles developed

  9. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  10. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right. PMID:22136318

  11. Nuclear decontamination technology evaluation to address contamination of a municipal water system

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Langsted, J.; Young, M.; Porcon, J.; Day, E.

    2007-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are considering the impact and recovery from contamination of municipal water systems, including intentional contamination of those systems. Industrial chemicals, biological agents, drugs, pesticides, chemical warfare agents, and radionuclides all could be introduced into a municipal water system to create detrimental health effects and disrupt a community. Although unintentional, the 1993 cryptosporidium contamination of the Milwaukee WS water system resulted in 100 fatalities and disrupted the city for weeks. Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Inc, (Shaw), as a subcontractor on a DHS contract with Michael Baker Jr., Inc., was responsible for evaluation of the impact and recovery from radionuclide contamination in a municipal water system distribution system. Shaw was tasked to develop a matrix of nuclear industry decontamination technologies and evaluate applicability to municipal water systems. Shaw expanded the evaluation to include decontamination methods commonly used in the drinking water supply. The matrix compared all technologies for implementability, effectiveness, and cost. To address the very broad range of contaminants and contamination scenarios, Shaw bounded the problem by identification of specific contaminant release scenario(s) for specific water system architecture(s). A decontamination technology matrix was developed containing fifty-nine decontamination technologies potentially applicable to the water distribution system piping, pumps, tanks, associated equipment, and/or contaminated water. Qualitatively, the majority of the nuclear industry decontamination technologies were eliminated from consideration due to implementability concerns. However, inclusion of the municipal water system technologies supported recommendations that combined the most effective approaches in both industries. (authors)

  12. Using Systems Approaches to Address Challenges for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Karnes, Jason H; Van Driest, Sara; Bowton, Erica A; Weeke, Peter E; Mosley, Jonathan D; Peterson, Josh F; Denny, Joshua C

    2014-01-01

    Many genetic variants have been shown to affect drug response through changes in drug efficacy and likelihood of adverse effects. Much of pharmacogenomic science has focused on discovering and clinically implementing single gene variants with large effect sizes. Given the increasing complexities of drug responses and their variability, a systems approach may be enabling for discovery of new biology in this area. Further, systems approaches may be useful in addressing challenges in moving these data to clinical implementation, including creation of predictive models of drug response phenotypes, improved clinical decision-making through complex biological models, improving strategies for integrating genomics into clinical practice, and evaluating the impact of implementation programs on public health. PMID:24319008

  13. The dependence of the anisoplanatic Strehl of a compensated beam on the beacon distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.

    1992-02-07

    There are several applications for lasers where the effect of atmospheric turbulence is strong enough to require wavefront compensation, and the compensation can be made by an adaptive optics (AO) system which processes light returned from the target itself. The distribution of the target return light produces limitations to the performance of the AO system. The primary intent of this documentation is to present the new results of an analysis of the anisoplanatic effects arising from target return beacon geometries. It will also lay out the assumptions and steps in the analysis, so that the results can be validated or extended. The intent is to provide a self-consistent notation, simple physical interpretations of the mathematical formulations, and enough detail to reduce the investment of time required to become acquainted or reacquainted with the physics of laser propagation through turbulence, at a level needed to analyze anisoplanatic effects. A general formulation has been developed to calculate the anisoplanatic Strehl of a compensated beam for any beacon distribution and turbulence profile. Numerical calculations are also shown for several beacon geometries and turbulence profiles. The key result is that the spread of the beacon distribution has a much less deleterious effect than does the offset of the beacon centroid from the aimpoint.

  14. The dependence of the anisoplanatic Strehl of a compensated beam on the beacon distribution. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.

    1992-02-07

    There are several applications for lasers where the effect of atmospheric turbulence is strong enough to require wavefront compensation, and the compensation can be made by an adaptive optics (AO) system which processes light returned from the target itself. The distribution of the target return light produces limitations to the performance of the AO system. The primary intent of this documentation is to present the new results of an analysis of the anisoplanatic effects arising from target return beacon geometries. It will also lay out the assumptions and steps in the analysis, so that the results can be validated or extended. The intent is to provide a self-consistent notation, simple physical interpretations of the mathematical formulations, and enough detail to reduce the investment of time required to become acquainted or reacquainted with the physics of laser propagation through turbulence, at a level needed to analyze anisoplanatic effects. A general formulation has been developed to calculate the anisoplanatic Strehl of a compensated beam for any beacon distribution and turbulence profile. Numerical calculations are also shown for several beacon geometries and turbulence profiles. The key result is that the spread of the beacon distribution has a much less deleterious effect than does the offset of the beacon centroid from the aimpoint.

  15. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  16. Addressing Impacts of Geomagnetic Disturbances on the North American Bulk Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollison, Eric; Moura, John; Lauby, Mark

    2011-08-01

    In a joint report issued in June 2010, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified geomagnetic disturbances as a high-impact, low-frequency (HILF) event risk to bulk power system reliability. The potential impact of geomagnetic disturbance events has gained renewed attention as recent studies have suggested that solar storms may be more severe and reach lower geographic latitudes than formerly expected and can affect bulk power system reliability. The most well known power system experience with geomagnetic disturbances in North America was the 13-14 March 1989 storm, which led to the collapse of the Hydro-Québec system in the early morning hours of 13 March 1989, lasting approximately 9 hours. NERC is actively addressing a range of HILF event risks to bulk power system reliability through the efforts of four of its task forces: Geomagnetic Disturbance, Spare Equipment Database, Cyber and Physical Attack, and Severe Impact Resilience. These task forces operate under the direction of three NERC committees: Planning, Operating, and Critical Infrastructure Protection. The NERC Geomagnetic Disturbance Task Force (GMDTF), which was established in September 2010, is charged with investigating the implications of geomagnetic disturbances to the reliability of bulk power systems and developing solutions to help mitigate these risks. The objective of these efforts is to develop models to better understand the nature and effects of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the vulnerabilities of equipment, bulk power system design considerations, our ability to reduce the operational and real-time impacts of geomagnetic disturbances on the bulk power system, and restoration methods, as well as to inventory long-lead-time equipment. For more information on the current activities of the GMDTF, please visit: www.nerc.com/filez/gmdtf.html

  17. Addressing Neuroplastic Changes in Distributed Areas of the Nervous System Associated With Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, René; Higgins, Johanne; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries. These neurophysiological changes appear not only to be a consequence of peripheral structural injury but also to play a part in the pathophysiology of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Neurophysiological changes are consistent with a biopsychosocial formulation reflecting the underlying mechanisms associated with sensory and motor findings, psychological traits, and perceptual changes associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. These changes, therefore, have important implications in the clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation professionals have at their disposal tools to address these neuroplastic changes, including top-down cognitive-based interventions (eg, education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, motor imagery) and bottom-up physical interventions (eg, motor learning, peripheral sensory stimulation, manual therapy) that induce neuroplastic changes across distributed areas of the nervous system and affect outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, novel approaches such as the use of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be utilized to help renormalize neurological function. Comprehensive treatment addressing peripheral structural injury as well as neurophysiological changes occurring across

  18. Effective target binarization method for linear timed address-event vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiangtao; Zou, Jiawei; Yan, Shi; Gao, Zhiyuan

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an effective target binarization method for a linear timed address-event (TAE) vision system. In the preprocessing phase, TAE data are processed by denoising, thinning, and edge connection methods sequentially to obtain the denoised- and clear-event contours. Then, the object region will be confirmed by an event-pair matching method. Finally, the image open and close operations of morphology methods are introduced to remove the artifacts generated by event-pair mismatching. Several degraded images were processed by our method and some traditional binarization methods, and the experimental results are provided. As compared with other methods, the proposed method performs efficiently on extracting the target region and gets satisfactory binarization results from object images with low-contrast and nonuniform illumination.

  19. Increasing the sensitivity and single-base mismatch selectivity of the molecular beacon using graphene oxide as the "nanoquencher".

    PubMed

    Lu, Chun-Hua; Li, Juan; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yang, Huang-Hao; Chen, Xi; Chen, Guo-Nan

    2010-04-26

    Here, we report a novel, highly sensitive, selective and economical molecular beacon using graphene oxide as the "nanoquencher". This novel molecular beacon system contains a hairpin-structured fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotide and a graphene oxide sheet. The strong interaction between hairpin-structured oligonucleotide and graphene oxide keep them in close proximity, facilitating the fluorescence quenching of the fluorophore by graphene oxide. In the presence of a complementary target DNA, the binding between hairpin-structured oligonucleotide and target DNA will disturb the interaction between hairpin-structured oligonucleotide and graphene oxide, and release the oligonucleotide from graphene oxide, resulting in restoration of fluorophore fluorescence. In the present study, we show that this novel graphene oxide quenched molecular beacon can be used to detect target DNA with higher sensitivity and single-base mismatch selectivity compared to the conventional molecular beacon.

  20. An aptamer beacon responsive to botulinum toxins.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John G; Richarte, Alicia M; Carrillo, Maria P; Edge, Allison

    2012-01-15

    Sixty candidate DNA aptamers were developed against botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A light chain (LC) from ten rounds of selection, resulting in several identical sequences. Secondary structures of the identical aptamers were compared to structures of previously reported BoNT A DNA aptamers. A series of ten candidate loop structures were selected from this comparison as potential binding pockets and aptamer beacons. These candidate beacons were synthesized with 5'-TYE 665 and 3'-Iowa Black quencher labels for comparison of fluorescence levels as a function of BoNT A LC concentration. Only three of the ten candidates exhibited any fluorescence response to increasing levels of BoNT A LC. However, of the two most responsive candidates, one represented a subset loop of the larger more intensely fluorescent double-looped structure, designated Beacon 10. This beacon yielded a lower limit of detection of 1 ng/mL in buffer using a spectrofluorometer and a portable handheld fluorometer, but also responded substantially to BoNT A, B, E holotoxins and heavy or light chain components even in a dilute soil suspension, but not in 50% human serum. Beacon 10 did not respond strongly to a variety of other divergent peptides, suggesting that it is relatively specific to the level of botulinum toxins and is only useful for environmental testing. Beacon 10 also shared short sequence segments with other published BoNT aptamer DNA sequences, suggesting that these may be points of physical contact between the aptamers and BoNTs.

  1. The Los Alamos beacon receiver array

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, R.C.; Massey, R.S. )

    1994-07-01

    The authors are interested in studying both the natural background of acoustic and acoustic-gravity waves, for which the sources are not generally known, as well as waves produced by known sources such as large explosions and launches of large rockets. The authors describe radio receivers that monitor transmissions from beacons on geosynchronous satellites. The receivers can detect perturbations of a 300--3,000 s period in the electron density integrated from beacon to receiver, for amplitudes as low as (1--2) [times] 10[sup 13] m[sup [minus]2]. Data are used in studies of atmospheric acoustic and acoustic-gravity waves.

  2. Photomultiplier reception of satellite beacon flashes.

    PubMed

    Abby, D G; Wirtanen, T E

    1969-03-01

    Experiments have been performed on the electrooptical detection of flashes from satellite-borne beacons for the purposes of establishing the time of flash at the observing site, measurement of received pulse shape, and relative measurement of received energy. Initial observations have been made of the beacons carried by the geodetic satellite GEOS-B. Time of flash has been obtained to a precision of 0.1 msec. Pulse shape and energy measurements have been made for various slant ranges and at various voltages on the photomultiplier circuits. Continued testing is directed toward microsecond timing of flash reception.

  3. DNAzyme amplification of molecular beacon signal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Mao, Chengde

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports an improved catalytic molecular beacon. Addition of the target oligonucleotide activates a DNA enzyme (DNAzyme), which, in turn, activates multiple copies of molecular beacons (MB) and gives rise to a strong fluorescence signal. In a previous design, the activated DNAzyme could oligomerize, especially dimerize, and result in inactivation of the DNAzyme. The current design avoids this problem, upon activated by the target DNA, the DNAzyme will stay constantly active. With the improved method, a detection of 10pM DNA has been demonstrated, which is 1000 times more sensitive than the method previously reported.

  4. Optimized linkage and quenching strategies for quantum dot molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Cady, Nathaniel C; Strickland, Aaron D; Batt, Carl A

    2007-04-01

    Quantum dot (QD) molecular beacons were explored for sequence-specific DNA detection. The effectiveness of multiple linkage strategies and fluorescence quenchers were compared in hybridization-based assays. To compare linkage strategies, covalent amide linkage and streptavidin-biotin binding were used to link semiconductor QDs to molecular beacon DNA. Amide-linked beacons showed a 57% greater fluorescence increase than streptavidin-linked beacons when hybridized to 200 pmol of target DNA. The specificity of the molecular beacons, however, was similar for both linkage methods. Hybridization of both QD molecular beacons with non-complementary target DNA resulted in approximately 50% lower fluorescence intensity than hybridization with complementary DNA. The effectiveness of different quencher moieties was also evaluated. Iowa Black and 1.4 nm Nanogold-quenched molecular beacons exhibited approximately 2-fold greater fluorescence increases than dabcyl-quenched beacons when hybridized to complementary target. Specificity for target DNA was also confirmed through hybridization assays with non-complementary DNA. To provide insight into differences between the QD molecular beacons and the linkage strategies used, the hydrodynamic radius of each was measured. These measurements indicated that the larger radius of the streptavidin QDs (13.5 nm) than the carboxyl QDs (7 nm) could have a negative effect on FRET-based quenching for QD molecular beacons. These data outline the importance of choosing proper linkage methods and quencher moieties for creating high-quality QD molecular beacons.

  5. Effects of different beacon wavelengths on atmospheric compensation in strong scintillation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chengyu; Wang, Yingjian; Gong, Zhiben

    2004-08-01

    During strong scintillation, the number and location of branch points in a distorted optical field induced by atmospheric turbulence are closely related to the characteristic parameters of the turbulence effect, propagation distance, and wavelength. It is necessary to consider the effect of the beacon's wavelength on the adaptive optics system that is used to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. Our analytical results show that the performance of adaptive optics can be improved by nearly a factor of 2 when the beacon's wavelength is chosen slightly longer than the wavelength of the main laser in the branch points considered.

  6. Evaluation of Skylab earth laser beacon imagery. [spaceborne photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piech, K. R.; Schott, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    During the Skylab 3 and 4 missions the Skylab spacecraft was illuminated by a low power argon ion and dye laser. The earth laser beacon was studied visually by the astronauts. In addition, they collected 35 mm hand-held color photographs of the beacons. Photographs are shown that were obtained on Skylab 3 and Skylab 4. The imagery collected during the Skylab mission was analyzed to evaluate the utility of beacon lasers as terrestial 'artificial stars' for space navigation. The analyses of the imagery revealed two unusual features of the earth laser beacon: (1) The beacon, even though of a low power (approximately 1 watt), is considerably brighter than any other terrain feature and is readily visible on imagery at a distance in excess of 1500 km (900 miles). (2) Another feature of the beacon is its large size. The typical beacon extends over about 5 resolution areas with a characteristic dimension of about 200 m.

  7. Aptamer beacons for the direct detection of proteins.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, N; Ellington, A; Stanton, M

    2001-07-15

    We have designed a new class of molecules, which we term aptamer beacons, for detecting a wide range of ligands. Similar to molecular beacons, aptamer beacons can adopt two or more conformations, one of which allows ligand binding. A fluorescence-quenching pair is used to report changes in conformation induced by ligand binding. An anti-thrombin aptamer was engineered into an aptamer beacon by adding nucleotides to the 5'-end which are complementary to nucleotides at the 3'-end of the aptamer. In the absence of thrombin, the added nucleotides will form a duplex with the 3'-end, forcing the aptamer beacon into a stem-loop structure. In the presence of thrombin, the aptamer beacon forms the ligand-binding structure. This conformational change causes a change in the distance between a fluorophore attached to the 5'-end and a quencher attached to the 3'-end. Aptamer beacon can be a sensitive tool for detecting proteins and other chemical compounds.

  8. Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases.

    PubMed

    Kantham, Lakshmi; Kerr-Bayles, Lyndal; Godde, Nathan; Quick, Melissa; Webb, Ryan; Sunderland, Terry; Bond, Judy; Walder, Ken; Augert, Guy; Collier, Greg

    2003-04-25

    Previously we found elevated beacon gene expression in the hypothalamus of obese Psammomys obesus. Beacon administration into the lateral ventricle of P. obesus stimulated food intake and body weight gain. In the current study we used yeast two-hybrid technology to screen for proteins in the human brain that interact with beacon. CLK4, an isoform of cdc2/cdc28-like kinase family of proteins, was identified as a strong interacting partner for beacon. Using active recombinant proteins and a surface plasmon resonance based detection technique, we demonstrated that the three members of this subfamily of kinases (CLK1, 2, and 4) all interact with beacon. Based on the known sequence and functional properties of beacon and CLKs, we speculate that beacon could either modulate the function of key regulatory molecules such as PTP1B or control the expression patterns of specific genes involved in the central regulation of energy metabolism.

  9. Power sources for search and rescue 406 MHz beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.; Perrone, David E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study directed at the selection of a commercially available, safe, low cost, light weight and long storage life battery for search and rescue (Sarsat) 406 MHz emergency beacons are presented. In the course of this work, five electrochemical systems (lithium-manganese dioxide, lithium-carbon monofluoride, lithium-silver vanadium oxide, alkaline cells, and cadmium-mercuric oxide) were selected for limited experimental studies to determine their suitability for this application. Two safe, commercially available batteries (lithium-manganese dioxide and lithium-carbon monofluoride) which meet the near term requirements and several alternatives for the long term were identified.

  10. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility.

    PubMed

    Bullough, John D; Rea, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications.

  11. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility.

    PubMed

    Bullough, John D; Rea, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications. PMID:27314058

  12. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications. PMID:27314058

  13. Examining How Web Designers' Activity Systems Address Accessibility: Activity Theory as a Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    While accessibility of information technologies is often acknowledged as important, it is frequently not well addressed in practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the work of web developers and content managers to explore why and how accessibility is or is not addressed as an objective as websites are planned, built and maintained.…

  14. Systems approach to address incivility and disruptive behaviors in health-care organizations.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Elizabeth; Kusy, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing evidence that disruptive behaviors within health-care teams constitute a major threat to the quality of care, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO; Joint Commission Resources, 2008) has a new leadership standard that addresses disruptive and inappropriate behaviors effective January 1, 2009. For professionals who work in human resources and organization development, these standards represent a clarion call to design and implement evidence-based interventions to create health-care communities of respectful engagement that have zero tolerance for disruptive, uncivil, and intimidating behaviors by any professional. In this chapter, we will build an evidence-based argument that sustainable change must include organizational, team, and individual strategies across all professionals in the organization. We will then describe an intervention model--Toxic Organization Change System--that has emerged from our own research on toxic behaviors in the workplace (Kusy & Holloway, 2009) and provide examples of specific strategies that we have used to prevent and ameliorate toxic cultures.

  15. A content addressable memory for use in CEBAF's CLAS detector level 2 triggering system

    SciTech Connect

    R.F. Hodson; D.C. Doughty, Jr.; D.C. Allgood; S.A. Campbell; W.C. Wilson; M.H. Bickley

    1996-06-01

    A collaboration of researchers from CEBAF, CNU and NASA is designing a 256-32 specialized Content Addressable Memory (CAM) for the level 2 triggering system in CEBAF's CLAS detector. These integrated circuits will find tracks and the momentum and angle of each track within 2 microseconds of an event. The custom CAM can operate as conventional memory, performing read and write operations, and can additionally perform independent byte compare operations across all words simultaneously. It is this compare feature which makes these CAMs attractive for identifying tracks passing through drift chambers by linking together segment number triplets within the CAM. Simulations have indicated that less than 16 k triplets need to be stored for each sector of the detector. This implies the level 2 triggering can be performed with 64 CAM chips per sector, or 384 total. Each data channel into a sector CAM array is buffered in a FIFO and is designed to handle aggregate data rates up to 750 Mbs for three channels (one channel/superlayer). The architecture of the level 2 trigger and details of the CAM chip design are discussed along with a performance report on our prototype CAMs

  16. Beacon Spacecraft Operations: Lessons in Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R.; Schlutsmeyer, A.; Sue, M.; Szijjarto, J.; Wyatt, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach to mission operations has been flight validated on NASA's Deep Space One (DS1) mission that launched in October 1998. The beacon monitor operations technology is aimed at decreasing the total volume of downlinked engineering telemetry by reducing the frequency of downlink and the volume of data received per pass.

  17. Addressing security, collaboration, and usability with tactical edge mobile devices and strategic cloud-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Christopher J.

    2012-05-01

    Success in the future battle space is increasingly dependent on rapid access to the right information. Faced with a shrinking budget, the Government has a mandate to improve intelligence productivity, quality, and reliability. To achieve increased ISR effectiveness, leverage of tactical edge mobile devices via integration with strategic cloud-based infrastructure is the single, most likely candidate area for dramatic near-term impact. This paper discusses security, collaboration, and usability components of this evolving space. These three paramount tenets outlined below, embody how mission information is exchanged securely, efficiently, with social media cooperativeness. Tenet 1: Complete security, privacy, and data integrity, must be ensured within the net-centric battle space. This paper discusses data security on a mobile device, data at rest on a cloud-based system, authorization and access control, and securing data transport between entities. Tenet 2: Lack of collaborative information sharing and content reliability jeopardizes mission objectives and limits the end user capability. This paper discusses cooperative pairing of mobile devices and cloud systems, enabling social media style interaction via tagging, meta-data refinement, and sharing of pertinent data. Tenet 3: Fielded mobile solutions must address usability and complexity. Simplicity is a powerful paradigm on mobile platforms, where complex applications are not utilized, and simple, yet powerful, applications flourish. This paper discusses strategies for ensuring mobile applications are streamlined and usable at the tactical edge through focused features sets, leveraging the power of the back-end cloud, minimization of differing HMI concepts, and directed end-user feedback.teInput=

  18. Laser beacon adaptive optics for power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, R.Q.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the laser beam control system requirements for power beaming applications. Power beaming applications include electric and thermal engine propulsion for orbit transfer, station changing, and recharging batteries. Beam control includes satellite acquisition, high accuracy tracking, higher order atmospheric compensation using adaptive optics, and precision point-ahead. Beam control may also include local laser beam clean-up with a low order adaptive optics system. This paper also presents results of tracking and higher-order correction experiments on astronomical objects. The results were obtained with a laser beacon adaptive optics system at Phillips Laboratory`s Starfire Optical Range near Albuquerque, NM. At a wavelength of 0.85 {mu}m, the author has achieved Strehl ratios of {approximately}0.50 using laser beacons and {approximately}0.65 using natural stars for exposures longer than one minute on objects of {approximately}8{sup th} magnitude. The resulting point spread function has a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 0.13 arcsec.

  19. Distribution of beacon immunoreactivity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Tian, De-Run; Tian, Nan; Chen, Hui; Shi, Yu-Shun; Chang, Jaw-Kang; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Lan; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Beacon is a novel peptide isolated from the hypothalamus of Israeli sand rat. In the present study, we determined the distribution of beacon in the rat brain using immunohistochemical approach with a polyclonal antiserum directed against the synthetic C-terminal peptide fragment (47-73). The hypothalamus represented the major site of beacon-immunoreactive (IR) cell bodies that were concentrated in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). Additional immunostained cells were found in the septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, subfornical organ and subcommissural organ. Beacon-IR fibers were seen with high density in the internal layer of the median eminence and low to moderate density in the external layer. Significant beacon-IR fibers were also seen in the nucleus of the solitary tract and lateral reticular formation. The beacon neurons found in the PVN were further characterized by double label immunohistochemistry. Several beacon-IR neurons that resided in the medial PVN were shown to coexpress corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and most labeled beacon fibers in the external layer of median eminence coexist with CRH. The topographical distribution of beacon-IR in the brain suggests multiple biological activities for beacon in addition to its proposed roles in modulating feeding behaviors and pituitary hormone release.

  20. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  1. Beacon-like immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of domestic chick.

    PubMed

    Esposito, V; de Girolamo, P; Gargiulo, G; Dun, N J

    2006-12-01

    Beacon-immunoreactive (B-ir) fibres and neurons in the hypothalamus of the domestic chick (Gallus domesticus) were studied using an immunohistochemical technique in order to verify the presence and elucidate the pattern of distribution of this novel peptide in an avian brain. B-ir neurons were seen in the n. supraopticus, pars ventralis and pars externus; n. magnocellularis preopticus, pars dorsalis, medialis and ventralis; n. preopticus periventricularis; n. suprachiasmaticus, pars medialis; n. ventrolateralis thalami. Only few B-ir cells were scattered in the most anterior part of the lateral hypothalamic area. B-ir fibres, appearing as thin punctuate structures, were seen mainly along the walls of the third ventricle and in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Labelled fibres and terminals were located in the external and internal zones of the anterior and posterior median eminence. In particular, fibre terminals were seen close to the capillary loops of the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system. The anatomical data of the present study regarding the distribution of B-ir in the chick hypothalamus suggest that beacon may play a key role in the regulation of the neuroendocrine system by acting as a neuromodulator and/or neurotransmitter.

  2. Application of a miniature biochip using the molecular beacon probe in breast cancer gene BRCA1 detection.

    PubMed

    Culha, Mustafa; Stokes, David L; Griffin, Guy D; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2004-04-15

    We report for the first time the application of a biochip using the molecular beacon (MB) detection scheme. The usability of this biochip novel detection system for the analysis of the breast cancer gene BRCA1 is demonstrated using molecular beacon probes. The MB is designed for the BRCA1 gene and a miniature biochip system is used for detection. The performance of the biochip-MB detection system is evaluated. The optimum conditions for the MB system for highest fluorescence detection sensitivity are investigated for the detection system. The detection of BRCA1 gene is successfully demonstrated in solution and the limit of detection (LOD) is estimated as 70 nM.

  3. Localization with a mobile beacon in underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Kiseon

    2012-01-01

    Localization is one of the most important issues associated with underwater acoustic sensor networks, especially when sensor nodes are randomly deployed. Given that it is difficult to deploy beacon nodes at predetermined locations, localization schemes with a mobile beacon on the sea surface or along the planned path are inherently convenient, accurate, and energy-efficient. In this paper, we propose a new range-free Localization with a Mobile Beacon (LoMoB). The mobile beacon periodically broadcasts a beacon message containing its location. Sensor nodes are individually localized by passively receiving the beacon messages without inter-node communications. For location estimation, a set of potential locations are obtained as candidates for a node's location and then the node's location is determined through the weighted mean of all the potential locations with the weights computed based on residuals.

  4. Standard and AEGIS nicking molecular beacons detect amplicons from the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Yaren, Ozlem; Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Bradley, Kevin M; Hoshika, Shuichi; Benner, Steven A

    2016-10-01

    This paper combines two advances to detect MERS-CoV, the causative agent of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, that have emerged over the past few years from the new field of "synthetic biology". Both are based on an older concept, where molecular beacons are used as the downstream detection of viral RNA in biological mixtures followed by reverse transcription PCR amplification. The first advance exploits the artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS). AEGIS adds nucleotides to the four found in standard DNA and RNA (xNA); AEGIS nucleotides pair orthogonally to the A:T and G:C pairs. Placing AEGIS components in the stems of molecular beacons is shown to lower noise by preventing unwanted stem invasion by adventitious natural xNA. This should improve the signal-to-noise ratio of molecular beacons operating in complex biological mixtures. The second advance introduces a nicking enzyme that allows a single target molecule to activate more than one beacon, allowing "signal amplification". Combining these technologies in primers with components of a self-avoiding molecular recognition system (SAMRS), we detect 50 copies of MERS-CoV RNA in a multiplexed respiratory virus panel by generating fluorescence signal visible to human eye and/or camera. PMID:27421627

  5. Standard and AEGIS nicking molecular beacons detect amplicons from the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Yaren, Ozlem; Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Bradley, Kevin M; Hoshika, Shuichi; Benner, Steven A

    2016-10-01

    This paper combines two advances to detect MERS-CoV, the causative agent of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, that have emerged over the past few years from the new field of "synthetic biology". Both are based on an older concept, where molecular beacons are used as the downstream detection of viral RNA in biological mixtures followed by reverse transcription PCR amplification. The first advance exploits the artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS). AEGIS adds nucleotides to the four found in standard DNA and RNA (xNA); AEGIS nucleotides pair orthogonally to the A:T and G:C pairs. Placing AEGIS components in the stems of molecular beacons is shown to lower noise by preventing unwanted stem invasion by adventitious natural xNA. This should improve the signal-to-noise ratio of molecular beacons operating in complex biological mixtures. The second advance introduces a nicking enzyme that allows a single target molecule to activate more than one beacon, allowing "signal amplification". Combining these technologies in primers with components of a self-avoiding molecular recognition system (SAMRS), we detect 50 copies of MERS-CoV RNA in a multiplexed respiratory virus panel by generating fluorescence signal visible to human eye and/or camera.

  6. Addressing Special Education Inequity through Systemic Change: Contributions of Ecologically Based Organizational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Hernandez-Saca, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of special education, scholars and practitioners have been concerned about the disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds among students identified with disabilities. Professional efforts to address this disproportionality have encompassed a range of targets, but scholars…

  7. Privacy Risks from Genomic Data-Sharing Beacons.

    PubMed

    Shringarpure, Suyash S; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-11-01

    The human genetics community needs robust protocols that enable secure sharing of genomic data from participants in genetic research. Beacons are web servers that answer allele-presence queries--such as "Do you have a genome that has a specific nucleotide (e.g., A) at a specific genomic position (e.g., position 11,272 on chromosome 1)?"--with either "yes" or "no." Here, we show that individuals in a beacon are susceptible to re-identification even if the only data shared include presence or absence information about alleles in a beacon. Specifically, we propose a likelihood-ratio test of whether a given individual is present in a given genetic beacon. Our test is not dependent on allele frequencies and is the most powerful test for a specified false-positive rate. Through simulations, we showed that in a beacon with 1,000 individuals, re-identification is possible with just 5,000 queries. Relatives can also be identified in the beacon. Re-identification is possible even in the presence of sequencing errors and variant-calling differences. In a beacon constructed with 65 European individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project, we demonstrated that it is possible to detect membership in the beacon with just 250 SNPs. With just 1,000 SNP queries, we were able to detect the presence of an individual genome from the Personal Genome Project in an existing beacon. Our results show that beacons can disclose membership and implied phenotypic information about participants and do not protect privacy a priori. We discuss risk mitigation through policies and standards such as not allowing anonymous pings of genetic beacons and requiring minimum beacon sizes.

  8. Privacy Risks from Genomic Data-Sharing Beacons

    PubMed Central

    Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    The human genetics community needs robust protocols that enable secure sharing of genomic data from participants in genetic research. Beacons are web servers that answer allele-presence queries—such as “Do you have a genome that has a specific nucleotide (e.g., A) at a specific genomic position (e.g., position 11,272 on chromosome 1)?”—with either “yes” or “no.” Here, we show that individuals in a beacon are susceptible to re-identification even if the only data shared include presence or absence information about alleles in a beacon. Specifically, we propose a likelihood-ratio test of whether a given individual is present in a given genetic beacon. Our test is not dependent on allele frequencies and is the most powerful test for a specified false-positive rate. Through simulations, we showed that in a beacon with 1,000 individuals, re-identification is possible with just 5,000 queries. Relatives can also be identified in the beacon. Re-identification is possible even in the presence of sequencing errors and variant-calling differences. In a beacon constructed with 65 European individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project, we demonstrated that it is possible to detect membership in the beacon with just 250 SNPs. With just 1,000 SNP queries, we were able to detect the presence of an individual genome from the Personal Genome Project in an existing beacon. Our results show that beacons can disclose membership and implied phenotypic information about participants and do not protect privacy a priori. We discuss risk mitigation through policies and standards such as not allowing anonymous pings of genetic beacons and requiring minimum beacon sizes. PMID:26522470

  9. Experimental demonstration of atmospheric compensation using multiple synthetic beacons.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D V; Primmerman, C A; Zollars, B G; Barclay, H T

    1991-11-15

    We present experimental results that demonstrate real-time, atmospheric-turbulence compensation of a bright star with the use of two synthetic beacons. Each beacon was used to measure the phase aberrations over only part of the telescope aperture, a configuration that is suitable for reducing focal-anisoplanatism error. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of atmospheric compensation with the use of multiple synthetic beacons.

  10. Development of a universal RNA beacon for exogenous gene detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanjian; Lu, Zhongju; Cohen, Ira Stephen; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapy requires a nontoxic and high-throughput method to achieve a pure cell population to prevent teratomas that can occur if even one cell in the implant has not been transformed. A promising method to detect and separate cells expressing a particular gene is RNA beacon technology. However, developing a successful, specific beacon to a particular transfected gene can take months to develop and in some cases is impossible. Here, we report on an off-the-shelf universal beacon that decreases the time and cost of applying beacon technology to select any living cell population transfected with an exogenous gene.

  11. Development of a Universal RNA Beacon for Exogenous Gene Detection

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuanjian; Lu, Zhongju; Cohen, Ira Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy requires a nontoxic and high-throughput method to achieve a pure cell population to prevent teratomas that can occur if even one cell in the implant has not been transformed. A promising method to detect and separate cells expressing a particular gene is RNA beacon technology. However, developing a successful, specific beacon to a particular transfected gene can take months to develop and in some cases is impossible. Here, we report on an off-the-shelf universal beacon that decreases the time and cost of applying beacon technology to select any living cell population transfected with an exogenous gene. PMID:25769653

  12. Killer beacons for combined cancer imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Stefflova, Klara; Chen, Juan; Zheng, Gang

    2007-01-01

    Precisely localizing therapeutic agents in neoplastic areas would greatly improve their efficacy for killing tumor cells and reduce their toxicity to normal cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment modality, and near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF-I) is a sensitive and noninvasive approach for in vivo cancer detection. This review focuses on the current efforts to engineer single molecule constructs that allow these two modalities to be combined to achieve a high level of selectivity for cancer treatment. The primary component of these so called killer beacons is a fluorescent photosensitizer responsible for both imaging and therapy. By attaching other components, e.g. various DNA- or peptide-based linkers, quenchers or cancer cell-specific delivery vehicles, their primary diagnostic and therapeutic functions as well as their target specificity and pharmacological properties can be modulated. This modular design makes these agents customizable, offering the ability to assemble a few simple and often interchangeable functional modules into beacons with totally different functions. This review will summarize following three types of killer beacons: photodynamic molecular beacons, traceable beacons and beacons with built-in apoptosis sensor. Despite the rapid progress in killer beacon development, numerous challenges remain before these beacons can be translated into clinics, such as photobleaching, delivery efficiency and cancer-specificity. In this review we outline the basic principles of killer beacons, the current achievements and future directions, including possible cancer targets and different therapeutic applications.

  13. Low cost high efficiency GaAs monolithic RF module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W. C.; Siu, D. P.; Cook, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Low cost high performance (5 Watts output) 406 MHz beacons are urgently needed to realize the maximum utilization of the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system spearheaded in the U.S. by NASA. Although current technology can produce beacons meeting the output power requirement, power consumption is high due to the low efficiency of available transmitters. Field performance is currently unsatisfactory due to the lack of safe and reliable high density batteries capable of operation at -40 C. Low cost production is also a crucial but elusive requirement for the ultimate wide scale utilization of this system. Microwave Monolithics Incorporated (MMInc.) has proposed to make both the technical and cost goals for the SARSAT beacon attainable by developing a monolithic GaAs chip set for the RF module. This chip set consists of a high efficiency power amplifier and a bi-phase modulator. In addition to implementing the RF module in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) form to minimize ultimate production costs, the power amplifier has a power-added efficiency nearly twice that attained with current commercial technology. A distress beacon built using this RF module chip set will be significantly smaller in size and lighter in weight due to a smaller battery requirement, since the 406 MHz signal source and the digital controller have far lower power consumption compared to the 5 watt power amplifier. All the program tasks have been successfully completed. The GaAs MMIC RF module chip set has been designed to be compatible with the present 406 MHz signal source and digital controller. A complete high performance low cost SARSAT beacon can be realized with only additional minor iteration and systems integration.

  14. Mega-nano detection of foodborne pathogens and transgenes using molecular beacon and semiconductor quantum dot technologies.

    PubMed

    Burris, Kellie P; Wu, Tsai-Chin; Vasudev, Milana; Stroscio, Michael A; Millwood, Reginald J; Stewart, C Neal

    2013-09-01

    Signature molecules derived from Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Salmonella Typhimurium were detected directly on food substrates (mega) by coupling molecular beacon technology utilizing fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET), luminescent nanoscale semiconductor quantum dots, and nanoscale quenchers. We designed target DNA sequences for detecting hlyA, Bt cry1Ac, and invA genes from L. monocytogenes, B. thuringiensis and Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively, and prepared molecular beacons for specific targets for use in real-time monitoring. We successfully detected increased fluorescence in the presence of signature molecules at molecular beacon (MB) concentrations from 1.17 nM to 40 nM, depending upon system tested in (water, milk or plant leaves), respective target (hlyA, Bt cry1Ac, or invA) and genomic DNA target concentration (50-800 ng). We were able to detect bacterial genomic DNA derived from L. monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. in a food system, 2% milk ( > 20% of total volume). Furthermore, we infiltrated the Bt cry1Ac beacon in the presence of genomic DNA extracted from B. thuringiensis into Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and observed increased fluorescence in the presence of the target, indicating the ability to use these beacons in a plant system. PMID:23722479

  15. Mega-nano detection of foodborne pathogens and transgenes using molecular beacon and semiconductor quantum dot technologies.

    PubMed

    Burris, Kellie P; Wu, Tsai-Chin; Vasudev, Milana; Stroscio, Michael A; Millwood, Reginald J; Stewart, C Neal

    2013-09-01

    Signature molecules derived from Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Salmonella Typhimurium were detected directly on food substrates (mega) by coupling molecular beacon technology utilizing fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET), luminescent nanoscale semiconductor quantum dots, and nanoscale quenchers. We designed target DNA sequences for detecting hlyA, Bt cry1Ac, and invA genes from L. monocytogenes, B. thuringiensis and Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively, and prepared molecular beacons for specific targets for use in real-time monitoring. We successfully detected increased fluorescence in the presence of signature molecules at molecular beacon (MB) concentrations from 1.17 nM to 40 nM, depending upon system tested in (water, milk or plant leaves), respective target (hlyA, Bt cry1Ac, or invA) and genomic DNA target concentration (50-800 ng). We were able to detect bacterial genomic DNA derived from L. monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. in a food system, 2% milk ( > 20% of total volume). Furthermore, we infiltrated the Bt cry1Ac beacon in the presence of genomic DNA extracted from B. thuringiensis into Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and observed increased fluorescence in the presence of the target, indicating the ability to use these beacons in a plant system.

  16. Single-cell detection of mRNA expression using nanofountain-probe electroporated molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Giraldo-Vela, Juan P; Kang, Wonmo; McNaughton, Rebecca L; Zhang, Xuemei; Wile, Brian M; Tsourkas, Andrew; Bao, Gang; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2015-05-01

    New techniques for single-cell analysis enable new discoveries in gene expression and systems biology. Time-dependent measurements on individual cells are necessary, yet the common single-cell analysis techniques used today require lysing the cell, suspending the cell, or long incubation times for transfection, thereby interfering with the ability to track an individual cell over time. Here a method for detecting mRNA expression in live single cells using molecular beacons that are transfected into single cells by means of nanofountain probe electroporation (NFP-E) is presented. Molecular beacons are oligonucleotides that emit fluorescence upon binding to an mRNA target, rendering them useful for spatial and temporal studies of live cells. The NFP-E is used to transfect a DNA-based beacon that detects glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and an RNA-based beacon that detects a sequence cloned in the green fluorescence protein mRNA. It is shown that imaging analysis of transfection and mRNA detection can be performed within seconds after electroporation and without disturbing adhered cells. In addition, it is shown that time-dependent detection of mRNA expression is feasible by transfecting the same single cell at different time points. This technique will be particularly useful for studies of cell differentiation, where several measurements of mRNA expression are required over time.

  17. Activation kinetics of zipper molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tracy W; Chen, Juan; Burgess, Laura; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang; Zhan, Lixin; Liu, Wing-Ki; Ha, Bae-Yeun

    2015-01-01

    Proteases play key roles in the regulation of normal cellular function, and thus, their deregulation leads to many disease states. Molecular beacons are promising protease-imaging probes for the detection and characterization of disease as well as for the evaluation of treatment. Inspired by this, we examined the efficiency of zipper molecular beacons (ZMBs) as imaging probes. First, we showed experimentally that the symmetrical ZMB (zip5e5r), bearing 5-arginine and 5-glutamate arms, is as efficient as the asymmetrical zip5e8r in enhancing cell uptake but without the dark toxicity exhibited by the asymmetric zipper. Also, zip5e5r was shown to dissociate more efficiently at pH’s greater than 5. Using a simple two-state binding model, we attributed this to a larger number of charge-pair conformations for zip5e8r. We then measured the ability of soluble matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to cleave zip5e5r, and compared their cleavage efficiency with the original photodynamic molecular beacon (PMB). Finally, as a first step toward understanding our observations quantitatively, we simulated the native structures of the peptides GPLGLARK and EGPLGLARRK with charged termini NH3(+) and COO(-) that approximate the PMB and ZMB (with one pair of arginine/glutamate electrostatic zipper), respectively. We concluded that inclusion of the zipper changes the native structure of the MBs, altering the cleavage efficiency of different MMPs.

  18. Beacon immunoreactivity in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y K; Brailoiu, G C; Dun, S L; Ling, E A; Yang, J; Chang, J K; Dun, N J

    2006-05-01

    Beacon (BC) is a peptide of 73 amino acids, whose gene expression was first reported in the hypothalamus of Psammomys obesus (or Israeli sand rat). To appreciate better the functional role of BC in normal rats and sand rats, the distribution of BC immunoreactivity (irBC) and its subcellular localization were studied in the brain of Sprague-Dawley rats. In the hypothalamus, intense staining was present in neurons of the supraoptic (SO), paraventricular (PVH), and accessory neurosecretory nuclei and in cell processes of median eminence. Double labeling of the hypothalamic sections with mouse monoclonal oxytocin (OT) antibody and rabbit polyclonal BC antiserum revealed that nearly all OT-immunoreactive cells from SO, PVH, and accessory neurosecretory nuclei were irBC. Double labeling of the sections with guinea pig vasopressin (VP) antiserum and BC antiserum showed that a population of VP-immunoreactive neurons was irBC. By immunoelectron microscopy, immunoreactive product was associated with mitochondrial membranes or appeared as electron-dense bodies in many PVH and SO neurons. Most of the neurosecretory granules were unstained for BC. Taken together, our results indicate the presence of beacon in the OT-containing neurons and a population of VP-containing neurons, mostly associated with mitochondrial membrane. Insofar as the amino acids sequence of beacon is identical to that of ubiquitin-like 5, it is possible that the distribution of BC immunoreactivity noted in our study is that of ubiquitin-like 5 peptide in the rat hypothalamus.

  19. Media Literacy Education from Kindergarten to College: A Comparison of How Media Literacy Is Addressed across the Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans C.

    2013-01-01

    This study of media literacy education at all levels of the educational system considered faculty perceptions of student media literacy competencies, the extent to which media literacy is addressed in class, and the extent to which faculty members consider media literacy education to be important. Data suggest that despite the research and policy…

  20. Assessing the Use of School Public Address Systems to Deliver Nutrition Messages to Children: Shape Up Somerville--Audio Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folta, Sara C.; Goldberg, Jeanne P.; Economos, Christina; Bell, Rick; Landers, Stewart; Hyatt, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Given the current childhood obesity epidemic, it is especially important to find effective ways to promote healthful foods to children. School public address (PA) systems represent an inexpensive and a replicable way of reaching children with health messages. To test the effectiveness of this channel, messages were created to promote 2 dried bean…

  1. The LED Beacon prototype system for the on-shore time calibration of the KM3NeT-IT Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bonis, Giulia; Ameli, Fabrizio; Nicolau, Carlo A.; Simeone, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The first implementation of the KM3NeT-IT neutrino telescope consists in the installation of 24 Strings and 8 Towers. Focusing on the Towers, the idea behind this work is to exploit the LED sources mounted in the OMs to develop a complementary system, on shore and before the deployment, for the determination of time delays, aiming at the characterizations of the time response of the different elements of the detector. During the assembling of the first tower, a set of measurements has been carried out; the test set-up and the measurement procedure are described, together with preliminary results of the calibration system. Lesson learnt is quite encouraging: uncertainties of the order of 400 ps are reached with very few cautions taken during the short calibration session, and with large room for improvement, making this system feasible and effective for the KM3NeT-IT experiment.

  2. Quencher-free molecular beacon: Enhancement of the signal-to-background ratio with graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jeong Wu; Park, Jaesung; Singh, N Jiten; Lee, Il Joon; Kim, Kwang S; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2011-01-15

    We report the highly improved version of quencher-free molecular beacon (QF-MB) system by using graphene oxide (GO) as an external quencher. This QF-MB/GO system provided a higher S/B ratio (31.0) relative to that (2.2) of the same system in the absence of GO, while retaining a high selectivity for fully matched over single-base-mismatched targets.

  3. The Johns Hopkins Address Registration System (JHARS): Anatomy of an Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyzyk, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Describes the registration system at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, which allows centralized administration and self-signup for access to the Hopkins network. Reception of the system has been overwhelmingly positive. (SLD)

  4. Cholesterol-linked fluorescent molecular beacons with enhanced cell permeability.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Jun; Jeong, Hyun Seok; Bang, Eun-Kyoung; Hwang, Gil Tae; Jung, Jong Ha; Jang, Sung Key; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2006-01-01

    We appended pyrene units covalently onto adenosine (forming A(P) units) and then incorporated them into oligonucleotides such that they were positioned in complementary locations in opposite strands in the middle positions of hairpin stems. System 1 (A(P)A(P)) behaves as an effective molecular beacon (MB) that changes color from green to blue upon duplex formation. In addition, we attached a cholesterol unit to a free terminus of one of these hairpins; this approach enhanced the cellular delivery of the modified MB relative to those encountered when using conventional transfection methods. These structurally simple cholesterol-based MB systems, which can be synthesized very efficiently, have good potential for opening up new and exciting opportunities in the field of in vivo biosensors.

  5. Double-hairpin molecular-beacon-based amplification detection for gene diagnosis linked to cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huo; Zhang, Rongbo; Li, Feng; Zhou, Yingying; Peng, Ting; Wang, Xuedong; Shen, Zhifa

    2016-09-01

    A powerful double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB) was developed for cancer-related KRAS gene detection based on the one-to-two stoichiometry. During target DNA detection, DHMB can execute signal transduction even if no any exogenous element is involved. Unlike the conventional molecular beacon based on the one-to-one interaction, one target DNA not only hybridizes with one DHMB and opens its hairpin but also promotes the interaction between two DHMBs, causing the separation of two fluorophores from quenchers. This leads to an enhanced fluorescence signal. As a result, the target KRAS gene is able to be detected within a wide dynamic range from 0.05 to 200 nM with the detection limit of 50 pM, indicating a dramatic improvement compared with traditional molecular beacons. Moreover, the point mutations existing in target DNAs can be easily screened. The potential application for target species in real samples was indicated by the analysis of PCR amplicons of DNAs from the DNA extracted from SW620 cell. Besides becoming a promising candidate probe for molecular biology research and clinical diagnosis of genetic diseases, the DHMB is expected to provide a significant insight into the design of DNA probe-based homogenous sensing systems. Graphical Abstract A powerful double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB) was developed for cancer-related gene KRAS detection based on the one-to-two stoichiometry. Without the help of any exogenous probe, the point mutation is easily screened, and the target DNA can be quantified down to 50 pM, indicating a dramatic improvement compared with traditional molecular beacons. PMID:27422649

  6. Double-hairpin molecular-beacon-based amplification detection for gene diagnosis linked to cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huo; Zhang, Rongbo; Li, Feng; Zhou, Yingying; Peng, Ting; Wang, Xuedong; Shen, Zhifa

    2016-09-01

    A powerful double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB) was developed for cancer-related KRAS gene detection based on the one-to-two stoichiometry. During target DNA detection, DHMB can execute signal transduction even if no any exogenous element is involved. Unlike the conventional molecular beacon based on the one-to-one interaction, one target DNA not only hybridizes with one DHMB and opens its hairpin but also promotes the interaction between two DHMBs, causing the separation of two fluorophores from quenchers. This leads to an enhanced fluorescence signal. As a result, the target KRAS gene is able to be detected within a wide dynamic range from 0.05 to 200 nM with the detection limit of 50 pM, indicating a dramatic improvement compared with traditional molecular beacons. Moreover, the point mutations existing in target DNAs can be easily screened. The potential application for target species in real samples was indicated by the analysis of PCR amplicons of DNAs from the DNA extracted from SW620 cell. Besides becoming a promising candidate probe for molecular biology research and clinical diagnosis of genetic diseases, the DHMB is expected to provide a significant insight into the design of DNA probe-based homogenous sensing systems. Graphical Abstract A powerful double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB) was developed for cancer-related gene KRAS detection based on the one-to-two stoichiometry. Without the help of any exogenous probe, the point mutation is easily screened, and the target DNA can be quantified down to 50 pM, indicating a dramatic improvement compared with traditional molecular beacons.

  7. First Results for the TBB/CERTO Beacon Experiment on FORMOSAT- 3/COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Garner, T. W.; Gaussiran, T. L.; Secan, J.; Smith, F.; Groves, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography (CERTO) instrument is a Tri-Band Beacon (TBB) that radiates unmodulated radio frequency carriers at 150.012, 400.032, and 1066.752 MHz. As part of the FORMOSAT-3 program, the six Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) satellites were launched in April 2006 with the TBB instrument along with a GPS occultation receiver (GOX) and a Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP). Each of these instruments is capable of measuring integrated plasma density parameters for the F-region. The COSMIC satellites were initially deployed into 520 km orbits with 72 degrees inclination all in the same orbit plane. Each satellite will be boosted up to 800 km altitude with month-long time delays to allow separation of the orbits into six planes. Ground based receivers in Alaska, Virginia, Peru, and Kwajalein have recorded the radio beacon signals from the COSMIC CERTO beacons to determine the signal and antenna pattern specifications and to provide preliminary measurements of ionosphere TEC and radio scintillations. Because of power limitations and radio interference, TBB/CERTO frequency operations must be scheduled for passes over ground receivers. The ionospheric radio beacon data has been primarily obtained using the VHF and UHF CERTO frequencies. These data are complementary to ground based incoherent scatter radar (ISR) and ionosonde measurements as well as the GOX and TIP sensors on the satellites. Both tomography and inverse diffraction algorithms have been used to convert the radio beacon measurements into estimates of ionospheric electron density structures.

  8. 54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET (LEFT) AND ASSOCIATED GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDERS (RIGHT). ELAPSED TIME COUNTER SITS ATOP AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Beacons In Brief. P/PV In Brief. Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Susan; Farley, Chelsea

    2004-01-01

    This second issue in P/PV's "In Brief" series focuses on the San Francisco Beacon Initiative and P/PV's recently released evaluation results. The Beacon Initiative established after-school programs in eight public schools in low-income San Francisco neighborhoods. P/PV's 36-month evaluation examined key developmental and academic outcomes.…

  10. Evaluation of the New York City Beacons. Phase I Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Constancia; Brown, Prudence; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    This report presents findings from Phase 1 of an evaluation of the New York City Beacons initiative, a school-community-family partnership model initiated in 1991. Beacons are community centers within public schools that offer activities and services to people of all ages before and after school, in the evenings, and on weekends. Research included…

  11. Enzymatic signal amplification of molecular beacons for sensitive DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianwei Jeffery; Chu, Yizhuo; Lee, Benjamin Yi-Hung; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2008-04-01

    Molecular beacons represent a new family of fluorescent probes for nucleic acids, and have found broad applications in recent years due to their unique advantages over traditional probes. Detection of nucleic acids using molecular beacons has been based on hybridization between target molecules and molecular beacons in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. The stoichiometric hybridization, however, puts an intrinsic limitation on detection sensitivity, because one target molecule converts only one beacon molecule to its fluorescent form. To increase the detection sensitivity, a conventional strategy has been target amplification through polymerase chain reaction. Instead of target amplification, here we introduce a scheme of signal amplification, nicking enzyme signal amplification, to increase the detection sensitivity of molecular beacons. The mechanism of the signal amplification lies in target-dependent cleavage of molecular beacons by a DNA nicking enzyme, through which one target DNA can open many beacon molecules, giving rise to amplification of fluorescent signal. Our results indicate that one target DNA leads to cleavage of hundreds of beacon molecules, increasing detection sensitivity by nearly three orders of magnitude. We designed two versions of signal amplification. The basic version, though simple, requires that nicking enzyme recognition sequence be present in the target DNA. The extended version allows detection of target of any sequence by incorporating rolling circle amplification. Moreover, the extended version provides one additional level of signal amplification, bringing the detection limit down to tens of femtomolar, nearly five orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional hybridization assay.

  12. Multiplex detection of single-nucleotide variations using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Marras, S A; Kramer, F R; Tyagi, S

    1999-02-01

    We demonstrate that single-nucleotide differences in a DNA sequence can be detected in homogeneous assays using molecular beacons. In this method, the region surrounding the site of a sequence variation is amplified in a polymerase chain reaction and the identity of the variant nucleotide is determined by observing which of four differently colored molecular beacons binds to the amplification product. Each of the molecular beacons is perfectly complementary to one variant of the target sequence and each is labeled with a different fluorophore. To demonstrate the specificity of these assays, we prepared four template DNAs that only differed from one another by the identity of the nucleotide at one position. Four amplification reactions were prepared, each containing all four molecular beacons, but each initiated with only one of the four template DNAs. The results show that in each reaction a fluorogenic response was elicited from the molecular beacon that was perfectly complementary to the amplified DNA, but not from the three molecular beacons whose probe sequence mismatched the target sequence. The color of the fluorescence that appeared in each tube during the course of the amplification indicated which nucleotide was present at the site of variation. These results demonstrate the extraordinary specificity of molecular beacons. Furthermore, the results illustrate how the ability to label molecular beacons with differently colored fluorophores enables simple multiplex assays to be carried out for genetic analysis.

  13. A search for optical beacons: implications of null results.

    PubMed

    Blair, David G; Zadnik, Marjan G

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years a series of searches for interstellar radio beacons have taken place using the Parkes radio telescope. Here we report hitherto unpublished results from a search for optical beacons from 60 solar-type stars using the Perth-Lowell telescope. We discuss the significance of the null results from these searches, all of which were based on the interstellar contact channel hypothesis. While the null results of all searches to date can be explained simply by the nonexistence of electromagnetically communicating life elsewhere in the Milky Way, four other possible explanations that do not preclude its existence are proposed: (1) Extraterrestrial civilizations desiring to make contact through the use of electromagnetic beacons have a very low density in the Milky Way. (2) The interstellar contact channel hypothesis is incorrect, and beacons exist at frequencies that have not yet been searched. (3) The search has been incomplete in terms of sensitivity and/or target directions: Beacons exist, but more sensitive equipment and/or more searching is needed to achieve success. (4) The search has occurred before beacon signals can be expected to have arrived at the Earth, and beacon signals may be expected in the future. Based on consideration of the technology required for extraterrestrial civilizations to identify target planets, we argue that the fourth possibility is likely to be valid and that powerful, easily detectable beacons could be received in coming centuries.

  14. A search for optical beacons: implications of null results.

    PubMed

    Blair, David G; Zadnik, Marjan G

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years a series of searches for interstellar radio beacons have taken place using the Parkes radio telescope. Here we report hitherto unpublished results from a search for optical beacons from 60 solar-type stars using the Perth-Lowell telescope. We discuss the significance of the null results from these searches, all of which were based on the interstellar contact channel hypothesis. While the null results of all searches to date can be explained simply by the nonexistence of electromagnetically communicating life elsewhere in the Milky Way, four other possible explanations that do not preclude its existence are proposed: (1) Extraterrestrial civilizations desiring to make contact through the use of electromagnetic beacons have a very low density in the Milky Way. (2) The interstellar contact channel hypothesis is incorrect, and beacons exist at frequencies that have not yet been searched. (3) The search has been incomplete in terms of sensitivity and/or target directions: Beacons exist, but more sensitive equipment and/or more searching is needed to achieve success. (4) The search has occurred before beacon signals can be expected to have arrived at the Earth, and beacon signals may be expected in the future. Based on consideration of the technology required for extraterrestrial civilizations to identify target planets, we argue that the fourth possibility is likely to be valid and that powerful, easily detectable beacons could be received in coming centuries. PMID:12530240

  15. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  16. A Multimedia Adaptive Tutoring System for Mathematics That Addresses Cognition, Metacognition and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly Park; Burelson, Winslow; Muldner, Kasia; Rai, Dovan; Tai, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    This article describes research results based on multiple years of experimentation and real-world experience with an adaptive tutoring system named Wayang Outpost. The system represents a novel adaptive learning technology that has shown successful outcomes with thousands of students, and provided teachers with valuable information about…

  17. Molecular beacons as probes of RNA unfolding under native conditions.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Julia F; Woodson, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    Hybridization of fluorescent molecular beacons provides real-time detection of RNA secondary structure with high specificity. We used molecular beacons to measure folding and unfolding rates of the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme under native conditions. A molecular beacon targeted against 15 nt in the 5' strand of the P3 helix specifically hybridized with misfolded forms of the ribozyme, without invading the native tertiary structure. The beacon associated with the misfolded ribozyme 300 times more slowly than with an unstructured oligonucleotide containing the same target sequence, suggesting that the misfolded ribozyme core remains structured in the absence of Mg2+. The rate of beacon hybridization under native conditions revealed a linear relationship between the free energy of unfolding and Mg2+ concentration. A small fraction of the RNA population unfolded very rapidly, suggesting parallel unfolding in one step or through misfolded intermediates.

  18. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  19. Addressing the crush of sampling. [technology programs for space information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.; Holcomb, L. B.; Rubin, B.

    1980-01-01

    An overall space information system involves sensing, processing, analyzing, and distributing space-acquired information. These systems may be partitioned into the spacecraft segment, the wideband space-to-ground communication segment, and the ground-based data analysis and distribution segment. The paper discusses NASA's advanced technology programs aimed at providing improved sensors and on-board data systems. Advances in charge-transfer devices, lasers, and microwave technologies will be responsible for major improvements in NASA's sensing and detection capabilities for future missions. These improvements will result in a future data crush that will amplify the data management problem.

  20. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  1. An OR logic gate based on two molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Yang, Renqiang

    2012-03-01

    Design of elementary molecular logic gates is the key and the fundamental of performing complicated Boolean calculations. Herein, we report a strategy for constructing a DNA-based OR gate by using the mechanism of sequence recognition and the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In this system, the gate is entirely composed of a single strand of DNA (A, B and C) and the inputs are the molecular beacon probes (MB1 and MB2). Changes in fluorescence intensity confirm the realization of the OR logic operation and electrophoresis experiments verify these results. Our successful application of DNA to perform the binary operation represents that DNA can serve as an efficient biomaterial for designing molecular logic gates and devices.

  2. Recent trends in molecular beacon design and applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kewei; Martí, Angel A

    2012-04-01

    A molecular beacon (MB) is a hairpin-structured oligonucleotide probe containing a photoluminescent species (PLS) and a quencher at different ends of the strand. In a recognition and detection process, the hybridization of MBs with target DNA sequences restores the strong photoluminescence, which is quenched before hybridization. Making better MBs involves reducing the background photoluminescence and increasing the brightness of the PLS, which therefore involves the development of new PLS and quenchers, as well as innovative PLS-quencher systems. Heavy-metal complexes, nanocrystals, pyrene compounds, and other materials with excellent photophysical properties have been applied as PLS of MBs. Nanoparticles, nanowires, graphene, metal films, and many other media have also been introduced to quench photoluminescence. On the basis of their high specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity, MBs are developed as a general platform for sensing, producing, and carrying molecules other than oligonucleotides.

  3. An elegant biosensor molecular beacon probe: challenges and recent solutions.

    PubMed

    Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2012-01-01

    Molecular beacon (MB) probes are fluorophore- and quencher-labeled short synthetic DNAs folded in a stem-loop shape. Since the first report by Tyagi and Kramer, it has become a widely accepted tool for nucleic acid analysis and triggered a cascade of related developments in the field of molecular sensing. The unprecedented success of MB probes stems from their ability to detect specific DNA or RNA sequences immediately after hybridization with no need to wash out the unbound probe (instantaneous format). Importantly, the hairpin structure of the probe is responsible for both the low fluorescent background and improved selectivity. Furthermore, the signal is generated in a reversible manner; thus, if the analyte is removed, the signal is reduced to the background. This paper highlights the advantages of MB probes and discusses the approaches that address the challenges in MB probe design. Variations of MB-based assays tackle the problem of stem invasion, improve SNP genotyping and signal-to-noise ratio, as well as address the challenges of detecting folded RNA and DNA.

  4. An Elegant Biosensor Molecular Beacon Probe: Challenges and Recent Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular beacon (MB) probes are fluorophore- and quencher-labeled short synthetic DNAs folded in a stem-loop shape. Since the first report by Tyagi and Kramer, it has become a widely accepted tool for nucleic acid analysis and triggered a cascade of related developments in the field of molecular sensing. The unprecedented success of MB probes stems from their ability to detect specific DNA or RNA sequences immediately after hybridization with no need to wash out the unbound probe (instantaneous format). Importantly, the hairpin structure of the probe is responsible for both the low fluorescent background and improved selectivity. Furthermore, the signal is generated in a reversible manner; thus, if the analyte is removed, the signal is reduced to the background. This paper highlights the advantages of MB probes and discusses the approaches that address the challenges in MB probe design. Variations of MB-based assays tackle the problem of stem invasion, improve SNP genotyping and signal-to-noise ratio, as well as address the challenges of detecting folded RNA and DNA. PMID:24278758

  5. Automated Internet-Based Control of Spacecraft Groundstations: Beacon-Based Health Monitoring Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert; Swartwout, Michael

    1997-01-01

    This report serves as an update about the activities of Stanford University's Space Systems Development Laboratory (SSDL) in their beacon-based health monitoring experiment. Section 1 describes the goals of the project and the organization of the team. Section 2 provides an overview of the major components of the system, describing the general approach of automated health monitoring and the beacon signal relay. It also provides background about the SAPPHIRE spacecraft and ASSET operations system, which will be used for the experiment. Specific details about implementation and status of each element of the experiment are found in Section 3. Section 4 describes the experiment and future work, and references are contained in Section 5.

  6. A Possible Approach for Addressing Neglected Human Factors Issues of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of safety-critical applications has led to the introduction of decision support tools in the transportation and process industries. Automation has also been introduced to support operator intervention in safety-critical applications. These innovations help reduce overall operator workload, and filter application data to maximize the finite cognitive and perceptual resources of system operators. However, these benefits do not come without a cost. Increased computational support for the end-users of safety-critical applications leads to increased reliance on engineers to monitor and maintain automated systems and decision support tools. This paper argues that by focussing on the end-users of complex applications, previous research has tended to neglect the demands that are being placed on systems engineers. The argument is illustrated through discussing three recent accidents. The paper concludes by presenting a possible strategy for building and using highly automated systems based on increased attention by management and regulators, improvements in competency and training for technical staff, sustained support for engineering team resource management, and the development of incident reporting systems for infrastructure failures. This paper represents preliminary work, about which we seek comments and suggestions.

  7. Amplification with molecular beacon primers and reverse line blotting for the detection and typing of human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Jordens, J Z; Lanham, S; Pickett, M A; Amarasekara, S; Abeywickrema, I; Watt, P J

    2000-09-01

    A novel method for the detection and typing of human papillomavirus (HPV) was developed using molecular beacon primers. The method is based on the use of HPV-specific primers containing a hairpin loop structure in which fluorescent donor and quencher groups are held in close proximity such that fluorescence is quenched. Amplification of the target sequence results in the opening of the loop and the resulting fluorescence can be detected on a sequence detector system (SDS) 7700 (Applied Biosystems), as used for TaqMan assays. Fluorescent amplicons were identified on the SDS 7700 and then typed by a single hybridisation with specific probes immobilised in lines on a nylon membrane and detected on a fluorescent scanner. This novel beacon primer method compared well with conventional PCR for cervical scrape specimens. The combination of the beacon primer method and reverse line blotting should enable large-scale population studies of HPV infection.

  8. Addressing parents' concerns: do multiple vaccines overwhelm or weaken the infant's immune system?

    PubMed

    Offit, Paul A; Quarles, Jessica; Gerber, Michael A; Hackett, Charles J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Kollman, Tobias R; Gellin, Bruce G; Landry, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys found that an increasing number of parents are concerned that infants receive too many vaccines. Implicit in this concern is that the infant's immune system is inadequately developed to handle vaccines safely or that multiple vaccines may overwhelm the immune system. In this review, we will examine the following: 1) the ontogeny of the active immune response and the ability of neonates and young infants to respond to vaccines; 2) the theoretic capacity of an infant's immune system; 3) data that demonstrate that mild or moderate illness does not interfere with an infant's ability to generate protective immune responses to vaccines; 4) how infants respond to vaccines given in combination compared with the same vaccines given separately; 5) data showing that vaccinated children are not more likely to develop infections with other pathogens than unvaccinated children; and 6) the fact that infants actually encounter fewer antigens in vaccines today than they did 40 or 100 years ago.

  9. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system.

    PubMed

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-06-28

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere-ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system--System 4--has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981-2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  10. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system.

    PubMed

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-06-28

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere-ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system--System 4--has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981-2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  11. Probing the biology of dry biological systems to address the basis of seed longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying cells reduces molecular mobility and slows chemical and physical reactions. As a result, dry biological systems deteriorate slowly. The time course of deterioration in a population of living cells often follows a sigmoidal pattern in which aging is occurring but no changes to viability are ...

  12. Is robustness of stochastic uncertain systems related to information theory and statistical mechanics? (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambous, Charalambos D.; Kyprianou, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Fifty years ago, when Claude Shannon was developing the Mathematical Theory of Communications, for reliable data transmission, which evolved into the subject of information theory, another discipline was developing dealing with Feedback Control of Dynamical System, which evolved into a scientific subject dealing with decision, stability, and optimization. More recently, a separate discipline dealing with robustness of uncertain systems was born in response to the codification of high performance and reliability in the presence of modeling uncertainties. In principle, robustness in dynamical systems is captured through power dissipation via induced norms and dynamic games, while reliable data transmission is captured through measures of information via entropy, relative entropy, and certain laws of Large Deviations theory. The main ingredient in Large Deviations is the rate functional (or action functional in the classical mechanics terminology), often identified through the Cramer or Legendre-Fenchel Transform. On the other hand, robustness of stochastic uncertain systems is currently under development, using information theoretic as well as statistical mechanics concepts, such as, partition functions, free energy, relative entropy, and entropy rate functional. This lecture will summarize certain connections between fundamental concepts of robustness, information theory, and statistical mechanics, and possibly make future projections into the convergence of these disciplines.

  13. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: The role of standards in the emerging optical digital data disk storage systems market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Ross C.

    1984-09-01

    The Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology at the National Bureau of Standards is pleased to cooperate with the International Society for Optical Engineering and to join with the other distinguished organizations in cosponsoring this conference on applications of optical digital data disk storage systems.

  14. Addressing Indigenous (ICT) Approaches in South-East Asian Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with…

  15. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  16. Collaborative Group Learning and Knowledge Building to Address Information Systems Project Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Approximately half of the information systems (IS) projects implemented each year are considered failures. These failed projects cost billions of dollars annually. Failures can be due to projects being delivered late, over-budget, abandoned after significant time and resource investment, or failing to achieve desired results. More often than not,…

  17. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system

    PubMed Central

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system—System 4—has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981–2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  18. A manual for addressing ineffectiveness within a Corrective Action System and driving on-time dispositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallari, Lawrence Anthony Castro

    This project proposes a manual specifically for remedying an ineffective Corrective Action Request System for Company ABC by providing dispositions within the company's quality procedure. A Corrective Action Request System is a corrective action tool that provides a means for employees to engage in the process improvement, problem elimination cycle. At Company ABC, Corrective Action Recommendations (CARs) are not provided with timely dispositions; CARs are being ignored due to a lack of training and awareness of Company ABC's personnel and quality procedures. In this project, Company ABC's quality management software database is scrutinized to identify the number of delinquent, non-dispositioned CARs in 2014. These CARs are correlated with the number of nonconformances generated for the same issue while the CAR is still open. Using secondary data, the primary investigator finds that nonconformances are being remediated at the operational level. However, at the administrative level, CARS are being ignored and forgotten.

  19. Refocusing health care systems to address both individual care and population health.

    PubMed

    Green, L W

    1994-04-01

    Population health depends on a qualitatively different set of investigative methods, decision-making procedures, and assignment of responsibility for action than those applied in the health care systems of Canada today. The focus shifts from a major preoccupation with acute and curative medicine to a greater concern with disease prevention and health promotion, from health outcomes as ends in themselves to quality of life concerns defined not just by the individual but also by the community. To achieve this refocusing, the health care system must decentralize the decision-making processes from provincial to regional and community levels, reorient the medical schools and hospitals from their increasingly global orientation to a greater role in the promotion of health in their own communities, and engage a broader range of disciplines and non-medical groups in partnerships and coalitions for health research and action.

  20. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  1. Series-connected shaded modules to address partial shading conditions in SPV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Smita; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    With the progress of technology and reduced cost of PV cells, the PV systems are being installed in many countries, including India. Even though this method of power generation has sufficient potential but its effective utilization is still lacking. This is because the output power of PV cells depends on many factors like insolation, temperature, climate conditions prevailing nearby, aging, using modules from different technologies/manufacturers or partial shading conditions. Among these factors, partial shading causes major reduction in output power despite the size of PV systems. As a result, the produced power is lower than the expected value. The connection of modules to each other has great impact on output power if they are prone to partial shading conditions. In this paper, PV arrays are investigated under partial shading conditions. The results show that partial shading losses can be minimized by connecting shaded modules in series rather than in parallel.

  2. Identifying and Addressing Stakeholder Interests in Design Science Research: An Analysis Using Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, John R.

    This paper utilises the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) framework developed by Werner Ulrich to critically consider the stakeholders and design goals that should be considered as relevant by researchers conducing Design Science Research (DSR). CSH provides a philosophically and theoretically grounded framework and means for critical consideration of the choices of stakeholders considered to be relevant to any system under design consideration. The paper recommends that legitimately undertaken DSR should include witnesses to represent the interests of the future consumers of the outcomes of DSR, i.e., the future clients, decision makers, professionals, and other non-included stakeholders in the future use of the solution technologies to be invented in DSR. The paper further discusses options for how witnesses might be included, who should be witnessed for and obstacles to implementing the recommendations.

  3. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  4. Application of fuzzy system theory in addressing the presence of uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Yusmye, A. Y. N.; Goh, B. Y.; Adnan, N. F.; Ariffin, A. K.

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, the combinations of fuzzy system theory with the finite element methods are present and discuss to deal with the uncertainties. The present of uncertainties is needed to avoid for prevent the failure of the material in engineering. There are three types of uncertainties, which are stochastic, epistemic and error uncertainties. In this paper, the epistemic uncertainties have been considered. For the epistemic uncertainty, it exists as a result of incomplete information and lack of knowledge or data. Fuzzy system theory is a non-probabilistic method, and this method is most appropriate to interpret the uncertainty compared to statistical approach when the deal with the lack of data. Fuzzy system theory contains a number of processes started from converting the crisp input to fuzzy input through fuzzification process and followed by the main process known as mapping process. The term mapping here means that the logical relationship between two or more entities. In this study, the fuzzy inputs are numerically integrated based on extension principle method. In the final stage, the defuzzification process is implemented. Defuzzification is an important process to allow the conversion of the fuzzy output to crisp outputs. Several illustrative examples are given and from the simulation, the result showed that propose the method produces more conservative results comparing with the conventional finite element method.

  5. Socio-Ecohydrologic Agents And Services: Integrating Human And Natural Components To Address Coupled System Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavao-zuckerman, M.; Pope, A.; Chan, D.; Curl, K.; Gimblett, H. R.; Hough, M.; House-Peters, L.; Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian corridors in arid regions are highly valued for their relative scarcity, and because healthy riparian systems support high levels of biodiversity, can meet human demand for water and water-related resources and functions. Our team is taking a transdiciplinary social-ecological systems approach to assessing riparian corridor resilience in two watersheds (the San Pedro River in USA and Mexico, and the Rio San Miguel in Mexico) through a project funded by the NSF CNH program ("Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors"). Multiple perspectives are integrated in the project, including hydrology, ecology, institutional dynamics, and decision making (at the level of both policy and individual choice), as well as the perspectives of various stakeholder groups and individuals in the watersheds. Here we discuss initial findings that center around linking changes in ecohydrology and livelihoods related to decisions in response to climatic, ecological, and social change. The research team is implementing two approaches to integrate the disparate disciplines participating in the research (and the varied perspectives among the stakeholders in this binational riparian context): (1) ecosystem service assessment, and (2) agent based model simulation. We are developing an ecosystem service perspective that provides a bridge between ecological dynamics in the landscape and varied stakeholder perspectives on the implications of ecohydrology for well-being (economic, cultural, ecological). Services are linked on one hand to the spatial patterns of traits of individuals within species (allowing a more predictive application of ecosystem services as they vary with community change in time), and to stakeholder perspectives (facilitating integration of ecosystem services into our understanding of decision making processes) in a case study in the San Pedro River National Conservation Area. The agent- based model (ABM) approach incorporates the influence of human

  6. Whole Neuraxis Irradiation to Address Central Nervous System Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Croog, Victoria J.; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Souweidane, Mark M.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2010-11-01

    Background: As systemic control of high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) has improved, relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) is an increasingly recognized entity that carries a grim prognosis. This study describes the use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for CNS relapse and compares outcomes to patients who received focal radiotherapy (RT). Methods: A retrospective query identified 29 children with NB treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center since 1987 who received RT for CNS relapse. At CNS relapse, 16 patients received CSI (median dose, 2160cGy), and 13 received focal RT. Of those who underwent CSI, 14 (88%) received intra-Ommaya (IO) radioimmunotherapy (RIT); one patient in the non-CSI cohort received IO-RIT. Results: Patient characteristics were similar between the groups. Time to CNS relapse was 20 and 17 months for the CSI and non-CSI cohorts, respectively. At a median follow-up of 28 months, 12 patients (75%) in the CSI group are alive without CNS disease, including two patients with isolated skeletal relapse. Another patient is alive without disease after a brain relapse was retreated with RT. Three patients died-one with no NB at autopsy, one of CNS disease, and one of systemic disease. The two patients who died of NB did not receive IO-RIT. All 13 patients in the non-CSI cohort died at a median of 8.8 months. Conclusions: Low-dose CSI together with IO-RIT provides durable CNS remissions and improved survival compared with focal RT and conventional therapies. Further evaluation of long-term NB survivors after CSI is warranted to determine the treatment consequences for this cohort.

  7. A Telomerase-Specific Doxorubicin-Releasing Molecular Beacon for Cancer Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Min; Han, Zhihao; Chen, Dan; Zhu, Qiuyun; Gao, Weidong; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    A molecular beacon-based drug delivery system was designed for both detection of telomerase activity in living cells and telomerase-triggered drug release for precise cancer treatment. This system is composed of a gold nanoparticle core densely packed with FITC-labeled hairpin DNA sequences hybridized with telomerase primers. Molecules of the anticancer drug doxorubicin were intercalated into the stem region of the DNA sequence. The presence of telomerase will elongate the primers, leading to inner chain substitution followed by the release of the FITC fluorescence and the trapped doxorubicin. This molecular beacon could specifically distinguish tumor cells and normal cells based on telomerase activity, precisely release doxorubicin in response to telomerase activity in the tumor cells, and prevent toxicity to normal organs. PMID:26848056

  8. Design of a K/Q-Band Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat TDP#5 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a coherent KQ-band (2040 GHz) beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) for use in the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload 5 (TDP5) beacon experiment. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation at 40 GHz to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models in the Q-band. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation. The receiver system has been characterized in the lab and demonstrates a system dynamic range performance of better than 58 dB at 1 Hz and better than 48 dB at 10 Hz rates.

  9. Design of a K/Q-band Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat TDP#5 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a coherent K/Q-band (20/40GHz) beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) for use in the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload #5 (TDP#5) beacon experiment. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation at 40GHz to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models in the Q-band. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation. The receiver system has been characterized in the lab and demonstrates a system dynamic range performance of better than 58dB at 1Hz and better than 48dB at 10Hz rates.

  10. A Telomerase-Specific Doxorubicin-Releasing Molecular Beacon for Cancer Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Min; Han, Zhihao; Chen, Dan; Zhu, Qiuyun; Gao, Weidong; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    A molecular beacon-based drug delivery system was designed for both detection of telomerase activity in living cells and telomerase-triggered drug release for precise cancer treatment. This system is composed of a gold nanoparticle core densely packed with FITC-labeled hairpin DNA sequences hybridized with telomerase primers. Molecules of the anticancer drug doxorubicin were intercalated into the stem region of the DNA sequence. The presence of telomerase will elongate the primers, leading to inner chain substitution followed by the release of the FITC fluorescence and the trapped doxorubicin. This molecular beacon could specifically distinguish tumor cells and normal cells based on telomerase activity, precisely release doxorubicin in response to telomerase activity in the tumor cells, and prevent toxicity to normal organs.

  11. Design and validation of two optical beacons for guidewire localization in breast-conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca Anne; McAleavey, Stephen A; Schiffhauer, Linda M; Zavislan, James

    2013-06-10

    Stereotactically placed guidewires are used for indicating the location of a nonpalpable carcinoma in breast-conserving surgery. Pathologists use the end of the embedded guidewire to guide sectioning during intraoperative margin assessment, but they do not currently have a tool to indicate the location of the guidewire end for informed sectioning. We present analysis and experimental testing of two optical methods for localizing the end of an embedded fiber-optic guidewire: the first uses irradiance emitted from the fiber to indicate the location of the guidewire end, while the second system uses the fiber optic to create a photoacoustic pulse for localization. Both systems locate the end of the guidewire within ±5 mm, which ensures that the lesion of interest is bisected during sectioning. The accuracy of the irradiance-based beacon is influenced by standard margin paints, so the photoacoustic beacon proved more useful under current tissue-handling protocols.

  12. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  13. Diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae using molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Divya; Patel, Achchhe Lal; Sonkar, Subash Chandra; Kumari, Indu; Saluja, Daman

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an important sexually transmitted diseases (STD) causing pathogen worldwide. Due to absence of an affordable diagnostic assay, routine screening of gonococcal infection becomes impossible in developing countries where infection rates are maximum. Treatment is given on the basis of symptoms alone which leads to spread of infection. Thus, development of a rapid, sensitive, specific, and PCR based visual diagnostic assay suitable for developing countries, required for better disease management, is aimed at in present study. Endocervical swabs were collected from patients visiting gynecology department of various hospitals in Delhi. In-house PCR based assay was developed and modified to visual assay using molecular beacon for end-point detection. It was evaluated against Roche AMPLICOR NG kit and rmp gene. Specificity of beacon was confirmed by competition experiments. Diagnostic test was 98.21% specific and 99.59% sensitive whereas negative and positive predicted value were 99.40% and 98.78%, respectively. We also observed that twice the concentration (2X) of premix was stable at 4°C for 4 months and dry swab samples gave concordant results with that of wet swabs. These features make the test best suitable for routine diagnosis of genital infections in developing countries.

  14. Using molecular beacons for cancer imaging and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stefflova, Klara; Chen, Juan; Zheng, Gang

    2007-01-01

    Molecular beacons are essentially all probes that illuminate particular cellular target or cells with similar characteristics. In this review we focus on those molecular beacons that use near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF-I) to identify the unique cellular and metabolic markers characteristic of cancer. They employ various delivery and activation pathways, selectively or specifically targeting proliferating and immortal cancer cells. These beacons can either be used in an imaging step separate from therapy or they can intimately connect these two steps into a single process. Matching cancer therapy to NIRF-I is photodynamic therapy (PDT) that uses the light-triggered phototoxic properties of some porphyrin-based dyes. Guided by beacon's restored fluorescence, the PDT laser could be focused on affected sites, killing the cancer cells using the enhanced photoactivity of the same beacon. Or vice versa-the restored fluorescence from the cleaved beacon could be used as an indication of the beacon's own therapeutic success, imaging the post-PDT apoptotic cells.

  15. A novel one cycle allele specific primer extension--molecular beacon displacement method for DNA point mutation detection with improved specificity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Guan, Yuan; Zhao, Meiping; Li, Yuanzong

    2007-02-12

    We report here a new method for the real-time detection of DNA point mutations with molecular beacon as the fluorescence tracer and 3' (exo-) Bst DNA polymerase large fragment as the polymerase. The method is based on the mechanism of allele specific primer extension-strand displacement (ASPE-SD). To improve the specificity of the method only one cycle of the allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used that could largely eliminate the non-specific reactions between the primers and template of the "wrong" genotype. At first, the primer and molecular beacon both hybridize to the DNA template, and the molecular beacon emits intensive fluorescence. The role of 3' exonuclease excision of Bst DNA polymerase large fragment is utilized for primer extension. When 3'-termini matches its corresponding template, the primer would efficiently extend and replace the molecular beacon that would simultaneously return to its closed form leading to the quenching of the fluorescence. However, when 3'-termini of the primer mismatches its corresponding template primer extension and molecular beacon displacement would not happen and fluorescence of the hybridized molecular beacon holds the line without fluorescence quenching. This approach was fully demonstrated in synthetic template systems and applied to detect point mutation at codon 259, a possible point mutation site in exon 7 of p53 gene, obtained from human genomic DNA samples with unambiguous differentiation power.

  16. Addressing geometric nonlinearities with cantilever microelectromechanical systems: Beyond the Duffing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, E.; Bunkov, Yu. M.; Godfrin, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report on low-temperature measurements performed on microelectromechanical systems driven deeply into the nonlinear regime. The materials are kept in their elastic domain while the observed nonlinearity is purely of geometrical origin. Two techniques are used, harmonic drive and free decay. For each case, we present an analytic theory fitting the data. The harmonic drive is fit with a modified Lorentzian line shape obtained from an extended version of Landau and Lifshitz’s nonlinear theory. The evolution in the time domain is fit with an amplitude-dependent frequency decaying function derived from the Lindstedt-Poincaré theory of nonlinear differential equations. The technique is perfectly generic and can be straightforwardly adapted to any mechanical device made of ideally elastic constituents, and which can be reduced to a single degree of freedom, for an experimental definition of its nonlinear dynamics equation.

  17. How Do Integrated Health Care Systems Address Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Colon Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, Kim F.; Patel, Manali I.; Ma, Yifei; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities have persisted over the last two decades. CRC is a complex disease requiring multidisciplinary care from specialists who may be geographically separated. Few studies have assessed the association between integrated health care system (IHS) CRC care quality, survival, and disparities. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to an IHS positively affects quality of care, risk of mortality, and disparities. Patients and Methods This retrospective secondary-data analysis study, using the California Cancer Registry linked to state discharge abstracts of patients treated for colon cancer (2001 to 2006), compared the rates of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline–based care, the hazard of mortality, and racial/ethnic disparities in an IHS versus other settings. Results More than 30,000 patient records were evaluated. The IHS had overall higher rates of adherence to NCCN guidelines. Propensity score–matched Cox models showed an independent and protective association between care in the IHS and survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.90). This advantage persisted across stage groups. Black race was associated with increased hazard of mortality in all other settings (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.27); however, there was no disparity within the IHS for any minority group (P > .11 for all groups) when compared with white race. Conclusion The IHS delivered higher rates of evidence-based care and was associated with lower 5-year mortality. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival were absent in the IHS. Integrated systems may serve as the cornerstone for developing accountable care organizations poised to improve cancer outcomes and eliminate disparities under health care reform. PMID:25624437

  18. Permit compliance system (PCS) facility address and permit information file national listing of major facilities (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Permit Compliance System (PCS) is an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national computerized management information system that records water-discharge permit data on more than 64,000 wastewater treatment facilities nationwide. This system automates entry, updating, and retrieval of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) data and tracks permit issuance, permit limits, monitoring data, and other data pertaining to facilities regulated under NPDES. The Permit Compliance System (PCS) Facility Address and Permit Information File contains primary mailing address information as well as permit number, facility type, and cognizant official for all active NPDES permitted facilities, general facility and permit events (e.g., issuance and expiration dates, types of ownership code, SIC code, and location including longitude and latitude) for all active NPDES permitted facilities for the most recent year. There are approximately 49,000 industrial facilities and 15,000 municipal facilities regulated by NPDES. This data is updated twice a year. The diskette contains only major facilities which are facilities having a design or actual flow of one million gallons per day or greater, a service population of 10,000 or greater, or a significant impact on water quality, i.e., with a potential for toxic discharge, located close to a drinking water intake, discharging into stressed receiving waters, or requiring advanced treatment. Approximately 7100 permits are issued to major facilities. Municipal and non-municipal facilities not meeting the above requirements are categorized as minor.

  19. Do rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) use visual beacons?

    PubMed

    Hurly, T Andrew; Franz, Simone; Healy, Susan D

    2010-03-01

    Animals are often assumed to use highly conspicuous features of a goal to head directly to that goal ('beaconing'). In the field it is generally assumed that flowers serve as beacons to guide pollinators. Artificial hummingbird feeders are coloured red to serve a similar function. However, anecdotal reports suggest that hummingbirds return to feeder locations in the absence of the feeder (and thus the beacon). Here we test these reports for the first time in the field, using the natural territories of hummingbirds and manipulating flowers on a scale that is ecologically relevant to the birds. We compared the predictions from two distinct hypotheses as to how hummingbirds might use the visual features of rewards: the distant beacon hypothesis and the local cue hypothesis. In two field experiments, we found no evidence that rufous hummingbirds used a distant visual beacon to guide them to a rewarded location. In no case did birds abandon their approach to the goal location from a distance; rather they demonstrated remarkable accuracy of navigation by approaching to within about 70 cm of a rewarded flower's original location. Proximity varied depending on the size of the training flower: birds flew closer to a previously rewarded location if it had been previously signalled with a small beacon. Additionally, when provided with a beacon at a new location, birds did not fly directly to the new beacon. Taken together, we believe these data demonstrate that these hummingbirds depend little on visual characteristics to beacon to rewarded locations, but rather that they encode surrounding landmarks in order to reach the goal and then use the visual features of the goal as confirmation that they have arrived at the correct location.

  20. Quencher-free molecular aptamer beacons (QF-MABs) for detection of ATP.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Woo; Park, Yoojin; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2015-10-15

    We have constructed a simple and efficient system-based on quencher-free molecular aptamer beacons (QF-MABs)-for probing ATP. In the absence of ATP, the fluorescence of a pyrene fluorophore on the loop position (15 nucleotides from the 5' end) of the optimal QF-MAB was quenched by the neighboring nucleobases; in its presence, fluorescence was recovered, due to a conformational change in the secondary structure of the QF-MAB.

  1. Moonrise: Sampling the South Pole-Aitken Basin to Address Problems of Solar System Significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    A mission to land in the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the Moon's southern farside and return a sample to Earth for analysis is a high priority for Solar System Science. Such a sample would be used to determine the age of the SPA impact; the chronology of the basin, including the ages of basins and large impacts within SPA, with implications for early Solar System dynamics and the magmatic history of the Moon; the age and composition of volcanic rocks within SPA; the origin of the thorium signature of SPA with implications for the origin of exposed materials and thermal evolution of the Moon; and possibly the magnetization that forms a strong anomaly especially evident in the northern parts of the SPA basin. It is well known from studies of the Apollo regolith that rock fragments found in the regolith form a representative collection of many different rock types delivered to the site by the impact process (Fig. 1). Such samples are well documented to contain a broad suite of materials that reflect both the local major rock formations, as well as some exotic materials from far distant sources. Within the SPA basin, modeling of the impact ejection process indicates that regolith would be dominated by SPA substrate, formed at the time of the SPA basin-forming impact and for the most part moved around by subsequent impacts. Consistent with GRAIL data, the SPA impact likely formed a vast melt body tens of km thick that took perhaps several million years to cool, but that nonetheless represents barely an instant in geologic time that should be readily apparent through integrated geochronologic studies involving multiple chronometers. It is anticipated that a statistically significant number of age determinations would yield not only the age of SPA but also the age of several prominent nearby basins and large craters within SPA. This chronology would provide a contrast to the Imbrium-dominated chronology of the nearside Apollo samples and an independent test of

  2. High efficiency low cost monolithic module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Wendell C.; Siu, Daniel P.

    1992-01-01

    The program objectives were to develop a highly efficient, low cost RF module for SARSAT beacons; achieve significantly lower battery current drain, amount of heat generated, and size of battery required; utilize MMIC technology to improve efficiency, reliability, packaging, and cost; and provide a technology database for GaAs based UHF RF circuit architectures. Presented in viewgraph form are functional block diagrams of the SARSAT distress beacon and beacon RF module as well as performance goals, schematic diagrams, predicted performances, and measured performances for the phase modulator and power amplifier.

  3. Lameness detection challenges in automated milking systems addressed with partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Klaas, I; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Enevoldsen, C

    2014-12-01

    Lameness causes decreased animal welfare and leads to higher production costs. This study explored data from an automatic milking system (AMS) to model on-farm gait scoring from a commercial farm. A total of 88 cows were gait scored once per week, for 2 5-wk periods. Eighty variables retrieved from AMS were summarized week-wise and used to predict 2 defined classes: nonlame and clinically lame cows. Variables were represented with 2 transformations of the week summarized variables, using 2-wk data blocks before gait scoring, totaling 320 variables (2 × 2 × 80). The reference gait scoring error was estimated in the first week of the study and was, on average, 15%. Two partial least squares discriminant analysis models were fitted to parity 1 and parity 2 groups, respectively, to assign the lameness class according to the predicted probability of being lame (score 3 or 4/4) or not lame (score 1/4). Both models achieved sensitivity and specificity values around 80%, both in calibration and cross-validation. At the optimum values in the receiver operating characteristic curve, the false-positive rate was 28% in the parity 1 model, whereas in the parity 2 model it was about half (16%), which makes it more suitable for practical application; the model error rates were, 23 and 19%, respectively. Based on data registered automatically from one AMS farm, we were able to discriminate nonlame and lame cows, where partial least squares discriminant analysis achieved similar performance to the reference method. PMID:25282423

  4. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART).

  5. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  6. RNA polymerase molecular beacon as tool for studies of RNA polymerase-promoter interactions.

    PubMed

    Mekler, Vladimir; Severinov, Konstantin

    2015-09-15

    The molecular details of formation of transcription initiation complex upon the interaction of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) with promoters are not completely understood. One way to address this problem is to understand how RNAP interacts with different parts of promoter DNA. A recently developed fluorometric RNAP molecular beacon assay allows one to monitor the RNAP interactions with various unlabeled DNA probes and quantitatively characterize partial RNAP-promoter interactions. This paper focuses on methodological aspects of application of this powerful assay to study the mechanism of transcription initiation complex formation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase σ(70) holoenzyme and its regulation by bacterial and phage encoded factors.

  7. RNA polymerase molecular beacon as tool for studies of RNA polymerase - promoter interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mekler, Vladimir; Severinov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    The molecular details of formation of transcription initiation complex upon the interaction of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) with promoters are not completely understood. One way to address this problem is to understand how RNAP interacts with different parts of promoter DNA. A recently developed fluorometric RNAP molecular beacon assay allows one to monitor the RNAP interactions with various unlabeled DNA probes and quantitatively characterize partial RNAP-promoter interactions. This paper focuses on methodological aspects of application of this powerful assay to study the mechanism of transcription initiation complex formation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase σ70 holoenzyme and its regulation by bacterial and phage encoded factors. PMID:25956222

  8. Analysis of space shuttle main engine data using Beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Mackey, R.; James, M.; Zak, M.; Kynard, M.; Sebghati, J.; Greene, W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) sensor data using Beacon-based exception analysis for multimissions (BEAM), a new technology developed for sensor analysis and diagnostics in autonomous space systems by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  9. Signal control by self-assembly of fluorophores in a molecular beacon--a model study.

    PubMed

    Biner, Sarah M; Kummer, Dominic; Malinovskii, Vladimir L; Häner, Robert

    2011-04-21

    Pyrene excimer fluorescence is efficiently regulated through formation of π-stacked aggregates between dialkynylpyrene (Y) and perylenediimide (E) residues located in the stem region of a molecular beacon (MB). The building blocks form organized, multichromophoric complexes in the native form. Hybridization to the target results in a conformational reorganization of the chromophores. The nature of the aggregates was investigated by changing the number of chromophores and natural base pairs in the beacon stem. The formation of different types of complexes (EYEY→YEY→EY) is revealed by characteristic spectroscopic changes. The data show that signal control is an intrinsic property of the interacting chromophores. The directed assembly of non-nucleosidic chromophores can be used for the generation of an on/off switch of a fluorescence signal. The concept may find applications in various types of light-based input/output systems.

  10. Detection of DNA with Catalytic Beacons Based on Peroxidase-oxidase Oscillating Reaction.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinhong; Liu, Qiong; Xu, Huibi; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Jun; Cai, Ruxiu

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating a new method for the detection of DNA with catalytic beacons based on peroxidase-oxidase (PO) oscillation and analytic pulse perturbation technique. Two DNAzymes were constructed by the binding of specific DNA sequence with hemin or by the hybridization of target DNA with the catalytic beacon. Both DNAzymes possessed peroxidase-like activity and perturb the PO oscillator reaction when they were added into the oscillation system. The period and amplitude of oscillation increased significantly by both DNAzymes, which implied the decrease in the average rate of consumption of oxygen in solution, i.e., the decrease of the average rate of NADH oxidation. The results provide a new sensitive method for DNA detection and molecular recognition.

  11. Molecular beacon probes combined with amplification by NASBA enable homogeneous, real-time detection of RNA.

    PubMed

    Leone, G; van Schijndel, H; van Gemen, B; Kramer, F R; Schoen, C D

    1998-05-01

    Molecular beacon probes can be employed in a NASBA amplicon detection system to generate a specific fluorescent signal concomitantly with amplification. A molecular beacon, designed to hybridize within the target sequence, was introduced into NASBA reactions that amplify the genomic RNA of potato leafroll virus (PLRV). During amplification, the probe anneals to the antisense RNA amplicon generated by NASBA, producing a specific fluorescent signal that can be monitored in real-time. The assay is rapid, sensitive and specific. As RNA amplification and detection can be carried out in unopened vessels, it minimizes the risk of carry-over contaminations. Robustness has been verified on real-world samples. This homogeneous assay, called AmpliDet RNA, is a significant improvement over current detection methods for NASBA amplicons and is suitable for one-tube applications ranging from high-throughput diagnostics to in vivo studies of biological activities.

  12. STEREO Space Weather and the Space Weather Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Webb, D F.; SaintCyr, O. C.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is first and foremost a solar and interplanetary research mission, with one of the natural applications being in the area of space weather. The obvious potential for space weather applications is so great that NOAA has worked to incorporate the real-time data into their forecast center as much as possible. A subset of the STEREO data will be continuously downlinked in a real-time broadcast mode, called the Space Weather Beacon. Within the research community there has been considerable interest in conducting space weather related research with STEREO. Some of this research is geared towards making an immediate impact while other work is still very much in the research domain. There are many areas where STEREO might contribute and we cannot predict where all the successes will come. Here we discuss how STEREO will contribute to space weather and many of the specific research projects proposed to address STEREO space weather issues. We also discuss some specific uses of the STEREO data in the NOAA Space Environment Center.

  13. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Hollie

    2005-06-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce. Foreshadowing such under-representation in the workforce are the disproportionately low rates of African American and Hispanic students attaining college degrees in science and related fields. Evidence suggests disparate systemic factors in secondary science education are contributing to disproportionately low numbers of African American and Hispanic students in the science education pipeline. The present paper embarks on a critical analysis of the issue by elucidating some of the systemic factors within secondary education that contribute to the leak in the science education pipeline. In addition, this review offers a synthesis and explication of some of the policies and programs being implemented to address disparate systemic factors in secondary schools. Finally, recommendations are offered regarding potential mechanisms by which disparities may be alleviated.

  14. Addressing the epidemiologic transition in the former Soviet Union: strategies for health system and public health reform in Russia.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T H; Varavikova, E A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended. PMID:8604754

  15. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  16. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  17. An efficient fluorescent sensing platform for biomolecules based on fenton reaction triggered molecular beacon cleavage strategy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Liu, Ya-Ru; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Tan, Weihong; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2013-03-15

    A universal sensing platform for fluorescence turn-on detection of biomolecules is developed based on Fenton reaction triggered molecular beacon cleavage. Due to its high quenching efficiency, molecular beacons (MBs)-based sensing systems usually show low background fluorescence and large signal-to-background ratio. Glucose is chosen as a model biomolecule for constructing an MB-based fluorescence sensing system. In the presence of glucose, the glucose oxidase will bind with it and catalyze the oxidation to generate H(2)O(2), which is further decomposed to produce (·)OH through the Fe(2+)-catalyzed Fenton reaction. Then, in-situ-generated OH can trigger the cleavage of the MB, and its fluorescence intensity will be dramatically increased because of the complete separation of the fluorophore from the quencher. By employing molecular beacon as both recognition and reporter probes to low background signal, the proposed biosensors showed high sensitivity to targets. It also exhibited high selectivity owing to the high specificity of the enzymatic oxidation, which make it valuable for the detection of target biomolecule in complex biological samples.

  18. Lessons Learned During Implementation and Early Operations of the DS1 Beacon Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Wyatt, Jay; Hotz, Henry; Schlutsmeyer, Alan; Sue, Miles

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to mission operations will be flight validated on NASA's New Millennium Program Deep Space One (DS1) mission which launched in October 1998. The Beacon Monitor Operations Technology is aimed at decreasing the total volume of downlinked engineering telemetry by reducing the frequency of downlink and the volume of data received per pass. Cost savings are achieved by reducing the amount of routine telemetry processing and analysis performed by ground staff. The technology is required for upcoming NASA missions to Pluto, Europa, and possibly some other missions. With beacon monitoring, the spacecraft will assess its own health and will transmit one of four beacon messages each representing a unique frequency tone to inform the ground how urgent it is to track the spacecraft for telemetry. If all conditions are nominal, the tone provides periodic assurance to ground personnel that the mission is proceeding as planned without having to receive and analyze downlinked telemetry. If there is a problem, the tone will indicate that tracking is required and the resulting telemetry will contain a concise summary of what has occurred since the last telemetry pass. The primary components of the technology are a tone monitoring technology, AI-based software for onboard engineering data summarization, and a ground response system. In addition, there is a ground visualization system for telemetry summaries. This paper includes a description of the Beacon monitor concept, the trade-offs with adapting that concept as a technology experiment, the current state of the resulting implementation on DS1, and our lessons learned during the initial checkout phase of the mission. Applicability to future missions is also included.

  19. 4. DETAIL, CASTIRON BASE, SOUTH CORNER Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL, CAST-IRON BASE, SOUTH CORNER - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  20. 2. VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTHEAST FRONT Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTHEAST FRONT - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  1. Southeast (front) elevation Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast (front) elevation - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  2. 6. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST FRONT, SECOND STAGE Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST FRONT, SECOND STAGE - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  3. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  4. Molecular beacons: fluorogenic probes for living cell study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaohong; Mi, Yanming; Li, Jianwei Jeffery; Beck, Terry; Schuster, Sheldon; Tan, Weihong

    2002-01-01

    Molecular beacons are a new class of fluorescent probes that can report the presence of specific nucleic acids with high sensitivity and excellent specificity. In addition to their current wide applications in monitoring the progress of polymerase chain reactions, their unique properties make them promising probes for the detection and visualization of target biomolecules in living cells. This article is focused on our recent research in exploring the potential of using molecular beacon for living-cell studies in three important areas: the monitoring of mRNA in living cells, the development of ultrasmall DNA/RNA biosensors, and the novel approach of combining molecular beacon's signal transduction mechanism with aptamer's specificity for real-time protein detection. These applications demonstrate molecular beacon's unique properties in bioanalysis and bioassay development.

  5. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  6. Optical telecommunications: expected performance of the beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Michel; Gollier, Jacques; Dobie, Paul J.; Heinrichs, Theo; Sobeczko, Andre

    1994-09-01

    The beacon is a powerful non-coherent CW laser source which is developed in the frame of the Semi-conductor Inter-satellite Link Experiment (SILEX). Its functionality is to provide a high divergence beam during the first tracking sequence. It is made up of 19 laser diodes coupled into one multi-mode fiber, the exit face of that fiber being integrated at the focal plane of a collimator. A breadboarding phase has been conducted at the beginning of the phase C/D in order to demonstrate that the requirement of 8 KW/Sr within a divergence of 11.75 mRd will be achieved. That phase is now completed and the overall breadboard performance is discussed in this paper with respect to the SILEX requirements.

  7. Molecular beacons: a novel optical diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Han, Su-Xia; Jia, Xi; Ma, Jin-lu; Zhu, Qing

    2013-04-01

    As a result of the efforts of the Human Genome Project and the rise in demand for molecular diagnostic assays, the development and optimization of novel hybridization probes have focused on speed, reliability, and accuracy in the identification of nucleic acids. Molecular beacons (MBs) are single-stranded, fluorophore-labeled nucleic acid probes that are capable of generating a fluorescent signal in the presence of target, but are dark in the absence of target. Because of the high specificity and sensitivity characteristics, MBs have been used in variety of fields. In this review, MBs are introduced and discussed as diagnostic tools in four sections: several technologies of MBs will be illustrated primarily; the limitation of MBs next; the third part is new fashions of MBs; and the last one is to present the application of MBs in disease diagnosis.

  8. Molecular beacons for detecting DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Heyduk, Tomasz; Heyduk, Ewa

    2002-02-01

    We report here a simple, rapid, homogeneous fluorescence assay, the molecular beacon assay, for the detection and quantification of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. The central feature of the assay is the protein-dependent association of two DNA fragments each containing about half of a DNA sequence defining a protein-binding site. Protein-dependent association of DNA fragments can be detected by any proximity-based spectroscopic signal, such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorochromes introduced into these DNA molecules. The assay is fully homogeneous and requires no manipulations aside from mixing of the sample and the test solution. It offers flexibility with respect to the mode of signal detection and the fluorescence probe, and is compatible with multicolor simultaneous detection of several proteins. The assay can be used in research and medical diagnosis and for high-throughput screening of drugs targeted to DNA-binding proteins.

  9. Reagentless, reusable, ultrasensitive electrochemical molecular beacon aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Radi, Abd-Elgawad; Acero Sánchez, Josep Lluis; Baldrich, Eva; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2006-01-11

    A bifunctional derivative of the thrombin-binding aptamer with a redox-active Fc moiety and a thiol group at the termini of the aptamer strand was synthesized. The ferrocene-labeled aptamer thiol was self-assembled through S-Au bonding on a polycrystalline gold electrode surface and the surface was blocked with 2-mercaptoethanol to form a mixed monolayer. By use of a fluorescent molecular beacon, the effect of counterions on quadruplex formation was established. The aptamer-modified electrode was characterized electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The modified electrode showed a voltammetric signal due to a one-step redox reaction of the surface-confined ferrocenyl moiety of the aptamer immobilized on the electrode surface in 10 mM N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer of pH 8.0. An increase in the DPV current signal was evident after blocking with 2-mercaptoethanol, effectively removing aptamer nonspecifically absorbed rather than bound to electrode surface or due to the formation of the aptamer-thrombin affinity interaction. The impedance measurement, in agreement with the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), showed decreased Faradaic resistances in the same sequence. The "signal-on" upon thrombin association could be attributed to a change in conformation from random coil-like configuration on the probe-modified film to the quadruplex structure. The DPV of the modified electrode showed a linear response of the Fc oxidation signal to the increase in the thrombin concentration in the range between 5.0 and 35.0 nM with a linear correlation of r = 0.9988 and a detection limit of 0.5 nM. The molecular beacon aptasensor was amenable to full regeneration by simply unfolding the aptamer in 1.0 M HCl, and could be regenerated 25 times with no loss in electrochemical signal upon subsequent thrombin binding.

  10. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  11. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  12. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  13. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  14. Detection of adenovirus using PCR and molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Poddar, S K

    1999-09-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a molecular beacon probe were used for the detection of Adenovirus. A 307 bp DNA fragment from a conserved region of the hexon gene was amplified. The specific molecular beacon was characterized with respect to its efficiency of quenching, and signal to noise ratio by spectrofluorometric analysis of its hybridization with virus specific complementary single stranded oligonucleotide target. Amplification was carried out in the presence of the molecular beacon probe, and the amplified target was detected by measurement of fluorescence signal in the post PCR sample. Separately, a 32P-labeled linear probe (having the same sequence as that of molecular beacon probe) was liquid-phase hybridized with the product of PCR performed in the absence of the molecular beacon. The virus specific target was then detected by electrophoresis of the hybridized product in a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and subsequent autoradiographic analysis. The detection limit of adenovirus by PCR in the presence of the molecular beacon probe was found to be similar to that obtained by labeled linear probe hybridization following PCR.

  15. Micropatterning of Aptamer Beacons to Create Cytokine-Sensing Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tuleuova, Nazgul; Revzin, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Aptamer beacons are DNA or RNA probes that bind proteins or small molecules of interest and emit signal directly upon interaction with the target analyte. This paper describes micropatterning of aptamer beacons for detection of IFN-γ-an important inflammatory cytokine. The beacon consisted of a fluorophore-labeled aptamer strand hybridized with a shorter, quencher-carrying complementary strand. Cytokine molecules were expected to displace quenching strands of the beacon, disrupting FRET effect and resulting in fluorescence signal. The glass substrate was first micropatterned with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microwells (35 μm diameter individual wells) so as to define sites for attachment of beacon molecules. PEG microwell arrays were then incubated with avidin followed by biotin-aptamer-fluorophore constructs. Subsequent incubation with quencher-carrying complementary strands resulted in formation of DNA duplex and caused quenching of fluorescence due to FRET effect. When exposed to IFN-γ, microwells changed fluorescence from low (quencher hybridized with fluorophore-carrying strand) to high (quenching strand displaced by cytokine molecules). The fluorescence signal was confined to microwells, was changing in real-time and was dependent on the concentration of IFN-γ. In the future, we plan to co-localize aptamer beacons and cells on micropatterned surfaces in order to monitor in real-time cytokine secretion from immune cells in microwells.

  16. Kinetic optimization of a protein-responsive aptamer beacon.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bradley; Cater, Sean; Levy, Matt; Ellington, Andrew D

    2009-08-15

    Aptamers have been utilized as biosensors because they can be readily adapted to sensor platforms and signal transduction schemes through both rational design and selection. One highly generalizable scheme for the generation of the so-called aptamer beacons involves denaturing the aptamer with antisense oligonucleotides. For example, rational design methods have been utilized to adapt anti-thrombin aptamers to function as biosensors by hybridizing an antisense oligonucleotide containing a quencher to the aptamer containing a fluorescent label. In the presence of thrombin, the binding equilibrium is shifted, the antisense oligonucleotide dissociates, and the beacon lights up. By changing the affinity of the antisense oligonucleotide for the aptamer beacon, it has proven possible to change the extent of activation of the beacon. More importantly, modulating interactions between the antisense oligonucleotide and the aptamer strongly influences the kinetics of activation. Comparisons across multiple, designed aptamer beacons indicate that there is a strong inverse correlation between the thermodynamics of hybridization and the speed of activation, a finding that should prove to be generally useful in the design of future biosensors. By pre-organizing the thrombin-binding quadruplex within the aptamer the speed of response can be greatly increased. By integrating these various interactions, we were ultimately able to design aptamer beacons that were activated by threefold within 1 min of the addition of thrombin.

  17. Shedding light on health and disease using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Tsourkas, Andrew; Bao, Gang

    2003-01-01

    The detection and identification of pathogens is often painstaking due to the low abundance of diseased cells in clinical samples. The genomic sequences of the pathogen can be amplified through methods such as the polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, but the nucleic acid targets are often lost among other unintended products of amplification. Novel nucleic acid probes known as molecular beacons have been developed allowing for the rapid and specific detection of genetic markers of a disease. Molecular beacons are hairpin-forming oligonucleotides labelled at one end with a quencher and at the other end with a fluorescent reporter dye. In the absence of target, the fluorescence is quenched. In the presence of target, the hairpin structure opens upon beacon/target hybridisation, resulting in the restoration of fluorescence. The ability to transduce target recognition into a fluorescence signal with high signal-to-background ratio, coupled with an improved specificity, has allowed molecular beacons to enjoy a wide range of biological and biomedical applications. Here, we describe the basic features of molecular beacons, review their applications in disease detection and diagnosis and discuss some of the issues and challenges of in vivo studies. The aim of this paper is to foster the development of new molecular beacon-based assays and to stimulate the application of this technology in laboratory and clinical studies of health and disease.

  18. In situ single step detection of exosome microRNA using molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kwon, Min Hee; Kang, Ji Yoon; Rhee, Won Jong

    2015-06-01

    In situ single step detection of microRNAs (miRNA) in a whole exosome has been developed as a novel diagnosis method that can be utilized for various diseases. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that contain biomarker miRNAs produced from their originating cells and are known to travel through the circulatory system. This makes exosomal miRNAs from the body fluids an attractive biomarker that can lead to a paradigm shift in the diagnosis of disease. However, current techniques, including real-time PCR analysis, are time-consuming and laborious, making them unsuitable for exosomal miRNA detection for diagnosis. Thus, the development of alternative methods is necessary. Herein, we have demonstrated that exosomal miRNAs can be detected directly using a nano-sized fluorescent oligonucleotide probe, molecular beacon. MiRNA-21 in exosomes from breast cancer cells were detected successfully by molecular beacons in a quantitative manner. Permeabilization by streptolysin O treatment further enhanced the delivery of molecular beacons into exosomes, giving significantly increased signals from target miRNAs. In addition, we selectively detected cancer cell-derived exosomal miRNA-21 among heterogeneous exosome mixtures and in human serum. The method developed in the article is simple, fast, and sensitive, so it will offer great opportunities for the high-throughput diagnosis and prognosis of diseases.

  19. Simple and universal platform for logic gate operations based on molecular beacon probes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Soo; Seo, Myung Wan; Jung, Cheulhee; Lee, Joon Young; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2012-07-23

    A new platform technology is herein described with which to construct molecular logic gates by employing the hairpin-structured molecular beacon probe as a basic work unit. In this logic gate operation system, single-stranded DNA is used as the input to induce a conformational change in a molecular beacon probe through a sequence-specific interaction. The fluorescent signal resulting from the opening of the molecular beacon probe is then used as the output readout. Importantly, because the logic gates are based on DNA, thus permitting input/output homogeneity to be preserved, their wiring into multi-level circuits can be achieved by combining separately operated logic gates or by designing the DNA output of one gate as the input to the other. With this novel strategy, a complete set of two-input logic gates is successfully constructed at the molecular level, including OR, AND, XOR, INHIBIT, NOR, NAND, XNOR, and IMPLICATION. The logic gates developed herein can be reversibly operated to perform the set-reset function by applying an additional input or a removal strand. Together, these results introduce a new platform technology for logic gate operation that enables the higher-order circuits required for complex communication between various computational elements.

  20. Molecular beacon-based bioimaging of multiple microRNAs during myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Won Jun; Cho, Ye Lim; Chae, Ju Ri; Lee, Jong Doo; Choi, Kyung-Ju; Kim, Soonhag

    2011-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) are associated with multiple cellular processes and diseases. Here, we designed fluorescent DNA probes composed of stem loop-structured DNA complementary to miRNAs and fluorophore-quencher pairs [molecular beacon (MB)] to simultaneously monitor the biogenesis of miR-206 and miR-26a, which are highly expressed during myogenic differentiation. C2C12 cells were transfected with an MB targeting miR-26a and containing a 6-FAM-BHQ1 pair (miRNA-26a MB) or an MB targeting miR-206 with a Texas Red-BHQ2 pair (miRNA-206 MB). In vitro and in vivo fluorescence analysis revealed that, only in differentiated single C2C12 cell, significantly increased fluorescence signals of miRNA-26a MB, miRNA-206 MB or simultaneous incubation of both beacons were detected due to the hybridization of miR-206 or miR-26a with their respective beacons, resulting in activation of fluorescence. Our MB-based miRNA imaging system may serve as a new imaging probe for monitoring multiple miRNAs during various cellular or disease processes associated with miRNAs.

  1. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Shunglu, V K

    1994-07-01

    Rapid and substantial population growth in India is hampering development. Family welfare programs in the country during the last four years have not met population reduction goals. The decentralization of political and administrative power in relevant programs, however, will help the country attain its goal of replacement fertility. To that end, the 73rd and 74th amendments to the constitution have recently been enacted to help decentralize power to people at the village, intermediate, and district levels. The participation of the people is essential for success. State ministers of health must begin assigning management of the rural health care systems to the Panchayats. Population policy has changed so that family planning is now provided within the broader context of maternal and child health care, emphasizing voluntarism and informed choice among contraceptive methods and popular participation. The speaker laments the decline of male participation in family planning and calls for high priority to be given to developing fertility regulation methods for men as well as identifying factors which prohibit male participation. The country's unbalanced female to male sex ratio and interstate and inter-district variations in social parameters which have a bearing upon population growth rates also merit attention. Investing in human resources is crucial to the success of population programs. Financing has therefore increased for poverty alleviation programs and other social sector programs.

  2. Politics and technology in health information systems development: a discourse analysis of conflicts addressed in a systems design group.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2008-02-01

    Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted.

  3. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  4. Dip-pen microarraying of molecular beacon probes on microgel thin-film substrates.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoguang; Libera, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    The integration of microarray-based nucleic acid detection technologies and microfluidics is attractive, because the combination of small sample volumes, relatively short diffusion distances, and solid-phase detection enhances the development of multiplexed assays with improved sensitivity and minimal sample size. However, traditional microarray spotting methods typically create probe spot sizes of ∼50-100 μm diameter, comparable to the dimensions of many microfluidic channels. In addition, detection of hybridization events typically requires a post-hybridization labeling step. We address both issues by exploring the use of dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) to pattern linear oligonucleotides and self-reporting molecular beacon (MB) probes on streptavidin-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) microgel thin-film substrates. In contrast to many systems involving DPN deposition, the fluorescence of the labeled probes enables their amount and spatial distribution to be characterized by optical microscopy. Their deposition rate decreases with increasing DPN dwell time, consistent with a Langmuir adsorption model, but the linear relationship between spot diameter and time(1/2) indicates that spot size is diffusion controlled. We then use DPN to pattern MB probes for the mecA and spa genes in Staphylococcus aureus as a 2-column array with 1 μm spot sizes and 5 μm spot spacings, and we use this array to differentiate targets characteristic of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. This duplexed self-reporting gel-tethered MB microarray not only shows high specificity but also a high signal-to-background ratio.

  5. High-throughput tracking of pluripotent human embryonic stem cells with dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    King, Frank W; Liszewski, Walter; Ritner, Carissa; Bernstein, Harold S

    2011-03-01

    Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an unprecedented opportunity for the study of human tissue development, and the development of cell-based therapies for human disease. To realize these potential advances, however, methods for monitoring expression of intracellular proteins in live hESCs without altering cellular properties are needed. Molecular beacons are single-stranded oligonucleotides that have been employed to assay gene expression. To test their potential for high-throughput isolation of hESCs, we developed a dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) molecular beacon system using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with Oct4 as a target. We demonstrate that Oct4 can be detected by FRET using confocal microscopy, that this can be applied in a high-throughput manner to the identification and isolation of Oct4-expressing hESCs by FACS, that FRET-positive hESCs demonstrate pluripotency in culture and in vivo, and that hESCs transfected with molecular beacons demonstrate normal growth rates and oligonucleotide extinction over time. These studies demonstrate that FRET-based FACS using molecular beacons provides a useful tool for isolating Oct4-expressing pluripotent hESCs, and may also be adapted to selecting differentiating hESCs at specific developmental time points determined by transcription factor expression without functional or genomic alteration. As such, it provides an important new method for high-throughput isolation of hESC-derived tissue-specific precursors for analytic and therapeutic purposes.

  6. Quantification of splice variants using molecular beacon or scorpion primers.

    PubMed

    Taveau, Mathieu; Stockholm, Daniel; Spencer, Melissa; Richard, Isabelle

    2002-06-15

    Uncovering the relationship between the generation of alternative transcripts and cellular processes is of crucial importance in the exploration of a gene's biology. The description and quantification of the spatiotemporal splicing pattern can be one method to select the most interesting transcripts for future studies. Fluorescence-based real-time quantitative RT-PCR has recently revolutionized the possibilities for transcriptional quantification studies. In this report, Molecular Beacon and Scorpion probes have been tested as new possibilities for determining the expression level of alternative transcripts. We validated these systems by analyzing alternative splicing of exons 6, 15, and 16 of the calpain 3 gene with tissues containing large variation in the ratio of the different transcripts. We determined conditions that demonstrated that boundary probes are useful tools and good alternatives to boundary primers, when developing a system to quantify specific transcripts. We suggest that the choice of a quantification system should depend in part on the structure and base composition of the gene and may have to be determined experimentally.

  7. Welcome address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    overview of fields they are involved in. The topic of the present symposium is ‘advances in f-electron phenomena’. I will not go into detail about the importance of this field, because the Chairman of the organizing committee, Professor Russ Walstedt will tell you the outline later. Nevertheless, let me emphasize that the scientific subjects discussed at this symposium, namely the fundamental properties of f-electrons, are playing a crucial role in understanding the exotic effects of rare earth and actinide compounds such as magnetic and multi polar ordering, quantum critical phenomena and unconventional superconductivity. These are quite fascinating topics and I expect a variety of hot discussions throughout this symposium. Finally, I would like to thank our president, Dr S Saito, for allowing us to hold this symposium and for help with financial sponsorship. My special gratitude goes also to the Physical Society of Japan and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for their endorsement. I would like to close my speech by expressing my sincere wishes for the success of the symposium and for all participants to discover new opportunities in the still growing area of research on the f-electron systems. Thank you very much for your attention.

  8. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  9. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  10. Individual addressing of trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +} ion qubits using a microelectromechanical systems-based beam steering system

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, S.; Mount, E.; Baek, S.; Kim, J.

    2014-11-03

    The ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits is one of the many challenges towards scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems technology, we focus laser beams on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. We demonstrate sequential single qubit gates on multiple {sup 171}Yb{sup +} qubits and characterize the gate performance using quantum state tomography. Our system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (<3×10{sup −4}), and switching speed comparable to typical single qubit gate times (<2 μs)

  11. Atmospheric compensation with a speckle beacon in strong scintillation conditions: directed energy and laser communication applications.

    PubMed

    Weyrauch, Thomas; Vorontsov, Mikhail A

    2005-10-20

    Wavefront control experiments in strong scintillation conditions (scintillation index, approximately equal to 1) over a 2.33 km, near-horizontal, atmospheric propagation path are presented. The adaptive-optics system used comprises a tracking and a fast-beam-steering mirror as well as a 132-actuator, microelectromechanical-system, piston-type deformable mirror with a VLSI controller that implements stochastic parallel gradient descent control optimization of a system performance metric. The experiments demonstrate mitigation of atmospheric distortions with a speckle beacon typical for directed energy and free-space laser communication applications.

  12. Schizopsychotic symptom-profiles and biomarkers: beacons in diagnostic labyrinths.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Tomas; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Beninger, Richard J; Archer, Trevor

    2008-10-01

    Several avenues of investigation through which the 'labyrinths' of schizopsychotic diagnosis may be examined, are offered by the consideration of the 'beacons' of symptom-profiles and biomarkers. Neurodevelopmental issues and risk assessment, neurocognitive factors of predictive necessity, supersensitivity in neurotransmitter systems, the implications of prodromal expressions of the disorder, functional dysconnectivity arising from prefrontal to diverse regional patterns and circuits with a neurodevelopmental origin, and heritable gene characteristics are viewed against the backdrop of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The associations between adolescent-adult use of cannabis, on the one hand, and, alternatively, the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities, e.g., GRIK4 and NPAS3, and mental retardation, on the other hand, with the symptom-profiles of schizopsychosis provide further evidence of emerging biomarkers of biological inheritance factors. The involvement of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, particularly in prefrontal region, with regard to functional integrity of cognitive systems is reviewed. It would appear that considerations of these disorders imply that one essential hub around which much of the neuropathology revolves may be observed in the various expressions of the cognitive and structural insufficiency.

  13. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-21

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  14. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  15. Hippocampal neuronal position selectivity remains fixed to room cues only in rats alternating between place navigation and beacon approach tasks.

    PubMed

    Trullier, O; Shibata, R; Mulder, A B; Wiener, S I

    1999-12-01

    To study the relationship between brain representations and behaviour, we recorded hippocampal neuronal activity in rats repeatedly alternating between two different tasks on a circular platform with four reward boxes along the edge. In the beacon approach task, rewards were provided only at the pair of diametrically opposite boxes that was illuminated. In the place navigation task, rewards were available only at the boxes positioned near the north-east and south-west corners of the room. Performance levels were high and rats rapidly reoriented to changes in lamp cues in the beacon approach task. Neuropsychological studies show that rats with hippocampal lesions readily employ beacon approach strategies, while place navigation is severely impaired. Previous studies suggested that the neurons might change their behavioural correlates as the rat performed the respective tasks. However, of 34 hippocampal 'place cells' recorded, all showed position selectivity fixed with respect to room cues, even in the beacon approach task where coding the position of the rat in the room was of no use for locating rewards. Whether or not hippocampal signals are actually employed for ongoing behaviour would then be decided by structures downstream from the hippocampus. If this is the case, then the 'counterproductive' room referred place-related discharges in the beacon approach task would be a background representation. This would provide support for proposals of multiple memory systems underlying different types of information processing and contrasts with the popular notion that local neuronal activity levels are selectively increased to the degree that the brain region is required for the ongoing function.

  16. Development of Beacon technology. Quarterly report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of carbon from a gas stream containing carbon monoxide, and subsequent exposure of this carbon to a gas stream containing hydrogen or steam at elevated temperature and pressure to produce methane. The steam gasification route currently is receiving the most attention. Multiple-cycle tests with K1 and K2 catalysts showed sustained activity and stable performance through thirty of the planned forty cycles. The tests will be completed next quarter. Steaming temperature screening tests on K2-based BEACON carbon supported the conclusion based on earlier testing with K1-based BEACON carbon that steam gasification at two temperature levels has significant advantages over steam gasification at a single temperature in terms of gasification rates and methane yields. Multiple-cycle testing of K2-based BEACON carbon was started in the 4-inch bench-scale fluid bed reactor. Catalyst C77 continued to have problems during multiple-cycle testing - loss of catalytic activity, possibly due to overheating, and poor fluidizability. Further modifications of the C77 catalyst preparation technique were tested. Catalyst C77-K2 showed no change in performance, and results with catalyst C77-K1 were generally disappointing. Laboratory experiments continued with catalyst C78. A variable differential pressure concept which does not require gas/solids separtion is now being considered for the transfer of BEACON solids between carbon deposition and carbon gasification reactors.

  17. Tiny molecular beacons for in vivo mRNA detection.

    PubMed

    Bratu, Diana P; Catrina, Irina E; Marras, Salvatore A E

    2011-01-01

    The molecular beacon technology is an established approach for visualizing native mRNAs in living cells. These probes need to efficiently hybridize to accessible RNA regions in order to spatially and temporally resolve the dynamic steps of the RNA life cycle. A refined method using two computer algorithms, mfold and RNAstructure, is described for choosing shorter, more abundant target regions for molecular beacon binding. The probes are redesigned as small hairpins and are synthesized from 2'-O-methyl RNA/LNA chimeric nucleic acids. These tiny molecular beacons are stable in the cellular environment and have a high affinity for binding to target RNAs. The user-friendly synthesis protocol and ability to couple to a variety of fluorophores make tiny molecular beacons the optimal technology to detect less abundant, highly structured RNAs, as well as small RNAs, such as microRNAs. As an example, tiny chimeric molecular beacons were designed to target regions of oskar mRNA, microinjected into living Drosophila melanogaster oocytes and imaged via spinning disc confocal microscopy.

  18. Molecular beacons with intrinsically fluorescent nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Martí, Angel A; Jockusch, Steffen; Li, Zengmin; Ju, Jingyue; Turro, Nicholas J

    2006-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis and characterization of a novel molecular beacon (MB-FB) which uses the fluorescent bases (FB) 2-aminopurine (AP) and pyrrolo-dC (P-dC) as fluorophores. Because the quantum yield of these FB depend on hybridization with complementary target, the fluorescent properties of MB-FB were tuned by placing the FB site specifically within the MB such that hybridization with complementary sequence switches from single strand to double strand for AP and vice versa for P-dC. The MB-FB produces a ratiometric fluorescence increase (the fluorescence emission of P-dC over that of AP in the presence and absence of complementary sequence) of 8.5 when excited at 310 nm, the maximum absorption of AP. This ratiometric fluorescence is increased to 14 by further optimizing excitation (325 nm). The fluorescence lifetime is also affected by the addition of target, producing a change in the long-lived component from 6.5 to 8.7 ns (Exc. 310 nm, Em. 450 nm). Thermal denaturation profiles monitored at 450 nm (P-dC emission) show a cooperative denaturation of the MB-FB with a melting temperature of 53 degrees C. The thermal denaturation profile of MB-FB hybridized with its target shows a marked fluorescence reduction at 53 degrees C, consistent with a transition from double stranded helix to random coil DNA.

  19. Molecular beacon lighting up on graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Liu, Juewen

    2012-05-01

    A molecular beacon (MB) is comprised of a fluorophore and a quencher linked by a DNA hairpin. MBs have been widely used for homogeneous DNA detection. In addition to molecular quenchers, many nanomaterials such as graphene oxide (GO) also possess excellent quenching efficiency. Most reported fluorescent sensors relied on DNA probes physisorbed by GO, which may suffer from nonspecific probe displacement and false positive signal. In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of a MB using graphene oxide (GO) as quencher, where an amino and FAM (6-carboxyfluorescein) dual labeled DNA was covalently attached to GO via an amide linkage. A major challenge was to remove noncovalently attached probes due to strong DNA adsorption by GO. While DNA desorption was favored at low salt, high pH, high temperature, and by using organic solvents, the cDNA was required to achieve complete desorption of noncovalently linked DNA probes. The DNA adsorption energy was measured using isothermal titration calorimetry, revealing the heterogeneous nature of GO. The covalent probe has a detection limit of 2.2 nM using a sample volume of 0.05 mL. With a 2 mL sample, the detection limit can reach 150 pM. The covalent probe is highly resistant to nonspecific probe displacement and will find applications in serum and cellular samples where high probe stability is demanded.

  20. Beacons of Hope: New York City's School-Based Community Centers. Program Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillis, Daniel

    This Program Focus discusses the strategies of the Beacon Community Center Program (the Beacons), the history of its crime prevention programs, and general operations. It focuses on the activities of one particular program, Red Hook in Brooklyn (New York City), before analyzing the Beacons' potential for preventing crime. A core concept of the…

  1. A Place to Grow: Evaluation of the New York City Beacons. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Constancia; Feist, Michelle; Nevarez, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    This study examined six Beacon centers, which are community centers located in public school buildings that offer a range of activities and services to participants of all ages, before and after school, in the evenings, and on weekends. Individual Beacons are managed by community-based organizations. The study examined how the Beacons provided…

  2. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance...

  3. 33 CFR 149.535 - What are the requirements for rotating beacons on platforms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rotating beacons on platforms? 149.535 Section 149.535 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Platforms § 149.535 What are the requirements for rotating beacons on... rotating beacon that distinguishes the deepwater port from other surrounding offshore structures....

  4. 76 FR 17625 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Emergency Beacon Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Beacon Registrations AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... ships, aircraft, or individuals in distress if they are equipped with an emergency radio beacon. Persons purchasing a digital distress beacon, operating in the frequency range of 406.000 to 406.100 MHz,...

  5. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance...

  6. 33 CFR 149.535 - What are the requirements for rotating beacons on platforms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rotating beacons on platforms? 149.535 Section 149.535 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Platforms § 149.535 What are the requirements for rotating beacons on... rotating beacon that distinguishes the deepwater port from other surrounding offshore structures....

  7. 76 FR 65216 - Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... (76 FR 40401). The workers of Beacon Medical Services are engaged in activities related ] to the... Employment and Training Administration Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Beacon...

  8. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance...

  9. 33 CFR 149.535 - What are the requirements for rotating beacons on platforms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rotating beacons on platforms? 149.535 Section 149.535 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Platforms § 149.535 What are the requirements for rotating beacons on... rotating beacon that distinguishes the deepwater port from other surrounding offshore structures....

  10. 33 CFR 149.580 - What are the requirements for a radar beacon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for a radar beacon? 149.580 Section 149.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Navigation Miscellaneous § 149.580 What are the requirements for a radar beacon? (a) A radar beacon...

  11. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance...

  12. 33 CFR 149.535 - What are the requirements for rotating beacons on platforms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rotating beacons on platforms? 149.535 Section 149.535 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Platforms § 149.535 What are the requirements for rotating beacons on... rotating beacon that distinguishes the deepwater port from other surrounding offshore structures....

  13. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance...

  14. 33 CFR 149.580 - What are the requirements for a radar beacon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the requirements for a radar beacon? 149.580 Section 149.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Navigation Miscellaneous § 149.580 What are the requirements for a radar beacon? (a) A radar beacon...

  15. 33 CFR 149.535 - What are the requirements for rotating beacons on platforms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rotating beacons on platforms? 149.535 Section 149.535 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Platforms § 149.535 What are the requirements for rotating beacons on... rotating beacon that distinguishes the deepwater port from other surrounding offshore structures....

  16. 33 CFR 149.580 - What are the requirements for a radar beacon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the requirements for a radar beacon? 149.580 Section 149.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Navigation Miscellaneous § 149.580 What are the requirements for a radar beacon? (a) A radar beacon...

  17. 33 CFR 149.580 - What are the requirements for a radar beacon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements for a radar beacon? 149.580 Section 149.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Navigation Miscellaneous § 149.580 What are the requirements for a radar beacon? (a) A radar beacon...

  18. A Place To Grow: Evaluation of the New York City Beacons. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Constancia; Feist, Michelle; Nevarez, Nancy

    This study examined six Beacon centers, which are community centers located in public school buildings that offer a range of activities and services to participants of all ages, before and after school, in the evenings, and on weekends. Individual Beacons are managed by community-based organizations. The study examined how the Beacons provided…

  19. 33 CFR 149.580 - What are the requirements for a radar beacon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the requirements for a radar beacon? 149.580 Section 149.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Navigation Miscellaneous § 149.580 What are the requirements for a radar beacon? (a) A radar beacon...

  20. A modified molecular beacon combining the properties of TaqMan probe.

    PubMed

    Kong, De-Ming; Gu, Long; Shen, Han-Xi; Mi, Huai-Feng

    2002-04-21

    A modified molecular beacon that possesses a stem-hairpin structure as seen in conventional molecular beacons and can be cleaved during PCR in designed, and it can specifically recognize the presence of the target and was obviously more sensitive than conventional molecular beacons.

  1. PNA HyBeacons for analysis of human mutations related to statin-induced myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Nittaya; Kocalka, Petr; Mardle, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Aminoalkyl and alkyne-tagged PNA HyBeacons have been synthesized, labeled with fluorescein via conventional amide bond or triazole formation (click chemistry) and used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) implicated in statin-induced myopathy. The PNA HyBeacons gave much better mismatch/mutant discrimination than conventional DNA HyBeacons but smaller fluorescence changes on melting. PMID:22567191

  2. Detection of DNA methyltransferase activity using allosteric molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiting; Zu, Xiaolong; Song, Yanling; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2016-01-21

    Abnormal DNA methylation patterns caused by altered DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity are closely associated with cancer. Herein, using DNA adenine methylation methyltransferase (Dam MTase) as a model analyte, we designed an allosteric molecular beacon (aMB) for sensitive detection of Dam MTase activity. When the specific site in an aMB is methylated by Dam MTase, the probe can be cut by the restriction nuclease DpnI to release a fluorophore labeled aptamer specific for streptavidin (SA) which will bind to SA beads to generate highly fluorescent beads for easy signal readout by a microscope or flow cytometer. However, aMBs maintain a hairpin structure without the binding ability to SA beads in the absence of Dam MTase, leading to weakly fluorescent SA beads. Unlike the existing signal amplified assays, our method is simpler and more convenient. The high performance of the aptamer and the easy bead separation process make this probe superior to other methods for the detection of MTase in complex biological systems. Overall, the proposed method with a detection limit of 0.57 U mL(-1) for Dam MTase shows great potential for further applications in the detection of other MTases, screening of MTase inhibitors, and early diagnosis of cancer.

  3. Polar motion and earth tides from Beacon Explorer C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolenkiewicz, D. E.; Smith, D. E.; Dunn, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Seventeen months of laser tracking of the Beacon Explorer C spacecraft by a Goddard Space Flight Center laser system were analyzed. The amplitude and phase of the solid-earth and ocean-tide perturbations of the orbit and the variation in latitude of the tracking station were determined. From an analysis of the orbital inclination obtained from 6 hour data spans the tidal perturbations of the orbit were found to have a magnitude equivalent to a second degree Love number, k sub 2, of 0.245 with a phase lag of about 3.2 degrees. These numbers are in complete agreement with values obtained previously from a much shorter data span, although k sub 2, is lower than the value derived from seismic data. This discrepancy is probably due to the influence of the oceans on the satellite result. After removing the tidal perturbations the residuals in inclination were of order 0.04 arcseconds. This implies that the variation in latitude of the station was being determined during the 17 months period with an rms deviation of about 1.4 meters with respect to the smoothed Bureau International de l'Heure values.

  4. System for routing messages in a vertex symmetric network by using addresses formed from permutations of the transmission line indicees

    DOEpatents

    Faber, Vance; Moore, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs .GAMMA..sub.d (k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d+1)!/(d-k+1)! processors for each d.gtoreq.k and .GAMMA..sub.d (k,-1) with degree 3-1, diameter k+1, and (d+1)!/(d-k+1)! processors for each d.gtoreq.k.gtoreq.4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network .GAMMA..sub.d (k,-1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction .delta..sub.1. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations.

  5. Comparison of BEACON and COMPARE reactor cavity subcompartment analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Burkett, M.W.; Idar, E.S.; Gido, R.G.; Lime, J.F.; Koestel, A.

    1984-04-01

    In this study, a more advanced best-estimate containment code, BEACON-MOD3A, was ued to calculate force and moment loads resulting from a high-energy blowdown for two reactor cavity geometries previously analyzed with the licensing computer code COMPARE-MOD1A. The BEACON force and moment loads were compared with the COMPARE results to determine the safety margins provided by the COMPARE code. The forces and moments calculated by the codes were found to be different, although not in any consistent manner, for the two reactor cavity geometries studied. Therefore, generic summary statements regarding margins cannot be made because of the effects of the detailed physical configuration. However, differences in the BEACON and COMPARE calculated forces and moments can be attributed to differences in the modeling assumptions used in the codes and the analyses.

  6. Molecular beacon real-time PCR detection of swine viruses.

    PubMed

    McKillen, John; Hjertner, Bernt; Millar, Andrena; McNeilly, Francis; Belák, Sándor; Adair, Brian; Allan, Gordon

    2007-03-01

    Rapid and reliable detection of viral pathogens is critical for the management of the diseases threatening the economic competitiveness of the swine farming industry worldwide. Molecular beacon assays are one type of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology capable of fast, specific, sensitive, and reliable viral detection. In this paper, the development of molecular beacon assays as novel tools for the rapid detection of Aujeszky's disease virus, African swine fever virus, porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus is described. The assays are capable of rapidly detecting 2 x 10(1) copies of target and are linear between 2 x 10(9) and 2 x 10(2) copies. They can detect virus specifically in clinical samples such as whole blood, serum and tissue. In comparison to conventional PCR they are either as sensitive or more sensitive. As such these molecular beacon assays represent a powerful tool for the detection of these viruses in swine.

  7. Future prospects for prophylactic immune stimulation in crustacean aquaculture - the need for improved metadata to address immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Hauton, Chris; Hudspith, Meggie; Gunton, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Future expansion of the crustacean aquaculture industry will be required to ensure global food security. However, this expansion must ensure: (a) that natural resources (including habitat use and fish meal) are sustainably exploited, (b) that the socio-economic development of producing nations is safeguarded, and (c) that the challenge presented by crustacean diseases is adequately met. Conventionally, the problem of disease in crustacean aquaculture has been addressed through prophylactic administration of stimulants, additives or probiotics. However, these approaches have been questioned both experimentally and philosophically. In this review, we argue that real progress in the field of crustacean immune stimulants has now slowed, with only incremental advances now being made. We further contend that an overt focus on the immune effector response has been misguided. In light of the wealth of new data reporting immune system complexity, a more refined approach is necessary - one that must consider the important role played by pattern recognition proteins. In support of this more refined approach, there is now a much greater requirement for the reporting of essential metadata. We propose a broad series of recommendations regarding the 'Minimum Information required to support a Stimulant Assessment experiment' (MISA guidelines) to foster new progression within the field.

  8. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  9. Frequency Estimator Performance for a Software-Based Beacon Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Nessel, James A.; Miranda, Felix

    2014-01-01

    As propagation terminals have evolved, their design has trended more toward a software-based approach that facilitates convenient adjustment and customization of the receiver algorithms. One potential improvement is the implementation of a frequency estimation algorithm, through which the primary frequency component of the received signal can be estimated with a much greater resolution than with a simple peak search of the FFT spectrum. To select an estimator for usage in a QV-band beacon receiver, analysis of six frequency estimators was conducted to characterize their effectiveness as they relate to beacon receiver design.

  10. Frequency Estimator Performance for a Software-Based Beacon Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne R.; Nessel, James A.

    2014-01-01

    As propagation terminals have evolved, their design has trended more toward a software-based approach that facilitates convenient adjustment and customization of the receiver algorithms. One potential improvement is the implementation of a frequency estimation algorithm, through which the primary frequency component of the received signal can be estimated with a much greater resolution than with a simple peak search of the FFT spectrum. To select an estimator for usage in a Q/V-band beacon receiver, analysis of six frequency estimators was conducted to characterize their effectiveness as they relate to beacon receiver design.

  11. Journey to the Beacon Award: the Georgetown University Hospital perspective.

    PubMed

    Jaworski Miller, Lisa; Corbett, Gina; Herold, Mary; Tavares, Doris; Kirchner, Lisa; Heath, Janie

    2005-06-01

    The medical intensive care unit (MICU) at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, D.C., was among the first four hospitals to be awarded the Beacon Award from the American Association of Critical- Care Nurses. The Beacon Award is given to those units that prove, through a 42-question application, how they excel and serve as a guiding light to other intensive care units. The MICU's "journey" to the award prompted an introspective look into the unit, its policies, and its methods of providing the highest quality patient care, in an environment that is supportive to the nursing staff.

  12. Overshadowing of geometric cues by a beacon in a spatial navigation task.

    PubMed

    Redhead, Edward S; Hamilton, Derek A; Parker, Matthew O; Chan, Wai; Allison, Craig

    2013-06-01

    In three experiments, we examined whether overshadowing of geometric cues by a discrete landmark (beacon) is due to the relative saliences of the cues. Using a virtual water maze task, human participants were required to locate a platform marked by a beacon in a distinctively shaped pool. In Experiment 1, the beacon overshadowed geometric cues in a trapezium, but not in an isosceles triangle. The longer escape latencies during acquisition in the trapezium control group with no beacon suggest that the geometric cues in the trapezium were less salient than those in the triangle. In Experiment 2, we evaluated whether generalization decrement, caused by the removal of the beacon at test, could account for overshadowing. An additional beacon was placed in an alternative corner. For the control groups, the beacons were identical; for the overshadow groups, they were visually unique. Overshadowing was again found in the trapezium. In Experiment 3, we tested whether the absence of overshadowing in the triangle was due to the geometric cues being more salient than the beacon. Following training, the beacon was relocated to a different corner. Participants approached the beacon rather than the trained platform corner, suggesting that the beacon was more salient. These results suggest that associative processes do not fully explain cue competition in the spatial domain.

  13. Structure-function relationships of shared-stem and conventional molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Tsourkas, Andrew; Behlke, Mark A; Bao, Gang

    2002-10-01

    Molecular beacons are oligonucleotide probes capable of forming a stem-loop hairpin structure with a reporter dye at one end and a quencher at the other end. Conventional molecular beacons are designed with a target-binding domain flanked by two complementary short arm sequences that are independent of the target sequence. Here we report the design of shared-stem molecular beacons with one arm participating in both stem formation when the beacon is closed and target hybridization when it is open. We performed a systematic study to compare the behavior of conventional and shared-stem molecular beacons by conducting thermodynamic and kinetic analyses. Shared-stem molecular beacons form more stable duplexes with target molecules than conventional molecular beacons; however, conventional molecular beacons may discriminate between targets with a higher specificity. For both conventional and shared-stem molecular beacons, increasing stem length enhanced the ability to differentiate between wild-type and mutant targets over a wider range of temperatures. Interestingly, probe-target hybridization kinetics were similar for both classes of molecular beacons and were influenced primarily by the length and sequence of the stem. These findings should enable better design of molecular beacons for various applications.

  14. Target discrimination by surface-immobilized molecular beacons designed to detect Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Flinchbaugh, James; Ayoubi, Patricia; Olah, Glenn A; Malayer, Jerry R

    2004-02-15

    A molecular beacon (MB) array was designed based on unique regions of the 16S rRNA of the bacterium Francisella tularensis. Nucleic acid molecular beacons undergo a spontaneous fluorogenic conformational change when they hybridize to specific complementary targets. The array was printed on aldehyde glass or hydrogel slides and evaluated for functioning in presence of complementary oligonucleotide sequences, single-nucleotide mismatch sequences and multiple nucleotide mismatch sequences. Discriminating true target from mismatched targets was found to be dependent on type, number, and location of mismatches within the beacon (i.e. located in the stem or loop regions). Optimal conditions for molecular beacon deposition, and target hybridization were determined for oligonucleotide target mismatch discrimination. The beacon array was stable upon recharging by exposure to an alkaline solution, and repeatedly used. In addition, performance of the beacon array biosensor was compared with molecular beacons in homogeneous solution.

  15. Evolution of stratospheric chemistry in the Saturn storm beacon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Armstrong, Eleanor S.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Friedson, A. James; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Sinclair, James A.; Hesman, Brigette E.

    2015-11-01

    The giant northern-hemisphere storm that erupted on Saturn in December 2010 triggered significant changes in stratospheric temperatures and species abundances that persisted for more than a year after the original outburst. The stratospheric regions affected by the storm have been nicknamed "beacons" due to their prominent infrared-emission signatures (Fletcher, L.N. et al. [2011]. Science 332, 1413). The two beacon regions that were present initially merged in April 2011 to form a single, large, anticyclonic vortex (Fletcher, L.N. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 560). We model the expected photochemical evolution of the stratospheric constituents in the beacons from the initial storm onset through the merger and on out to March 2012. The results are compared with longitudinally resolved Cassini/CIRS spectra from May 2011. If we ignore potential changes due to vertical winds within the beacon, we find that C2H2, C2H6, and C3H8 remain unaffected by the increased stratospheric temperatures in the beacon, the abundance of the shorter-lived CH3C2H decreases, and the abundance of C2H4 increases significantly due to the elevated temperatures, the latter most notably in a secondary mixing-ratio peak located near mbar pressures. The C4H2 abundance in the model decreases by a factor of a few in the 0.01-10 mbar region but has a significant increase in the 10-30 mbar region due to evaporation of the previously condensed phase. The column abundances of C6H6 and H2O above ∼30 mbar also increase due to aerosol evaporation. Model-data comparisons show that models that consider temperature changes alone underpredict the abundance of C2Hx species by a factor of 2-7 in the beacon core in May 2011, suggesting that other processes not considered by the models, such as downwelling winds in the vortex, are affecting the species profiles. Additional calculations indicate that downwelling winds of order - 10 cm s-1 near ∼0.1 mbar need to be included in the photochemical models in order to

  16. Flight Validation of On-Demand Operations: The Deep Space One Beacon Monitor Operations Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Jay; Sherwood, Rob; Sue, Miles; Szijjarto, John

    2000-01-01

    After a brief overview of the operational concept, this paper will provide a detailed description of the _as-flown_ flight software components, the DS1 experiment plan, and experiment results to date. Special emphasis will be given to experiment results and lessons learned since the basic system design has been previously reported. Mission scenarios where beacon operations is highly applicable will be described. Detailed cost savings estimates for a sample science mission will be provided as will cumulative savings that are possible over the next fifteen years of NASA missions.

  17. Engaging sub-national governments in addressing health equities: challenges and opportunities in China's health system reform.

    PubMed

    Brixi, Hana; Mu, Yan; Targa, Beatrice; Hipgrave, David

    2013-12-01

    China's current health system reform (HSR) is striving to resolve deep inequities in health outcomes. Achieving this goal is difficult not only because of continuously increasing income disparities in China but also because of weaknesses in healthcare financing and delivery at the local level. We explore to what extent sub-national governments, which are largely responsible for health financing in China, are addressing health inequities. We describe the recent trend in health inequalities in China, and analyse government expenditure on health in the context of China's decentralization and intergovernmental model to assess whether national, provincial and sub-provincial public resource allocations and local government accountability relationships are aligned with this goal. Our analysis reveals that government expenditure on health at sub-national levels, which accounts for ∼90% of total government expenditure on health, is increasingly regressive across provinces, and across prefectures within provinces. Increasing inequity in public expenditure at sub-national levels indicates that resources and responsibilities at sub-national levels in China are not well aligned with national priorities. China's HSR would benefit from complementary measures to improve the governance and financing of public service delivery. We discuss the existing weaknesses in local governance and suggest possible approaches to better align the responsibilities and capacity of sub-national governments with national policies, standards, laws and regulations, therefore ensuring local-level implementation and enforcement. Drawing on China's institutional framework and ongoing reform pilots, we present possible approaches to: (1) consolidate key health financing responsibilities at the provincial level and strengthen the accountability of provincial governments, (2) define targets for expenditure on primary health care, outputs and outcomes for each province and (3) use independent sources to

  18. Preliminary Results of the NASA Beacon Receiver for Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 Propagation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Riva, Carlo; Luini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have initiated a joint propagation campaign within the framework of the Alphasat propagation experiment to characterize rain attenuation, scintillation, and gaseous absorption effects of the atmosphere in the 40 GHz band. NASA GRC has developed and installed a K/Q-band (20/40 GHz) beacon receiver at the POLIMI campus in Milan, Italy, which receives the 20/40 GHz signals broadcast from the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP#5 beacon payload. The primary goal of these measurements is to develop a physical model to improve predictions of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we describe the design and preliminary performance of the NASA propagation terminal, which has been installed and operating in Milan since May 2014. The receiver is based upon a validated Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) I/Q digital design approach utilized in other operational NASA propagation terminals, but has been modified to employ power measurement via a frequency estimation technique and to coherently track and measure the amplitude of the 20/40 GHz beacon signals. The system consists of a 1.2-m K-band and a 0.6-m Qband Cassegrain reflector employing synchronous open-loop tracking to track the inclined orbit of the Alphasat satellite. An 8 Hz sampling rate is implemented to characterize scintillation effects, with a 1-Hz measurement bandwidth dynamic range of 45 dB. A weather station with an optical disdrometer is also installed to characterize rain drop size distribution for correlation with physical based models.

  19. Performance of the NASA Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 Propagation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Riva, Carlo; Luini, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have initiated a joint propagation campaign within the framework of the Alphasat propagation experiment to characterize rain attenuation, scintillation, and gaseous absorption effects of the atmosphere in the 40 gigahertz band. NASA GRC has developed and installed a K/Q-band (20/40 gigahertz) beacon receiver at the POLIMI campus in Milan, Italy, which receives the 20/40 gigahertz signals broadcast from the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni Technology Demonstration Payload (TDP) no. 5 beacon payload. The primary goal of these measurements is to develop a physical model to improve predictions of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we describe the design and preliminary performance of the NASA propagation terminal, which has been installed and operating in Milan since June 2014. The receiver is based upon a validated Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) I/Q digital design approach utilized in other operational NASA propagation terminals, but has been modified to employ power measurement via a frequency estimation technique and to coherently track and measure the amplitude of the 20/40 gigahertz beacon signals. The system consists of a 1.2-meter K-band and a 0.6-meter Q-band Cassegrain reflector employing synchronous open-loop tracking to track the inclined orbit of the Alphasat satellite. An 8 hertz sampling rate is implemented to characterize scintillation effects, with a 1-hertz measurement bandwidth dynamic range of 45 decibels. A weather station with an optical disdrometer is also installed to characterize rain drop size distribution for correlation with physical based models.

  20. Design of a K/Q-Band Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload (TDP) #5 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a coherent KQ-band (2040 GHz) beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) for use in the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload 5 (TDP5) beacon experiment. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation at 40 GHz to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models in the Q-band. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation. The receiver system has been characterized in the lab and demonstrates a system dynamic range performance of better than 58 dB at 1 Hz and better than 48 dB at 10 Hz rates.

  1. Optimization of 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine concentration for real-time polymerase chain reaction using molecular beacon chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gehua; Becker, Erin; Mesa, Christine

    2007-03-01

    The optimal 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX) concentration, which is used as a passive reference dye for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with molecular beacon chemistry, was determined with the Mx4000 Multiplex Quantitative PCR System. Additionally, the effects of changing ROX concentrations on PCR reproducibility, Ct values, and efficiency were investigated with this system by using the PCR data obtained from amplification of the Escherichia coli shiga toxin 2 (stx2) gene and the Campylobacter jejuni luxS gene. This study indicated that different ROX concentrations influence many aspects of the real-time PCR reaction. ROX concentration variation could have consequences in the analysis of quantitative data and may lead to erroneous results. This study further indicated that the optimal ROX concentration is 60 nmol/L for real-time PCR, using molecular beacon chemistry for PCR assay of luxS and stx2 genes.

  2. Differential expression and function of beacon in the rat adrenal cortex and medulla.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Andreis, Paola G; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2005-07-01

    Beacon gene is overexpressed in obese rats, and beacon was found to stimulate food intake. Evidence has been recently provided that beacon is also expressed in the endocrine glands of normal rats, including adrenal cortex, of which it appears to regulate secretory activity. To further characterize the role of beacon in the rat adrenals, we investigated the level of beacon expression in the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZF/R) and medulla (AM), and the in vitro secretory responses to beacon[47-73] (hereinafter, beacon) of adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tissues. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed similar high levels of beacon mRNA in the ZG and ZF/R, and significantly lower (-80%) levels in AM. Immunocytochemistry showed that the distribution of beacon protein followed that of beacon mRNA. Quantitative high pressure liquid chromatography demonstrated that beacon (5x10(-7) M) reduced by about 56% the in vitro total steroid-hormone production from ZG and ZF/R tissues, without affecting catecholamine secretion from AM specimens. The beacon-induced lowering in the secretory activity of adrenal cortex depended on similar reductions (from 50-64%) in the production of the main adrenocortical hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 18-hydroxy-corticosterone and aldosterone), thereby suggesting an inhibitory action of beacon in the early step of steroidogenesis (i.e. the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone). The hypothesis is advanced that beacon is to be considered an autocrine-paracrine negative regulator of mineralo- and glucocorticoid synthesis in the rat adrenal gland.

  3. Halo-tag mediated self-labeling of fluorescent proteins to molecular beacons for nucleic acid detection.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Daniel; Chen, Wilfred

    2014-11-18

    We report here the generation of a fluorescent protein (FP)-based dual molecular beacon (MB) system for nucleic acid detection. Halo-tag mediated conjugation was used for the site-specific decoration of MBs with two different FP fusions, thereby enabling easy detection of target sequences by fluorescence resonance energy transfer or FRET. Enhanced intracellular delivery was demonstrated by simply tethering a well-known TAT peptide sequence to the N-terminus of the fusion proteins.

  4. The morpholino molecular beacon for specific RNA visualization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbin; Wu, Jikui; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-02-21

    A non-invasive fluorescent probe, morpholino molecular beacon (MO-MB), was designed for RNA visualization in vivo. Featuring negligible toxicity, stability, and high target specificity in living embryos, MO-MB is superior to conventional probes and has the potential for specific RNA visualization in basic biological and clinical research.

  5. A Climate Created: Community Building in the Beacon College Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lynn

    From 1989 to 1995, the American Association of Community Colleges implemented the Beacon College Project to help community colleges develop creative and practical community-building strategies through collaborative initiatives. This report reviews the philosophy behind the project and describes goals and outcomes for the 26 institutions selected…

  6. Standing on lightpost and day beacon, haer architect Christopher Marston ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Standing on lightpost and day beacon, haer architect Christopher Marston points to stone retaining wall at site of old monongahela navigation company lock & dam no. 7. - Monongahela Navigation Company Lock & Dam No. 7, River Mile No. 82.5, Greensboro, Greene County, PA

  7. Development of BEACON technology. Quarterly report, January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of carbon from a gas stream containing carbon monoxide, and subsequent exposure of this carbon to a gas stream containing hydrogen or steam at elevated temperature and pressure to produce methane. The steam gasification route currently is receiving the most attention. Testing of steam gasification of BEACON carbon over a range of temperatures and pressures in bench-scale equipment has led to the conclusion that steam gasification at two temperature levels has significant advantages over steam gasification at a single temperature in terms of gasification rates and methane yields. Laboratory experiments with catalyst C77 investigated the effects of process variables, catalyst composition modifications, and feed gas compositions on carbon deposition and gasification rates, carbon monoxide and steam utilization, and cycle efficiency. Laboratory experiments to find materials that will promote the carbon deposition rate of BEACON catalysts were highly successful. Promoted catalysts showed significantly higher carbon deposition rates and carbon monoxide utilization than unpromoted catalysts. Multiple-cycle performance of BEACON catalysts also is reported.

  8. Radiometer calibration procedure and beacon attenuation estimation reference level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objectives are to compare radiometer attenuation with beacon attenuation and to compare sky temperature estimates with calculations using simultaneous meteorological data. Secondary objectives are: (1) noise diode and reference load measurements and (2) to adjust for outside temperature and component temperature changes.

  9. Design of a hybrid receiver for the OLYMPUS spacecraft beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, D. G.; Mckeeman, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The theory and design of a hybrid analogue/digital receiver which acquires and monitors the OLYMPUS satellite beacons is presented. The analogue portion of this receiver uses a frequency locked loop for signal tracking. A digital sampling detector operating at IF is used to obtain the I and Q outputs.

  10. Promoting Health in Hospitals: The Role of Beacon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Sandy; Watson, Jonathan; Hennessy, Sue

    2004-01-01

    "Best practice" is currently being used to enable modernisation within the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. One element of this is the Beacon programme where examples of hospitals that exemplify local "best practice" are supported to develop and disseminate learning across the wider NHS. The aims of this research were to map…

  11. COSPAS/SARSAT 406-MHz emergency beacon digital controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The digital control portion of a low-cost 406-MHz COSPAS/SARSAT emergency beacon has been designed and breadboarded at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This report discusses the requirements and design tradeoffs of the digital controller and describes the hardware and software design, which is available only to United States citizens and companies.

  12. Epilithic lichens in the Beacon sandstone formation, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, M. E.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The epilithic lichen flora on the Beacon sandstone formation in Victoria Land consists of seven species: Acarospora gwynnii Dodge & Rudolph, Buellia grisea Dodge & Baker, B. pallida Dodge & Baker, Carbonea capsulata (Dodge & Baker) Hale comb. nov., Lecanora fuscobrunnea Dodge & Baker, Lecidea cancriformis Dodge & Baker, and L. siplei Dodge & Baker. The typification of the species is given along with descriptions and distribution in Antarctica.

  13. The Methodist Hospital CCU: a Beacon unit of excellence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Tricia; Abanobi, Beatrice; Alleman, Paula; Ballinas, Eva; Botbyl, Brenda; Bries, Girlie; Clark, Liz; Clarkson, Terri; Cooper, Bridgette; Cooper, Jason; Cox, Shelly; Cude, Rebecca; Davis, Juanita; Delosreyes, Arlene; Durst, Kimberly; East, Ana; Edwards, Erving; Ellison, Rose; Eparwa, Perlita; Forjuoh, Harriet; Foster, Donald; Foytik, Lisa; Gordon, Maria; Grace, Jean; Green, Lisa; Harrison, Cassandra; Herrera, Rubin; Horn, Mary; Hunsinger, Cheryce; Issac, Annamma; Jackson, Valerie; Johnson, Athie; Kitayama, Susanna; Karaan, Juliet; Kezmarski, Mary; Kleinrock, Richard; Latson, Maria; Lee, Valerie; Long, Robin; Macapagal, Fred; Magsino, Diana; Manojkumar, Saleena; Martin, Denise; Matura, Lea Ann; McCarthy, Cynthia; McClellan, Emma; McDaniel, Christy; Mengo, Pam; Meurer, Judy; Muttathottil, Liz; Osayande, Esther; Osei-Frimpong, Diana; Phillips, Betty; Pittman, James; Pratt, Craig; Putney, David; Refuerzo, Laarni; Rendon, Lavinia; Richter, Russ; Simms, Sylvia; Sitoy, Diana; Small-Nelson, Judith; Sosa, Tomas; Stuckey, Denise; Tacquard, Natalie; Talbott, Sarah; Talladen, Aleine; Taylor, Shani; Thomas, Lini; Thompson, Pam; Walters, Gordon; West, Rachel

    2005-06-01

    This article features the Coronary Care Unit of The Methodist Hospital of Houston, Texas. This unit was one of the first Beacon Critical Care Units recognized by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. This article focuses on how to achieve this award. The Coronary Care Unit nursing infrastructure is described, and specific unit examples are included.

  14. Molecular beacons for DNA biosensors with micrometer to submicrometer dimensions.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Farmerie, W; Schuster, S; Tan, W

    2000-07-15

    Ultrasensitive molecular beacon (MB) DNA biosensors, with micrometer to submicrometer sizes, have been developed for DNA/RNA analysis. The fluorescence-based biosensors have been applied in DNA/ RNA detection without the need for a dye-labeled target molecule or an intercalation reagent in the testing solution. Molecular beacons are hairpin-shaped oligonucleotides that report the presence of specific nucleic acids. We have designed a surface-immobilizable biotinylated ssDNA molecular beacon for DNA hybridization at a liquid-solid interface. The MBs have been immobilized onto ultrasmall optical fiber probes through avidin-biotin binding. The MB DNA biosensor has been used directly to detect, in real time, its target DNA molecules without the need for a competitive assay. The biosensor is stable and reproducible. The MB DNA biosensor has selectivity with single base-pair mismatch identification capability. The concentration detection limits and mass detection limits are 0.3 nM and 15 amol for a 105-microm biosensor, and 10 nM and 0.27 amol for a submicrometer biosensor, respectively. We have also prepared molecular beacon DNA biosensor arrays for simultaneous analysis of multiple DNA sequences in the same solution. The newly developed DNA biosensors have been used for the precise quantification of a specific rat gamma-actin mRNA sequence amplified by the polymerase chain reaction.

  15. Intermolecular G-quadruplex-based universal quencher free molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Xie, Su-Jin; Li, Ji-Shan; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Shen, Guo-Li

    2012-11-11

    A simple and universal quencher-free molecular beacon (MB) with low background fluorescence is developed based on an intermolecular G-quadruplex signaling probe. Unlike previous fluorescent MB strategies, it can function without any fluorophore and quencher modifications on its hairpin sequence.

  16. Epilithic lichens in the Beacon sandstone formation, Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hale, M E

    1987-01-01

    The epilithic lichen flora on the Beacon sandstone formation in Victoria Land consists of seven species: Acarospora gwynnii Dodge & Rudolph, Buellia grisea Dodge & Baker, B. pallida Dodge & Baker, Carbonea capsulata (Dodge & Baker) Hale comb. nov., Lecanora fuscobrunnea Dodge & Baker, Lecidea cancriformis Dodge & Baker, and L. siplei Dodge & Baker. The typification of the species is given along with descriptions and distribution in Antarctica.

  17. Molecular beacons: a new approach to plant virus detection.

    PubMed

    Eun, A J; Wong, S M

    2000-03-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular beacons are single-stranded nucleic acid molecules with a stem-loop conformation. The stem portion consists of complementary sequences at the 5' and 3' terminals of the molecule, while the loop portion consists of probe sequences that are complementary to the target sequences of choice. A fluorescent moiety is attached to one end, while a quenching moiety is attached to the opposite end. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions are carried out with primers that amplify specific genome sequences of interest, yielding targets complementary to their respective molecular beacons for subsequent detection. Here, we have designed four molecular beacons specific to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and coat protein genes of two orchid viruses, namely Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV). This technology is successfully applied to detect as little as 0.5 ng of viral RNA of both orchid viruses simultaneously in 100 mg of coinfected Oncidium orchid leaves. This rapid and specific technique is applicable to the orchid industry, which routinely carries out virus indexing and screening for virus-resistant cultivars. We belief that use of this molecular beacon approach can be extended to the detection of multiple plant viruses in various crops.

  18. The morpholino molecular beacon for specific RNA visualization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbin; Wu, Jikui; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-02-21

    A non-invasive fluorescent probe, morpholino molecular beacon (MO-MB), was designed for RNA visualization in vivo. Featuring negligible toxicity, stability, and high target specificity in living embryos, MO-MB is superior to conventional probes and has the potential for specific RNA visualization in basic biological and clinical research. PMID:26810703

  19. Reflecting on Pedagogy: Outcomes from a Beacon School Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Kate; Muschamp, Yolande

    2004-01-01

    This article arises from an initiative set up by four Beacon Schools to enhance the professional development of teachers and hence raise pupil attainment in all schools in the local education authority. The initiative provided opportunities for teachers to work in cross-institutional interest groups, with the aim of sharing good practice and…

  20. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Yang, Jun; Li, You; Qi, Longning; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM), channel-separate fingerprinting (FP), outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target's location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy) with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy). The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of <2.56 m at 90% of the time with dense deployment of BLE beacons (1 beacon per 9 m), which performs 35.82% better than <3.99 m from the Propagation Model (PM) + EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than <3.04 m from the FP + EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m), the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of <3.88 m at 90% of the

  1. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Yang, Jun; Li, You; Qi, Longning; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-04-26

    Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM), channel-separate fingerprinting (FP), outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target's location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy) with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy). The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of <2.56 m at 90% of the time with dense deployment of BLE beacons (1 beacon per 9 m), which performs 35.82% better than <3.99 m from the Propagation Model (PM) + EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than <3.04 m from the FP + EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m), the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of <3.88 m at 90% of the

  2. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Yang, Jun; Li, You; Qi, Longning; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM), channel-separate fingerprinting (FP), outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target’s location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy) with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy). The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of <2.56 m at 90% of the time with dense deployment of BLE beacons (1 beacon per 9 m), which performs 35.82% better than <3.99 m from the Propagation Model (PM) + EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than <3.04 m from the FP + EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m), the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of <3.88 m at 90% of the

  3. Fluorescence detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms using a thymidine-based molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Wei; Lin, Yang-Wei; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2009-04-15

    We have developed a universal molecular beacon (T(7)-MB-T(7)) for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The beacon, which contains a 19-mer loop and a stem comprising a pair of seven thymidine (T) bases, forms double-stranded structures with target DNA molecules, leading to increases in the fluorescence of ethidium bromide (EthBr) as a result of intercalation. The interactions of the beacon with perfectly matched (DNA(pm)) and single-base mismatched (DNA(mm)) DNA strands are stronger and weaker, respectively, than those with Hg(2+) ions. As a result, the fluorescence of a solution containing T(7)-MB-T(7), DNA(pm), EthBr, and Hg(2+) is higher than that of a corresponding solution containing T(7)-MB-T(7), DNA(mm), EthBr, and Hg(2+), because the former has a greater number of intercalation sites for EthBr. Under the optimal conditions (100 nM T(7)-MB-T(7), 20 mM NaCl, 5.0 microM Hg(2+), and 300 nM EthBr in 5.0 mM Tris-HCl solution, pH 7.4), the plot of the fluorescence intensity against the concentration of DNA(pm) was linear over the range 5.0-100 nM (R(2)=0.98). A similar probe, T(7)-MB(t)-T(7), is sensitive and selective for the detection of a gene associated with hereditary tyrosinemia type I. Relative to conventional MBs, our new probe offers the advantages of higher selectivity toward DNA, less nonspecific binding toward single-stranded-DNA-binding protein, greater resistance to nuclease digestion, and low cost; therefore, we suspect that this system holds great potential for practical studies of SNPs.

  4. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Hollie

    2005-01-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce.…

  5. 76 FR 7187 - Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System; Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Trent Franks, U.S. House of Representatives. 10:35 a.m. Introductions; Commissioner Cheryl LaFleur... protecting against sophisticated and fast-moving threats? What role do you expect Smart Grid to play in the... grid reliability under Smart Grid applications? If not, how should NERC address these issues? c....

  6. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  7. Fluorescence monitoring of riboswitch transcription regulation using a dual molecular beacon assay.

    PubMed

    Chinnappan, Raja; Dubé, Audrey; Lemay, Jean-François; Lafontaine, Daniel A

    2013-05-01

    Riboswitches are mRNA elements that specifically bind cellular metabolites and control gene expression by modifying their structure. As riboswitches often control essential genes in pathogenic bacteria, riboswitches have been proposed as new targets for antibiotics. High-throughput screening provides a powerful approach to identify riboswitch ligand analogs that could act as powerful antibacterial drugs. Biochemical assays have already been used to find riboswitch-binding analogs, but those methods do take into account the transcriptional context for riboswitch regulation. As the importance of co-transcriptional ligand binding has been shown for several riboswitches, it is vital to develop an assay that screens riboswitch-binding analogs during the transcriptional process. Here, we describe the development of a dual molecular beacon system monitoring the transcriptional regulation activity of the Bacillus subtilis pbuE adenine riboswitch. This system relies on two molecular beacons that enable the monitoring of transcription efficiency, as well as the regulatory activity of the riboswitch. Different analogs were tested using our system, and a good correlation was observed between riboswitch activity and reported metabolite affinities. This method is specific, reliable and could be applied at the high-throughput level for the identification of new potential antibiotics targeting any riboswitch-regulating gene expression at the mRNA level.

  8. Simple, rapid detection of influenza A (H1N1) viruses using a highly sensitive peptide-based molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Guk, Kyeonghye; Kim, Hyeran; Chung, Bong-Hyun; Jung, Juyeon

    2016-01-01

    A peptide-based molecular beacon (PEP-MB) was prepared for the simple, rapid, and specific detection of H1N1 viruses using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system. The PEP-MB exhibited minimal fluorescence in its "closed" hairpin structure. However, in the presence of H1N1 viruses, the specific recognition of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of H1 strains by the PEP-MB causes the beacon to assume an "open" structure that emits strong fluorescence. The PEP-MB could detect H1N1 viruses within 15 min or even 5 min and can exhibit strong fluorescence even at low viral concentrations, with a detection limit of 4 copies.

  9. Considerations for community-based mHealth initiatives: insights from three Beacon Communities.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Nebeyou A; Capozza, Korey L; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Kulick, David A; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Turske, Scott A

    2013-10-15

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs.

  10. Considerations for Community-Based mHealth Initiatives: Insights From Three Beacon Communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs. PMID:24128406

  11. Hybridization of 2'-O-methyl and 2'-deoxy molecular beacons to RNA and DNA targets.

    PubMed

    Tsourkas, Andrew; Behlke, Mark A; Bao, Gang

    2002-12-01

    Molecular beacons are stem-loop hairpin oligonucleotide probes labeled with a fluorescent dye at one end and a fluorescence quencher at the other end; they can differentiate between bound and unbound probes in homogeneous hybridization assays with a high signal-to-background ratio and enhanced specificity compared with linear oligonucleotide probes. However, in performing cellular imaging and quantification of gene expression, degradation of unmodified molecular beacons by endogenous nucleases can significantly limit the detection sensitivity, and results in fluorescence signals unrelated to probe/target hybridization. To substantially reduce nuclease degradation of molecular beacons, it is possible to protect the probe by substituting 2'-O-methyl RNA for DNA. Here we report the analysis of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of 2'-O-methyl and 2'-deoxy molecular beacons in the presence of RNA and DNA targets. We found that in terms of molecular beacon/target duplex stability, 2'-O-methyl/RNA > 2'-deoxy/RNA > 2'-deoxy/DNA > 2'-O-methyl/DNA. The improved stability of the 2'-O-methyl/RNA duplex was accompanied by a slightly reduced specificity compared with the duplex of 2'-deoxy molecular beacons and RNA targets. However, the 2'-O-methyl molecular beacons hybridized to RNA more quickly than 2'-deoxy molecular beacons. For the pairs tested, the 2'-deoxy-beacon/DNA-target duplex showed the fastest hybridization kinetics. These findings have significant implications for the design and application of molecular beacons.

  12. Hybridization of 2'-O-methyl and 2'-deoxy molecular beacons to RNA and DNA targets.

    PubMed

    Tsourkas, Andrew; Behlke, Mark A; Bao, Gang

    2003-03-15

    Molecular beacons are stem-loop hairpin oligonucleotide probes labeled with a fluorescent dye at one end and a fluorescence quencher at the other end; they can differentiate between bound and unbound probes in homogeneous hybridization assays with a high signal-to-background ratio and enhanced specificity compared with linear oligonucleotide probes. However, in performing cellular imaging and quantification of gene expression, degradation of unmodified molecular beacons by endogenous nucleases can significantly limit the detection sensitivity, and results in fluorescence signals unrelated to probe/target hybridization. To substantially reduce nuclease degradation of molecular beacons, it is possible to protect the probe by substituting 2'-O-methyl RNA for DNA. Here we report the analysis of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of 2'-O-methyl and 2'-deoxy molecular beacons in the presence of RNA and DNA targets. We found that in terms of molecular beacon/target duplex stability, 2'-O-methyl/RNA > 2'-deoxy/RNA > 2'-deoxy/DNA > 2'-O-methyl/DNA. The improved stability of the 2'-O-methyl/RNA duplex was accompanied by a slightly reduced specificity compared with the duplex of 2'-deoxy molecular beacons and RNA targets. However, the 2'-O-methyl molecular beacons hybridized to RNA more quickly than 2'-deoxy molecular beacons. For the pairs tested, the 2'-deoxy-beacon/DNA-target duplex showed the fastest hybridization kinetics. These findings have significant implications for the design and application of molecular beacons.

  13. Development of BEACON technology. Quarterly report, October-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of a highly reactive carbon from a gas stream containing carbon monoxide. The carbon-depleted gas is combusted with air to produce power, and the carbon is reacted with steam to produce methane. Laboratory multicycle tests with K1 and K2 catalysts were completed this quarter. Both catalysts were cycled through 40 deposition and steaming cycles. Both catalysts showed good stability. The K1-based material was found to be more active than the K2-based material, both for carbon deposition and for steaming. Gas conversion proceeded to near-equilibrium levels for both catalysts. Investigation of the effects of multicycle operation and carbon loading levels on catalyst C77-K2 stability continued this quarter. Testing in a 1-inch quartz fluid bed reactor showed no significant catalyst deterioration after 40 cycles at low carbon loadings. However, significant morphology changes occurred at higher carbon loadings. During testing in a new 1-1/2 inch diameter fluid bed reactor, there was evidence of inadequate mixing: large variations in carbon loading within the bed were observed, and the bed plugged at the higher carbon loadings. Multicycle testing of K1 and K2 catalysts continued in the 4-inch diameter fluid bed reactor. The K1 catalyst showed no decrease in catalytic activity after 9-1/2 of the planned 30 cycles. The K2 catalyst showed evidence of contamination from an undetermined source, and testing was discontinued after 9 cycles. A tandem reactor system which will circulate solids between a carbon deposition reactor and a carbon steaming reactor is now being designed for future catalyst testing. 19 figures, 21 tables.

  14. A solid-state electrochemiluminescence biosensing switch for detection of thrombin based on ferrocene-labeled molecular beacon aptamer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Dong, Ping; Yun, Wen; Xu, Ying; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2009-07-15

    A solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensing switch system based on special ferrocene-labeled molecular beacon aptamer (Fc-MBA) has been developed successfully for thrombin detections. Such special switch system includes two main parts, an ECL substrate and an ECL intensity switch. The ECL substrate was made by modifying the complex of Au nanoparticle and Ruthenium (II) tris-(bipyridine) (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-AuNPs) onto Au electrode. A molecular beacon aptamer labeled by ferrocene acted as the ECL intensity switch. The loop bases of the ECL intensity switch are designed with special anti-thrombin aptamer sequence which could be combined with its target protein via the reaction between aptamer and thrombin. During the reactions, the molecular beacon aptamer opened its stem-loop, and the labeled Fc was consequently kept away from the ECL substrate. Such structural change resulted in an obvious ECL intensity increment due to the decreased quenching effect of Fc to the ECL substrate. The analytic results are sensitive and specific.

  15. Reliability analysis of a multiple-laser-diode beacon for intersatellite links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauroschat, Andreas

    1991-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate and evaluate different design options for the SILEX acquisition beacon. A minimum specification for the quality of the optical coupling between the laser diodes and the beacon output for which the beacon meets its power specification with the required reliability is established. An improved reliability is demonstrated for beacon designs with an optimized thermal design including the control of the thermal wall temperature and the conductive coupling between the beacon emission unit and the terminal radiator. Such an optimized thermal design also offers the possibility of mass savings of the optical terminal, since only a very light thermal wall is needed for the beacon. The total power control of the laser diodes is demonstrated to be the best mode of operation.

  16. The New York City Beacons: rebuilding communities of support in urban neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Kleinbard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Established in 1991 in New York City and now operating in at least seven other cities, Beacons are designed to rebuild communities of support for children and youth in urban neighborhoods. The Beacon framework is based on research findings and practitioner experience indicating that programs taking a youth development approach are more effective than those focused on "fixing" specific youth problems. Successful Beacon programs provide positive ways to meet young people's need for safety, a sense of belonging, and mastery; they also provide opportunities for decision making and contributing to others. There are currently eighty Beacons in New York City, serving about 140,000 youth and adults annually. Beacons have been replicated in several parts of the country, including Denver, Minneapolis, Oakland, Palm Beach County, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Savannah. The Youth Development Institute of the Fund for the City of New York provides technical assistance and training to Beacons in New York City and in all seven replication sites.

  17. Interaction between piloting and beacon homing by rats in a swimming pool.

    PubMed

    Redhead, E S; Roberts, A; Good, M; Pearce, J M

    1997-07-01

    In three experiments, rats in a swimming pool were trained to find a submerged platform with a beacon attached to it. For some rats this beacon unambiguously identified the location of the platform; for others the beacon was made ambiguous by placement of an identical beacon in a different part of the pool. Test trials, in the absence of the platform and the beacons, revealed more persistent searching near the original location of the platform if the beacon attached to the platform had been ambiguous. These results show that learning about the location of the platform, with regard to cues that lie beyond the pool, is influenced by the extent to which an animal can find the platform by relying on other cues. The final experiment shows that this interaction between cues is influenced by an animal's prior experience.

  18. Using TEC and radio scintillation data from the CITRIS radio beacon receiver to study low and midlatitude ionospheric irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, Carl L.; Bernhardt, Paul A.; Koch, Douglas E.; Galysh, Ivan J.

    2011-12-01

    Unique data on ionospheric plasma irregularities from the Naval Research Laboratory Scintillation and TEC Receiver in Space (CITRIS) instrument is presented. CITRIS is a multiband receiver that recorded Total Electron Content (TEC) and radio scintillations from Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) on STPSat1. The 555 ± 5 km altitude 35° inclination orbit covers low and midlatitudes. The measurements require propagation from a transmitter to a receiver through the F region plasma. CITRIS used both 1) satellite beacons in LEO and 2) the French sponsored global network of ground-based Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) beacons. This paper is both a brief review of the CITRIS experiment and the first combined TEC and scintillation study of ionospheric irregularities using a satellite-borne beacon receiver. It primarily focuses on CITRIS/DORIS observations and is a case study of the ionospheric irregularities and associated scintillation characteristics at 401.25 MHz during the 2008 equinox solar minimum. In addition, CITRIS was operated in a complementary fashion with the Communication/Navigations Outages Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during C/NOFS' first year of operations and comparison with measured C/NOFS irregularity characteristics are made. Several types of irregularities have been studied including Spread-F and the newly discovered dawn-side depletions.

  19. Preliminary Statistics from the NASA Alphasat Beacon Receiver in Milan, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James; Zemba, Michael; Morse, Jacquelynne; Luini, Lorenzo; Riva, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have initiated a joint propagation campaign within the framework of the Alphasat propagation experiment to characterize rain attenuation, scintillation, and gaseous absorption effects of the atmosphere in the 40 gigahertz band. NASA GRC has developed and installed a K/Q-band (20/40 gigahertz) beacon receiver at the POLIMI campus in Milan, Italy, which receives the 20/40 gigahertz signals broadcast from the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP no. 5 beacon payload. The primary goal of these measurements is to develop a physical model to improve predictions of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we provide an overview of the design and data calibration procedure, and present 6 months of preliminary statistics of the NASA propagation terminal, which has been installed and operating in Milan since May 2014. The Q-band receiver has demonstrated a dynamic range of 40 decibels at an 8-hertz sampling rate. A weather station with an optical disdrometer is also installed to characterize rain drop size distribution for correlation with physical based models.

  20. Preliminary Statistics from the NASA Alphasat Beacon Receiver in Milan, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemba, Michael J.; Nessel, James A.; Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have initiated a joint propagation campaign within the framework of the Alphasat propagation experiment to characterize rain attenuation, scintillation, and gaseous absorption effects of the atmosphere in the 40 GHz band. NASA GRC has developed and installed a KQ-band (20-40 GHz) beacon receiver at the POLIMI campus in Milan, Italy, which receives the 20-40 GHz signals broadcast from the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 beacon payload. The primary goal of these measurements is to develop a physical model to improve predictions of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we provide an overview of the design and data calibration procedure, and present 6 months of preliminary statistics of the NASA propagation terminal, which has been installed and operating in Milan since May 2014. The Q-band receiver has demonstrated a dynamic range of 40 dB at an 8-Hz sampling rate. A weather station with an optical disdrometer is also installed to characterize rain drop size distribution for correlation with physical based models

  1. Molecular beacon-equilibrium cyclization detection of DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Vitko, Jason; Rujan, Iulian; Androga, Lagu; Mukerji, Ishita; Bolton, Philip H

    2007-11-01

    Molecular beacon detection of equilibrium cyclization (MBEC) is a novel, high sensitivity technique that can allow DNA-protein complex formation to be studied under diverse conditions in a cost effective and rapid manner that can be adapted to high throughput screening. To demonstrate the ease and utility of applying MBEC to the investigation of the K(D) values of protein-DNA complexes, the sequence-specific Escherichia coli integration host factor (IHF) protein has been used as a test system. Competition between a labeled MBEC DNA construct and unlabeled duplex DNA for IHF binding allows the determination of K(D) values as a function of the DNA duplex sequence. This allows sequence specificity to be monitored while using only a single molecular beacon-labeled DNA. The robustness of MBEC for monitoring protein-DNA complex formation has been further demonstrated by determining the K(D) values as a function of salt concentration to investigate the net number of salt bridges formed in sequence-specific and -nonspecific IHF-DNA complexes. These MBEC results have been compared with those from other approaches.

  2. SU-E-J-257: Image Artifacts Caused by Implanted Calypso Beacons in MRI Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Amro, H; Chetty, I; Gordon, J; Wen, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The presence of Calypso Beacon-transponders in patients can cause artifacts during MRI imaging studies. This could be a problem for post-treatment follow up of cancer patients using MRI studies to evaluate metastasis and for functional imaging studies.This work assesses (1) the volume immediately surrounding the transponders that will not be visualized by the MRI due to the beacons, and (2) the dependence of the non-visualized volume on beacon orientation, and scanning techniques. Methods: Two phantoms were used in this study (1) water filled box, (2) and a 2300 cc block of pork meat. Calypso beacons were implanted in the phantoms both in parallel and perpendicular orientations with respect to the MR scanner magnetic field. MR image series of the phantom were obtained with on a 1.0T high field open MR-SIM with multiple pulse sequences, for example, T1-weighted fast field echo and T2-weighted turbo spin echo. Results: On average, a no-signal region with 2 cm radius and 3 cm length was measured. Image artifacts are more significant when beacons are placed parallel to scanner magnetic field; the no-signal area around the beacon was about 0.5 cm larger in orthogonal orientation. The no-signal region surrounding the beacons slightly varies in dimension for the different pulse sequences. Conclusion: The use of Calypso beacons can prohibit the use of MRI studies in post-treatment assessments, especially in the immediate region surrounding the implanted beacon. A characterization of the MR scanner by identifying the no-signal regions due to implanted beacons is essential. This may render the use of Calypso beacons useful for some cases and give the treating physician a chance to identify those patients prior to beacon implantation.

  3. Q-Band (37-41 GHz) Satellite Beacon Architecture for RF Propagation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the design of a beacon transmitter that will be flown as a hosted payload on a geostationary satellite to enable propagation experiments at Q-band (37-41 GHz) frequencies is presented. The beacon uses a phased locked loop stabilized dielectric resonator oscillator and a solid-state power amplifier to achieve the desired output power. The satellite beacon antenna is configured as an offset-fed cut-paraboloidal reflector.

  4. Q-Band (37 to 41 GHz) Satellite Beacon Architecture for RF Propagation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the design of a beacon transmitter that will be flown as a hosted payload on a geostationary satellite to enable propagation experiments at Q-band (37 to 41 GHz) frequencies is presented. The beacon uses a phased locked loop stabilized dielectric resonator oscillator and a solid-state power amplifier to achieve the desired output power. The satellite beacon antenna is configured as an offset-fed cutparaboloidal reflector.

  5. Facile synthesis of advanced photodynamic molecular beacon architectures.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Jonathan F; Chen, Juan; Huynh, Elizabeth; Jarvi, Mark T; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang

    2010-06-16

    Nucleic acid photodynamic molecular beacons (PMBs) are a class of activatable photosensitizers that increase singlet oxygen generation upon binding a specific target sequence. Normally, PMBs are functionalized with multiple solution-phase labeling and purification steps. Here, we make use of a flexible solid-phase approach for completely automated synthesis of PMBs. This enabled the creation of a new type of molecular beacon that uses a linear superquencher architecture. The 3' terminus was labeled with a photosensitizer by generating pyropheophorbide-labeled solid-phase support. The 5' terminus was labeled with up to three consecutive additions of a dark quencher phosphoramidite. These photosensitizing and quenching moieties were stable in the harsh DNA synthesis environment and their hydrophobicity facilitated PMB purification by HPLC. Linear superquenchers exhibited highly efficient quenching. This fully automated synthesis method simplifies not only the synthesis and purification of PMBs, but also the creation of new activatable photosensitizer designs.

  6. Molecular beacons for protein-DNA interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Cao, Zehui Charles; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

    2008-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of DNA-protein interactions involving molecular beacon (MB) and molecular beacon aptamer (MBA) was discussed in this chapter. MBs are single-stranded oligonucleotide probes with a hairpin structure. MBs have been designed for oligonucleotide recognition and protein-DNA interaction studies. Real-time monitoring of enzymatic reactions, such as cleavage, ligation, and phosphorylation of single-stranded DNA by specific enzyme, has been studied using MBs. Meanwhile, a new generation of molecular probes, MBA, was designed by combining the excellent signal transduction properties of MBs with the specificity of aptamers for protein recognition. Two different aptamers, the one for thrombin and that for platelet-derived growth factor, have been successfully used to construct MBA probes. The interaction between the proteins and the MBA probes was investigated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, fluorescence anisotropy, and time-resolved fluorescence. This chapter has reviewed our recent progress in this area.

  7. Rayleigh beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope.

    PubMed

    Padin, S

    2014-12-01

    Millimeter-wavelength Rayleigh scattering from water droplets in a cloud is proposed as a means of generating a bright beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope. A λ=3  mm transmitter, with an output power of a few watts, illuminating a stratiform cloud, can generate a beacon with the same flux as Mars in 10 GHz bandwidth, but the beacon has a narrow line width, so it is extremely bright. The key advantage of the beacon is that it can be used at any time, and positioned anywhere in the sky, as long as there are clouds.

  8. Rayleigh beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope.

    PubMed

    Padin, S

    2014-12-01

    Millimeter-wavelength Rayleigh scattering from water droplets in a cloud is proposed as a means of generating a bright beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope. A λ=3  mm transmitter, with an output power of a few watts, illuminating a stratiform cloud, can generate a beacon with the same flux as Mars in 10 GHz bandwidth, but the beacon has a narrow line width, so it is extremely bright. The key advantage of the beacon is that it can be used at any time, and positioned anywhere in the sky, as long as there are clouds. PMID:25607971

  9. Molecular beacons: a novel DNA probe for nucleic acid and protein studies.

    PubMed

    Tan, W; Fang, X; Li, J; Liu, X

    2000-04-01

    A new concept has been introduced for molecular beacon DNA molecules. Molecular beacons are a new class of oligonucleotides that can report the presence of specific nucleic acids in both homogeneous solutions and at the liquid-solid interface. They emit an intense fluorescent signal only when hybridized to their target DNA or RNA molecules. Biotinylated molecular beacons have been designed and used for the development of ultrasensitive DNA sensors and for DNA molecular interaction studies at a solid-liquid interface. Molecular beacons have also been used to study protein-DNA interactions. They have provided a variety of exciting opportunities in DNA/RNA/protein studies.

  10. Aptamer beacons for visualization of endogenous protein HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in living cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiping; Wei, Hongping; Hu, Qinxue; Deng, Jiaoyu; Guo, Deyin; Cui, Zongqiang; Zhang, Xian-En

    2011-10-15

    Direct visualization of endogenous proteins in living cells remains a challenge. Aptamer beacon is a promising technique to resolve this problem by combining the excellent protein binding specificity of the aptamer with the sensitive signal transduction mechanism of the molecular beacon. In this study, aptamer 93 del against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) was engineered into aptamer beacons to recognize and image HIV-1 RT. The constructed aptamer beacons could specifically bind to HIV-1 RT and the beacon-RT binding showed effective fluorescence signal transduction in homogeneous solution. In solutions with 1 μM of the aptamer beacon, the effective fluorescence signal increased with increasing concentration of HIV-1 RT from 0.5 μM to 5 μM. When the aptamer beacons were delivered into the living cells that transiently expressed HIV-1 RT, HIV-1 RT could be specifically labeled and imaged. The designed aptamer beacons were further successfully applied for RT imaging in HIV-1 integrated U1 cells. The method developed here may be extended to visualize many other endogenous proteins in living cells using appropriate aptamer beacons.

  11. Effects of beacon on the rat pituitary-adrenocortical axis response to stress.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Spinazzi, Raffaella; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2005-08-01

    Beacon is a peptide expressed in the rat hypothalamus and adrenal cortex, which is involved in the central regulation of feeding and inhibits basal and agonist-stimulated glucocorticoid secretion from adrenocortical cells. In vivo studies on beacon have not yet been carried out, and therefore we investigated the effects of a subcutaneous (sc) injection of beacon on the response of rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress. Handling and sc injection per se elicited a moderate increase in the plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone, which was counteracted by beacon. Similarly, beacon dampened ACTH and corticosterone responses to ether stress. In contrast, beacon did not affect ACTH response to cold stress, although it was able to induce a moderate lowering in the corticosterone response. Taken together, these findings allow us to draw the following conclusions: i) beacon inhibits handling/injection- and ether stress-activated, but not cold stress-activated, neural mechanism(s) responsible for stimulation of ACTH secretion and the ensuing increase in corticosterone production; and ii) the beacon-induced dampening in corticosterone response to stress also involves a direct inhibitory effect on the adrenal-cortex secretory activity. The physiological relevance of beacon as endogenous anti-stress agent remains to be evaluated.

  12. Development of BEACON technology. Quarterly report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of a highly reactive form of carbon from a gas stream which contains carbon monoxide. The carbon-depleted gas is combusted with air to produce power, and the carbon is reacted with steam to produce methane or hydrogen. Experiments were continued this quarter with the objective of improving the carbon deposition efficiency using a Paraho retort off-gas mixture. Analysis has shown that the use of the Paraho off-gas to make hydrogen would be attractive if the ratio of the heat content of the feedgas to the heat content of the hydrogen produced is less than 3. Experimental conditions to achieve this ratio have been established. Recent work had shown that the volume of a BEACON supported catalyst bed increased with an increase in carbon loading level. Four series of experiments were performed where sieve analyses were made after one or more BEACON process cycles. These tests showed that the volume expansion is due to an increase in the number and size of the larger catalyst particles. The bench-scale testing of unsupported catalysts concentrated in two areas: (a) the completion of batch testing in the 4-inch reactor, and (b) the construction of the Tandem Reactor Unit which will permit the transfer of solids between the carbon deposition and steam gasification reactors during testing. It was found that a second stage of steaming enhanced the methane yield. Approximately 80% of the construction and instrumentation of the Tandem Reactor Unit was completed during the quarter. A conceptual design was completed for an Integrated Test Facility (ITF) which would permit research on the BEACON process at a scale sufficient for scale-up. 17 figures, 14 tables.

  13. Molecular beacons in biomedical detection and clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Sohn, Dosung; Tan, Weihong

    2008-01-01

    Among the diverse nucleic acid probes, molecular beacons (MBs) have shown their excellent potential in a variety of basic researches and practical applications. Their excellent selectivity, sensitivity, and detection without separation have led them to be particularly useful in real-time intracellular monitoring of gene expression, development of biosensors, and clinical diagnostics. This paper will focus on the properties of various MBs and discuss their potential applications.

  14. A two-color, self-controlled molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Biner, Sarah M; Häner, Robert

    2011-12-16

    Control yourself! A two-color molecular beacon with non-nucleosidic chromophores in a triplex stem is presented. Pyrene and PDI fluorophores act as mutual quenchers by formation of a donor-acceptor complex in the closed form. Hybridization with the target results in two independent fluorescence signals. The two-color read-out provides a "self-control" feature, which helps to eliminate false positive signals in imaging and screening applications.

  15. Caudal spotting in the beacon fish (Hemigrammus ocellifer Characidae).

    PubMed

    Frankel, J S

    2002-01-01

    The beacon fish (Hemigrammus ocellifer) exhibits two phenotypes associated with spotting at the base of the caudal fin, with fish either possessing (H. o. ocellifer) or lacking (H. o. falsus) a prominent red spot in this region. Segregation patterns observed from the progenies of 15 different crosses support a hypothesis that caudal spotting in this species is controlled by a single gene with two alleles, for which the caudal spotting allele is completely dominant.

  16. Detection of T4 DNA ligase using a solid-state electrochemiluminescence biosensing switch based on ferrocene-labeled molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Dong, Ping; Yun, Wen; Xu, Ying; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2010-03-15

    A solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensing switch based on special ferrocene-labeled molecular beacon (Fc-MB) has been successfully developed for T4 DNA ligase detection. Such special switch system consisted of two main parts, an ECL substrate and an ECL intensity switch. The ECL substrate was made by modifying the complex of Au nanoparticle and Ruthenium (II) tris-(bipyridine) (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-AuNPs) onto Au electrode. A molecular beacon labeled by ferrocene as the ECL intensity switch. The molecular beacon is designed with special base sequence, which could combine with its target biomolecule via the reaction of the repair and recombination of nucleic acids by DNA ligase. During the reaction, the molecular beacon opened its stem-loop, and the labeled Fc was consequently kept away from the ECL substrate. Such structural change resulted in an obvious increment in ECL intensity due to the decreased Fc quenching effect to the ECL substrate. The analysis results are sensitive and specific.

  17. A molecular beacon assay for measuring base excision repair activities.

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, Andrei; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Sanz, Guenhaël; Laval, Jacques; Elder, Rhoderick H; Saparbaev, Murat K

    2004-06-18

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway plays a key role in protecting the genome from endogenous DNA damage. Current methods to measure BER activities are indirect and cumbersome. Here, we introduce a direct method to assay DNA excision repair that is suitable for automation and industrial use, based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism of molecular beacons. We designed a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide labelled with a 5'-fluorescein (F) and a 3'-Dabcyl (D) in which the fluorophore, F, is held in close proximity to the quencher, D, by the stem-loop structure design of the oligonucleotide. Following removal of the modified base or incision of the oligonucleotide, the fluorophore is separated from the quencher and fluorescence can be detected as a function of time. Several modified beacons have been used to validate the assay on both cell-free extracts and purified proteins. We have further developed the method to analyze BER in cultured cells. As described, the molecular beacon-based assay can be applied to all DNA modifications processed by DNA excision/incision repair pathways. Possible applications of the assay are discussed, including high-throughput real-time DNA repair measurements both in vitro and in living cells.

  18. Adapting mobile beacon-assisted localization in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Teng, Guodong; Zheng, Kougen; Dong, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The ability to automatically locate sensor nodes is essential in many Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. To reduce the number of beacons, many mobile-assisted approaches have been proposed. Current mobile-assisted approaches for localization require special hardware or belong to centralized localization algorithms involving some deterministic approaches due to the fact that they explicitly consider the impreciseness of location estimates. In this paper, we first propose a range-free, distributed and probabilistic Mobile Beacon-assisted Localization (MBL) approach for static WSNs. Then, we propose another approach based on MBL, called Adapting MBL (A-MBL), to increase the efficiency and accuracy of MBL by adapting the size of sample sets and the parameter of the dynamic model during the estimation process. Evaluation results show that the accuracy of MBL and A-MBL outperform both Mobile and Static sensor network Localization (MSL) and Arrival and Departure Overlap (ADO) when both of them use only a single mobile beacon for localization in static WSNs.

  19. Molecular beacons as diagnostic tools: technology and applications.

    PubMed

    Abravaya, Klara; Huff, Jeffrey; Marshall, Ron; Merchant, Barbara; Mullen, Carolyn; Schneider, George; Robinson, John

    2003-04-01

    Molecular beacons are single-stranded, fluorophore-labeled nucleic acid probes that are capable of generating a fluorescent signal in the presence of target, but are dark in the absence of target. Molecular beacons allow multiplex detection of PCR products in real time in a homogeneous assay format. Real time detection is inherently quantitative and affords a greater dynamic range than end-point detection methods. Reactions in a homogeneous assay format are sealed before amplification takes place, providing improved contamination control. A single cycler/reader instrument, coupled with automated sample preparation, results in higher throughput and greater ease of use. A multiplex qualitative assay that detects Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, along with an internal control, has been developed. High specificity is achieved through careful selection of primers, probes and assay conditions. Quantitative HIV, HCV, and HBV viral load assays, with sensitivities of 50 copies/ml, 20 IU/ml, and 50 copies/ml, respectively, are achievable. The viral load assays are designed to quantitate all subtype and genotype specimens equivalently. A molecular beacon assay has been designed to detect a single nucleotide polymorphism in the beta2 adrenergic receptor gene.

  20. Pyrene excimer signaling molecular beacons for probing nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Patrick; Yang, Chaoyong James; Wu, Yanrong; Chen, Yan; Martinez, Karen; Kim, Youngmi; Stevens, Nathan; Marti, Angel A; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J; Tan, Weihong

    2008-01-01

    Molecular beacon DNA probes, containing 1-4 pyrene monomers on the 5' end and the quencher DABCYL on the 3' end, were engineered and employed for real-time probing of DNA sequences. In the absence of a target sequence, the multiple-pyrene labeled molecular beacons (MBs) assumed a stem-closed conformation resulting in quenching of the pyrene excimer fluorescence. In the presence of target, the beacons switched to a stem-open conformation, which separated the pyrene label from the quencher molecule and generated an excimer emission signal proportional to the target concentration. Steady-state fluorescence assays resulted in a subnanomolar limit of detection in buffer, whereas time-resolved signaling enabled low-nanomolar target detection in cell-growth media. It was found that the excimer emission intensity could be scaled by increasing the number of pyrene monomers conjugated to the 5' terminal. Each additional pyrene monomer resulted in substantial increases in the excimer emission intensities, quantum yields, and excited-state lifetimes of the hybridized MBs. The long fluorescence lifetime ( approximately 40 ns), large Stokes shift (130 nm), and tunable intensity of the excimer make this multiple-pyrene moiety a useful alternative to traditional fluorophore labeling in nucleic acid probes.

  1. Pyrene Excimer Signaling Molecular Beacons for Probing Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Patrick; Yang, Chaoyong James; Wu, Yanrong; Chen, Yan; Martinez, Karen; Kim, Youngmi; Stevens, Nathan; Marti, Angel A.; Jockusch, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Molecular beacon DNA probes, containing one to four pyrene monomers on the 5′ end and the quencher DABCYL on the 3′ end, were engineered and employed for real-time probing of DNA sequences. In the absence of a target sequence, the multiple-pyrene labeled molecular beacons (MBs) assumed a stem-closed conformation resulting in quenching of the pyrene excimer fluorescence. In the presence of target, the beacons switched to a stem-open conformation which separated the pyrene label from the quencher molecule and generated an excimer emission signal proportional to the target concentration. Steady-state fluorescence assays resulted in a sub-nanomolar limit of detection in buffer, while time-resolved signaling enabled low-nanomolar target detection in cell growth media. It was found that the excimer emission intensity could be scaled by increasing the number of pyrene monomers conjugated to the 5′ terminal. Each additional pyrene monomer resulted in substantial increases in the excimer emission intensities, quantum yields, and excited-state lifetimes of the hybridized MBs. The long fluorescence lifetime (~40 ns), large Stokes shift (130 nm), and tunable intensity of the excimer make this multiple-pyrene moiety a useful alternative to traditional fluorophore labeling in nucleic acid probes. In addition, this excimer complex serves as an efficient FRET donor for red-emitting fluorophores, such as TMR, for further extending the Stokes shift of the fluorescent complex. PMID:18078339

  2. Expression of the beacon gene in the rat adrenal gland: direct inhibitory effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from dispersed adrenal zona glomerulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Neri, Giuliano; Di Liddo, Rosa; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2004-02-01

    Beacon gene was recently identified in the rat hypothalamus, and there is evidence that beacon may be involved in the functional regulation of neuroendocrine axes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry showed the expression of beacon mRNA and protein in the rat adrenal gland, especially in the cortex. Beacon[47-73], at a concentration over 10(-7) M decreased basal aldosterone secretion from dispersed rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells, without affecting the ACTH-stimulated one. Basal and agonist-stimulated corticosterone secretion from dispersed zona fasciculata-reticularis cells and catecholamine release from adrenomedullary slices were unaffected by beacon[47-73]. The suppressive effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells was abolished by either H-89 or calphostin-C, which are inhibitors of protein kinase A and C signaling cascades. Taken together, these findings allow us to suggest that beacon can be included in the group of regulatory peptides involved in the fine tuning of ZG secretory activity.

  3. Logic nanoparticle beacon triggered by the binding-induced effect of multiple inputs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Dong, Chen; Dong, Yafei; Liu, Shi; Pan, Linqiang; Zhang, Cheng

    2014-08-27

    Recently, the toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement reaction has been widely used in detecting molecular signals. However, traditional strand displacement, without cooperative signaling among DNA inputs, is insufficient for the design of more complicated nanodevices. In this work, a logic computing system is established using the cooperative "binding-induced" mechanism, based on the AuNP-based beacons, in which five kinds of multiple-input logic gates have been constructed. This system can recognize DNA and protein streptavidin simultaneously. Finally, the manipulations of the logic system are also demonstrated by controlling programmed conjugate DNA/AuNP clusters. This study provides the possibility of detecting multiple input signals and designing complex nanodevices that can be potentially applied to the detection of multiple molecular targets and the construction of large-scale DNA-based computation.

  4. Creating accessible science museums with user-activated environmental audio beacons (ping!).

    PubMed

    Landau, Steven; Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Giusti, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, Touch Graphics Company carried out research on a new invention that promises to improve accessibility to science museums for visitors who are visually impaired. The system, nicknamed Ping!, allows users to navigate an exhibit area, listen to audio descriptions, and interact with exhibits using a cell phone-based interface. The system relies on computer telephony, and it incorporates a network of wireless environmental audio beacons that can be triggered by users wishing to travel to destinations they choose. User testing indicates that the system is effective, both as a way-finding tool and as a means of providing accessible information on museum content. Follow-up development projects will determine if this approach can be successfully implemented in other settings and for other user populations.

  5. Health assessment for Beacon Heights Landfill site, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD072122062. Addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-20

    The Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's to 1979, municipal and industrial wastes were disposed of at the landfill. Leachate from the landfill has migrated into the local groundwater aquifers. Two residential wells to the northwest of the site have been contaminated with site-related contaminants. This site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in Human Exposure Pathways Section below, human exposure to benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, and methylene chloride may have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. No health study follow-up is indicated at this time.

  6. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-05-29

    This paper describes a prototype for this EAS (real time) in the Bay area. Approach is pragmatic, attempting to establish a prototype system at a low cost and quickly. A real-time warning system can protect the public and mitigate earthquake damage. The proposed system is a distributed network of real-time strong-motion monitoring stations that telemetered data in real time to a central analysis facility which could transmit earthquake parameter information to an area before elastic wave energy arrived. Upgrades and issues that should be resolved before an operational EAS can be established, are listed.

  7. Energy optimization for upstream data transfer in 802.15.4 beacon-enabled star formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2008-08-01

    Energy saving is one of the major concerns for low rate personal area networks. This paper models energy consumption for beacon-enabled time-slotted media accessing control cooperated with sleeping scheduling in a star network formulation for IEEE 802.15.4 standard. We investigate two different upstream (data transfer from devices to a network coordinator) strategies: a) tracking strategy: the devices wake up and check status (track the beacon) in each time slot; b) non-tracking strategy: nodes only wake-up upon data arriving and stay awake till data transmitted to the coordinator. We consider the tradeoff between energy cost and average data transmission delay for both strategies. Both scenarios are formulated as optimization problems and the optimal solutions are discussed. Our results show that different data arrival rate and system parameters (such as contention access period interval, upstream speed etc.) result in different strategies in terms of energy optimization with maximum delay constraints. Hence, according to different applications and system settings, different strategies might be chosen by each node to achieve energy optimization for both self-interested view and system view. We give the relation among the tunable parameters by formulas and plots to illustrate which strategy is better under corresponding parameters. There are two main points emphasized in our results with delay constraints: on one hand, when the system setting is fixed by coordinator, nodes in the network can intelligently change their strategies according to corresponding application data arrival rate; on the other hand, when the nodes' applications are known by the coordinator, the coordinator can tune the system parameters to achieve optimal system energy consumption.

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Beacon Heights Landfill, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-23

    The Beacon Heights Landfill site is located two miles east of the intersection of Connecticut Routes 8 and 42 in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's until 1970 the site was known as Betkoski's Dump and consisted of approximately six acres on which active dumping occurred. According to records at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP), waste accepted at the dump included municipal refuse, rubber, plastics, and industrial chemicals and sludges. Landfill operations consisted primarily of open burning along with burial of noncombustibles. In 1970, the Betkoski property and adjacent properties totaling 83 acres were purchased by the Murtha Trucking Company, and the name was changed to Beacon Heights, Inc. Landfill. At this time, the landfill area was expanded to approximately 30 acres. Records of the CT DEP, including a 1973 report by the landfill engineer, listed rubber, plastics, oils, hydrocarbons, chemical liquids and sludges, and solvents as being disposed of at the landfill by the trucking company. The selected remedial action for this site are included.

  9. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  10. A Domain Analysis Model for eIRB Systems: Addressing the Weak Link in Clinical Research Informatics

    PubMed Central

    He, Shan; Narus, Scott P.; Facelli, Julio C.; Lau, Lee Min; Botkin, Jefferey R.; Hurdle, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are a critical component of clinical research and can become a significant bottleneck due to the dramatic increase, in both volume and complexity of clinical research. Despite the interest in developing clinical research informatics (CRI) systems and supporting data standards to increase clinical research efficiency and interoperability, informatics research in the IRB domain has not attracted much attention in the scientific community. The lack of standardized and structured application forms across different IRBs causes inefficient and inconsistent proposal reviews and cumbersome workflows. These issues are even more prominent in multi-institutional clinical research that is rapidly becoming the norm. This paper proposes and evaluates a domain analysis model for electronic IRB (eIRB) systems, paving the way for streamlined clinical research workflow via integration with other CRI systems and improved IRB application throughput via computer-assisted decision support. PMID:24929181

  11. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Y. F.

    2012-04-30

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  12. A Systems Thinking Framework for Assessing and Addressing Malaria Locally: An Alternative to the Globalization of Anti-Malaria Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Derek W.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes a decision system that was used in the early 1900s in the Federated Malay States (FMS) by Malcolm Watson in order to make anti-malaria program recommendations to decision makers in a wide range of ecological settings. Watson's recommendations to decision makers throughout the FMS led to a dramatic suppression of malaria…

  13. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  14. Analysis of a Four-Station Doppler Tracking Method Using a Simple CW Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Clifford L.; Watkins, Carl W. L.

    1961-01-01

    A Doppler tracking method is presented in which a very small, simple CW beacon transmitter is used with four Doppler receiving stations to obtain the position and velocity of a space research vehicle. The exact transmitter frequency need not be known, but an initial position is required, and Doppler frequencies must be measured with extreme accuracy. The errors in the system are analyzed and general formulas are derived for position and velocity errors. The proper location of receiving stations is discussed, a rule for avoiding infinite errors is given, and error charts for ideal station configurations are presented. The effect of the index of refraction is also investigated. The system is capable of determining transmitter position within 1,000 feet at a range of 200 miles.

  15. Development of BEACON technology. Volume I. Final report, April 1980-April 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1983-08-01

    The BEACON process is based on the catalytic deposition of a highly reactive carbon from low heating value gases, primarily by the carbon monoxide disproportionation reaction. This carbon is subsequently reacted with steam to produce predominantly methane or hydrogen, depending on the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Commercial application envisions an air-blown coal gasification combined-cycle power plant with a coproduct of either methane or hydrogen. Significant cost reductions are anticipated relative to corresponding oxygen-blown coal gasification systems. Excellent fluid bed catalysts have been developed which have retained initial activity for over 400 hours of steady state operation. This stability was demonstrated in a tandem reactor system which provides for semi-continuous catalyst circulation between the carbon deposition and steam gasification fluid bed reactors.

  16. Development of BEACON technology. Topical report: engineering analysis of SELOX process

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    Catalysts developed for the BEACON reactions were also found to be highly effective for a reverse type of reaction, conversion of methane to synthesis gas. At thermodynamically favorable conditions, methane can be partially oxidized to form hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the ratio of 2/1. This is the preferred ratio for the production of methanol. A preliminary engineering analysis of this process, called SELOX, when used in conjunction with conventional methanol synthesis, results in a 25% reduction in the capital cost of the total system. This reduction is relative to a conventional steam reformer source of synthesis gas. There does not appear to be a significant difference in capital cost for SELOX reactor pressures in the range of 150 to 500 psia. Optimization of the methanol synthesis by adjusting for the unique synthesis gas available from the SELOX unit could further improve the system design. 8 figs. 8 tabs.

  17. Pyrene functionalized molecular beacon with pH-sensitive i-motif in a loop.

    PubMed

    Dembska, Anna; Juskowiak, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a spectral characterization of pH-sensitive system, which combines the i-motif properties with the spatially sensitive fluorescence signal of pyrene molecules attached to hairpin ends. The excimer production (fluorescence max. ∼480 nm) by pyrene labels at the ends of the molecular beacon is driven by pH-dependent i-motif formation in the loop. To illustrate the performance and reversible work of our systems, we performed the experiments with repeatedly pH cycling between pH values of 7.5±0.3 and 6.5±0.3. The sensor gives analytical response in excimer-monomer switching mode in narrow pH range (1.5 pH units) and exhibits high pH resolution (0.1 pH unit).

  18. Cholesterol-linked pyrene excimer molecular beacon with enhanced cell permeability.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun Seok; Seo, Young Jun; Bang, Eun-Kyung; Hwang, Gil Tae; Jung, Jong Ha; Jang, Sung Key; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2008-01-01

    Covelently labeled pyrene excimer molecular beacon (MB) with cholesterol moiety has been developed for enhanced the cellular delivery of MB.(1) Pyrene units were covalently attached into adenosine and incorporated to oligonucleotides at the complementary locations in opposite strands in the middle positions of hairpin stems. The system behaves as an effective MB that changes color from green to blue upon duplex formation. A cholesterol unit was also attached into a free terminus of one of these hairpins. The cholesterol-linked MBs enhanced the cellular delivery of the MBs and showed similar cell permeability to conventional transfection methods. These structurally simple cholesterol-based MB systems, which can be synthesized very efficiently, have good potential for opening up new and exciting opportunities in the field of in vivo biosensors.

  19. Reversible molecular switching of molecular beacon: controlling DNA hybridization kinetics and thermodynamics using mercury(ii) ions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ronghua; Jin, Jianyu; Long, Liping; Wang, Yongxiang; Wang, Hao; Tan, Weihong

    2009-01-21

    We report that the hydrogen-bonding pattern in a molecular beacon can be replaced by metal-dependent pairs of Hg(2+) and DNA thymine (T) bases. A molecular beacon based on T-Hg(2+)-T exhibits a lower background signal and higher thermostability than regular molecular beacons.

  20. 46 CFR 28.150 - Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... beacon (EPIRB) as required by 46 CFR part 25, subpart 25.26. Note: Each vessel which uses radio..., as set forth in 47 CFR part 80. ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs)....

  1. 46 CFR 28.150 - Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... beacon (EPIRB) as required by 46 CFR part 25, subpart 25.26. Note: Each vessel which uses radio..., as set forth in 47 CFR part 80. ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs)....

  2. 46 CFR 169.744 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.744 Section 169.744 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). Each EPIRB must be marked with the vessel's name....

  3. 46 CFR 169.831 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.831 Section 169.831 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... radio beacon (EPIRB). The master shall ensure that— (a) The EPIRB required in § 169.555 of...

  4. The Development of Landmark and Beacon Use in Young Children: Evidence from a Touchscreen Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Jennifer E.

    2006-01-01

    Children ages 2, 3 and 4 years participated in a novel hide-and-seek search task presented on a touchscreen monitor. On beacon trials, the target hiding place could be located using a beacon cue, but on landmark trials, searching required the use of a nearby landmark cue. In Experiment 1, 2-year-olds performed less accurately than older children…

  5. 46 CFR 28.150 - Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... beacon (EPIRB) as required by 46 CFR part 25, subpart 25.26. Note: Each vessel which uses radio..., as set forth in 47 CFR part 80. ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs)....

  6. 46 CFR 169.744 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.744 Section 169.744 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). Each EPIRB must be marked with the vessel's name....

  7. 46 CFR 169.555 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.555 Section 169.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). (a) Each vessel certificated for exposed waters...

  8. 46 CFR 28.150 - Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... beacon (EPIRB) as required by 46 CFR part 25, subpart 25.26. Note: Each vessel which uses radio..., as set forth in 47 CFR part 80. ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs)....

  9. 46 CFR 169.831 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.831 Section 169.831 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... radio beacon (EPIRB). The master shall ensure that— (a) The EPIRB required in § 169.555 of...

  10. 46 CFR 169.831 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.831 Section 169.831 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... radio beacon (EPIRB). The master shall ensure that— (a) The EPIRB required in § 169.555 of...

  11. 46 CFR 28.150 - Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... beacon (EPIRB) as required by 46 CFR part 25, subpart 25.26. Note: Each vessel which uses radio..., as set forth in 47 CFR part 80. ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs)....

  12. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  13. 46 CFR 169.744 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.744 Section 169.744 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). Each EPIRB must be marked with the vessel's name....

  14. 46 CFR 169.555 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.555 Section 169.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). (a) Each vessel certificated for exposed waters...

  15. 77 FR 41271 - Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson River, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register CFR Code of Federal Regulations NPRM... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson... Newburgh, NY for the annual Newburgh Beacon Swim event. This temporary safety zone is necessary to...

  16. What Happened to the Beacon Schools? Policy Reform and Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of the Beacon schools initiative on the social and academic characteristics of secondary schools in England. The Beacon schools programme ran from 1998 to 2004 and epitomised the (then) Labour government's focus on school improvement through diversity, collaboration and partnership. This paper looks at variation in…

  17. 46 CFR 169.555 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.555 Section 169.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). (a) Each vessel certificated for exposed waters...

  18. 46 CFR 169.744 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.744 Section 169.744 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). Each EPIRB must be marked with the vessel's name....

  19. 46 CFR 169.831 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.831 Section 169.831 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... radio beacon (EPIRB). The master shall ensure that— (a) The EPIRB required in § 169.555 of...

  20. 46 CFR 169.555 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.555 Section 169.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). (a) Each vessel certificated for exposed waters...

  1. 46 CFR 169.555 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.555 Section 169.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). (a) Each vessel certificated for exposed waters...

  2. 46 CFR 169.831 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.831 Section 169.831 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... radio beacon (EPIRB). The master shall ensure that— (a) The EPIRB required in § 169.555 of...

  3. 46 CFR 169.744 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.744 Section 169.744 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). Each EPIRB must be marked with the vessel's name....

  4. Down-regulation of the beacon gene expression in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Tyczewska, Marianna; Belloni, Anna Sandra; Nowak, Magdalena; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2006-12-01

    Beacon, a hypothalamic peptide involved in the regulation of food intake, has been recently shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex, and to inhibit its secretion and growth. To further characterize the role of beacon in the control of adrenal growth, we investigated the level of beacon gene expression in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex. Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry demonstrated the expression of beacon mRNA and protein in the adrenals at both days 5 and 8 of regeneration after enucleation and contralateral adrenalectomy. Semiquantitative real time-PCR revealed a net down-regulation of beacon mRNA in the regenerating glands, as compared to the intact adrenal cortex of sham-operated animals. Beacon gene expression was higher at day 8 than at day 5 of regeneration. Mitotic index, as assayed by the stachmokinetic method with vincristin, was negligible in the intact adrenal, but greatly elevated in regenerating gland, with a higher index found at day 5 than at day 8 after surgery. Taken together our findings indicate that the level of beacon gene expression is inversely correlated with the proliferative activity of adrenocortical cells, and suggest that beacon might act as an endogenous inhibitor of adrenocortical growth in the rat.

  5. Evaluation of the New York City Beacons. Summary of Phase I Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Constancia

    This report presents findings from Phase 1 of an evaluation of the New York City Beacons initiative, a model of school-community-family partnerships initiated in 1991. Beacons are community centers located in public schools, offering a range of activities and services to participants of all ages, before and after school, in the evenings, and on…

  6. An Oasis in This Desert: Parents Talk about the New York City Beacons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevarez, Nancy

    This report presents the findings of focus groups convened to determine what the parents of youth participants in the New York City Beacons think about the program. The Beacons initiative is a comprehensive model of school-community-family partnerships undertaken by New York City in 1991. The initiative originally enabled 10 community-based…

  7. The First Year of Beacon School Status: Maintaining Excellence and Sharing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Neil; Brundrett, Mark

    2000-01-01

    During summer 1998, the British government's Department for Education and Employment recognized 74 schools as model "beacons of excellence." A recent survey reveals that effective communication, coupled with a clear sense of purpose and vision, has enabled Beacon schools to maintain educational excellence while facilitating other schools'…

  8. Immobilization of aptamer-based molecular beacons onto optically-encoded micro-sized beads.

    PubMed

    Jun, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Rho, Chul; Byun, Jang-Woong; Kim, Yo Han; Kang, Homan; Kim, Jong-Ho; Kang, Taegyu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a method for the novel immobilization of aptamer-based molecular beacons (apta-beacons) onto optically-encoded micro-sized beads (apta-beacon beads). To immobilize apta-beacons onto flourescently-encoded micro-sized beads, core-shell type beads containing a fluorescent dye-encoded core and apta beacon-coupled shell were prepared. The fluorescent dye-encoded beads were prepared from TentaGel resins by coupling RITC to the amino groups of the core region, after partial protection of amino groups with Fmoc-OSu in a diffusion-controlled manner. After deprotection of the Fmoc-amino groups, FITC-coupled molecular beacons (MBs) were immobilized to the beads together with a quencher by covelent bonding. Briefly, aspartic acid (Asp) was coupled to the shell part of the beads. Then, the quencher was coupled to the N-terminal amino group of Asp and the MBs were coupled to the side chain carboxyl group. In a model study, thrombin was directly detected using this apta-beacon bead method. The thrombin-bound apta-beacon beads were easily recognized by the appearance of fluorescence without any further labeling step.

  9. Use of health information to improve care: the Southern Piedmont Beacon Community Grant.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, William F

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology solicited proposals to participate in the Beacon Community Program. The program is designed to support communities with established reputations for adopting health information technology solutions. This commentary reviews Community Care of Southern Piedmont, a Beacon Community Program in North Carolina.

  10. GPS-Like Phasing Control of the Space Solar Power System Transmission Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of phasing of the Space Solar Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing control for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing control system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to control the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing control system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.

  11. Opportunity, risk, and success recognizing, addressing, and balancing multiple factors crucial to the success of a project management system deployed to support multi-lateral decommissioning programs

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Greg; Longsworth, Paul

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the factors involved in effectively implementing a world-class program/project management information system funded by multiple nations. Along with many other benefits, investing in and utilizing such systems improves delivery and drive accountability for major expenditures. However, there are an equally large number of impediments to developing and using such systems. To be successful, the process requires a dynamic combining of elements and strategic sequencing of initiatives. While program/project-management systems involve information technologies, software and hardware, they represent only one element of the overall system.. Technology, process, people and knowledge must all be integrated and working in concert with one another to assure a fully capable system. Major system implementations occur infrequently, and frequently miss established targets in relatively small organizations (with the risk increasing with greater complexity). The European Bank of Reconstruction (EBRD) is midway through just such an implementation. The EBRD is using funds from numerous donor countries to sponsor development of an overarching program management system. The system will provide the Russian Federation with the tools to effectively manage prioritizing, planning, and physically decommissioning assets{sub i}n northwest Russia to mitigate risks associated the Soviet era nuclear submarine program. Project-management delivery using world-class techniques supported by aligned systems has been proven to increase the probability of delivering on-time and on-budget, assuring those funding such programs optimum value for money. However, systems deployed to manage multi-laterally funded projects must be developed with appropriate levels of consideration given to unique aspects such as: accommodation of existing project management methods, consideration for differences is management structures and organizational behaviors, incorporation of unique strengths, and

  12. Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

  13. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: addressing design and sampling issues.

    PubMed

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-08-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO.

  14. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell‐loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne‐Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Critical size bone defects and non‐union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell‐loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor‐made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L‐lactide‐co‐caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans. PMID:26011163

  15. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell-loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Critical size bone defects and non-union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell-loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor-made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans.

  16. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell-loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Critical size bone defects and non-union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell-loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor-made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans. PMID:26011163

  17. Detection of DNA damage by using hairpin molecular beacon probes and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Lu, Qian; Tong, Ying; Wei, Wei; Liu, Songqin

    2012-09-15

    A hairpin molecular beacon tagged with carboxyfluorescein in combination with graphene oxide as a quencher reagent was used to detect the DNA damage by chemical reagents. The fluorescence of molecular beacon was quenched sharply by graphene oxide; while in the presence of its complementary DNA the quenching efficiency decreased because their hybridization prevented the strong adsorbability of molecular beacon on graphene oxide. If the complementary DNA was damaged by a chemical reagent and could not form intact duplex structure with molecular beacon, more molecular beacon would adsorb on graphene oxide increasing the quenching efficiency. Thus, damaged DNA could be detected based on different quenching efficiencies afforded by damaged and intact complementary DNA. The damage effects of chlorpyrifos-methyl and three metabolites of styrene such as mandelieaeids, phenylglyoxylieaeids and epoxystyrene on DNA were studied as models. The method for detection of DNA damage was reliable, rapid and simple compared to the biological methods.

  18. Beacon: a novel gene involved in the regulation of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Collier, G R; McMillan, J S; Windmill, K; Walder, K; Tenne-Brown, J; de Silva, A; Trevaskis, J; Jones, S; Morton, G J; Lee, S; Augert, G; Civitarese, A; Zimmet, P Z

    2000-11-01

    The hypothalamus plays a major role in the control of energy balance via the coordination of several neuropeptides and their receptors. We used a unique polygenic animal model of obesity, Psammomys obesus, and performed differential display polymerase chain reaction on hypothalamic mRNA samples to identify novel genes involved in obesity. In this study, we describe a novel gene that encodes a small protein we have termed "beacon." Beacon mRNA gene expression in the hypothalamus was positively correlated with percentage of body fat. Intracerebroventricular infusion of beacon resulted in a dose-dependent increase in food intake and body weight and an increase in hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY). Simultaneous infusion of beacon and NPY significantly potentiated the orexigenic response and resulted in rapid body weight gain. These data suggest a role for beacon in the regulation of energy balance and body weight homeostasis that may be mediated, at least in part, through the NPY pathway.

  19. Unmanned Aerial Systems as Part of a Multi-Component Assessment Strategy to Address Climate Change and Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Sciare, Jean; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been established as versatile tools for different applications, providing data and observations for atmospheric and Earth-Systems research. They offer an urgently needed link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations and are distinguished by significant versatility, flexibility and moderate operational costs. UAS have the proven potential to contribute to a multi-component assessment strategy that combines remote-sensing, numerical modelling and surface measurements in order to elucidate important atmospheric processes. This includes physical and chemical transformations related to ongoing climate change as well as issues linked to aerosol-cloud interactions and air quality. The distinct advantages offered by UAS comprise, to name but a few: (i) their ability to operate from altitudes of a few meters to up to a few kilometers; (ii) their capability to perform autonomously controlled missions, which provides for repeat-measurements to be carried out at precisely defined locations; (iii) their relative ease of operation, which enables flexible employment at short-term notice and (iv) the employment of more than one platform in stacked formation, which allows for unique, quasi-3D-observations of atmospheric properties and processes. These advantages are brought to bear in combining in-situ ground based observations and numerical modeling with UAS-based remote sensing in elucidating specific research questions that require both horizontally and vertically resolved measurements at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Employing numerical atmospheric modelling, UAS can provide survey information over spatially and temporally localized, focused areas of evolving atmospheric phenomena, as they become identified by the numerical models. Conversely, UAS observations offer urgently needed data for model verification and provide boundary conditions for numerical models. In this presentation, we will

  20. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025